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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Zeller does not treat ears. Dr. Xiao treats throats. Zeller treats throats. then he or she must also treat ears. then he or she must also treat throats. then Dr. If Dr. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Xiao treats ears. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. Xiao treats ears. York treats. Dr.doctors. York must treat ears. 17. If Dr. Dr. 13. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. If Dr. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. Dr. Dr. (E) Dr. Zeller treats ears. four on top and four on bottom. and throats 15. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. York does not treat noses. York treats noses. noses. York does not treat noses. which of the following must be true? Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. In that case. Zeller treats noses. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. Zeller treats throats. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. York treats noses. Dr. York treats exactly one part of the body. Zeller does not treat ears. Dr. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Dr. If a doctor treats ears. York does not treat throats. York treats noses. Which of the following must be true? Dr. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. the . Suppose that Dr. York treats throats. Dr. (C) Dr. Xiao treats ears. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. York treats ears. 14. Dr. If Dr. Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. Dr. Xiao does not treat ears. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. he or she must also treat throats. Xiao treats throats.
What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. grapefruit. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. pears. oranges. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. they contain different types of fruit. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. grapefruit. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. 18. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. or pears. apples. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. Compartment 1 contains apples. oranges. pears.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. grapefruit. pears. grapefruit. 22. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21.
she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems.23.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. which they could read in the Official Journal. . Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. What they don‟t realize. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. 24. By raising corporate taxes. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. not the intent of his tax hike. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. 25. Gilliatt can create any mood. Governor Kipling. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. however.
5. and numbering them 1 through 10. (B). Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. As for the others: (A). Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). 4. Finally. Now incorporate the rules.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. Thus. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. (D). keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. but don‟t need to be true. If light 2 and light 5 are On. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. For this acceptability question. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. 2. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. Note that in the sketch. and 6) that are each either On or Off. but need not. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. (E) can. four choices violate one or more rules. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . Therefore. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). but (C) has five Ons. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). As with Question 2. starting with the most concrete. be true. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. light 6 is Off. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. 2. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). but don‟t need to be true. since light 3 is Off. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. and (C) are false. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. 3. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. leaving (B). So the sketch looks like this: 1. breaking Rule 2. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off.
(B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. (B)Beyond the scope. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. and as we figured out. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. it's the effects we're concerned with. light 3 is Off. eight lights. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. (C). then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). If this were not the case. If light 6 is On. Therefore. totaling four On lights. is the number that can be determined. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). the argument predicts ruin. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. Create a master sketch. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. That means light 4 is On. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. 4. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. (E). 7. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. Otherwise. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. and light 7 is Off. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. Questions 8-12 In this game. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. in either order. using columns or circles to . (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. light 4 is On. 5. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. As always. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. (E)Beyond the scope. If light 8 is Off. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. the music's message won't corrupt them. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. 6. light 5 is also Off. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). Start with what you‟re given. must be true.
O can‟t serve with M. If O can‟t serve with P. Each committee must have at least three members. six committee members can be determined. Abbreviate the members‟ names. and N must serve with M. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. That makes three members on one committee. be true. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. can. and three horizontal rows . Therefore. (C). and Throat. and (E) are false. N. Since J is always on Housing. As for the others: (B). (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. M. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). (B). Questions 13-17 In this game. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. K. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). so put a J under Housing. and one member (J) is already on Housing. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. N). 9. but need not. 11. eliminating (B). then N does too. Start with what you‟re given. Y. so (D). Your sketch should look something like this : 8. O. That leaves J. M. M. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). In the setup. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. L. 12. If M serves on Housing. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J.represent the two committees. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. Create a master sketch. (C). so K. L. P can serve on either committee. Nose. but don‟t need to be true. eliminating (D) and (E). and N all serve together. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). then P must serve with M and N. You‟re given that L serves with M. N must serve on Rules. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. so (A) can be eliminated. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. K must serve Committee. using their first initials (J. or (C). Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. M. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. L. three doctors (shorthanded X. O can‟t serve with M. or (A). with three columns to represent the body parts. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. 10. (A). O. and P to serve on Housing. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee.
so put “no” in the appropriate column. grapefruit (G). Rule 1 states that ears. So (B) must be true. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. oranges (O). then Y must also treat throats. then Y can‟t treat ears. then X must also treat throats. Look at what you have. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). Since the question asks which of the following must be true. but need not. noses. (C). Since X can‟t treat noses. but need not. Yet. (A) can. 15. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. Y must treat noses. (B) is true. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. X can. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). X must treat at least throats. treat ears. 16. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. (D). that doctor must also treat throats. Z also treats. In other words. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . (D). because of Rule 3.underneath. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. one for each doctor. However. Each compartment contains apples (A). four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. then try to make some deductions. 17. However. 14. so does Z. Start with what you‟re given. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). Go through the choices. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). be true. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. one by one. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. 13. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. Both Y and Z must treat noses. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. Therefore. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. (C) is correct. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. (A). be false. choices that can be false can be eliminated. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. (D). so put “yes” in the appropriate column. and then add your knowledge of the rules. and (E) can. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. ears and throats only. if X treats throats. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. numbered 1-8. If Y treats ears. but need not. If X treats ears. must be false. if Y treats it. according to Rule 2.
and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit.e. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). 3. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. which contains grapefruit. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. Place a G in Compartment 8. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). so (B) is correct.Incorporate the rules. eliminating (D) and (E). 19. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). 1 and 2) must have different fruits. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. Compare each rule to the choices. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. 21. 20. Since the question asks which could be true. (A) is correct. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. Check each choice in turn. the four incorrect choices must be false. As in Question 20. which contains apples. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. and one choice violates none of them. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). according to Rule 5. From that and Rules 5 and 6. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Thus. This leaves (C). as well. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. From that and Rules 5 and 6. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. and 4). (C). (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . For this acceptability question. Therefore. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. However. so there are no more than four pears. So put an A in Compartment 1.
As for the top. 22. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. 3. 25. The adjacent compartments. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. is the maximum number. Compartments 2. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. rather than how they are described. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. which is that unemployment increased. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. but on what actually happened. since the jobs program was never implemented. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. If. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. Compartment 1 contains apples. (D). (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. a total of four. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. 23. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. Therefore. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. 5. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). 24. . If only one compartment contains apples. but the question of his intent versus his actions. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. (B)We don't know this. So Compartments 2. (B) and (C) are false. 6 and 7. not to supernatural subject matter. thus increasing unemployment. 3. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). can‟t contain grapefruit. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2).out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. Only (A). for instance. must be true. merely her effective technique. but makes no connection to problems in humans. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected.
y. Sector u was constructed in 1981. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. w.org . v. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. and z. After 1981. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. x. u. positioned in that order from west to east. t. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. 1. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors.
If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1983. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1985 (E) 1983. If Sector s was built in 1985. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. 1984. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 1983. 1985 (C) 1983.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. 1983 (D) 1982. 1986 6. 1985 5. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1984 (B) 1982. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. 1984 (D) 1983. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 2. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1984 (E) 1982.
The Commissioner of Public Works.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. harmful pollutants. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. In a recent test. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. only five had presented any serious complications. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. 9. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. Which of the following. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. if true. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. 8. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes.
which extends due west from the city center.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Vienna Highway 13. The radial highways are: London Highway. 10. Blue. Paris Highway. motorists pass two radial highways. Vienna Highway. called the Beltway. and Paris Highway. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. which extends due north from the city center. but no other tollbooths. London Highway. Red. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. and Yellow Tolls. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. and due southwest of the city center. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. Madrid Highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. due east. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Red Toll. Yellow Toll. due southeast. Madrid Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. which extends south from the city center. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. which runs due northeast from the city center.
Oliver. Quentin (E) Pedro. Nick. Pedro. Jim is taller than Kathy. Quentin (C) Kathy. Oliver. Laura. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Mike. Pedro. Nick. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Kathy. Laura. Kathy. Jim. Laura. Quentin (D) Oliver. Nick. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Pedro. Quentin. but taller than Jim. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Kathy. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . Oliver. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Jim. Mike. Mike. Kathy 15. Nick. Pedro. Laura. Oliver. Laura. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Quentin (B) Jim. Mike. Laura. and Quentin—are measured for height. Oliver.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Nick. Jim. 14. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Mike. Pedro. Mike. Kathy. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. Nick.
S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. 3. 4. R. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. S. and 3. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. S votes “no” on movie 2. and 5. 21. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 2. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. T. and 5 . and U. and 5 (D) movies 2.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. The five judges on the committee are Q. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. There are no abstentions. and 4 (E) movies 2. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. If R votes “no” on all five movies. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. 19. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. U votes “yes” on movie 4. 3. If R votes “yes” on movies 1.
Profits are on the rise. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. Which of the following. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. 24. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. When workers were primarily employed by industry. Today. Freda Tully. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. or to fingers and wrists. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. there was no competent leadership in the firm.23. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. Coach Parker. which are forever twisting above. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. if true. control panels or electric counters. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. and sales are better than ever. 25. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. productivity has nearly doubled. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. McGovern‟s new executive director. .
(B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. For this question. 2. As we‟ve just seen. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. (C). Create a master sketch. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. In order for sector w to be constructed. sector v can be constructed in 1982. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. so (C). (B). Since the question asks which could be true. Write 1981 in u‟s space. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. . and (D). sector w must be constructed before sector x. though it used to be the other way around. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. the four incorrect choices must be false. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. w. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. u. x. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. That leaves three choices. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. However. y. (D) Compared to their ancestors. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. 1. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. v. sector v must be constructed before sector w. so (C) and (D) are out. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Sector x is constructed in 1984. t. Since sector u is constructed in 1981.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. and sector u is constructed in 1981. Therefore. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. Therefore.
