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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
four on top and four on bottom. In that case. then he or she must also treat ears. Xiao treats ears. York does not treat noses. Xiao treats ears. Dr. then he or she must also treat throats. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. (E) Dr. If Dr. York treats ears. Dr. York treats noses. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. Zeller treats throats. Which of the following must be true? Dr. and throats 15. 14. noses. Dr. Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Xiao treats throats. York treats exactly one part of the body. Zeller does not treat ears. Zeller does not treat ears. Zeller treats throats. Dr. 17. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. (C) Dr. Dr. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. which of the following must be true? Dr. Dr. If a doctor treats ears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. York does not treat throats. Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. he or she must also treat throats. Zeller treats noses. Xiao treats throats. York must treat ears. If Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same.doctors. Dr. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. York treats noses. If Dr. 13. Suppose that Dr. Dr. Dr. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Xiao treats ears. York does not treat noses. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. York treats. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Xiao does not treat ears. If Dr. York treats throats. York treats noses. Zeller treats ears. Dr. then Dr. the .
Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. pears. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. pears.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. they contain different types of fruit. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. 18. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. or pears. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. grapefruit. grapefruit. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . oranges. apples. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. grapefruit. 22. Compartment 1 contains apples. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. oranges. pears. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears.
(E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. which they could read in the Official Journal. Gilliatt can create any mood.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. . describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. What they don‟t realize. 24. 25. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. By raising corporate taxes. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. Governor Kipling. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. however. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. not the intent of his tax hike.23.
From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. breaking Rule 2. starting with the most concrete. As with Question 2. leaving (B). meaning there are five unknown lights (1. be true. Thus. So the sketch looks like this: 1. but need not. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). 5. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. but (C) has five Ons. four choices violate one or more rules. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. light 6 is Off. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. 2. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. but don‟t need to be true. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). and (C) are false. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). and 6) that are each either On or Off. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. Finally. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. 4. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . and numbering them 1 through 10. Note that in the sketch. Now incorporate the rules. since light 3 is Off. For this acceptability question. 2. If light 2 and light 5 are On. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. (D). As for the others: (A). but don‟t need to be true. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. 3. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. Therefore. (E) can. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. (B).
one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. totaling four On lights. Create a master sketch. That means light 4 is On. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. (B)Beyond the scope. As always. and light 7 is Off. the argument predicts ruin. in either order. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. must be true. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. 7. Otherwise. it's the effects we're concerned with. the music's message won't corrupt them. Questions 8-12 In this game. light 4 is On. (E)Beyond the scope. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. Start with what you‟re given. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. light 5 is also Off. If this were not the case. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. If light 6 is On. light 3 is Off. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. (E). (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. is the number that can be determined. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. 4. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. using columns or circles to . 6. If light 8 is Off. (C). the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. Therefore. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. 5. and as we figured out. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. eight lights.
but need not. (B). or (A). If M serves on Housing. Create a master sketch. K must serve Committee. then P must serve with M and N. O. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. That leaves J. can. Therefore. O can‟t serve with M. and P to serve on Housing. or (C). K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. and Throat. and (E) are false. (A). From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. so (D). (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. O can‟t serve with M. If O can‟t serve with P. L. N must serve on Rules.represent the two committees. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. Nose. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. Start with what you‟re given. N). with three columns to represent the body parts. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). eliminating (D) and (E). but don‟t need to be true. L. M. That makes three members on one committee. and N must serve with M. You‟re given that L serves with M. Each committee must have at least three members. 11. M. 10. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. As for the others: (B). (C). three doctors (shorthanded X. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. Your sketch should look something like this : 8. and one member (J) is already on Housing. N. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. be true. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. P can serve on either committee. M. Questions 13-17 In this game. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. (C). so (A) can be eliminated. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. In the setup. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. Abbreviate the members‟ names. M. and N all serve together. 9. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. and three horizontal rows . O. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. K. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). then N does too. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. using their first initials (J. 12. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. Y. so K. so put a J under Housing. Since J is always on Housing. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). six committee members can be determined. eliminating (B). L.
then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). grapefruit (G). Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. 16. then try to make some deductions. be true. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. (C) is correct. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. be false. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. one by one. Y must treat noses. 13. X must treat at least throats. noses. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. 14. Start with what you‟re given. Go through the choices. However. Look at what you have. If Y treats ears. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. If X treats ears. choices that can be false can be eliminated. Yet. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). because of Rule 3. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. However. if X treats throats. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. if Y treats it. Therefore. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. one for each doctor. (D). X can. that doctor must also treat throats. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. treat ears. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). (C) and (E) can be eliminated. so does Z. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . If Y treats neither ears nor throats. (A). X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. then X must also treat throats. must be false. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. 15. according to Rule 2. So (B) must be true. (C). a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. 17. so put “no” in the appropriate column. ears and throats only.underneath. Both Y and Z must treat noses. but need not. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). and (E) can. and then add your knowledge of the rules. numbered 1-8. but need not. then Y must also treat throats. oranges (O). (A) can. In other words. but need not. then Y can‟t treat ears. Each compartment contains apples (A). Rule 1 states that ears. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. (D). (D). (B) is true. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. Z also treats. Since X can‟t treat noses.
(D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. so there are no more than four pears. according to Rule 5. which contains apples. four choices violate one or more rules.Incorporate the rules. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. 21. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). From that and Rules 5 and 6. (A) is correct. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. So put an A in Compartment 1. 19. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. and one choice violates none of them. the four incorrect choices must be false. This leaves (C). (C). and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). Place a G in Compartment 8. and 4). so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. as well. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. 20.e. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). 1 and 2) must have different fruits. Compare each rule to the choices. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. Therefore. As in Question 20. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Since the question asks which could be true. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). so (B) is correct. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. 3. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. From that and Rules 5 and 6. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. However. For this acceptability question. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. Check each choice in turn. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. which contains grapefruit. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. Thus. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. eliminating (D) and (E). (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3).
not to supernatural subject matter. can‟t contain grapefruit. 3. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. 24. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. 3. must be true. (B)We don't know this. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. (B) and (C) are false. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. Therefore. 25. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. The adjacent compartments. for instance. If. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). As for the top. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. merely her effective technique. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. (B)There's no mention of her popularity.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. 22. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. (D). so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). a total of four. 5. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. is the maximum number. If only one compartment contains apples. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. since the jobs program was never implemented. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. thus increasing unemployment. which is that unemployment increased. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. rather than how they are described. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. So Compartments 2. but the question of his intent versus his actions. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. but makes no connection to problems in humans. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. . there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. but on what actually happened. 6 and 7. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. 23. Only (A). Compartment 1 contains apples. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. Compartments 2. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit.
[ZT] voodoo7 taisha. t. v. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. positioned in that order from west to east. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. After 1981. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. x. and z. u. w. 1. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. Sector u was constructed in 1981.org .(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. y. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983.
Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. 1985 5. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1984 (E) 1982. 1983. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. 1983 (D) 1982. 1984. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. 1985 (E) 1983. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. 1986 6. 1984 (D) 1983. 1985 (C) 1983. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1983.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 2. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. If Sector s was built in 1985. 1984 (B) 1982. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3.
Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. Which of the following. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. 8. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. In a recent test. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. only five had presented any serious complications. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. if true. harmful pollutants. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. 9. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. The Commissioner of Public Works. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration.
Red. which runs due northeast from the city center. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Vienna Highway 13. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. Yellow Toll. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. Paris Highway. which extends due west from the city center. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. and due southwest of the city center.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. but no other tollbooths. called the Beltway. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. 10. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Vienna Highway. motorists pass two radial highways. which extends south from the city center. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. which extends due north from the city center. Blue. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. and Paris Highway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. Madrid Highway. due east. Madrid Highway. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. London Highway. The radial highways are: London Highway. Red Toll. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. due southeast. and Yellow Tolls.
Nick. Quentin (B) Jim. Mike. but taller than Jim. Nick. Nick. 14. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Pedro. Kathy 15. Pedro. Pedro. Laura. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Jim is taller than Kathy. Mike. Laura. Laura. Jim. Kathy. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Mike. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. Oliver. Laura. Quentin (E) Pedro. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Quentin (C) Kathy.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Laura. Oliver. Oliver. Pedro. Laura. Oliver. Quentin. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . Quentin (D) Oliver. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Pedro. Mike. Mike. Kathy. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Jim. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Oliver. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Nick. Mike. Nick. Jim. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Kathy. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Kathy. and Quentin—are measured for height. Nick.
If R votes “yes” on movies 1. If R votes “no” on all five movies. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. and 5 . U votes “yes” on movie 4. S votes “no” on movie 2. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. 3. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. The five judges on the committee are Q. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. There are no abstentions. S. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. 3. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. and 4 (E) movies 2. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and 3. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. 3. 4. and 5 (D) movies 2. 21. 19. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. R. and 5. T. 2. and U. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22.
He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. and sales are better than ever. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. . with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM.23. or to fingers and wrists. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. control panels or electric counters. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. Profits are on the rise. Today. Which of the following. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. if true. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. Freda Tully. 24. Coach Parker. 25. When workers were primarily employed by industry. which are forever twisting above. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. productivity has nearly doubled. there was no competent leadership in the firm. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. McGovern‟s new executive director. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began.
