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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
If Dr. Zeller treats noses. Dr. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Xiao treats ears.doctors. York treats ears. Dr. York treats noses. Zeller treats ears. If Dr. Xiao treats ears. Which of the following must be true? Dr. York treats noses. If Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. Xiao treats throats. Zeller does not treat ears. noses. Xiao treats throats. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. he or she must also treat throats. Dr. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Dr. Zeller treats throats. then Dr. York treats throats. then he or she must also treat throats. 13. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. then he or she must also treat ears. four on top and four on bottom. York does not treat noses. If Dr. York treats. Dr. the . Dr. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. (E) Dr. In that case. Dr. Dr. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. 14. Zeller does not treat ears. Xiao treats ears. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. Xiao does not treat noses. York does not treat noses. York does not treat throats. Xiao does not treat ears. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. 17. Dr. If a doctor treats ears. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. and throats 15. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. York must treat ears. York treats exactly one part of the body. (C) Dr. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. which of the following must be true? Dr. Zeller treats throats. Dr. Suppose that Dr. York treats noses. Dr. Dr.
None of the compartments on top contains oranges. Compartment 1 contains apples. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. grapefruit. grapefruit. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. oranges. grapefruit.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. 22. apples. they contain different types of fruit. pears. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. pears. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. pears. oranges. 18. grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. or pears.
(E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. Governor Kipling. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. which they could read in the Official Journal. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike.23. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. By raising corporate taxes. 25.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. 24. not the intent of his tax hike. What they don‟t realize. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. . They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. however. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. Gilliatt can create any mood. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry.
2. four choices violate one or more rules. As with Question 2. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). Thus. but don‟t need to be true. 3. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. (B). You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). Note that in the sketch. Now incorporate the rules. be true. 4. and (C) are false. Finally. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. (E) can. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. Therefore. leaving (B). but need not. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. 5. 2. starting with the most concrete. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. and 6) that are each either On or Off. As for the others: (A). (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. For this acceptability question. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. So the sketch looks like this: 1. light 6 is Off. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. breaking Rule 2. and numbering them 1 through 10. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. but don‟t need to be true. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. but (C) has five Ons. (D). meaning there are five unknown lights (1. If light 2 and light 5 are On. since light 3 is Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters.
4. (E). it's the effects we're concerned with. If light 8 is Off. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. the music's message won't corrupt them. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. 6. in either order. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. the argument predicts ruin. 5. Therefore. If this were not the case. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. That means light 4 is On.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. Create a master sketch. must be true. light 4 is On. As always. (C). there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). Otherwise. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. If light 6 is On. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. and light 7 is Off. (E)Beyond the scope. and as we figured out. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). totaling four On lights. light 5 is also Off. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. light 3 is Off. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. (B)Beyond the scope. eight lights. using columns or circles to . If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. is the number that can be determined. Start with what you‟re given. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. Questions 8-12 In this game. 7.
Start with what you‟re given. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. and N must serve with M. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. O can‟t serve with M. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. M. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. using their first initials (J. Therefore. 9. If O can‟t serve with P. 11. Y. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). As for the others: (B). If M serves on Housing. or (A). (A). or (C). with three columns to represent the body parts. then P must serve with M and N. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). Nose. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). eliminating (B). N). 10. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. M. then N does too. L. 12. so K. Each committee must have at least three members. and N all serve together. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. Your sketch should look something like this : 8. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. N. (C). and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. can. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. M. Create a master sketch. but need not. M. six committee members can be determined. three doctors (shorthanded X. You‟re given that L serves with M. and P to serve on Housing. Abbreviate the members‟ names. That makes three members on one committee. N must serve on Rules. That leaves J. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. O. L. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. K.represent the two committees. be true. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. so put a J under Housing. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. and one member (J) is already on Housing. eliminating (D) and (E). (B). Since J is always on Housing. O. and (E) are false. but don‟t need to be true. and three horizontal rows . In the setup. so (D). K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. O can‟t serve with M. and Throat. (C). Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. P can serve on either committee. so (A) can be eliminated. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. Questions 13-17 In this game. L. K must serve Committee.