The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. So (A) is correct. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. (B). Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. and z) because of Rule 2. That eliminates (A) and (B). 1984. but when you look at the choices. and (D). and so isn't parallel. sector w in 1983 or 1984. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. Sector z can be constructed last. 7. Now. which are choices (A). (C). v. Under this question‟s conditions. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. . and 1984. 4. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. Therefore. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. y. sector v must be constructed by 1984. (D) is correct. sector x in 1986. sector y must be constructed after 1986. Likewise. You need to determine two dates here. 1983. 6. So. in 1988.3. t. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). Otherwise. Therefore (D)—1982. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). 5. If sector t is constructed in 1982. causes kidney stones. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. If sector v is constructed in 1982. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. Using the reverse thinking. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. and z. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. and sector z in 1988. First. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. As we saw in the previous question. y. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. if sector t is constructed in 1982. However. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. sector y in 1987. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. vitamin C. w. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. 1983. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. That sounds too simple to be the solution. In fact. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. respectively.
which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. due southeast. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. in . V extends due south. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. That means. Vienna (V). Looking at the sketch. 9. L extends due north. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. 8. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. you‟ll pass two radial highways. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. For the sketch. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. Blue (B). the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. and due southwest of the city. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. Green (G). due east. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. past the Beltway. If. and Paris (P). in either order. There are four tollbooths. but noexamples are provided. but no other tollbooths. M extends due west. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. Madrid (M). abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L).(E)A general claim is made. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. however. The four highways extend from the city outward. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. not their danger. Red (R). Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. P extends due northeast. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections.
you‟ll pass two radial highways. so (E) is wrong. since their locations are described in the question. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. 12. Looking at the sketch. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). and among the choices. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. (A). place eight students in height order. but no other tollbooths.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. P. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. . or the Southeast tollbooth. Blue. Create a master sketch. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. and Yellow Tolls. 11. Use your sketch. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. 13. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. Red. Q). in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. in either order. namely the Green. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. and check each choice in turn. between the Madrid and the Vienna. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. or (E). and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. L. (C). then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. K. the Madrid. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. N. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. Use the deductions from Question 11. the Paris. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. Therefore. eliminating rule violators. M. Check each choice in turn. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. from tallest to shortest. and isn‟t a must. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. O. For the sketch. As we deduced in Question 11. If it‟s merely possible. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth.
(D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Kathy. Rule 5 says Laura is third. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. we can definitely determine who is fourth. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. eliminating (C) and (D). Oliver. and one choice violates none of them. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. we know that Mike. Combine this with Rule 2. and who must be shorter. only Jim. in that order. Combining our deductions. Nick. Adding Rules 2 and 4. so (A) is out. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. Compare each choice to the rules. and two available spots for students taller than her. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). This eliminates (B) and (E). or (B). 16. 17. Since Laura is third. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. 14. 18. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. Jim. Since there are only three available spots below . but taller than Jim. and Pedro. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. There‟s only one possible order here. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. So place the L on your piece of paper. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. Laura is third highest of the eight students. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. or Quentin can be first. or (A). then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. with the remaining students. Also. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where.. For this acceptability question. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. So Quentin is taller than Jim. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. 15. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. and note that there are only two students above her. and then. four choices violate one or more rules. Nick. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. Mike. you can figure out the possibilities. and since Laura is third. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. Laura is third. leaving (B). Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third.Look at the rules. So. For this question. Quentin.
so (D) too can be eliminated. so T also votes no on movie 2. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. Quentin. As we have just proved. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. Kathy. 2. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. at least three of whom must vote yes. R. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. and Pedro. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times.” At least three yes votes are needed. one for each of the three movies. this must be true. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. (B). Your sketch should look something like this: 19. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. although both can vote yes. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. as long as one . and who must vote no. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. 3. 2. Neither R nor U must vote yes. and (C) can be eliminated. and 3. Create a master sketch. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. using an N. Note that in your sketch. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. Laura must be taller than Kathy. Scan the choices and stop at (D). 5) can be selected by judges (Q. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. 20. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). so neither choice needs to be true. That leaves four judges. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. Questions 19-22 In this game. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. both must vote yes.Laura. (C). As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. figure out who must vote yes. it means a yes vote from T as well. 2. “exactly. U votes yes on movie 4. Nick. That thinking is reflected in (D). Since S and T vote the same. according to Rule 3. must be taller than Laura. If both vote no. Since the question asks which choice must be true. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. so (A). and U) to appear in a film festival. The third yes comes from either R or U. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. Any of five movies (1. and 3. being taller than at least three other students. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. T votes yes on movie 5. T. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. 4. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. S. and (E) are false.” that is. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column.
U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. Look for the other judges that vote no. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. and 5. That deduction eliminates only (A). S and T vote together. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. there are three yes votes. one no vote. and three unknown votes. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. Choose one of the two movies. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. . The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. and then T votes no. If. 3. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. 21. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. on movie 2. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. so T must vote no on movie 2. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. 22. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. and determine whether or not U votes no. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. then the other choice is correct. S votes no. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. So you need at least one more no vote. If U does vote no. and thus have your answer. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team.of them does. 23. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. R votes no. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. We‟re left with (D) and (E). so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. so (C) is eliminated. To conclude this. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. be true. (B) is the answer. That leaves (E) to be correct. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. Looking at the remaining choices. So movie 2 has two no votes. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. so (B) and (E) can. but needn‟t. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on.
and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. no matter what the practice time. so this strengthens the argument. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. she must therefore have provided this leadership. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. (D)Misreads the argument. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. 25. which discusses injuries. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. Most people used to work in industry. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. To weaken this contention. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. (E)Strengthens. 24. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. (D)Strengthens. because most people now work in the service sector. like lifting.
If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. Light 5 is green. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. the following colors: blue. is yellow. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. same row are the same color. green. is green. 2. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . is red.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. 1. the board is green. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. red. same column are the same color. or yellow.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. is green.
which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. Which of the following. If all beaches were publicly owned.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. . If light 6 is yellow. green. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. but at all times. 8. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. if true. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. Therefore. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. and yellow 5. In companies with only one secretary. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7.
it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. however. but for no more than two consecutive days. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. X. but for no more than three consecutive days. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. which are numbered 1 through 4. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. however. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. . Every day. (D) On average. There are. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. Y. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. 10.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. slower copiers. in that order. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. 9. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. and Z. FORMerly.
(B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. Quint. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. Z is listed third. and Quint are seated in cars 1. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. . Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. After each ride. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. X is listed third. Z is listed second. 2. Pip. 14. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. Sal. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. respectively. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. one car remaining empty. Rob. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. If Rob. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. and Sal. 12. W is listed third. The four children are Pip.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. for the first ride. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. Car 5 is never empty. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. 13. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. one child per car. 4. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. and 5. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday.
4. If Rob. Rob is seated in car 4. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. Jim. exactly one of the three family members cooks. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Pip. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. (E) Car 4 is empty. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. 3. Quint is seated in car 4.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. Betty cooks on Wednesday. Each day in the Ring home. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. and Horace. and Quint are seated in cars 1. Sal. Pip is seated in car 4. If Horace cooks on Friday. (D) Car 3 is empty. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. Betty cooks on Tuesday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . 17. 16. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. 15. for the first ride. respectively. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. and 5.
Tuesday (B) Tuesday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. . Thursday. Friday (E) Sunday. 24. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. Tuesday. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. Friday (D) Monday. if true. they related stories of important events. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. I know this for a fact. Tuesday. Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Horace cooks on Monday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Horace cooks on Wednesday. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. Friday 23. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Jim cooks on Monday. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. Horace Jim. Tuesday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Thursday (C) Sunday. Thursday. Like modern magazines. Which of the following.
than they did in 1988. or yellow. Based on those two deductions. light 3 is yellow. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. 4 to 6. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. which can be blue. Average and below average students. can be true. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. Compare each rule to the choices. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. 4. four choices violate one or more rules. and light 1 is red. For this acceptability question. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. lights 2. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. Therefore. and one choice violates none of them. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. 2. green. 1. however. 3. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. Put a G in light 5‟s space. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). in the middle. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red.e. 7 to 9. and light 1 is red. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. 4. and on the bottom. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. (B). numbered on the top. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. 3) can be the same color. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. There are three rows of three lights each. 1 to 3. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. starting with the most concrete. 25. Rule 5 says light 5 is green.e. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. You must place the lights. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. according to the rules provided. red. per week. 7) can be the same color. Therefore. . 1. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it.
since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). light 8 must be red. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. light 7 can‟t be red or green. or (C). There‟s only one green light. 5. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. and 9. and (E). (C). Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. That eliminates (B) and (E). As we saw in Question 2. . (B). Because light 1 is red. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. Light 6. eliminating (A) and (B). or yellow. light 6 can be red. 3. 3.2. That leaves lights 2. 3. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. leaving 6. 4. if light 6 is yellow. 4. You know that light 1 is red. and light 5 is green. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. leaving eight lights to be red. There‟s only one green light. That eliminates (A). light 7 must be yellow. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. but lights 2. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. or (C). blue. Light 5 is green. or (C). Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. (D). 7. However. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. so there can be a maximum of three red. 2. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. 5. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. according to Rule 3. so (D) is correct. three of another and two of a third color. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. 7. That‟s only two blue lights. both private and public. 7 and 8. and eliminate them as choices. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). To answer this question. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. 8. if the government already maintains all beaches. and light 9 must be yellow. If light 6 is yellow. so (E) can be eliminated. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. 4. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. light 7 must be blue. So lights 2. Light 1 is red. and 8. can be any color except green. That leaves lights 1. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. 6. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. Also. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. then light 4 can be yellow.
Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. From all that inFORMation about W. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. and 4. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. cause beriberi and pellagra. (C)Too specific. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. not of all the B vitamins. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. Rule 4 says Z . based on the rules provided. (C)As long as the machine is faster. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. 2. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. Y. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. 3. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. 9. X. not single deficiencies. This is the key rule to this game. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized.they were made public than if they remained private. numbered 1. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. W. and thus save money. and Z. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. Four guards. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Therefore. 8. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. Therefore. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next.
For Wednesday‟s roster. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. when W remains in the same gallery. 12. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. leaving (C). The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. W was assigned to gallery 1. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. Since this question asks which must be true. and only one. W is listed first. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. so one car is always empty. Questions 14-16 In this game. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. If W changes assignments. Z must move. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. Here. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. According to Rule 5. when the next day is assigned. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. Before looking at the answer choices. That eliminates (B) and (C). Therefore. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. In lieu of a master sketch. must be true. W. so for Thursday‟s roster. but need not be true. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). There is one child per car. or are false outright. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. guard can remain in the same gallery. so (B) must be true. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. Compare each rule to the choices. For your master sketch. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. (A) and (D) can be true. Looking at the choices.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. you can simply use five dashes. 11. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. four choices violate one or more rules. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. or in gallery 3 on both days. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Y. so (E) must be correct. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. 13. However. numbered 1 to 5. 10. (A). The rules all have to do with the empty car. X.
You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. Then. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Quint. Incorporate the rules. 14. Furthermore. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. Car 2 is empty. and Quint are in Cars 1. Therefore. Pip. four choices violate one or more rules. (E) must be correct. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. That means. Now Car 3 is empty. Sal. and one choice violates none of them. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. following Rule 1: Pip. Questions 17-22 In this game. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. 15. __ . That means that Car 3 is the empty car. If. Remember. so (C) can be eliminated. respectively. Quint. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Compare each choice to the rules. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. you‟ll know all that must be true. Pip. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. Stated more positively. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. The order of the first ride: Rob. Pip. or (A). Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. for a week. H must cook after . therefore. So. Pip is seated in Car 1. Sal. H) take turns cooking each day. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. and 5. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. three family members (abbreviated B. as (D) correctly says. 16. 2. According to Rule 1. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. Rule 4 is always in effect. Sal. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3).empty. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). __ . Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. __ . J. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. For this acceptability question. for the third ride. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. Create a master sketch. Quint. Start with what you are given: Rob. according to Rule 1. Rob. The third ride. 4. Sal. for the first ride. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. from Sunday to Saturday. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. if Car 3 is empty. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride.
So.Tuesday. 19. 20. So. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Wednesday. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). through Sat. Horace must cook on Wednesday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. but need not. Monday. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. Since Horace must cook three days. and either Sunday or Monday. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. There are three available days. 23. Wednesday. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. If Horace cooks on Friday. either one can cook. That leaves (C). Now. Since Horace must cook three days. Horace needs to cook two more times. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. then Horace must cook on Thursday. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. (E). Tuesday. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. Therefore. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. 21. That takes care of Betty for the week. In order to be consecutive. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Sunday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. As we deduced in the game overview. (B). Wednesday. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. and (C) can. So Tuesday. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). Therefore. but need not. the four incorrect choices can be true. so (A) and (B) can. Saturday. must cook before Tuesday. 22. Wed. four days. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). so (C) must be true. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Only (C). However. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. and Friday can be definitely determined. . and then B must cook on Sunday. That‟s (C). but not both. Horace. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. (D) remains. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. (D) must be true. Thursday. Thursday. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. be true. Thursday. and Friday. be true. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. The only false choice is (E). In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. and Saturday can be definitely determined. That eliminates (A) and (B). (A). Betty cooks on Tuesday. 18. so (E) is wrong. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits.
25. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. without giving any examples.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. time spent by students overall increased. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. 24. Therefore. the author compares them to modern magazines. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork.
which of the following must also be true? . and M—are theater critics. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. If the statements above are true. 2. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. S. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. P. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. joins the others at the table. 4.000. who is seated on the immediate right of T. a playwright. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. 1. R is seated on the immediate right of S. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. 3. and T—are playwrights. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. the other four—Q. Three of the people—K. L. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. R. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left.
6.” failure to consider family relationships among household members.000 in the year before the war. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study.000. In households including more than one person. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. If put in the same room. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. K. I. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.000 than for amounts less than $40. and L. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. G. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year.000. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. Pending further study. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. 5.000 is not especially high. certain patients will infect other patients. J. more established companies. (B) An annual profit of $10. and where interpersonal contact is common. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. H.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure.
Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. one with Disease F. and two educational programs. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. or Disease G. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. which programs are the news programs for that day? . A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. A room is occupied by three people. and a person with Disease J. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. two jazz programs. a male with Disease K. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. one with Disease F.G. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. and one with Disease G. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. and a male with Disease K. one with Disease I. or Disease F. and one with Disease J. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. 7. 10. one with Disease J.
(B) M gets off at the seventh stop. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. The eighth program cannot be a news program. eighth. third. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. and sixth third. and ninth fourth. eighth. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. who must get off before O. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. fifth. fifth. sixth. third.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. N. and ninth second. The first program is an educational program. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. O. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. N must get off before M. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. 13. fourth. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. Q. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. sixth. 14. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. M. second. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. R must get off before Q. eighth. The seventh program is a news program. and ninth first. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. eighth. sixth. . The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. if N gets off at the third stop. second. fifth. P. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. and if L gets off at the fifth stop.
and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. If R gets off at the fourth stop. X. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. (C) L and P get off together. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. The second car must always contain U. If X is perishable. 15. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. which of the following MUST be true? .(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. (E) Q gets off after M. 19. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. if M gets off at the third stop. and if N gets off after Q. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. 16. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. V. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. Y. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. and Z— every day. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop. 17. (E) R gets off at the second stop. and if P must get off alone. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. (D) N gets off at the first stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. 18. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. W.
(B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. 22. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. If Y and Z are perishable. 21. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. 20. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. fifth car contains V. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. and if Y and Z are perishable. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. (B) The sixth car contains X. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. sixth car contains Z. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. . (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. (E) The third car contains Y. (D) The sixth car contains W. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. (C) The fifth car contains V. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. If W and V are perishable.
That implies the opposite: A . Studies have shown that. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. 25. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. R. Because of this finding. Which of the following. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. M) and four playwrights (Q. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. Parents should not punish children who misbehave.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. S. L. 24. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. if true. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. but rather from some property of the color itself. because of its brightness and intensity.
If S is two places to Q‟s right. then S is in Seat 4.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. 3. 7. 4. a playwright. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. L and M can be in Seats 6. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. who is immediately right of T. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. can‟t sit immediately next to L. so (B) is out. S. and (E). since both are playwrights.000 won't be considered. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. and T is in Seat 3. in any order. so (A). eliminating (A). That seats all the playwrights. (C). (C). then S is in Seat 3. so eliminate (A). meaning they are 4 places apart.000. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. A single. a playwright. S. For our sketch. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. 2. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. As we saw in Question 1. R. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. (B). T is in Seat 3. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. 6. or in Seat 6: R. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. or 8. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. T is in Seat 2. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. only from Q‟s left. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. K is in Seat 9. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. and R is in Seat 4. and (E) all can be true. so (C) can be true. P.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. Using the sketch in the game overview. so (D) is impossible. so (E) is also false. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. a critic. and R is in Seat 5. in either order. if S is three places to Q‟s right. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). or in Seat 5. To make this connection. . 5. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct.000. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. (E) describes the same chair as (D). (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. so (B) need not be true. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M.
H and I together infect F (Rule 4). If put in the same room. male K. If this is the case. then L infects F (Rule 3). The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. Switch H and J. a patient with Disease L. and J. so (A) is out. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. If (A). (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. 7. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. more . eliminating (B). but shorthanding the rules might help. J. Rule 3 says L infects K. You are told that one room contains patients with H. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. 9. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). I. If H is added to the same room. K infects F (Rule 2). one by one. G. (D). L G. enters a room with H. so (A) is wrong.(B)The annual profit isn't important. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. I and G switch. L F. Questions 7-9 In this game. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). F. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. or F: L K. 6. K G. then male K infects G. If L is added to the room with F. Specifically. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. K and G switch. G. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. The study isn't clear on this point. Switch J and G. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. and a male with K. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. H + I F. Another room contains patients with I. 8. I. not established ones. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. If (C). K. If (A). This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. (B). If K is added. then K infects F. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. not in one particular phrase. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. and J. L). This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. one by one. H. it's possible that these people are related to each other. (C)Too broad. So jot down H L. it's the change over the course of the war that is. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. and J. and G.
then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. and since only one must be true. So (A) is correct. eighth. and there are five news programs total. There are five news programs. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. Stated positively. and you know that one educational program is seventh. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. three news and one educational. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. and ninth. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. scan the choices. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. but needn‟t be. One educational program is seventh. So (C) is correct. (E). Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). is correct. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. both stated and easily deduced.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. Among the choices. and two educational) into order. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. arrange nine radio programs (five news. (B) and (C) are patently false. From here. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. 11. . fifth. in whatever order. (C): only one-K infects G. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. must be first through fourth in whatever order. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. As for the others. (D): only one-K infects F. The four remaining programs. J for jazz. 12. You‟re left with one educational program. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. and third. one program per slot. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. fourth. two jazz. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. two jazz programs. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. and E for educational. Start with what you know. and one educational program to place. two jazz programs. sixth. (A) and (E) can be true. (C). Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. so place an E in slot 7. If the first five programs are all news programs. second.