(B). contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. sector w must be constructed before sector x. For this question. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Therefore. w. That leaves three choices. t. sector v must be constructed before sector w. . (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. In order for sector w to be constructed. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. v. x. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. Since the question asks which could be true.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. y. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. sector v can be constructed in 1982. Therefore. u. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. so (C) and (D) are out. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. Sector x is constructed in 1984. (D) Compared to their ancestors. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. the four incorrect choices must be false. though it used to be the other way around. Write 1981 in u‟s space. and sector u is constructed in 1981. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. so (C). As we‟ve just seen. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. 1. 2. and (D). sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. However. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. (C). You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. Create a master sketch.
the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. First. 6. Under this question‟s conditions. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. (B). In fact. and z. That eliminates (A) and (B). (C). causes kidney stones.3. and so isn't parallel. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. You need to determine two dates here. if sector t is constructed in 1982. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. sector y in 1987. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. v. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. w. sector y must be constructed after 1986. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. and (D). 1983. So (A) is correct. 1983. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. (D) is correct. which are choices (A). y. Now. sector v must be constructed by 1984. in 1988. and z) because of Rule 2. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. Otherwise. sector w in 1983 or 1984. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. vitamin C. Sector z can be constructed last. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). That sounds too simple to be the solution. sector x in 1986. If sector t is constructed in 1982. 1984. y. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. 4. respectively. 7. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. However. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. Therefore (D)—1982. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). Likewise. If sector v is constructed in 1982. So. but when you look at the choices. and sector z in 1988. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. and 1984. 5. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. As we saw in the previous question. Therefore. . Using the reverse thinking. t. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983.
past the Beltway. but noexamples are provided. you‟ll pass two radial highways. due east. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period.(E)A general claim is made. not their danger. Blue (B). (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. however. If. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. That means. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. and due southwest of the city. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. For the sketch. Green (G). less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. Vienna (V). This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. and Paris (P). Looking at the sketch. The four highways extend from the city outward. L extends due north. in . From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. 8. 9. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). There are four tollbooths. P extends due northeast. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. V extends due south. in either order. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. due southeast. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. Red (R). Madrid (M). (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. but no other tollbooths. M extends due west. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway).
P. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. (A). only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. If it‟s merely possible. L. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. the Paris. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. Create a master sketch. but no other tollbooths. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. 11. As we deduced in Question 11. Use the deductions from Question 11. place eight students in height order. so (E) is wrong. Blue. Looking at the sketch. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. 12. Check each choice in turn. O. N. M. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). Red. and isn‟t a must. and Yellow Tolls. you‟ll pass two radial highways. 13. since their locations are described in the question. and among the choices. and check each choice in turn. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. (C). (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. in either order. from tallest to shortest. or (E). . between the Madrid and the Vienna. the Madrid. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. Therefore. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. For the sketch. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. Use your sketch. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. or the Southeast tollbooth. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. K. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. Q). namely the Green. eliminating rule violators. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth.
Also. Combining our deductions. 14. There‟s only one possible order here.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. Kathy. This eliminates (B) and (E). Since Laura is third. and who must be shorter. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). Adding Rules 2 and 4. Combine this with Rule 2. only Jim. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. 16. but taller than Jim. and then. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. we know that Mike. Laura is third highest of the eight students. Compare each choice to the rules. Nick. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. So Quentin is taller than Jim. and since Laura is third. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. and Pedro. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. Oliver. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. So. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. or Quentin can be first. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. four choices violate one or more rules. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick.. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. Nick. leaving (B). Rule 5 says Laura is third. 17. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. or (B). 18. 15. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. we can definitely determine who is fourth. in that order. Quentin. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. and note that there are only two students above her. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. Jim. with the remaining students. For this acceptability question. or (A). so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. So place the L on your piece of paper. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. so (A) is out. and two available spots for students taller than her. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. Laura is third. Since there are only three available spots below . eliminating (C) and (D). The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro.Look at the rules. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. Mike. For this question. you can figure out the possibilities. and one choice violates none of them.
” that is. Quentin. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. T. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. at least three of whom must vote yes. it means a yes vote from T as well. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. 2. Scan the choices and stop at (D). Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. although both can vote yes. Neither R nor U must vote yes. Note that in your sketch. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. 4.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. according to Rule 3.Laura. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. Questions 19-22 In this game. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. (C). Any of five movies (1. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. and U) to appear in a film festival. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. 2. being taller than at least three other students. “exactly.” At least three yes votes are needed. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. (B). The third yes comes from either R or U. Kathy. R. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. and Pedro. figure out who must vote yes. so T also votes no on movie 2. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. 3. and who must vote no. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. and (C) can be eliminated. S. That leaves four judges. must be taller than Laura. Since S and T vote the same. If both vote no. and 3. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. T votes yes on movie 5. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. so (D) too can be eliminated. As we have just proved. one for each of the three movies. and (E) are false. so neither choice needs to be true. both must vote yes. using an N. 2. as long as one . starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. Since the question asks which choice must be true. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. U votes yes on movie 4. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. and 3. this must be true. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. That thinking is reflected in (D). Laura must be taller than Kathy. Nick. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. so (A). Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. Create a master sketch. 20.
(C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. so T must vote no on movie 2. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. 3. That deduction eliminates only (A). 23. Look for the other judges that vote no. So you need at least one more no vote. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. so (B) and (E) can. That leaves (E) to be correct.of them does. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . You are told that R votes no on all five movies. To conclude this. and determine whether or not U votes no. S and T vote together. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. 22. but needn‟t. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. there are three yes votes. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. We‟re left with (D) and (E). U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. one no vote. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. and three unknown votes. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. Choose one of the two movies. (B) is the answer. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. and thus have your answer. on movie 2. S votes no. be true. So movie 2 has two no votes. and then T votes no. 21. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. R votes no. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. If. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. so (C) is eliminated. Looking at the remaining choices. then the other choice is correct. and 5. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. If U does vote no. . even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2.
not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. Most people used to work in industry. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. she must therefore have provided this leadership. (D)Misreads the argument. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. (D)Strengthens. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. 25. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. 24. because most people now work in the service sector. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. To weaken this contention. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. so this strengthens the argument. (E)Strengthens. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. no matter what the practice time. like lifting. which discusses injuries.
is green.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . 2. or yellow. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. red. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. Light 5 is green. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. same column are the same color. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. is red. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. the following colors: blue. 1. same row are the same color. the board is green. green. is yellow. is green.
soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. If all beaches were publicly owned. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. and yellow 5. green. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. . Therefore. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. Which of the following. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. if true. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. but at all times. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. In companies with only one secretary. If light 6 is yellow. 8.
(C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. 10. in that order. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. which are numbered 1 through 4. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. and Z. X. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. There are. Y. but for no more than three consecutive days.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. slower copiers. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. Every day. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. but for no more than two consecutive days. FORMerly. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. (D) On average. however. however. . (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. 9. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement.
respectively. W is listed third. and Sal. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. Sal. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. one car remaining empty. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. Z is listed second. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. . (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. for the first ride. The four children are Pip. 4. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. Z is listed third. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. After each ride. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. Rob. If Rob. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. Car 5 is never empty. X is listed third. one child per car.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. Pip. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. and Quint are seated in cars 1. 14. Quint. and 5. 2. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. 13. 12. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride.
Each day in the Ring home. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. 4. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. If Rob. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. for the first ride. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. Pip is seated in car 4. Quint is seated in car 4.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. and Quint are seated in cars 1. and 5. exactly one of the three family members cooks. 15. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. Betty cooks on Wednesday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . (D) Car 3 is empty. respectively. Pip. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. (E) Car 4 is empty. Rob is seated in car 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. and Horace. 17. Betty cooks on Tuesday. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. Sal. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. 16. If Horace cooks on Friday. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. 3. Jim.
Tuesday. Horace cooks on Monday. I know this for a fact. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. Horace cooks on Wednesday. they related stories of important events. Thursday. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Tuesday. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. Like modern magazines. Thursday. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. . If Jim cooks on Wednesday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Friday (E) Sunday. Horace Jim. Which of the following. if true.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Jim cooks on Monday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. Friday 23. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. 24. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Monday. Tuesday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. Thursday (C) Sunday. Friday (D) Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday.
The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. green. lights 2. 4. 2. and on the bottom. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. red. 3) can be the same color. Therefore. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. according to the rules provided. 7) can be the same color. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. 1. For this acceptability question. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. or yellow. four choices violate one or more rules. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. . (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. per week. (B). 25. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. numbered on the top. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. There are three rows of three lights each.e. Therefore.e. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. in the middle. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. starting with the most concrete. Put a G in light 5‟s space. Average and below average students. light 3 is yellow. 1 to 3. than they did in 1988. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. and light 1 is red. and light 1 is red. 3. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. and one choice violates none of them. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. however. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. You must place the lights. which can be blue. 1. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. 4 to 6. 7 to 9. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. 4. can be true. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. Based on those two deductions.