(A). four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. (B) is true. In other words. 14. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. 16. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. must be false. (D). If Y treats ears. and then add your knowledge of the rules. 17. 15. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. Since X can‟t treat noses. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. Rule 1 states that ears. Start with what you‟re given. grapefruit (G). then X must also treat throats. choices that can be false can be eliminated. according to Rule 2. So (B) must be true. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . if X treats throats. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. Yet. then Y can‟t treat ears. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. one by one. Go through the choices. noses. (D). 13. be false. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. but need not. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. so put “no” in the appropriate column. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. ears and throats only. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. and (E) can. However. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). but need not. then try to make some deductions. then Y must also treat throats. so does Z. be true. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. if Y treats it. (D). then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). numbered 1-8. (A) can. (C) is correct. Both Y and Z must treat noses. Y must treat noses. Therefore. oranges (O). Each compartment contains apples (A). X can. Look at what you have. treat ears. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). X must treat at least throats. If X treats ears. (C). because of Rule 3. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. However. one for each doctor. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. Z also treats.underneath. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. that doctor must also treat throats. but need not.
21. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. Check each choice in turn. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears.Incorporate the rules. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. and one choice violates none of them. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. Compare each rule to the choices. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears.e. so (B) is correct. So put an A in Compartment 1. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). Your sketch should look something like this: 18. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. so there are no more than four pears. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. the four incorrect choices must be false. as well. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). 20. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. Therefore. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. For this acceptability question. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. and 4). Since the question asks which could be true. As in Question 20. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. which contains grapefruit. (A) is correct. 19. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. Thus. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). (C). you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. From that and Rules 5 and 6. according to Rule 5. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. This leaves (C). leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. From that and Rules 5 and 6. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. eliminating (D) and (E). Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. which contains apples. However. Place a G in Compartment 8. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. 3.
Therefore. since the jobs program was never implemented. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. can‟t contain grapefruit. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). for instance. 25. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. The adjacent compartments. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. but on what actually happened. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. thus increasing unemployment. 6 and 7. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. Compartments 2. If only one compartment contains apples. Compartment 1 contains apples. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. (B) and (C) are false. 22. . but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. is the maximum number. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. If. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (D). not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. 5. a total of four. As for the top. must be true. which is that unemployment increased. Only (A). You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. So Compartments 2. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. but makes no connection to problems in humans. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. 24. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). (B)There's no mention of her popularity.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. rather than how they are described. 3. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. not to supernatural subject matter. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. merely her effective technique. 23. 3. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. but the question of his intent versus his actions. (B)We don't know this. then only Compartment 1 contains apples.
Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983.org . After 1981. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. w. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. x. Sector u was constructed in 1981. 1. t. u. and z. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. positioned in that order from west to east. v. y.
1985 5. 1986 6. 1985 (E) 1983. 1984 (E) 1982. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 1983.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. 1984 (D) 1983. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1983 (D) 1982.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. 2. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1985 (C) 1983. 1984 (B) 1982. 1983. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. If Sector s was built in 1985. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. 1984.
(C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. if true. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. Which of the following. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. 8. In a recent test. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. 9.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . The Commissioner of Public Works. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. only five had presented any serious complications. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. the other half had chosen to give birth at home.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. harmful pollutants. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs.
which extends south from the city center. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Vienna Highway 13. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. and Yellow Tolls. Madrid Highway. Paris Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Vienna Highway. which extends due west from the city center. and due southwest of the city center. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. Red. motorists pass two radial highways. and Paris Highway.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. due southeast. which runs due northeast from the city center. The radial highways are: London Highway. due east. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. Red Toll. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. but no other tollbooths. called the Beltway. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. Madrid Highway. Blue. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. Yellow Toll. London Highway. 10. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. which extends due north from the city center. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway.