E or N. J. Since no one gets off eighth. Looking at the master sketch. then Q gets off fifth. eliminating (D). N. N. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). and (E) can be true. R must get off either first or second. so (D). (C). there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. or news-jazz-news. N. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. Only L. and P must get off sixth. M. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. but E can also be first: E. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. E. Q. so M must be seventh. N. 16.13. J. J. seventh. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. If R gets off fourth. who gets off before O. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. M gets off before O (Rule 5). If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. so they get off at 7 and 9. Incorporate the rules. If M gets off third. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. (C). someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). so M gets off either sixth or seventh. N. N. Under this question‟s conditions. (B). J. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. That‟s three. Therefore (A). In order to satisfy Rule 4. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. E. Since no one gets off eighth. (A). but for every other stop only one member can get off. N. (B). E. N. and (D) must be true. however. 15. so (E) is the answer. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. N. Questions 14-18 For this game. O. N. J. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. E. N. E. with O and P getting off together ninth. J. seven members of a family (L. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). J. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). and P remain. O. N. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. but needn‟t be. O. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. N. N. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. P. and one of the educational programs is seventh. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). N. M. N. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). must be true: No one can get off sixth. J. and N gets off after Q. and ninth. E or N. but need not be true. N. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). you‟d see that (E) can be true. That makes four. N.
but none have to be true. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). (B). If O gets off seventh. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. (D). (A) can‟t be true. you must distribute six products (U. 2-L.Y. If R gets off fourth. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. (C). but none are definite. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). If X is perishable. third. 2. Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. (C). numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. but need not be true. So put a U in slot 2. or 3. at the ninth stop. (C). either. W. neither N nor M can get off ninth. If Y and Z are perishable. and (E) are all possible. This might get you thinking. Y can‟t immediately follow W.. Questions 19-22 In this game. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. L and P must get off together. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). 6-X. Therefore. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. V. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. 20. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. OR If Q gets off at 5. Start with what you‟re given.. (B). or sixth. leaving only O and L. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. 5-Q. In other words. Therefore. V . Since U is in Car 2. shorthand it U. 4-R. Incorporate the rules. namely first. one product per car. 8-M. second. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. 9-OP. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. (A). then N and M must get off before seventh. P can‟t get off ninth. and (E) can be true. and (E) are all possible. L must get off at the ninth stop. X . (B). Z) onto six boxcars. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). 7-N. and look for one of them as an answer choice. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2).X. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. and then add what you know. Create a master sketch. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. then Q gets off fifth. 18. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L.before O (Rule 5). Your sketch should look something like this: 19. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. so O must get off ninth and (A). (C). using six dashes to represent the boxcars. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. and (E) can‟t be true. then R can only get off at 1. V must precede W. 3-X. in either order. (B). X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. 17. However. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct.
Z. Z. (A). (D) can be true. Z. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. (E)Assumes that. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. Z. 25. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. in either order. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. but (C) CANNOT be true. (B). (B) is correct. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). U. W is in Car 1. in order: W. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. leaving Z in Car 1. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. a precedent may already have been set. or W. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. (B). Therefore. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. or W. U is in Car 2. Y. and Car 5 with Car 6. not all. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . along with X. however. Y. in either order. 23. in either order. V. U is in 2. V. and (E) must all be true. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. (C). Y. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. If. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. V. U. (D). There are four possibilities. Thus. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. 24. and (E) are possible. If Y and Z are perishable. not necessarily at all times. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). in either order. so (D) need not be true. Y. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. U. for which choice no evidence is given. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. V. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey.must be in Car 1 and W. there was some reason that . 21. 22. or W. (A). If W and V are perishable. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. situations. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. X. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. X. U. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. X. is in Car 5 and Car 6. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. Therefore. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. Also. X.
in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. it's the stressinducing qualities of red. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. regardless of the reason. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. Best. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. and Lamming—and four juniors. The . (A)This is a logistical problem. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. Hiro. Carter. and Delgado. it doesn't affect the rationale. Adams. Kundala.
Kundala cannot be chosen. 1. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. If Fox is chosen to attend. If Hiro is chosen to attend. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. if true. Dr. Which of the following. rather than societal. Adams. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Lamming must also be chosen. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. Hiro. Hiro. Delgado (C) Hiro. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. Carter cannot be chosen. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. Lamming. Anderman‟s imprisonment. Carter (B) Kundala. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. 5. Kundala (E) Hiro. Because of high demand.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. symbolism. conflict. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. If Best is chosen to attend. . If Carter is chosen for the convention. Best (D) Fox. (E) Dr. and style. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. Best 2. (D) Dr. Kundala.
is examined second. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. R. . P (D) S. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. S must be examined before P is examined. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. R. areas are now affected.In order for this argument to be logically correct. Which of the following. S. P. Q. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. The pets will be examined one by one. Q. Q. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. R (E) Q. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. 7. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. S 8. 6. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. Q. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. R. non-urban. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. S (B) S. if true. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. P (C) R. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. and each pet will be examined just once. P. R. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. Q. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third.
would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. G 13. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. Which of the following. If R is examined third. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. B appears on Saturday's show. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. (C) E. C. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. If CANNOT (A) A. (E) C. (B) C. Only A. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . G D. B. F F. (E) P must be examined fourth. (D) A. 11. F. (D) S must be examined first. D. E are comedians. D E.(D) R is examined third. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. if true. 9. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. At least one comedian must appear on each show. C. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. E. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. G E. (E) P is examined fourth.
If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Fish Teriyaki. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Beef Enchilada. Beef Enchilada. 17. in ascending order of popularity. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. Chicken Dijon. Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. and if B appears on Saturday's show. Lobster Mombasa. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Beef Enchilada. Fish Teriyaki. chosen from a group of eight. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. Chicken Dijon. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Pork Szechuan. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. they cannot be served consecutively. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. The eight eligible entrees are. Chicken Kiev. and Chicken Vindaloo. but if both are selected. Lobster Mombasa. Chicken Kiev. The menu will consist of four entrees. Pork Szechuan. from first course to fourth course.(D) five (E) six 14. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. Pork Szechuan . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15.
Fish Teriyaki. and next to no moisture. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. nor does it survive long when introduced there. it does not exist naturally in the desert. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course.(E) Beef Enchilada. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. 23. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. Pork Szechuan 18. powerful sunlight. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. Desert X is an environment with constant. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. . Lobster Mombasa.
. the literary work loses its specificity. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. (B) For one week in the fall. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. In fact. The problem. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. Desert X can support almost no plant life. In the hands of a Freudian critic. 24. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. 25. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. however. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work.
throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. Lamming must be chosen. Best. 4. Hiro. That eliminates (A). Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. d for the four juniors. being juniors. L for the four seniors. then no F). For this acceptability question. then L. As Rule 1 says. you can only choose one or the other. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. there must be at least two seniors. 2. H. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. 3. if Kundala is chosen. a junior. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). violating Rule 4. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). Fox. and Kundala. c. then Fox can‟t be chosen. K. (C) and (E). then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. or (B). Kundala. then Fox isn‟t (if K. then no H). and one choice violates none of them. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. . is chosen. and a. Hiro must be chosen. then Carter isn‟t: If H. One is Kundala. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. You are given that Carter. Delgado). The three available seniors are Lamming. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). Compare each rule to the choices. then no K. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. In other words. 1. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. aren‟t required. That leaves (C). eliminating (D).(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. Since the question asks who must be chosen. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. then no c. Carter. Lamming must also be chosen. or can‟t be chosen at all. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. Kundala isn‟t. or (C). but not both. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. four choices violate one or more rules. b.