(D). light 7 must be blue. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. 4. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. However. light 7 must be yellow. and light 5 is green. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. 7 and 8. Light 1 is red. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . (C). if the government already maintains all beaches. blue. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. Also. That leaves lights 1. light 8 must be red. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. Because light 1 is red. 4. light 7 can‟t be red or green. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. That eliminates (A). Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. So lights 2. but lights 2. 3. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. 5. and (E). 5. if light 6 is yellow. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. That‟s only two blue lights. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. . since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. and 9. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. That leaves lights 2. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. Light 5 is green. 7. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. As we saw in Question 2. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. 3. 4. or yellow. so (E) can be eliminated. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. or (C). and light 9 must be yellow. There‟s only one green light. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. then light 4 can be yellow. so there can be a maximum of three red. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. That eliminates (B) and (E). So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. 2. light 6 can be red. according to Rule 3. 3. eliminating (A) and (B). so (D) is correct. can be any color except green. If light 6 is yellow. or (C). 7. Light 6. and eliminate them as choices. (B). and 8. There‟s only one green light. 6. 8. Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. leaving 6. or (C).2. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. To answer this question. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. leaving eight lights to be red. You know that light 1 is red. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). three of another and two of a third color. both private and public.
For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. numbered 1. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. 9. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. 8. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. Therefore. From all that inFORMation about W. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. and Z. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). Four guards. 2. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. Therefore. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. not of all the B vitamins. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. X. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. (C)As long as the machine is faster. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. This is the key rule to this game. W. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. and thus save money.they were made public than if they remained private. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. 3. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. Rule 4 says Z . (C)Too specific. and 4. based on the rules provided. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. cause beriberi and pellagra. not single deficiencies. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. Y.
11. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. In lieu of a master sketch. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. Here. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. guard can remain in the same gallery. Since this question asks which must be true. However. leaving (C). four choices violate one or more rules. but need not be true. 13. Y. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. Before looking at the answer choices. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . so (E) must be correct. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. numbered 1 to 5. There is one child per car.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. and one choice violates none of them. must be true. 12. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. For your master sketch. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. That eliminates (B) and (C). You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. when the next day is assigned. According to Rule 5. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). so for Thursday‟s roster. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. W is listed first. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. For Wednesday‟s roster. Looking at the choices. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. W. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. (A). If W changes assignments. or are false outright. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. when W remains in the same gallery. The rules all have to do with the empty car. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. W was assigned to gallery 1. so (B) must be true. Compare each rule to the choices. you can simply use five dashes. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. or in gallery 3 on both days. and only one. Z must move. Questions 14-16 In this game. Therefore. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. (A) and (D) can be true. so one car is always empty. X. 10.
the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). Rule 4 is always in effect. 14. H) take turns cooking each day. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. According to Rule 1. 2. Car 2 is empty. Sal. therefore. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. 4. Sal. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. as (D) correctly says. 16. Pip. you‟ll know all that must be true. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. Pip is seated in Car 1. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. if Car 3 is empty. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. Stated more positively. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. from Sunday to Saturday. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. Quint. according to Rule 1. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. For this acceptability question. Sal. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. Quint. Questions 17-22 In this game. for a week. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. respectively. four choices violate one or more rules. Furthermore. Now Car 3 is empty. Incorporate the rules. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. Compare each choice to the rules. Rob. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. three family members (abbreviated B. The order of the first ride: Rob. So. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). 15. __ . H must cook after . If. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. following Rule 1: Pip. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. J. for the third ride. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. That means. or (A). Create a master sketch. and one choice violates none of them. __ . and 5. Start with what you are given: Rob. Therefore. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. __ . So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Quint. (E) must be correct. Remember. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. Pip. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. The third ride. Then. and Quint are in Cars 1. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Sal. so (C) can be eliminated.empty. Pip. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). for the first ride.
Now. and Friday. That takes care of Betty for the week. Horace. be true. Monday. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Wednesday. through Sat. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Betty cooks on Tuesday. That‟s (C). Horace must cook on Wednesday. but need not. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. then Horace must cook on Thursday. As we deduced in the game overview. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. (E). and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. In order to be consecutive. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). 19. and (C) can. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. If Horace cooks on Friday. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. Wednesday. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). (D) remains. Thursday. 20. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. Only (C). but not both. Tuesday. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). so (A) and (B) can. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. Saturday. However. Therefore. Thursday. but need not. Since Horace must cook three days. Sunday. either one can cook. 18. That eliminates (A) and (B). Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. be true. 23. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. 21. There are three available days. and either Sunday or Monday. Therefore. (B). The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. So.Tuesday. and Saturday can be definitely determined. and then B must cook on Sunday. (A). Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. The only false choice is (E). leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. 22. Since Horace must cook three days. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. Thursday. So. So Tuesday. Wed. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). the four incorrect choices can be true. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Wednesday. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. and Friday can be definitely determined. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). four days. That leaves (C). . and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. Horace needs to cook two more times. must cook before Tuesday. so (E) is wrong. (D) must be true. so (C) must be true.
time spent by students overall increased. 25. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. Therefore. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. without giving any examples.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. the author compares them to modern magazines. 24.
来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. 4. the other four—Q. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left.000. and M—are theater critics. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. Three of the people—K. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. joins the others at the table. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. L. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. which of the following must also be true? . R is seated on the immediate right of S. If the statements above are true. and T—are playwrights. 2. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. P. who is seated on the immediate right of T. 3. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. 1. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. S. a playwright. R. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty.
In households including more than one person. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50.000 than for amounts less than $40. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. J. (B) An annual profit of $10.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. certain patients will infect other patients. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. K. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. more established companies. G.000 is not especially high. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies.000. 5. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. Pending further study. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. and where interpersonal contact is common. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. If put in the same room. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. H. I.000. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. and L.000 in the year before the war. 6.” failure to consider family relationships among household members.
one with Disease F.G. A room is occupied by three people. one with Disease F. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. or Disease F. two jazz programs. and one with Disease J. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. one with Disease I. 7. which programs are the news programs for that day? . one with Disease J. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. or Disease G. and one with Disease G. a male with Disease K. and a person with Disease J. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. and two educational programs. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. and a male with Disease K. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. 10. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H.
eighth. N. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. N must get off before M. and ninth fourth. The seventh program is a news program. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. R must get off before Q. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. 14. sixth. fifth. M. . and ninth first. The first program is an educational program. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. fourth. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. sixth. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. who must get off before O. eighth. Q. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. third. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. third. and ninth second. if N gets off at the third stop. second. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. fifth. eighth. second. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. 13. O. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. eighth. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. The eighth program cannot be a news program. P. and sixth third. sixth. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. fifth.
and if N gets off after Q. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. (E) R gets off at the second stop. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. The second car must always contain U. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. X. If R gets off at the fourth stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. 19. (C) N gets off at the second stop. Y. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. 17. If X is perishable. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. and Z— every day. (D) N gets off at the first stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. and if P must get off alone. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. 15. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. 18. (E) Q gets off after M. if M gets off at the third stop. (C) L and P get off together. which of the following MUST be true? . which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. V. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. W. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. 16.
and if Y and Z are perishable. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. If W and V are perishable. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. (E) The third car contains Y. (B) The sixth car contains X. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. 20. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. (D) The sixth car contains W. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. fifth car contains V. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. 22. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. sixth car contains Z. (C) The fifth car contains V. . 21. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. If Y and Z are perishable. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict.
(D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. Which of the following. That implies the opposite: A . S. but rather from some property of the color itself. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. R. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. 24. if true. Because of this finding. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. M) and four playwrights (Q.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. because of its brightness and intensity. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. L. Studies have shown that. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. 25. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times.
(A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. (C). (E) describes the same chair as (D). Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. can‟t sit immediately next to L. only from Q‟s left. so (B) is out. P.000. and (E) all can be true. so (B) need not be true. since both are playwrights. (C). (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. a playwright. in either order. Using the sketch in the game overview. so (A). That seats all the playwrights. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right.000 won't be considered. S. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. L and M can be in Seats 6. if S is three places to Q‟s right. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. T is in Seat 3. 4. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. and T is in Seat 3. so eliminate (A). and (E). If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. T is in Seat 2. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. then S is in Seat 3. (B). 3. 6. 7. or in Seat 5. For our sketch. and R is in Seat 5. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. a playwright. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. and R is in Seat 4. If S is two places to Q‟s right. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. then S is in Seat 4. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. in any order. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. As we saw in Question 1. To make this connection. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. K is in Seat 9. A single. S. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. meaning they are 4 places apart. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. eliminating (A). so (D) is impossible. or in Seat 6: R. so (C) can be true. a critic. or 8. 2. 5.000. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). R. . the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. who is immediately right of T. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). so (E) is also false.
and J. not in one particular phrase. and J. not established ones. (B). but shorthanding the rules might help. K. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. J. and a male with K. If put in the same room. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. G. 6. 7. I. H. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. so (A) is out. male K. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). or F: L K. 9. Specifically. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. a patient with Disease L. L). This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. If (A). Questions 7-9 In this game. more . H + I F. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. If this is the case. Another room contains patients with I. K and G switch. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. then K infects F. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). K infects F (Rule 2). If (C). and J. So jot down H L.(B)The annual profit isn't important. If (A). certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. it's possible that these people are related to each other. I. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. so (A) is wrong. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. one by one. (D). 8. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. K G. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. Switch H and J. F. L G. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. If K is added. one by one. (C)Too broad. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. then L infects F (Rule 3). and G. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). If H is added to the same room. You are told that one room contains patients with H. enters a room with H. L F. If L is added to the room with F. Switch J and G. G. Rule 3 says L infects K. eliminating (B). (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. I and G switch. The study isn't clear on this point. then male K infects G. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. it's the change over the course of the war that is.
and one educational program to place. so place an E in slot 7. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. The four remaining programs. (E). then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. (C). (A) and (E) can be true. is correct. You‟re left with one educational program. must be first through fourth in whatever order. three news and one educational. sixth. (B) and (C) are patently false. . From here. second. eighth. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. one program per slot. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. One educational program is seventh. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. two jazz programs. in whatever order. Among the choices. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. but needn‟t be. 11. (C): only one-K infects G. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. both stated and easily deduced. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. So (A) is correct. fifth. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. 12. There are five news programs. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. two jazz. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. Stated positively. and third. and since only one must be true. Start with what you know. and E for educational. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. As for the others. and ninth. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. (D): only one-K infects F. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. and there are five news programs total. and you know that one educational program is seventh. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). If the first five programs are all news programs. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. fourth. scan the choices. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. arrange nine radio programs (five news. and two educational) into order. J for jazz. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. two jazz programs. So (C) is correct.
N. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. Q. Looking at the master sketch. E or N. (B). Incorporate the rules. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). N. but needn‟t be. M. E. If M gets off third. O. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3).13. M gets off before O (Rule 5). then Q gets off fifth. J. J. E. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. Only L. seven members of a family (L. N. N. N. That‟s three. and (D) must be true. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. N. so (D). In order to satisfy Rule 4. and P must get off sixth. so M must be seventh. J. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. N. and P remain. 15. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). and one of the educational programs is seventh. with O and P getting off together ninth. (B). J. seventh. N. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. must be true: No one can get off sixth. Under this question‟s conditions. so (E) is the answer. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . N. who gets off before O. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. E or N. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. That makes four. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. E. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. N. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. and ninth. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. J. Questions 14-18 For this game. 16. you‟d see that (E) can be true. Since no one gets off eighth. J. M. N. (C). O. N. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. N. but for every other stop only one member can get off. but E can also be first: E. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. O. E. N. and N gets off after Q. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. (C). then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. J. N. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. J. P. N. If R gets off fourth. N. and (E) can be true. however. or news-jazz-news. but need not be true. Since no one gets off eighth. E. R must get off either first or second. eliminating (D). Therefore (A). Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. (A). so they get off at 7 and 9.
Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. In other words. L and P must get off together. 18. (A). If Y and Z are perishable. but none are definite. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. If X is perishable. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. in either order. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). Since U is in Car 2.. 4-R. third. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. 7-N. either. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). W. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. Incorporate the rules. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. second. and (E) are all possible. 2-L. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). leaving only O and L. at the ninth stop. shorthand it U.X. (B). numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. and (E) are all possible. neither N nor M can get off ninth. Questions 19-22 In this game. (C). so O must get off ninth and (A). Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. 20. Z) onto six boxcars. V must precede W. Therefore. X . However. and (E) can be true. (D). and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. OR If Q gets off at 5. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. V . (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. 3-X. and look for one of them as an answer choice. namely first.before O (Rule 5). then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). (C). If R gets off fourth. This might get you thinking. 5-Q. 2. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. 6-X. you must distribute six products (U. Therefore. If O gets off seventh. 9-OP. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. So put a U in slot 2. then Q gets off fifth. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. one product per car. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. P can‟t get off ninth. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. and (E) can‟t be true. (A) can‟t be true.. (C). V. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. 8-M. Y can‟t immediately follow W. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. but need not be true. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. (B).Y. Create a master sketch. Start with what you‟re given. or 3. then R can only get off at 1. and then add what you know. 17. then N and M must get off before seventh. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. or sixth. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. (B). but none have to be true. (B). L must get off at the ninth stop. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. (C).
Y. situations. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). Z. Y. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. 22. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. (E)Assumes that. not necessarily at all times. in order: W. along with X. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. (B). but (C) CANNOT be true. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. There are four possibilities. Therefore. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. 23. (A). then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. W is in Car 1. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. there was some reason that . If W and V are perishable. Z. V. X. Therefore. 24. X. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. U is in Car 2. or W. not all. Z. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. so (D) need not be true. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. (C). U is in 2. (D) can be true. in either order. Y. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. U. If Y and Z are perishable. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. however. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4.must be in Car 1 and W. for which choice no evidence is given. U. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). 21. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. leaving Z in Car 1. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. and Car 5 with Car 6. in either order. Thus. 25. V. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. X. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. Y. U. or W. U. Z. (B) is correct. in either order. V. or W. X. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. and (E) must all be true. V. and (E) are possible. (A). is in Car 5 and Car 6. (D). If. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. (B). a precedent may already have been set. Also. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. in either order. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1.
(C)The color would still have the same negative effects. and Lamming—and four juniors. Kundala. The . Adams. Carter. and Delgado. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. Hiro. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. it doesn't affect the rationale. (A)This is a logistical problem. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). it's the stressinducing qualities of red. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. Best. regardless of the reason.
Because of high demand. Delgado (C) Hiro. rather than societal. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. Carter cannot be chosen. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. Hiro. Best (D) Fox. Anderman‟s imprisonment. Lamming must also be chosen. conflict. Lamming. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. 1. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. If Carter is chosen for the convention. If Best is chosen to attend. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Which of the following. Kundala (E) Hiro. . Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. Adams. If Fox is chosen to attend. if true. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. 5. Carter (B) Kundala. If Hiro is chosen to attend. (E) Dr. Best 2. Kundala. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. Kundala cannot be chosen.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. Hiro. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. symbolism. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. (D) Dr. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. and style. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. Dr.
R. areas are now affected. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. Q. Q. is examined second. Q. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. R. and each pet will be examined just once. R. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. P. if true. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P.In order for this argument to be logically correct. 6. non-urban. The pets will be examined one by one. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. S (B) S. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. Which of the following. R (E) Q. S must be examined before P is examined. R. S. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. P (D) S. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. P (C) R. S 8. . (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. Q. P. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. Q. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. 7. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand.
C. D. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. (E) P is examined fourth. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. C. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. G 13. B. (D) S must be examined first. (C) E. E are comedians. D E. if true. 11. (B) C. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. 9. (E) C. B appears on Saturday's show. (D) A. (E) P must be examined fourth. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. F F. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. Which of the following. If CANNOT (A) A. F. E. G E. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10.(D) R is examined third. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. G D. If R is examined third. Only A. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. At least one comedian must appear on each show.
If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Beef Enchilada. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. chosen from a group of eight. Pork Szechuan. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Fish Teriyaki. Fish Teriyaki. and Chicken Vindaloo. 17. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Pork Szechuan . Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Dijon. Chicken Kiev. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. from first course to fourth course. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. Lobster Mombasa. Chicken Kiev. Chicken Dijon. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. they cannot be served consecutively. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. Lobster Mombasa.(D) five (E) six 14. but if both are selected. in ascending order of popularity. The eight eligible entrees are. and if B appears on Saturday's show. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. The menu will consist of four entrees. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. Beef Enchilada. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15.
which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. 23. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. Desert X is an environment with constant. . If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. powerful sunlight. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. Pork Szechuan 18. nor does it survive long when introduced there.(E) Beef Enchilada. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. Lobster Mombasa. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. and next to no moisture. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. Fish Teriyaki. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. it does not exist naturally in the desert. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course.
lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (B) For one week in the fall. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. Desert X can support almost no plant life. In the hands of a Freudian critic. The problem. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. 25.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. In fact. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. however. 24. the literary work loses its specificity. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. . (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work.
or can‟t be chosen at all. For this acceptability question. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. Hiro. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. b. but not both. (C) and (E). L for the four seniors. Carter. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. That eliminates (A). is chosen. if Kundala is chosen. then L. then no H). Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. The three available seniors are Lamming. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. . The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). You are given that Carter. four choices violate one or more rules. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. K. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. Kundala. then no F). 1. Hiro must be chosen. Kundala isn‟t. and a. Compare each rule to the choices. That leaves (C). then Fox can‟t be chosen. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. In other words. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. a junior. eliminating (D). Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. Lamming must be chosen. you can only choose one or the other. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. then no c. Best. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. c. aren‟t required. or (C). ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. or (B). Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. then Carter isn‟t: If H. As Rule 1 says. Delgado). then Fox isn‟t (if K. then no K. 4. H. and Kundala. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. 3. violating Rule 4. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. Fox. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. being juniors. Lamming must also be chosen. d for the four juniors. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. 2. there must be at least two seniors.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. Since the question asks who must be chosen. One is Kundala. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. and one choice violates none of them.
Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. 5. Rule 1 states that R is second or . it could be the same pollution and the same victims. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. If. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. if A. however. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. this has no effect. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). Create a master sketch of four dashes. S) in an order to be examined. then C (they were able to buy tickets). Thus. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. R. If. place four pets (P. Q. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. then C. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. however. nothing need have changed.they were written after her release. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). if B. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. 6. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. then not A (they didn't want them). (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. so this won't weaken the conclusion. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. only now more of them have been identified. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game.
Your sketch should look something like this: 7. so S can be first or second. 12. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. C. Then. You are told B is on Saturday. must appear on Saturday. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. so S must be first and P must be fourth. C. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. and P can be second or fourth. and E. Q is either first or second. P. R must be third. 9. either S or Q can be first. 11. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. Therefore. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. without violating the rules. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. F. then F and D are . are on Saturday. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. Q. We know R can be third. R. there are (C) three different orders possible. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. For this acceptability question. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. Questions 11-16 In this game. S. Compare each rule to the choices. then two of the four slots are filled. but so can S. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. P or Q. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. You need to have S before P. If A is the only comedian on Friday. E. From that. 10. are comedians. 8. R. the other comedians. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. so you need three more guests for Saturday. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. (A). if A. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. and one choice violates none of them. then C and E. If R is third. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. if Q is first and R is third. You are given that Q is examined before R. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. None of the choices include both F and D. leaving (B). four choices violate one or more rules. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. R. Rule 2 kicks in. B. Since S must be seen before P. Q or S. Create a master sketch. S before P. D. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. P. Therefore. Rule 1 states that only A. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. E and G are chosen with B.third. Therefore E.