Laura. but taller than Jim. Nick. Pedro. Kathy. Nick. Quentin (B) Jim. Pedro. Oliver. Mike. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Laura. Mike. 14. Jim. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Kathy. Oliver. Mike. Oliver. Pedro. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. and Quentin—are measured for height. Laura. who is in turn taller than Pedro. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Oliver is taller than Pedro. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Oliver. Mike. Laura. Quentin. Pedro. Jim is taller than Kathy.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Kathy. Laura. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . Pedro. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Jim. Mike. Nick. Laura. Quentin (E) Pedro. Nick. Nick. Quentin (C) Kathy. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Nick. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. Oliver. Jim. Kathy. Quentin (D) Oliver. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Mike. Kathy 15.
and 3. 2. There are no abstentions. 3. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. and 5 (D) movies 2. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 19. The five judges on the committee are Q. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. S votes “no” on movie 2. and 4 (E) movies 2. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. 21. and U. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. 4. R. and 5. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. If R votes “no” on all five movies.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. 3. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. and 5 . (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. T. U votes “yes” on movie 4. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. S.
(B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. which are forever twisting above. productivity has nearly doubled. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. . there was no competent leadership in the firm. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. McGovern‟s new executive director. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. and sales are better than ever. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice.23. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. control panels or electric counters. When workers were primarily employed by industry. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. Today. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. if true. 24. 25. or to fingers and wrists. Which of the following. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. Freda Tully. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. Coach Parker. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. Profits are on the rise. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago.
(C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. . In order for sector w to be constructed. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. y. sector v must be constructed before sector w. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. w.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. u. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. That leaves three choices. the four incorrect choices must be false. and sector u is constructed in 1981. 1. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. However. sector w must be constructed before sector x. though it used to be the other way around. Therefore. 2. and (D). sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. (C). Since the question asks which could be true. (D) Compared to their ancestors. Sector x is constructed in 1984. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). (A) and (E) can‟t be true. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. Therefore. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. sector v can be constructed in 1982. t. (B). x. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. so (C) and (D) are out. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. Write 1981 in u‟s space. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. so (C). v. As we‟ve just seen. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Create a master sketch. For this question. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another.
As we saw in the previous question. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. Therefore. if sector t is constructed in 1982. and z) because of Rule 2. (C). Otherwise. sector y in 1987. and sector z in 1988. and so isn't parallel. and 1984. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. 7. Sector z can be constructed last. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. So. If sector t is constructed in 1982. t. Therefore (D)—1982. 1983. Using the reverse thinking. and (D). then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. v. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). You are told that sector s is built in 1985. 5. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. If sector v is constructed in 1982. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. . 6. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. That eliminates (A) and (B). You need to determine two dates here. (B). So (A) is correct. sector x in 1986. Now. causes kidney stones. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Likewise. but when you look at the choices. 1984. 1983. In fact. (D) is correct. First. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. That sounds too simple to be the solution. respectively. and z. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. 4. w. However. y. y. which are choices (A). sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. sector v must be constructed by 1984. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. vitamin C. in 1988. sector w in 1983 or 1984. sector y must be constructed after 1986. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. Under this question‟s conditions. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985.3.
in . Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. 9. L extends due north.(E)A general claim is made. you‟ll pass two radial highways. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. in either order. Madrid (M). (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. V extends due south. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. Vienna (V). (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. That means. but noexamples are provided. Blue (B). less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. however. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. and Paris (P). not their danger. P extends due northeast. and due southwest of the city. due southeast. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. The four highways extend from the city outward. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. Looking at the sketch. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). For the sketch. M extends due west. 8. Green (G). but no other tollbooths. due east. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. If. Red (R). There are four tollbooths. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. past the Beltway. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital.