(B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. Rule 1 states that R is second or . if B. nothing need have changed. R. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. however. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. If. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). Thus. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. then C (they were able to buy tickets). this has no effect. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. 5. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. only now more of them have been identified. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). if A. 6. then not A (they didn't want them). place four pets (P. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. so this won't weaken the conclusion. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. however. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets.they were written after her release. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. If. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. Create a master sketch of four dashes. S) in an order to be examined. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. Q. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. then C. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM.
third. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. Therefore. so S can be first or second. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. Questions 11-16 In this game. Rule 1 states that only A. either S or Q can be first. then two of the four slots are filled. Therefore E. so you need three more guests for Saturday. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. 11. 12. C. 8. None of the choices include both F and D. Compare each rule to the choices. 10. From that. E and G are chosen with B. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. so S must be first and P must be fourth. Rule 2 kicks in. We know R can be third. are comedians. Q or S. if A. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. without violating the rules. B. If A is the only comedian on Friday. must appear on Saturday. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. Since S must be seen before P. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. Therefore. C. Then. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. then F and D are . E. are on Saturday. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. S before P. Create a master sketch. F. and E. then C and E. For this acceptability question. P. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. and P can be second or fourth. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. Q. four choices violate one or more rules. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. S. R. P or Q. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. if Q is first and R is third. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. but so can S. leaving (B). (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. the other comedians. Q is either first or second. R must be third. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. P. R. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. D. You are given that Q is examined before R. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. You need to have S before P. You are told B is on Saturday. there are (C) three different orders possible. 9. (A). If R is third. R.
or E. That means F and D are both on Saturday. E. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. either one can be with E. A must therefore be with D. Chicken Dijon. then Friday is A. Pork Szechuan. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. Beef Enchilada. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. That‟s one possible list. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. F. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). E. but not definite. and G. If Saturday includes C. However. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. Chicken Kiev. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. and B or G. Try each choice in turn. you can further deduce that C. (B). 16. F and B or G. (C) is correct. in either order. or (C). and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. so (A) is correct. Fish Teriyaki. If Friday is C. so they can be eliminated. must be on Friday. So either night can be C. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. E. G or E. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. violating Rule 3. Friday has at least one comedian. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. The entrees. You can then deduce that C and E are together. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. B and/or G. D. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. so (C) and (E) are both possible. violating Rule 3. E. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. F. Questions 17-22 For this game. D.together on Friday. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. G. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. and there‟s your exception. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. B. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. D. from among F. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. As in Question 12. B or E. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. then the other two comedians are on Friday. C. Therefore. and G. E. 14. G must be on Saturday. then Saturday is A. for two more possible lists. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. and G. In other words. In fact. (C). and F are together. 15. F. F. From that you can deduce that Beef . (Rule 2). or A. Place B and G on either night. That means the third comedian. D. 13. B or E. B. Chicken Vindaloo. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. B or G and Saturday is C. Lobster Mombasa. E. D. D. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). and F. Although F can‟t be with D. The groups in (A). Since each night has at least one comedian. D.
Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. and Pork Szechuan. Therefore. 20. Next. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. Well. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. Fish Teriyaki. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. one. is correct. then only . (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. Lobster Mombasa. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. That leaves Beef Enchilada. This question says the first entree is based around fish. On the overall list. but can‟t be consecutive. there‟s only one fish entree. So Chicken Dijon is first. in that order. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. so the other Chicken entrees. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). On the overall list.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. That way. but neither can be chicken. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. (A). 21. So (D) is correct. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. so (A). In the order. violating Rule 2. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. Beef) can‟t both be selected. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. Kiev and Vindaloo. Pork Szechuan. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. 17. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. 19. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. and Chicken Vindaloo. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. For this acceptability question. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. Before looking at the choices. Chicken Kiev. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. By the way. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. (E) is the exception. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. According to Rule 2. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. Lobster Mombasa. 18. and one choice violates none of them. Compare each rule to the choices.e. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. in that order. four choices violate one or more rules. must be removed. Therefore. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu.
although she says she doesn't know which is more important. (C)Too general. . therefore. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. If Lobster Mombasa is second. If there were multiple correct interpretations. 23. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. 25. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. so it's dry. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. That leaves (B). The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. beef. (C) and (E) are true. 22.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. 24. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. sunny and hot. correct. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. X is a desert. Pork Szechuan must be third. yet it doesn't. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. determine all that can or must be true. Beef Enchilada must be second. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. it's that it's too powerful. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. Y likes dry and sunny regions.
(B) G. M. (D) K. L. (C) K. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. G. F. F. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. H. and M finished ahead of J. G. O. Which of the runners? (A) F. H. K. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. O. M. L. F. K. L. H. G. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . H.org 2. L. O. L. K. O. F finished ahead of both G and L. or behind. (E) O. J. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. K. O. J. M. L. M. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. 1. K finished ahead of M. G. M. J.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. There were no ties for any finishing position. H. L finished immediately ahead of H. J.
its function as a supporting structure. first. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. 5.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. rather than mask. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. if filled into the above blank. If F finished fourth. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. ahead of G. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. ahead of K. Today. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. Which of the following. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration.
who are power players. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. who are finesse players. If T is chosen for the team. (B) V is not chosen for the team. He can choose from among eight players—M. (B) The Arbican population increased. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. and N. P. doubles partners.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. it reached 3%. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team. (E) The Arbican population increased. 8. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. If Q is chosen for the team. and T. until. S. R. If the statements above are true. (C) The Arbican population decreased. N and V. This percentage steadily declined. Q. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. and V. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. but N is not. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. . exactly two power players will be chosen. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. (D) The Arbican population decreased. in 1980. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. far earlier than was previously believed. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. which took place about 6000 years ago. at around 3000 BC. 24. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. 25. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. .C. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. How can it exist. after all. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them.
(E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. in that order (according to Rule 5). That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. M. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. J. M. the only runners who can finish first are F. For this acceptability question. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. G. Stated positively. and neither G nor L can finish first. Compare each rule to the choices. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. and O. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. That leaves (E). so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. That eliminates (B) and (D). Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. and K. second. J and O. O. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. and M can‟t be either first or last. and therefore correct. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. and M finished before J. That leaves (A) as possible. so L can‟t be last. Just to be sure. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. so neither K nor M can finish last. and J to go first. If H is seventh. O. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). H. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. You can also deduce that F finished before H. O is fourth. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. 3. As we deduced in the game overview. 2. Since L must finish before H. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. K. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. and seventh or eighth. and see what you can deduce. From another combination of deductions. Combining all of the deductions. so F can‟t finish eighth. then G and L (from Rule 6).========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. So M must be second. So start with F in the fourth slot. J. H. and (C) is out. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. which can finish eighth. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. If F is fourth. and M finished before J. try the other possibilities for H. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). But that‟s impossible since you know . Rule 5 says K finished before M. or vice versa. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. eliminating (A). the following runners can‟t finish first: H. O is third. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. or vice versa. L. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. K can‟t be last.
From that it follows that if H is sixth. second. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. (B) is the answer. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. so (A) is correct. or belligerent.that F is fourth. so (B). The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. 5. While the percentage tells us the relation . (D) (E)Outside the scope. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. and K to be placed. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. 7." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. and then G is sixth. So K is first. In 1960. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. O is third (from Rule 4). G must be next to O. Since G can‟t finish before F. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). not definite. or fourth. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. 4. If M is seventh. If L is fifth. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. G can‟t be first. 6. That leaves K. in that order. G. So the order. if H is eighth then O is fifth. If a republic is pacific. (D). K can finish in first. not how clarity affects ornament. So G can finish second or fourth. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. and (E) are possible. so far: That leaves F. Therefore. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. To conclude this. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. as in (E). the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. and J to be placed. then according to Kant. Finally. M. (C)Irrelevant. In either case. and J is third. To evaluate this claim. M is second. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. (C).
8. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. both numbers could increase. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . only (D) is impossible. That eliminates (E). S. T) and power (N. then you have two finesse players and one power player. but when T is chosen. to play in a tournament. and Q are all power players. (A)It's possible. V. P. V). since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). Questions 8-11 In this game. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. finesse (M. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. Check each choice. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. However.between the two. R. or of Arbicans who made this migration. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. Beyond that. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). Given this inFORMation. However. and Q are all power players. V. as it says in Rule 2. is chosen. according to Rule 5. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. Q. a power player. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. use your drawing on a question to question basis. 9. so (A) is out. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. then exactly two power players are chosen. You are given that Q. while the percentage decreases. If T is chosen. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. M and T are both finesse players. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. If M and P are chosen with Q. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. Keep it simple. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. but the percentage migrating has fallen. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). one by one. That‟s fine. so there‟s too many power players. (E)If the number migrating is the same. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. select from two groups of tennis players. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. N. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. the number migrating would have to decrease.
if exactly two power players are chosen. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. The meetings are one-half hour in length. 10. Note this in your sketch. (E). P. If a professor is available at a given time. 11:00 am. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. and S to pair up. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. V. With M excluded. That leaves M. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). T is not chosen for the team. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. is the answer. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. Refer to your sketch. Any of those pairs. Between 10:30 and 11:00. 10:30 am. every professor except B is available. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). Therefore. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). the correct choice can be deduced. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. For this game. 10:00 am. is left). (D). If V isn‟t chosen. and N are all power players. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). R. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. so S must be chosen. In other words. and 12:00 pm. MS. Q. and PS. That makes three possible combinations. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. 11. a sketch is essential. and S? Three: MP. and since there are already two power players. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). . any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. Look at each column. How many pairs can be made from M. then N isn‟t chosen either. combined with the four power players. Use a grid. so (C) is correct. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. As for the others: If N is not chosen. 11:30 am. P. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. Since the question asks which must be true. as defined by the rules. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. and S. If T is chosen. eliminating (C).players chosen. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. P. there are only three available finesse player: T. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. are acceptable combinations. so if they‟re not chosen.
at 9:30. 17. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. can both meet at 10:30. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. (D). Ax and Bulos. two. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. or can only serve on one committee. so (B). since they can‟t serve with certain principals. (A). Chow and Franz can meet. Go through the rules. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. is correct. (B). P. and 10:30. that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. (D). Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. N. can‟t meet. Ax and Chow. Ax and Dohee are both available. and 11:30. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. 15. O. Dohee and Franz. Check each choice one by one. Chow. However. then Q serves on the same committee. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). but L and Q must serve together. can meet three times. Create a master sketch. using your sketch as the reference. (C). Remember. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. As we saw in the previous question. Egger and Franz. the “swing” principal. 10:00. making as many deductions as you can. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. At 9:00. So M. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L.13. one of the principals on each committee is the same. (D). Those times are at 10:30. Q. (B). 16. can both meet at 9:30. So (B) is the answer. For this question. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. check each choice in turn. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. P. first find all the possible times that Ax. Bulos and Dohee. Dohee is the only other professor available. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. Looking at your sketch. 11:00. 14. the “swing” principal. but at 9:30. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. Bulos and Franz. Your sketch should look . always look for opportunities to use previous work. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. (A). Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. Some principals. and Franz. However. (C). can only meet at 10:30. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. (E). Remember. Dohee and Egger. so 11:30 to 12:00. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. therefore M serves on Curriculum. M. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. (C). Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics.