The entrees. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. F and B or G. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. E. or A. from among F. In fact. so (A) is correct. From that you can deduce that Beef . Therefore. A must therefore be with D. you can further deduce that C. 13. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. B or G and Saturday is C. or E. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). F. F. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. Questions 17-22 For this game. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. then Saturday is A. so they can be eliminated. E. Friday has at least one comedian. and there‟s your exception. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. and F are together. (C) is correct. violating Rule 3. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. then the other two comedians are on Friday. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. Fish Teriyaki. D. 15. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. and B or G. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. E. must be on Friday. then Friday is A. or (C). G or E. D. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. So either night can be C. so (C) and (E) are both possible. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. That‟s one possible list. and G. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. Pork Szechuan. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). and G. but not definite. Chicken Kiev. D. E. B. That means the third comedian. Chicken Dijon. Chicken Vindaloo. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. As in Question 12. B or E. If Saturday includes C. in either order. F. Since each night has at least one comedian. That means F and D are both on Saturday. D. (C). Beef Enchilada. B. B or E. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. However. Try each choice in turn. either one can be with E. F. Place B and G on either night. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. 14. E. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. for two more possible lists.together on Friday. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. (B). G must be on Saturday. D. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. If Friday is C. Lobster Mombasa. B and/or G. C. G. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. You can then deduce that C and E are together. In other words. violating Rule 3. D. E. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. and G. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. 16. (Rule 2). D. and F. Although F can‟t be with D. The groups in (A). (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen.
since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first.e. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. Compare each rule to the choices. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. By the way. so the other Chicken entrees. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. Beef) can‟t both be selected. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. That way. This question says the first entree is based around fish. and Pork Szechuan. must be removed. 19. For this acceptability question. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. four choices violate one or more rules. violating Rule 2. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. in that order. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. So Chicken Dijon is first. but neither can be chicken. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. In the order. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. and one choice violates none of them. one. in that order. On the overall list. Kiev and Vindaloo. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. Lobster Mombasa. Therefore. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. but can‟t be consecutive. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. Well. Before looking at the choices. then only . (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. 17. Next. Therefore. That leaves Beef Enchilada. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. Lobster Mombasa. Chicken Kiev. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Pork Szechuan. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. 20. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. there‟s only one fish entree. So (D) is correct. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. On the overall list. (E) is the exception. so (A). 21. (A). is correct. According to Rule 2. Fish Teriyaki. 18.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. and Chicken Vindaloo.
Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. 23. Beef Enchilada must be second. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. it's that it's too powerful. X is a desert. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. (C) and (E) are true. 25. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. therefore. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. so it's dry. Y likes dry and sunny regions. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. If there were multiple correct interpretations. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. beef. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. 24. (C)Too general. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. yet it doesn't. determine all that can or must be true. sunny and hot. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. correct. Pork Szechuan must be third. If Lobster Mombasa is second. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. 22. . then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. That leaves (B).
or behind. 1. M. J. M. H. L. J. H. F. L. (D) K. G. H. G. L. J. L. G. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. O. K. L. (E) O. F.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. G. K finished ahead of M. (C) K. L. and M finished ahead of J. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. O. L finished immediately ahead of H. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . M. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. M. O.org 2. J. M. H. (B) G. O. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. H. K. K. F. O. K. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. Which of the runners? (A) F. F finished ahead of both G and L. There were no ties for any finishing position.
5. Which of the following. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. ahead of G.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. if filled into the above blank. its function as a supporting structure. Today. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. ahead of K. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. If F finished fourth. first. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. rather than mask. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate.
who are finesse players. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. This percentage steadily declined. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. Q. S.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. (E) The Arbican population increased. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. and T. and V. If the statements above are true. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. it reached 3%. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. N and V. until. and N. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. (D) The Arbican population decreased. doubles partners. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. 8. R. (B) The Arbican population increased. . in 1980. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. but N is not. If T is chosen for the team. (B) V is not chosen for the team. P. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. exactly two power players will be chosen. who are power players. (C) The Arbican population decreased. He can choose from among eight players—M. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. If Q is chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
(B) Law by definition must be enforceable. at around 3000 BC. How can it exist. after all. . Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. 24. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. far earlier than was previously believed. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. which took place about 6000 years ago. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved.C. 25. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist.
Compare each rule to the choices. and J to go first. Rule 5 says K finished before M. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. L. K. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. and see what you can deduce. O is fourth. and one choice violates none of them. which can finish eighth. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. and therefore correct. You can also deduce that F finished before H. Just to be sure. K can‟t be last. J. That leaves (E). L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). So start with F in the fourth slot.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. H. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. or vice versa. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. O. and O. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. Since L must finish before H. so F can‟t finish eighth. O is third. That eliminates (B) and (D). (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. so L can‟t be last. Combining all of the deductions. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. and neither G nor L can finish first. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. then G and L (from Rule 6). Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. J. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. So M must be second. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. and seventh or eighth. M. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. second. 3. H. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). If H is seventh. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. Stated positively. the only runners who can finish first are F. four choices violate one or more rules. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. and M can‟t be either first or last. and M finished before J. As we deduced in the game overview. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. or vice versa. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. so neither K nor M can finish last. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. and (C) is out. M. If F is fourth. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. and K. try the other possibilities for H. 2. For this acceptability question. G. eliminating (A). J and O. and M finished before J. But that‟s impossible since you know . That leaves (A) as possible. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. O. From another combination of deductions. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. in that order (according to Rule 5).
since Kant is discussing a general political theory. 4. 6. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. if H is eighth then O is fifth. Finally. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. and J to be placed. M is second. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. (B) is the answer. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. then according to Kant. as in (E). The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. G must be next to O. So K is first. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. Since G can‟t finish before F. or fourth. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. So the order. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). If a republic is pacific. so (A) is correct. In 1960. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. O is third (from Rule 4). K can finish in first. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. While the percentage tells us the relation . and then G is sixth. and J is third. In either case. To evaluate this claim.that F is fourth. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. or belligerent. and (E) are possible. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. If M is seventh. To conclude this. so far: That leaves F. Therefore. G can‟t be first. (C)Irrelevant. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. So G can finish second or fourth. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). 7. not definite. From that it follows that if H is sixth. in that order. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. and K to be placed. That leaves K. second. so (B). To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. not how clarity affects ornament. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. G. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. (D) (E)Outside the scope. (D). M. If L is fifth. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. (C). 5.
(B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. 9. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. so there‟s too many power players. 8. but when T is chosen. then you have two finesse players and one power player. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. and Q are all power players. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. (A)It's possible. the number migrating would have to decrease. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). If the total number of Arbicans decreased. V). just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. S. use your drawing on a question to question basis. finesse (M. and Q are all power players. N. V. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. P. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. while the percentage decreases. according to Rule 5. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. If M and P are chosen with Q. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. Check each choice. That eliminates (E). The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. R. is chosen. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. only (D) is impossible. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. Beyond that. V. one by one. M and T are both finesse players. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . then exactly two power players are chosen. However. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. T) and power (N. You are given that Q. to play in a tournament. Q. However. That‟s fine. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. or of Arbicans who made this migration. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. both numbers could increase. so (A) is out. Given this inFORMation. Keep it simple. as it says in Rule 2. (E)If the number migrating is the same. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. If T is chosen. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. select from two groups of tennis players. Questions 8-11 In this game. a power player. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. crossing off players who can‟t be selected.between the two. but the percentage migrating has fallen. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q.
players chosen. That makes three possible combinations. Therefore. Use a grid. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. 11:30 am. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). the correct choice can be deduced. and N are all power players. 10:30 am. and S? Three: MP. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. and PS. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. Between 10:30 and 11:00. That leaves M. If V isn‟t chosen. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. Look at each column. and since there are already two power players. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). is left). a sketch is essential. Refer to your sketch. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). so (C) is correct. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. For this game. (E). Note this in your sketch. 10. there are only three available finesse player: T. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. so if they‟re not chosen. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. and S to pair up. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. R. is the answer. as defined by the rules. V. . then N isn‟t chosen either. Since the question asks which must be true. How many pairs can be made from M. if exactly two power players are chosen. With M excluded. eliminating (C). so S must be chosen. and S. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. If T is chosen. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). In other words. T is not chosen for the team. As for the others: If N is not chosen. Q. combined with the four power players. MS. P. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. and 12:00 pm. The meetings are one-half hour in length. (D). 10:00 am. P. Any of those pairs. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. 11. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. every professor except B is available. are acceptable combinations. 11:00 am. If a professor is available at a given time. P.