Blue. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. since their locations are described in the question. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. place eight students in height order. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. Use your sketch. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Create a master sketch. Check each choice in turn. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. and among the choices. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. 12. (A). For the sketch. the Madrid. Red. As we deduced in Question 11. Q). M. namely the Green. Use the deductions from Question 11. L. and check each choice in turn. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. or the Southeast tollbooth. and isn‟t a must. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. between the Madrid and the Vienna. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. 11. . leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. eliminating rule violators.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. so (E) is wrong. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. or (E). Looking at the sketch. but no other tollbooths. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. you‟ll pass two radial highways. Therefore. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. (C). O. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. P. K. N. If it‟s merely possible. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. 13. and Yellow Tolls. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. in either order. the Paris. from tallest to shortest.
but taller than Jim. Oliver. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. we know that Mike. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. Combining our deductions. Kathy. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). 15.Look at the rules. and then. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Laura is third. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. we can definitely determine who is fourth. 14. with the remaining students. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. and who must be shorter. Nick. four choices violate one or more rules. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. Rule 5 says Laura is third. in that order. only Jim. or Quentin can be first.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. and two available spots for students taller than her.. 17. Jim. or (B). Also. This eliminates (B) and (E). 18. Since Laura is third. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. For this question. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. and note that there are only two students above her. Mike. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. So. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. and one choice violates none of them. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. Combine this with Rule 2. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. and since Laura is third. you can figure out the possibilities. 16. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. and Pedro. There‟s only one possible order here. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. Adding Rules 2 and 4. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. leaving (B). That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. Compare each choice to the rules. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. eliminating (C) and (D). (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. Nick. Since there are only three available spots below . Laura is third highest of the eight students. For this acceptability question. Quentin. or (A). Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. So Quentin is taller than Jim. so (A) is out. So place the L on your piece of paper.
Create a master sketch. T votes yes on movie 5. this must be true. Questions 19-22 In this game. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. 20. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. at least three of whom must vote yes. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. Since the question asks which choice must be true. so T also votes no on movie 2. Kathy. That leaves four judges. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total.” that is. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. The third yes comes from either R or U. 2. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column.” At least three yes votes are needed. according to Rule 3. Laura must be taller than Kathy. Quentin. Nick. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. That thinking is reflected in (D). 2. as long as one . As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. “exactly. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. and 3. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. Note that in your sketch. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. T. both must vote yes. although both can vote yes. U votes yes on movie 4. and (C) can be eliminated. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). so (A). 3. Since S and T vote the same. Scan the choices and stop at (D). must be taller than Laura. (B).Laura. so neither choice needs to be true. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. being taller than at least three other students. and who must vote no. so (D) too can be eliminated. figure out who must vote yes. 2. it means a yes vote from T as well. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. one for each of the three movies. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. 4. Any of five movies (1. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. and (E) are false. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. As we have just proved. and 3. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. and Pedro. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. R. If both vote no. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. (C). and U) to appear in a film festival. S. using an N. Neither R nor U must vote yes.
but that the team would win more games if it were switched. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. Choose one of the two movies. and then T votes no. S votes no. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. 22. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. so T must vote no on movie 2. there are three yes votes. To conclude this. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. so (B) and (E) can. one no vote. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. If U does vote no. That leaves (E) to be correct. then the other choice is correct. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. S and T vote together. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. R votes no. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. and three unknown votes. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. Look for the other judges that vote no. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . but needn‟t. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. be true. and thus have your answer. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. So movie 2 has two no votes. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. and determine whether or not U votes no. 3. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. If. and 5.of them does. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. 23. 21. Looking at the remaining choices. on movie 2. We‟re left with (D) and (E). so (C) is eliminated. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. (B) is the answer. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. That deduction eliminates only (A). and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. So you need at least one more no vote. .
if the improvements occurred in the last two years. no matter what the practice time. like lifting.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. (D)Misreads the argument. To weaken this contention. 25. she must therefore have provided this leadership. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. (E)Strengthens. 24. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. because most people now work in the service sector. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. so this strengthens the argument. Most people used to work in industry. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. which discusses injuries. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. (D)Strengthens. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious.
how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . same row are the same color. 2. 1.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. is green. or yellow. same column are the same color. the board is green. is red. Light 5 is green. is green. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. red. the following colors: blue.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. is yellow. green.