(B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. Otherwise. (D). then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. Choices (A). so eliminate (D) and (E). Therefore. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). (C) and (D) are both possible. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. only N or O can serve on the same committee. leaving (D). depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. 21. O and P. (B). O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). M. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. 22. N. That leaves (C). then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). since either N or O can serve on Ethics. to serve on the Ethics Committee. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. L can‟t be on both committees. so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. so neither can be on both committees. so (C) is correct. 20. So (A) is the answer. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. as the other pair. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. and P. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). or (A). the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). so (A) is wrong. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. to serve on both committees. and then check the choices. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). O. As we‟ve already seen. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. contradicting (B) and . leaving (C). meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. 19. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. if we know which one is on both committees. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. O. and L. Determine who must be on which committee. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee.some thing like this: 18. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. and which one is on one committee only. Now. which is a violation of Rule 4. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. N. Q.
it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. not oxen. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. 25. but there's no proof that it was. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. so India is beyond the scope. or before approximately 3000 BC. but he needn't assume that most do violate them.. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. were used. (A)The author says that no such body exists. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A).(C). paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. so their opinion can't be applied here. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used. 23. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (D)The issue is when horses. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. and as it is. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. the issue is the definition of international law. he merely says that it doesn't. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. 24.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . Bands F. and M are rock bands. Bands P. L. or third. R must perform eighth. second. K. H.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands.taisha. The nine bands must perform one after the other. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively.. H must perform sixth. and R are country bands. If P performs first. Q. 1. G. and each band must perform once and only once. K must perform either first. L must immediately precede M in the order.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www.
(B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. performs ninth. then F performs seventh. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. 7. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. Recently. 6. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. performs ninth. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. then M performs sixth. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. however. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . For several decades. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. then G performs seventh. then P performs first. Which of the following statements. performs seventh. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families.(D) four (E) five 4. Because of this. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. then Q performs fifth.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. In light of these findings. (D) P must perform immediately before K. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. performs third. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. if true. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. 5. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions.
and the sociologists P. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. The only available lecturers are the historians L. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. Q. L and M chosen. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. M. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. In light of these disturbing revelations. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. and R. 8. then Q must not be chosen. chosen. then N must then O must are chosen. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. then M must also be chosen. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. and O.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. Just last week. however. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. . not be chosen. N. and vice versa. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. also be chosen.
which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. O. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. W. (E) L must never be chosen. O is not chosen. L. M. N. (D) M is not chosen. S. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. (E) N is not chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. (B) O is chosen. P. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. N is not chosen. P sometimes move W. 10. (D) If O is chosen.9. (B) R must never be chosen. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. Q is not chosen. and Z. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. R. H. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. R. U has prepared only works by poets K. (C) If M is chosen. T. and to laughter. Q. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . G. and P for presentation at the soiree. N. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. If all of the sociologists are chosen. sometimes move Q and S to tears. P is not chosen. L. M. L is not chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. Z. Q.
rug. wardrobe. 17. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. rug. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. table lamp. table. mirror. vase . rug. P. and living room of a client‟s house.laughter. rug. vase. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. P. and wardrobe. rug. N. painting. The sofa is placed in the living room. table. and L only (E) works by K. K. mirror. sofa. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. sofa. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. and L only 16. den. then he or she is bored. table lamp. and L only (D) works by N. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. painting. N. vase vase mirror. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. and L only (E) works by K. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. lamp. table. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. 14. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P.
table. Yet . If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. rug (D) painting. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. (C) The table is placed in the den. the lamp. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. vase (C) lamp. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. table (E) table. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. rug. the painting. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. If the lamp. (E) The vase is placed in the den. 21. table (B) rug. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. (E) The vase is placed in the den. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. vase 23. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms.18. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. 20. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. and if the wardrobe. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. 19. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa.
(E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. if true. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. Which of the statements below. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. his liver loses the . if true. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels.paradoxically. where the legal drinking age was still 18. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. however. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. Research has shown. 25. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. Which one of the following. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. Therefore. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. 24. which can be fatal. Furthermore. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten.
so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. 2. Therefore (A) is correct. L is fourth. H. or third. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. in order to appear at a music marathon. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . R is eighth (Rule 3). then L and M must be fourth and fifth. R) must be placed. R. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. or third. is a country band. respectively. G. That means K must be second. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. to go in two of the first three slots. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. K is second. M is fifth. in either order. in either order. Q. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. are F 3. R. K. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. prove or band. (E): L and M must be together. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. P and Q. H is sixth. such as shrimp. six rock bands (F. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. in either order. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. to separate the two country bands. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. 1. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. in either order. only. Since K is first. pair. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. M is fifth. as we deduced in the game overview. (Rule 1). Combine Rules 1 and 3. Create a master sketch. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. or third. L. M) and three country bands (P. Since K is first. second. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. they are first and third. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. in either order. If P is first. and R is eighth. one at a time. Rule 4 states that K is first. and R is eighth. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. respectively. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. second. incorporate the rules. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. is a country band. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. There are only two . is a country band. then Q must be third. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. second. That leaves two country bands.
possibilities.. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. respectively. and P and Q. (B). (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. so (B). If G performs before F. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. and F is ninth. So we know every in either order. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. (E)If anything. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. If. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. however. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. (E) must be true: H is 5. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. in either order. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. then G is seventh position except first and third. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. 4. 6. (A). we‟re only concerned with this city. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. and (D) Q—they can be true. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. 7. which of the following must be true. Since the question is worded. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. but need not is ninth. eliminate any choice that can be false. .
but they‟re not being followed. then not Q). Notice that you can take L and Q. and R) are chosen. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. P and N together. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. R) to lecture before a class. Q. If R and Q . then N is chosen. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. N. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. shorthanded: P + N together If R. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. (B). Therefore. and (E) are all false. without violating Rule 3. N. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. (C). using shorthand to distinguish relationships. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. Q. M. then M 9. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. 10. since R is chosen. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. Start with what you are given. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. Create a master sketch. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. In other words. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. (D). O) and sociologists (P. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. R Incorporate the rules. then R can‟t be chosen. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. Q. then not Q If R. and noting who can be chosen together. then not R If L + M. then O isn‟t chosen. then Q is not chosen. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. some of the diseases may have other causes. or M and Q. which of the following CANNOT be true. M. Since the question is worded. O Sociologists: P. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. listing the available speakers. So (A) is correct. and if N is chosen. then not O If O.8. then M is chosen. then P is chosen. The rules. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L.
but needn‟ t be true. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). N. for completeness. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. (A) and (D) can be true. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. and we‟ve just proved that. Q. S. However. That leaves (B) as correct. Therefore. N. of L. and P. (E) is false. then M. and Q. So take L and M. That‟s L. l for laughter. M must be chosen). P. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. T. then not O. 11. At this point you can stop. in this case a grid: 14. M. If O and M aren‟t chosen. if R is chosen. so take R (via Rule 4). Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). So (B) is only possible. if L and Q are chosen. If O and M are chosen together. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. and M must be chosen. Therefore. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. not definite. we can only take a maximum of two from M. and L and O can‟t chosen. Since R. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. W. As we learned in Question 6. and R. 12. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. We already took M. But if L and Q are chosen. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. H. then R can‟t be chosen). We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. M must be chosen. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. G. This question is a good example of using previous work. then not Q. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. the full deduction: Of Q or L. That eliminates (C). so it‟s correct. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. so (C). H and T are always . b for bored. Q. M can‟t be chosen.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. and not just sometimes. then M can‟t be chosen. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. and O. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. Based on Rules 2 and 4. Q. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. and you find them in (D): If L. and R are chosen. M. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. Scan the choices for L. L. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. Since the question says possibly. 13. Q. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. and P and N can be chosen. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. so (D) is the answer. we can only take two of the three. and R. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. or “some. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. or five.are chosen. R. eliminating (C). So.