(C). Ax and Dohee are both available. However. can both meet at 9:30. Your sketch should look . is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. (A). can only meet at 10:30. 10:00. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. (B). Some principals. (D). can meet three times. Create a master sketch. so 11:30 to 12:00. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. (A). or can only serve on one committee. and 11:30. first find all the possible times that Ax. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. making as many deductions as you can. Dohee and Egger. then Q serves on the same committee. Q. Ax and Bulos. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00.13. (C). (E). always look for opportunities to use previous work. but L and Q must serve together. Remember. (C). So M. O. 16. and Franz. (D). 17. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. So (B) is the answer. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. P. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. For this question. Egger and Franz. Go through the rules. Chow and Franz can meet. at 9:30. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. (B). Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. the “swing” principal. 14. Chow. However. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). Those times are at 10:30. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. check each choice in turn. the “swing” principal. that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. therefore M serves on Curriculum. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. one of the principals on each committee is the same. two. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. is correct. (D). N. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. using your sketch as the reference. Remember. can‟t meet. Dohee is the only other professor available. and 10:30. Dohee and Franz. At 9:00. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. As we saw in the previous question. but at 9:30. Bulos and Franz. Check each choice one by one. 15. can both meet at 10:30. Bulos and Dohee. P. M. so (B). Ax and Chow. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. 11:00. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. Looking at your sketch.
N. so (A) is wrong.some thing like this: 18. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). (D). Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). so eliminate (D) and (E). Choices (A). O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. Now. leaving (C). 20. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. O and P. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. Otherwise. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. and L. only N or O can serve on the same committee. to serve on the Ethics Committee. 19. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. M. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. and P. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. 21. and then check the choices. so (C) is correct. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. which is a violation of Rule 4. if we know which one is on both committees. Determine who must be on which committee. or (A). can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). (B). If Q is on the Ethics Committee. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. 22. As we‟ve already seen. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. and which one is on one committee only. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. contradicting (B) and . That leaves (C). to serve on both committees. So (A) is the answer. so neither can be on both committees. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. Therefore. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. (C) and (D) are both possible. L can‟t be on both committees. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. Q. as the other pair. leaving (D). then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. N. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. O. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. O.
(E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. not oxen. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. 25. 23. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier.(C). (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. were used. but there's no proof that it was. 24. or before approximately 3000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used. (D)The issue is when horses. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . the issue is the definition of international law. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. (A)The author says that no such body exists. he merely says that it doesn't. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption.. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. so their opinion can't be applied here. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. and as it is. so India is beyond the scope. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
Bands F. G. K. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. 1.taisha. and R are country bands. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . H must perform sixth. R must perform eighth. or third. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. K must perform either first. The nine bands must perform one after the other. second. L. If P performs first. and each band must perform once and only once. and M are rock bands.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. Q. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. L must immediately precede M in the order.. H. Bands P. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2.
Recently. (D) P must perform immediately before K. In light of these findings. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. 5. 7. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. then F performs seventh.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. if true. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with .(D) four (E) five 4. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. performs ninth. performs seventh. performs ninth. Because of this. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. Which of the following statements. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. then G performs seventh. 6. For several decades. however. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. performs third. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. then P performs first. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. then Q performs fifth. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. then M performs sixth. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind.
(B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. 8. and O. then Q must not be chosen. also be chosen. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. N. then M must also be chosen. not be chosen. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. Just last week. however. Q. chosen. and vice versa. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. and the sociologists P. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. then N must then O must are chosen.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. and R. M. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. The only available lecturers are the historians L. In light of these disturbing revelations. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. L and M chosen. . City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. (C) If M is chosen. T. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. R. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. (B) O is chosen. P is not chosen. Q. M. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. sometimes move Q and S to tears.9. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. Q. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. O. Z. R. P sometimes move W. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. (D) M is not chosen. and to laughter. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. W. U has prepared only works by poets K. and P for presentation at the soiree. Q is not chosen. H. G. L is not chosen. P. (B) R must never be chosen. L. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. N. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. 10. and Z. If all of the sociologists are chosen. O is not chosen. (E) L must never be chosen. (E) N is not chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. N is not chosen. S. (D) If O is chosen. N. L. M.
sofa. and L only (E) works by K. P. lamp. and L only (E) works by K. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. vase. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. den. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. painting. 14. then he or she is bored. N. rug. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. rug. wardrobe. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. mirror. vase . N. 17. rug. mirror. sofa.laughter. table. and L only 16. vase vase mirror. and living room of a client‟s house. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. P. The sofa is placed in the living room. table. and L only (D) works by N. table. and wardrobe. rug. K. table lamp. painting. rug. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. table lamp. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter.
Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. (E) The vase is placed in the den. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. 19. (C) The table is placed in the den. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. (E) The vase is placed in the den. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. 20. vase 23. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. table. table (B) rug. 21. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. rug. Yet . table (E) table. the painting. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. and if the wardrobe. If the lamp. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. the lamp. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. vase (C) lamp. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. rug (D) painting. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom.18. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms.
the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. Which of the statements below.paradoxically. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. his liver loses the . if true. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. Furthermore. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. 24. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. where the legal drinking age was still 18. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. Therefore. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. which can be fatal. Research has shown. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. however. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. Which one of the following. if true. 25. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts.
are F 3. only. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. in either order. H. they are first and third. Create a master sketch. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. (E): L and M must be together. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. or third. R. Q. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. in either order. 2. Combine Rules 1 and 3. in order to appear at a music marathon. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. and R is eighth. G. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. in either order. to go in two of the first three slots. second. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. as we deduced in the game overview. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. pair. and R is eighth. respectively. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. M) and three country bands (P. six rock bands (F. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. or third. or third. R) must be placed. then Q must be third. R is eighth (Rule 3). the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. is a country band. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. M is fifth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. to separate the two country bands. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. is a country band. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . Since K is first. Therefore (A) is correct. in either order. incorporate the rules. K. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. P and Q. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. L. L is fourth. second. in either order. There are only two . H is sixth. That leaves two country bands. Since K is first. such as shrimp. is a country band. prove or band. one at a time. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. K is second. R. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. respectively. second. (Rule 1). 1. then L and M must be fourth and fifth.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. If P is first. M is fifth. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. That means K must be second. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. Rule 4 states that K is first.
so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. then G is seventh position except first and third. So we know every in either order. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. eliminate any choice that can be false. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. and (D) Q—they can be true. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. respectively. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. and F is ninth. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. but need not is ninth. and P and Q. Since the question is worded. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. (A). which of the following must be true. If G performs before F. . 6. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them.. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. If. 4. so (B). we‟re only concerned with this city. (B). for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. (E)If anything. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. in either order. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction.possibilities. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. 7. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. (E) must be true: H is 5. however. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function.
then P is chosen. So (A) is correct. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. then not Q If R. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. and (E) are all false. The rules. If R and Q . Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. then not R If L + M. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. then not O If O. Notice that you can take L and Q. some of the diseases may have other causes. without violating Rule 3. In other words. shorthanded: P + N together If R. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. Start with what you are given. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. then Q is not chosen. (C). Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. Since the question is worded. then O isn‟t chosen. and if N is chosen. listing the available speakers. and noting who can be chosen together. Therefore. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. Q. (D). O) and sociologists (P. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. and R) are chosen. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. then N is chosen. M. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. 10. R Incorporate the rules. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. which of the following CANNOT be true. then M is chosen. then M 9. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. N. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water.8. P and N together. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. since R is chosen. M. R) to lecture before a class. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. or M and Q. then not Q). then R can‟t be chosen. (B). using shorthand to distinguish relationships. Create a master sketch. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. Q. N. O Sociologists: P. Q. but they‟re not being followed. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated.
R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. so take R (via Rule 4). So (B) is only possible. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. and R. then M can‟t be chosen. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). and P. G. Q. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. and Q. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. so (C). and R. and P and N can be chosen. but needn‟ t be true. so it‟s correct.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. H and T are always . Since the question says possibly. So take L and M. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. then R can‟t be chosen). If O and M are chosen together. N. Scan the choices for L. But if L and Q are chosen. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. As we learned in Question 6. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. Q. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. for completeness. W. Q. That‟s L. N. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. and M must be chosen. l for laughter. we can only take two of the three. Therefore. not definite. T. M. the full deduction: Of Q or L. So. or “some. in this case a grid: 14. then not Q. We already took M. Q. That leaves (B) as correct. H. M must be chosen). and not just sometimes. then M. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. However. M must be chosen. if R is chosen. If O and M aren‟t chosen. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. Therefore. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. or five. and we‟ve just proved that. 13. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. of L. M. so (D) is the answer. This question is a good example of using previous work. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). M can‟t be chosen. P. and R are chosen. and L and O can‟t chosen. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. b for bored. (E) is false. 12. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. Since R. Based on Rules 2 and 4. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. and you find them in (D): If L. That eliminates (C). Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. and O. then not O. L. 11. if L and Q are chosen.are chosen. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. eliminating (C). we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. At this point you can stop. R. (A) and (D) can be true. S. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. we can only take a maximum of two from M.
so (B) is out. so (D) is possible. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). poets L and P. W. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. (C). and 5. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . leaving (A). and there are eight items total. Refer to your sketch. (D). sometimes move four literati to tears. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. For this acceptability question. 3. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. (B). but otherwise is bored. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. The others: P and N. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. and (E). (C). So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). N. in any order. so MW. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. so (B) and (E) are wrong. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and work your way towards the abstract ones. and 4. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). P. S. always move one literati to laughter. 2. Put an S in the living room. Poet K moves T to laughter. (D). but N moves T to boredom. Compare each rule to the choices. then that‟ s our answer. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). P. (D) places the sofa in the den. W) in three rooms (bedroom. 16. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. and locate T. Questions 17 . four literati are sometimes moved to tears. and Z sometimes moved to tears. T. then F and Q are always moved to tears. a violation of Rule 4. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. N. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. You can place the items in the rooms. four choices violate one or more rules. bored by poet N. den. Depending on how you look at it. 15. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. one literati is always moved to laughter. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. one literati is always moved to laughter. throwing out violators. living room). H by poet N and T by poet K. in any order. If (A). Rule 4 places S in the living room. Create a master sketch.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. and one choice violates none of them. K. P. R. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. That leaves (D). or 1. Therefore.moved to laughter. and T. V. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. So (C) is out. S. so no PV. so the combination of poets K. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. and P is the exception. Start with the rules that are most concrete. M.
and T must therefore be in the living room. and 4. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. That eliminates (B) and (D). one room must have exactly 1 item. and (E) are wrong. Start with the second piece of information in the question. 22. 20. (A). leaving only (E) as possible. . and the den has 2 items. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. Next. As we learned in Question 20. so P is in the living room with S. violating Rule 1. 18. the sofa and the vase. If W is in the living room. and S. Since Rule 5 is suspended. L. and 5. Since the living room has W. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. as (A) states. so either P or V is in the den. or 1. in any order. Only (B) follows the rules. 3. 4. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. with the other joining S in the living room. Start with S in the living room. Since we can have 2. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. or 5. and there are eight items total. 4. but you must have at least one item in each room. If M is with S. M. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. (B). That means the living room has more than one item. M. (D). so the den can only contain one item. 19. so it‟s the answer. but not “always” 2. the den. L is in another room. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. 2. V can be in the den. then the third room. 21. (C). and S. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). but if there are 4 items in both rooms. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. or 5 items in any given room. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). You know that P can‟t be with V. S. (B). (A) and (C) are missing P and V. 3.den. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. for the other two rooms. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. 3. (B). which claim that the den has 3 items. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. so (A). so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). L. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. T is in the den. is empty. eliminating (C). then. R. (C). in either order. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. according to Rule 2. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. T. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. that leaves only two items. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. then the living room contains W. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. M. in any order. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. and W are in the living room. and (E) can be eliminated. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms.
if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. dietary or medical. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. According to research. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. however. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. . The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. 25. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable.23. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. so why the increase in drunk driving. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. 24. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. If. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. to lower blood cholesterol levels. Well. Otherwise. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. hence the increase in accidents. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
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voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
If F is chosen. (C) H is not chosen. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. then J must also be chosen. Molly. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. three trainers (Luis. . To test the system. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. one trainer and one dog per room. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. 7. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. Mugs. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. (E) F is not chosen. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. If G is chosen for the issue. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. If M is not chosen for the issue. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given.
A. the bottom floor is Level B. Y. to the empty apartment on the same level. One of the apartments is empty. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. W. Z. V. Command W. W. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. and W—live in the building. W (E) Z. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. between two other apartments on the same level. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. T. X (E) X. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. W (C) Z.11. Y. A (D) X. to T‟s apartment on the same level. four on each floor. Z (C) W. Exactly seven people—P. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. W. Z. W. R. A. one to an apartment. W. Y. X 14. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. Q. W. W (B) X. 12. Y. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. levels. W. The top floor is called Level A. X (B) W. S. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. W (D) W. . W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building.
and two—P and R—are club applicants. F. F. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. directly above P‟s apartment. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. and dominoes. two will play chess. and H—are senior club members. K. two—K and M—are junior club members. and three will play dominoes. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. 19. M cannot play dominoes. K. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. R. respectively? (A) G. H. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. Each person present can play only one of the three games. H. chess. R‟s apartment is on Level A. Three of those present—F. H and P must play the same game. 17. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. G. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A.15. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. P . R (B) G. P. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. There must be a senior club member playing each game. M. G cannot play the same game that R plays. directly above T‟s apartment. M.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. F. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. notably Japan.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. P. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. F plays dominoes. G plays backgammon. (B) Only ethical considerations. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. R 20. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. M (D) H. H. P plays chess. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. K. M. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. H. G.(C) F. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. 21. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. If R plays backgammon. K. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. By doing so. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. P. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. M plays backgammon. R (E) F. K. G. 24. R. P. G. M. and not those of self-interest. This is not merely a matter of using .
and (D) has C before A. N. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. 3)S can‟t be first. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. or the commissary is serving fish. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. C.manual mowers instead of power mowers. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. If all the statements above are true. you may be able to meet the actors. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. . from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. or both. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. Such concerns are irrelevant here. so it‟s out. 25. so they‟re out. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. (B) has sage first. or the commissary is serving fish. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. so the first spice is either N or A.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. pollution would be drastically reduced. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. S and T. Something must be done about the 51. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. and (E) has N coming after T. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. (B) It is a workday. or both. what needs to be done must be done.
The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. There‟s no supporting evidence. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. which limits our options. so eliminate (A) and (B). the number of attacks would have increased. Try plugging in numbers. since we can‟ t separate A and C. If they don‟ t. 3=========FIN A1= First. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. T. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. C. Our sequence is A. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. S. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. leaving (C). N. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. S. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. and it can‟t be second either. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. so scratch (D) and (E). they‟re as fickle as short termers. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters.000 apiece. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. Now we have AC and S. (A) . A is joined with C. (D) must be false. Previously. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. N and T will work. S can‟t be first. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. it‟s simply irrelevant. then the 20% . C. put S in the second slot. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. (E) is the assumption. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of.
and circle k. l and o and you need go no further. 2)If J is chosen. so (A) is correct. l. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. If you have J. you have to choose the other three dance articles. Let‟s jump to (C). 3)If you choose F. three. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. or 4 dance and 1 theater. so there are three possibilities and (C). you can circle the other 3. but the rest is wide open. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. J. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. not what type of sets consumers prefer. (A) . ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. and if you choose m. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . G. k. m. you know you can circle k. you must choose J. l and o. If you circle G . Cross out m. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. G or H. you must have J. H. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). l and o. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. you have to cross out J. circle k. m can‟t be. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. so (C) is correct. choice (A) . l and o. we need 3 lower case and k. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. If you circle F. With Rule 1. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. and if we cross out m we circle k. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. you can‟t have m and to have F. As we saw in Question 8. if G and J are circled. k. m is not. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. o. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). is correct. so we can eliminate (C). making them easy to eliminate. l and o— those are your five articles. We have J. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. o. J. and since m is dance. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. If you circle m. so we can eliminate (E). l. F. k. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. choosing J yields three possible groups. you have to cross out J and F . you see that if you cross out m. our answer.
putting Onyx in 1. m. Yes. o. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. since if F is chosen. So we have in Room 1. 2)With command X. Mm in Room 2. not 1. k. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. H. (A) is out because O is with l. (C). not with m. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. o or G. two Ws. A second W puts M in 1. m or G. O in 2 and L in 3. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. m. and (E) is out because L is with m. and Oo in Room 3. H. and L moves to Room 2. We have rooms 1. k. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. l. we circle J. W is called. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. l. Looking at the wrong choices. If we circle F and G. L in 2.and H. Let‟s jump to (E). To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. and o. and to do that we need one X. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. then see what commands move them to Room 2. J is chosen. L. So l returns to L. k. For the record. 5)With command A. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. Which choice is true of that? (B). Ol . M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. the only one that moves trainers. k. etc. but that moves trainers. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. and M in 3. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. not with o. G. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. H. l. M is in Room 3. then moving them around according to different commands. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. l. she‟s there with o. We have three trainers. But we need five. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. the dogs return to their original trainers. not in 2. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. you could have G. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. (C) is out because M is with o. 2 and 3. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. 4)With command Z. so it‟s correct. 3)With command Y. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. and the second W moves her to 2. The first W moves O to 1. J. not dogs. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. m. We can‟t disprove (E). l. m to M and o to O.
1 or 4. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. so P is in B-3. m. O to M. but that isn‟t a choice. T. how to go from l. W. R. so W is on A and S is on B. We have W. putting m in 2 and l in 3. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. so since B-2 is occupied by S. so you have Oo in 1. O. 4)T is not in one of the ends. R and V. S on B. and as for (C) and (D). P is next to T. Take your people. As for (D). With P in B-3. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. so add empty to A. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. S. But if you call A. So W and S have to be in A- . L. Y. W and empty. As for the others. A. Now turn to the W. empty and Q on A. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. the dogs seek out their trainers. 2)S and Q are on different levels. but l in 2. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. 3)P and T are adjacent. and T can‟t be on an end. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. So T is in 2 or 3. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. so Q is on A. 8 apartments—1 is empty. (A) ‟s sequence of X. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. o to o. you get O. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. L. so we‟ve got our answer. since T can‟t be on the end. one‟s on A. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. and we need a place for V. M in 1. And with (A) and (C). the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. L in 2. So we put S underneath in B-2. Call W once. Q and (E). are both on A. we have no more light on the R and V issue. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. W is on A. so either TP or PT . P. P. V and R are left—one will be on A. 5)W is next to empty. (B). and fill them in the eight slots. not A-4. l? One call of Z. empty. m. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. so (E) is correct. the other on B. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. it has to be next to P in B-2. W and A puts O again in 1.correct. call W twice. As for (B). P is in B-4. empty unit. M. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. (C). W . L. so we know that P and T are on B. O. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. Y lines up the dogs. V. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. Q. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. To get from L. S. For the dogs.