poets L and P. then that‟ s our answer. and Z sometimes moved to tears. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 15. 16. 2. (C). but N moves T to boredom. so the combination of poets K.moved to laughter. and locate T. bored by poet N. always move one literati to laughter. living room). You can place the items in the rooms. S. If (A). den.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. so (B) is out. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. in any order. then F and Q are always moved to tears. The others: P and N. 3. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. Compare each rule to the choices. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. four choices violate one or more rules. (D). and sometimes move a literati to laughter. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. and (E). leaving (A). (D) places the sofa in the den. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). T. S. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. and work your way towards the abstract ones. Depending on how you look at it. Create a master sketch. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. Start with the rules that are most concrete. R. K. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. M. so MW. N. sometimes move four literati to tears. W. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. or 1. so no PV. so (B) and (E) are wrong. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. Refer to your sketch. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). one literati is always moved to laughter. and T. throwing out violators. and there are eight items total. Questions 17 . either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . Rule 4 places S in the living room. That leaves (D). N. and 5. For this acceptability question. P. So (C) is out. W) in three rooms (bedroom. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). a violation of Rule 4. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. V. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. Put an S in the living room. (C). in any order. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. and one choice violates none of them. (B). and P is the exception. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and 4. one literati is always moved to laughter. P. Poet K moves T to laughter. so (D) is possible. Therefore. (D). H by poet N and T by poet K. P. but otherwise is bored. T is always moved to laughter by poet K.
for the other two rooms. M. so it‟s the answer. M. and 4. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. That eliminates (B) and (D). and S. then the living room contains W. Start with S in the living room. 19. so P is in the living room with S.den. Start with the second piece of information in the question. one room must have exactly 1 item. eliminating (C). and W are in the living room. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. . in any order. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. 3. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. 22. or 1. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. with the other joining S in the living room. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). the den. You know that P can‟t be with V. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. Since Rule 5 is suspended. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. As we learned in Question 20. V can be in the den. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). then the third room. 4. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. and T must therefore be in the living room. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. (B). So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. Only (B) follows the rules. Since we can have 2. leaving only (E) as possible. or 5. That means the living room has more than one item. 21. L. Next. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). which claim that the den has 3 items. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. L. 4. according to Rule 2. and S. and there are eight items total. the sofa and the vase. 2. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. in any order. in either order. (C). violating Rule 1. 3. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). but not “always” 2. (D). The den‟s 4 items must be: R. (C). 18. 3. is empty. M. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. If M is with S. so the den can only contain one item. (B). so either P or V is in the den. but you must have at least one item in each room. so (A). (A) and (C) are missing P and V. and the den has 2 items. R. that leaves only two items. 20. S. L is in another room. (B). and (E) can be eliminated. then. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. If W is in the living room. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. Since the living room has W. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. as (A) states. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. T. T is in the den. (A). There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. and 5. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. or 5 items in any given room. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. and (E) are wrong.
then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. . despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. Otherwise. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up.23. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. 24. so why the increase in drunk driving. however. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. According to research. to lower blood cholesterol levels. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. Well. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. dietary or medical. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. 25. hence the increase in accidents. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. If.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. three trainers (Luis. (C) H is not chosen. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. To test the system. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. one trainer and one dog per room. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. then J must also be chosen. If M is not chosen for the issue. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3.If F is chosen. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. . 7. Molly. If G is chosen for the issue. (E) F is not chosen. Mugs. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given.
. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. and W—live in the building. S. V. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. Z. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. X (E) X. 12. one to an apartment. W. to T‟s apartment on the same level. X 14. A (D) X. W (B) X. W. between two other apartments on the same level. Q. W. W (D) W. levels. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. A. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. Exactly seven people—P. W. T.11. Y. W. Y. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. One of the apartments is empty. Y. W (E) Z. A. W. Y. Command W. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. to the empty apartment on the same level. four on each floor. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. X (B) W. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. The top floor is called Level A. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. W (C) Z. Z. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. W. R. Z (C) W. the bottom floor is Level B.
Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. P. and H—are senior club members. G cannot play the same game that R plays. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. R‟s apartment is on Level A.15. and three will play dominoes. M cannot play dominoes. respectively? (A) G. H and P must play the same game. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. directly above T‟s apartment. Each person present can play only one of the three games. H. P . H. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. two—K and M—are junior club members. F. Three of those present—F. and two—P and R—are club applicants. directly above P‟s apartment. There must be a senior club member playing each game. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. R (B) G. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. 17. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. R. and dominoes. K. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. G. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. 19. two will play chess. F. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. M. M. K. chess.
P. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. If R plays backgammon. H. K.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. R. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. 24. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. (B) Only ethical considerations. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. M plays backgammon. G. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. P plays chess. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. F. P. G plays backgammon. H. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. By doing so. 21.(C) F. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. notably Japan. K. F plays dominoes. M. and not those of self-interest. P. M (D) H. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. This is not merely a matter of using . K. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. M. R 20. R (E) F. G. G.
Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. and (D) has C before A. pollution would be drastically reduced. so they‟re out. Something must be done about the 51. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. S and T. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. or the commissary is serving fish. or both. what needs to be done must be done. (B) has sage first. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices.manual mowers instead of power mowers. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. 3)S can‟t be first. Such concerns are irrelevant here. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. and (E) has N coming after T. 25. If all the statements above are true. N. (B) It is a workday. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. so the first spice is either N or A. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. you may be able to meet the actors. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. so it‟s out. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. or the commissary is serving fish. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. or both. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. C. . and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary.
We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. T. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. leaving (C). (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. 3=========FIN A1= First. since we can‟ t separate A and C. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. N and T will work. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. so scratch (D) and (E). (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope.000 apiece. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. (E) is the assumption. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. N. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. A is joined with C. put S in the second slot. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. the number of attacks would have increased. C. There‟s no supporting evidence. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. Our sequence is A. Now we have AC and S. Previously. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. C. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. S. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. (A) . while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. then the 20% . (D) must be false. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. they‟re as fickle as short termers. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. so eliminate (A) and (B). while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. If they don‟ t. and it can‟t be second either. which limits our options. Try plugging in numbers. it‟s simply irrelevant. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. S. S can‟t be first. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme.
and if we cross out m we circle k. k. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. Cross out m. If you circle m. m is not. We have J. l. 2)If J is chosen. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. As we saw in Question 8. and if you choose m. you have to cross out J. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. choice (A) . (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. so (C) is correct. If you circle F. With Rule 1. (A) . The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. F. so we can eliminate (E). If you circle G . three. 3)If you choose F. you have to choose the other three dance articles. m. J. not what type of sets consumers prefer. l and o— those are your five articles. l and o. but the rest is wide open. l and o and you need go no further. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. if G and J are circled. you must choose J. o. our answer. H. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. Let‟s jump to (C). you can‟t have m and to have F. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . you have to cross out J and F . and since m is dance. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. or 4 dance and 1 theater. o. circle k.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. J. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. choosing J yields three possible groups. we need 3 lower case and k. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. G or H. and circle k. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. so we can eliminate (C). so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. k. l and o. making them easy to eliminate. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. is correct. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. G. you see that if you cross out m. If you have J. you can circle the other 3. l. you know you can circle k. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. l and o. m can‟t be. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). so (A) is correct. k. you must have J. so there are three possibilities and (C). 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen.
not in 2. 5)With command A. m to M and o to O. H. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. G. not dogs. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. and to do that we need one X. and the second W moves her to 2. but that moves trainers. Which choice is true of that? (B). then one A? The W command puts O in 1.and H. m. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. A second W puts M in 1. (A) is out because O is with l. 3)With command Y. (C). in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. (C) is out because M is with o. So we have in Room 1. Yes. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. k. we circle J. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. and (E) is out because L is with m. Looking at the wrong choices. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . and M in 3. then see what commands move them to Room 2. not with o. o. Let‟s jump to (E). We also want to get l from 1 to 2. We can‟t disprove (E). she‟s there with o. So l returns to L. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . But we need five. L in 2. 2 and 3. If we circle F and G. L. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. so it‟s correct. the only one that moves trainers. and L moves to Room 2. not 1. We have rooms 1. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. not with m. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. J. l. since if F is chosen. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. k. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. M is in Room 3. W is called. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. putting Onyx in 1. o or G. H. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. m or G. 2)With command X. J is chosen. m. m. 4)With command Z. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. O in 2 and L in 3. For the record. etc. k. then moving them around according to different commands. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. Mm in Room 2. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. you could have G. We have three trainers. The first W moves O to 1. H. Ol . l. l. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. and Oo in Room 3. l. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. two Ws. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. l. and o. k. the dogs return to their original trainers.
14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. putting m in 2 and l in 3. we have no more light on the R and V issue. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. P. V. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. P is next to T. O. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. and we need a place for V. R and V. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. empty unit. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. and as for (C) and (D). So T is in 2 or 3. S on B. W is on A. m. We have W. M in 1. so Q is on A. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. (B). 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . For the dogs. L. O. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. As for the others. To get from L. m. V and R are left—one will be on A. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. so you have Oo in 1. Take your people. A. so either TP or PT . L. Y lines up the dogs. it has to be next to P in B-2. O to M. but that isn‟t a choice. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. o to o. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. So W and S have to be in A- . S. Now turn to the W. But if you call A. So we put S underneath in B-2. 3)P and T are adjacent. empty and Q on A. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. Q and (E). so we‟ve got our answer.correct. empty. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. W. since T can‟t be on the end. are both on A. so add empty to A. the other on B. T. so W is on A and S is on B. and fill them in the eight slots. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. S. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. so (E) is correct. 4)T is not in one of the ends. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. but l in 2. W and empty. And with (A) and (C). Call W once. l? One call of Z. W . 8 apartments—1 is empty. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. and T can‟t be on an end. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. As for (D). so P is in B-3. L in 2. 2)S and Q are on different levels. With P in B-3. M. so since B-2 is occupied by S. call W twice. so we know that P and T are on B. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. the dogs seek out their trainers. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. one‟s on A. you get O. not A-4. R. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. P is in B-4. how to go from l. L. Q. (C). 5)W is next to empty. 1 or 4. W and A puts O again in 1. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. P. As for (B). Y. (A) ‟s sequence of X.