P and S are out because they‟re on B. p and r in dominoes is okay. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. The senior can‟t be H. so we have one cap in each group. and only dominoes has three people. making (D) correct . 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). they must play dominoes. chess with two and dominoes with three. so it can‟t be H. It‟s between V and R . empty unit. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. since they have m playing dominoes. 4)H and p must play the same game. p and r in dominoes. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. T. (B). 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. H and p are together. G. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. k and m are both lower . there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. Let‟s put seniors in caps. since H. H. Nix (E). k and r play dominoes. The question asks about A-1.1 and B-1. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. since H is with p . F. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. so (A) is out. There‟s only one grouping possible. (or p and someone else). and empty goes next to W in A-2. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. 2)Three senior members. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. It must be F. 7 slots. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. m and p. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. Now go to the Hp unit. G. so H and p must play dominoes. which is correct. If they play chess. directly above T in B-2. So only two people could go in A-1. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. The Rules: 1)7 people. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. k. S. r can‟t play with G . Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. so it‟s F. F. and juniors and applicants in lower case. Turn to our W. (B) has F and H.
We must do what‟s necessary. and its aid policy. the workday with fish. true on a workday. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. is fine: F and m in backgammon. so k. which this doesn‟t mention. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. and (B)‟s correct. to save the environment. (D):G and m in backgammon. G and k in chess and H. A makes most of its money back. and we need a cap for each.” That‟s summarized by (D). there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served.case. and H.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. or both. but rather that it is necessary. so k and m can‟t be together. no matter how drastic and costly. so it‟s (A) . A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. (C). The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. p and r in dominoes. so (D)‟s correct. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. F and m. That way. F and k chess. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. fish may or may not be served. or it‟ s not a workday. Besides. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. “notably Japan. For the record. that the commissary is serving fish. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. p and r dominoes. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest.) But m can‟t play dominoes. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. according to the stimulus. Japan. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA .
Q. 4.. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. 3. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. M. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . Which of the (A) E. W. The sequence is called a combination. 6. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. L. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. (B) F. K. then the fifth must be either B or D. (D) C. T. 7. G. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. R. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. (C) B. 1. X.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. 2. (E) A. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www.taisha. If the third symbol is a number. T. If the third symbol is a letter.
If the statements above are true. such as beef and poultry. respectively? (A) J.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. 6. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. 8. Which of the following. 9. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. however. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. third. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. 4. Thus. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. H. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. G (E) M. D (B) A. X (D) 3. T (C) 9. S 4. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. and fifth symbols. The combination C. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. Q. Z. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. . (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. P. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. a special visa is required. if true. 6.
low. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. of pessimistic forecasts. one produces a medium-pitched ring. medium. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. low. 8. Last the service sector. medium. low. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. high. low. medium. for the sequence. high. medium. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. low. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. medium. medium (E) low. medium (B) low.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. He decides that. low. high. if true. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. medium. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. high. Over the has greatly expanded. high. high. . low. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. 7. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. high. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. low. medium. medium. low. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. low. 500. medium (C) medium. one cannot argue that Which of the following. low (D) medium. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. high 9. medium. low. high. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. low. In the our economy is wilting. high. and one produces a high-pitched ring. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. (C) Fifteen years ago. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. if true. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. cost. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. Which of the following. 24. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. however. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. According to a recent school survey. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. (E) Work time. (D) Work time. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. never engage in this aggressive play. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. . cost.
and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. you begin with a letter later than B or D. B is 1st. (E). and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. If you start with F. That leaves correct choice (D). The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. and B doesn‟t. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. In Option 2. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. The number is 3rd. 3)In Option 2. That leaves (A). and (E). You end with B or D and this ends with F. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. the 5th must be B or D. violating Rule 5. Skim to (D). 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. Only (A) gives you that option. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. so all letters must appear later than E. In Option 2. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. So F can‟t begin and E. there can‟t be an F or a G . 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. E. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. B or D only. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. F. so it‟s correct. a Rule 2 no-no. is correct. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. 4=========FIN A2= First. . figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. so (A) won‟t work. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. and the sequence begins with C . In Option 1 you can‟t use F . replace the F with a D. the number is 2nd. You‟ve used B first. the number is 3rd. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. (A) begins with E. the 5th symbol must be B or D. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. Only one letter comes after Y . so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s.
it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. a special visa is required. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. As for the others.which works with the rules for Option 2. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. economy continues to grow and prosper. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. Focuses on cost. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. so (C) won‟t work. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. As evidence. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. (E)Isn‟t inferable. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. you need a special visa. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. if you do so. So (D) is correct. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. . the sequence ends with a D. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. If the population increase is slower than projected. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. We talked about that in (A).S. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. (E) replaces the C with an A. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. So (D) is correct. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. as (B) says. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply.
yes. and one after. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. so dump (D) and (E). we have eight spots for bells to be rung. low is 3rd. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. You ring the low bell 3 times. and a low. and low. the other high 2nd. medium. a high. 5th. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. yes. (C) puts a high 3rd. and it‟s correct. 4. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. (C). (E) puts the high 8th. and split up the lows 1st. (E). medium. so (E)‟s correct. high. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. (B) medium is 2nd. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. and 5. (B) has low. yes. low is 1st. and 5. leaving us with (B). 4. (D) has a high 3rd. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. high bell is 4th. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. low in 3. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. 4th. the medium bell 3 times. either would be okay. So we‟ll put one low first. then fill the space between with a medium. 4. medium. the other high 2nd. and 5th. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. (A) puts the high bell 1st. in 3. 3)The two high bells will stick together. 5th. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. a medium. (A). next to the high in 3. medium. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. 3rd. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. high. and a medium 5th. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . We‟ll have to put two before this set. (A) has high. one low third. and 7th. low. Now we have to split up the lows. so (D)‟s correct. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. yes. a medium 4th. and 8 rings. it could still be the most important factor overall.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. and 7th. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. the correct answer. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. and mediums 4th and 6th. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. The beginning looks like this—low. (D). Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. and the high bell 2 times. That works if we put a low 1st.
12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. (E) has high.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. Edinburgh. and 5. Beijing. That‟s acceptable. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. in both cases they go next to Caracas. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. which makes (B) correct. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. Fresno. Beijing. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. You have 6 cities. Edinburgh. low 7th. How about (E). and no way to do that. low. so (C) is correct. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. the dead end. 4. and medium in 3. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. (D) is fine. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. 2 types of memos. you could send it to Dakar. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. Having done 9 and 10. Edinburgh. Caracas. You know that‟s okay from 9. 4 and 5. describes a route it could not have followed. to Edinburgh. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. Caracas. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. medium 8th. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. medium 6th. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. 15=========FIN A2= . a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. start at the home office. Fresno. a low 5th. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. (C) is fine. send the memo to Beijing. Dakar. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. All the others work. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. Fresno. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. Caracas. we‟ve discussed this— yes. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. (E). If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. 1 and 2. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. 7 and 8. so this is acceptable. In priority 2. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up.
Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. so it went to Beijing. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. After Dakar. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. You have two options. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. and the answer is (C). sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. go to Dakar. to Caracas. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. Caracas. (A). put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. so (B) won‟t do it. That works in priority 1. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. you‟d break Rule 3. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. top to bottom. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. As far as priority 2. then Edinburgh. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. write next to shelf 3 no J. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. and Beijing. a dead end. What . (C). G. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. and in Option 2. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. and L. Caracas. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. Option 2. that‟s three. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. a dead end. Option 1. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. 1)In Option 1. where was it sent? Priority 2. Beijing. write next to shelf 2 no J. and then Beijing. Dakar. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. F must be immediately above L . you can start in the home office. the dead end. Only Beijing and Fresno. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. the only place it can go is to Caracas. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. we work with Option 1. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. and H on shelf 2. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. (B). in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. the only place it can go is Fresno. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. (D). and (A) is correct. (D) is correct. go to Beijing. so it won‟t work.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. could have seen the memo. go to Caracas. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh.
The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. K. if shelf 3 is empty. If we split them up. as long as they‟re on 3. (E). (A).must be true? Look at (B). K. so J is on shelf 2. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. let‟s look at the situation. and H is a floater. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. So (B)‟s correct. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. L. so you will work with Option 1. We put F. and H on 2 and that left us with L. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. so shelf 1 has F. so (A)‟s correct. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. where shelf three is open. and 1 remains empty. (B). L is on shelf 2. L. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. then the only place is shelf 1. so (D)‟s correct. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. You can put H on shelf three. we just did with (A). 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. and in Option 2. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. so it‟s on shelf 2. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. shelf 1 is empty. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. and G on 3. (B) puts K and L on the same . K and J must be on the same shelf. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. J is on shelf two. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. and shelf 1 is empty. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. we‟ve already said we can. J and K are tennis trophies. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. then J is on shelf two. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. so the only home for K is 3. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. In Option 1. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. J. K. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. so (C) is correct. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. so the only place for K is shelf 3. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. If H is on shelf three. (D). We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty.
Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. not because it is better than staining. shelf two. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. . J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors.. If most students attend services for social reasons. and longevity are equally important factors. (D) has F and shelf. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. cost. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. that‟s true in Option 1 only. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. but that‟s true only in Option 2. Unless there are other differences. so (E)‟s our answer.shelf. We get the former in (A). (C) does the trick. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. not the past 15 years. but J is never on shelf three. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. (E) has J on shelf two. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. cost.
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