========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. they must play dominoes. The question asks about A-1. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. and juniors and applicants in lower case. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. Turn to our W. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). since H is with p . Let‟s put seniors in caps. r can‟t play with G . Nix (E). So only two people could go in A-1. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. which is correct. k and r play dominoes. 4)H and p must play the same game. 7 slots. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. F. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. P and S are out because they‟re on B. since they have m playing dominoes. The Rules: 1)7 people. S. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. p and r in dominoes. G. so it can‟t be H. There‟s only one grouping possible. (or p and someone else). H. empty unit. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. since H. (B). so H and p must play dominoes. F. It‟s between V and R . so we have one cap in each group. k. k and m are both lower . (B) has F and H. and only dominoes has three people. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. G. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. Now go to the Hp unit. The senior can‟t be H. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. directly above T in B-2. chess with two and dominoes with three. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. H and p are together. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. It must be F. and empty goes next to W in A-2. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. so it‟s F. so (A) is out. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. p and r in dominoes is okay. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. 2)Three senior members. making (D) correct .1 and B-1. T. m and p. If they play chess.
p and r dominoes. or both. and we need a cap for each. so it‟s (A) . (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. p and r in dominoes. to save the environment. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. fish may or may not be served. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. Besides. F and k chess. the workday with fish. We must do what‟s necessary. and H.” That‟s summarized by (D). For the record. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. that the commissary is serving fish.case. so k and m can‟t be together. so (D)‟s correct. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. true on a workday. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. no matter how drastic and costly. according to the stimulus.) But m can‟t play dominoes. F and m. A makes most of its money back. “notably Japan. and its aid policy. is fine: F and m in backgammon. which this doesn‟t mention. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. That way. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . (D):G and m in backgammon. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. and (B)‟s correct. or it‟ s not a workday. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. Japan. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. but rather that it is necessary. so k. (C). G and k in chess and H. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope.
L. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. If the third symbol is a number. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. 3. If the third symbol is a letter. Q.. The sequence is called a combination. (B) F. 2. G. (E) A. T. R. (C) B. X. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. 7. M. 4. W.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. K. then the fifth must be either B or D.taisha. Which of the (A) E. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . (D) C. 1.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. 6. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. T.
T (C) 9. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. 9. third. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. Which of the following. such as beef and poultry. H. D (B) A. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. however. 4. and fifth symbols. S 4. Thus. X (D) 3. Q. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. respectively? (A) J. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. The combination C. 6. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. a special visa is required. If the statements above are true. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. 6.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. if true. . (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. P. Z. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. G (E) M. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. 8. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean.
Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. low. high. medium. low. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. low. Last the service sector. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. high. for the sequence. 7. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. Over the has greatly expanded. low. low. high. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. medium. low. 500. medium. medium (E) low. high 9. low. one produces a medium-pitched ring. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. low. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. medium. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. medium. high. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. high. low. medium.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. low (D) medium. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. . one cannot argue that Which of the following. and one produces a high-pitched ring. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. low. high. 8. high. high. medium. medium. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. medium (B) low. of pessimistic forecasts. In the our economy is wilting. medium (C) medium. He decides that. low. low. high. medium. if true. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. (D) Work time. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. cost. . Which of the following. however. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. 24. if true. never engage in this aggressive play. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (C) Fifteen years ago. According to a recent school survey. (E) Work time. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. cost. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty.
The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. so all letters must appear later than E. the 5th symbol must be B or D. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. In Option 2. 3)In Option 2. a Rule 2 no-no. If you start with F. E. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. The number is 3rd. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. and the sequence begins with C . and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. F. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. You‟ve used B first. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. and B doesn‟t. and (E). That leaves (A). and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. 4=========FIN A2= First. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. In Option 2. so (A) won‟t work. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. B or D only. (E). violating Rule 5. the number is 3rd. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. You end with B or D and this ends with F.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. replace the F with a D. you begin with a letter later than B or D. there can‟t be an F or a G . so it‟s correct. . 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. the 5th must be B or D. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. So F can‟t begin and E. (A) begins with E. That leaves correct choice (D). Only (A) gives you that option. is correct. Only one letter comes after Y . 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. the number is 2nd. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. Skim to (D). B is 1st. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work.
(E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. Focuses on cost. If the population increase is slower than projected.S. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. economy continues to grow and prosper. you need a special visa. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. a special visa is required. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. So (D) is correct. As for the others. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. . the author must assume that we can get at those fish. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. We talked about that in (A). If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. (E)Isn‟t inferable. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. As evidence. if you do so. the sequence ends with a D. as (B) says. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. So (D) is correct. (E) replaces the C with an A. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. so (C) won‟t work.which works with the rules for Option 2. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5.
high. and a medium 5th. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. so dump (D) and (E). Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. medium. low is 3rd. then fill the space between with a medium. and 5th. yes. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. 3rd. and 7th. (A) puts the high bell 1st. in 3. the correct answer. That works if we put a low 1st. yes. So we‟ll put one low first. You ring the low bell 3 times. low. 5th. (C) puts a high 3rd. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. 3)The two high bells will stick together. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. and 5. next to the high in 3. a high. and one after. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . (A) has high. and a low. leaving us with (B). Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. the other high 2nd. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. high bell is 4th. a medium 4th. one low third. medium. (B) has low. 4th. (B) medium is 2nd. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. and 8 rings. (D). 4. and 5. 4. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. so (D)‟s correct. so (E)‟s correct. the medium bell 3 times. and mediums 4th and 6th. (C). 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. (D) has a high 3rd. medium. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. 5th. low is 1st. The beginning looks like this—low. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. and it‟s correct. a medium. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. and 7th. yes. (E) puts the high 8th. high. yes. medium. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. (A). We‟ll have to put two before this set. Now we have to split up the lows. (E). and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. it could still be the most important factor overall. and split up the lows 1st. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. low in 3. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. 4. and the high bell 2 times. either would be okay. and low. the other high 2nd.
14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. to Edinburgh. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. start at the home office. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. the dead end. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. Fresno. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. Having done 9 and 10. Edinburgh. medium 8th. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. You know that‟s okay from 9. we‟ve discussed this— yes. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. (D) is fine. 4 and 5. All the others work. low. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. a low 5th. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. Caracas. and medium in 3. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. Beijing. 7 and 8. you could send it to Dakar. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. 2 types of memos. (E). We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. so (C) is correct. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. 4. which makes (B) correct. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. Dakar. low 7th. You have 6 cities. How about (E). Beijing. 1 and 2. and no way to do that. describes a route it could not have followed. Caracas. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. so this is acceptable.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. and 5. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. In priority 2. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. Fresno. (C) is fine. medium 6th. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. That‟s acceptable. in both cases they go next to Caracas. Caracas. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. send the memo to Beijing. Edinburgh. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. (E) has high. Fresno. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. Edinburgh. 15=========FIN A2= .
then Edinburgh. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. write next to shelf 2 no J. Caracas. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. the only place it can go is to Caracas. G. 1)In Option 1. (C). Option 2. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. Option 1. a dead end. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. (D) is correct. the dead end. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. go to Beijing. could have seen the memo. and L. you‟d break Rule 3. and H on shelf 2. and then Beijing.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. (D). you can start in the home office. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. Beijing. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. go to Caracas. so (B) won‟t do it. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. Dakar. top to bottom. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. the only place it can go is Fresno. As far as priority 2. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. and (A) is correct. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. and Beijing. that‟s three. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. and the answer is (C). That works in priority 1. write next to shelf 3 no J. where was it sent? Priority 2. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. F must be immediately above L . A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. What . (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. After Dakar. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. You have two options. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. so it went to Beijing. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. and in Option 2. (B). so it won‟t work. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. Only Beijing and Fresno. Caracas. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. go to Dakar. a dead end. (A). where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. we work with Option 1. to Caracas. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno.
so J is on shelf 2. (D). because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. L. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. if shelf 3 is empty. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. If we split them up. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. and in Option 2. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. and H is a floater.must be true? Look at (B). The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. If H is on shelf three. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. J and K are tennis trophies. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. You can put H on shelf three. J. we‟ve already said we can. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. J is on shelf two. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. (E). (B) puts K and L on the same . can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. as long as they‟re on 3. So (B)‟s correct. so the only place for K is shelf 3. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. so (C) is correct. (A). “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. K. so it‟s on shelf 2. (B). and 1 remains empty. and G on 3. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. where shelf three is open. L is on shelf 2. then J is on shelf two. and shelf 1 is empty. K. shelf 1 is empty. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. We put F. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. so you will work with Option 1. we just did with (A). let‟s look at the situation. so (D)‟s correct. so the only home for K is 3. K and J must be on the same shelf. K. L. and H on 2 and that left us with L. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. so (A)‟s correct. In Option 1. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. so shelf 1 has F. then the only place is shelf 1. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes.
cost. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. not because it is better than staining. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. and longevity are equally important factors. that‟s true in Option 1 only. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. cost. not the past 15 years. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. so (E)‟s our answer. Unless there are other differences. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. (C) does the trick. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. If most students attend services for social reasons. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. We get the former in (A). Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. shelf two. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. ..shelf. but that‟s true only in Option 2. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. but J is never on shelf three. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. (E) has J on shelf two. (D) has F and shelf.
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