(B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. green. Which of the following. but at all times. Therefore. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. If light 6 is yellow. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. and yellow 5. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. if true. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. In companies with only one secretary. . But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. 8. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. If all beaches were publicly owned. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue.
each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. and Z. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. however. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. (D) On average. Y. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. X. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. which are numbered 1 through 4. but for no more than two consecutive days. however. FORMerly. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. slower copiers. in that order. but for no more than three consecutive days. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. Every day. There are. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. 9. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. . Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. 10.
Z is listed third. Z is listed second. Rob. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. If Rob. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. . which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. one child per car. X is listed third. one car remaining empty. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. Pip. 12. After each ride. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. Car 5 is never empty. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. and Quint are seated in cars 1. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. for the first ride. and Sal. Quint. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. W is listed third. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. 13. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. and 5. Sal.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. 2. 4. respectively. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. The four children are Pip. 14.
Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. If Rob. and Quint are seated in cars 1. 3. for the first ride.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. Sal. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. Each day in the Ring home. Pip is seated in car 4. 15. Betty cooks on Wednesday. 16. 17. (D) Car 3 is empty. exactly one of the three family members cooks. 4. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. and 5. If Horace cooks on Friday. and Horace. (E) Car 4 is empty. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. Quint is seated in car 4. Betty cooks on Tuesday. respectively. Jim. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. Rob is seated in car 4. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . Pip.
Like modern magazines. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. Tuesday. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Horace cooks on Wednesday. Tuesday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. Friday (E) Sunday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. Friday 23. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. 24. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. Friday (D) Monday. they related stories of important events. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Which of the following. I know this for a fact. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. Horace cooks on Monday. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Jim cooks on Wednesday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Tuesday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Jim cooks on Monday. Thursday. Thursday (C) Sunday. Thursday. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. Monday. . This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Horace Jim. if true.
========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. 2. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. green. however. and light 1 is red. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. 1. 3. 4 to 6. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. 25. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. red. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. Put a G in light 5‟s space. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. than they did in 1988. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. 7 to 9. Compare each rule to the choices. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. and light 1 is red. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. can be true.e. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. and one choice violates none of them. Average and below average students. numbered on the top. lights 2. Therefore. and on the bottom. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. For this acceptability question. 1 to 3.e. Therefore. There are three rows of three lights each. 7) can be the same color. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. (B). 1. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. 4. Based on those two deductions. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). . (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. 4. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. You must place the lights. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. which can be blue. or yellow. according to the rules provided. starting with the most concrete. 3) can be the same color. in the middle. light 3 is yellow. per week.
There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. (C). To answer this question. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. 4. Because light 1 is red. 4. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. light 7 must be blue. 2. Light 5 is green. 6. light 6 can be red. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. 3. or yellow. or (C). Also. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. or (C). 3. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. so there can be a maximum of three red. and 8. That eliminates (B) and (E). or (C). Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). 3. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. That‟s only two blue lights. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. leaving 6. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. That leaves lights 1. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. and light 5 is green. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). 4. If light 6 is yellow. That eliminates (A). three of another and two of a third color. and light 9 must be yellow. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. light 8 must be red. according to Rule 3. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. 5. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. then light 4 can be yellow. Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. light 7 must be yellow. Light 1 is red. and (E).2. blue. can be any color except green. light 7 can‟t be red or green. 8. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. but lights 2. and 9. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. . 7. 7 and 8. 7. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. However. so (D) is correct. eliminating (A) and (B). Light 6. So lights 2. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. leaving eight lights to be red. both private and public. and eliminate them as choices. (B). if the government already maintains all beaches. if light 6 is yellow. You know that light 1 is red. so (E) can be eliminated. As we saw in Question 2. 5. There‟s only one green light. That leaves lights 2. There‟s only one green light. (D).
but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). Rule 4 says Z . and 4. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. Y. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused.they were made public than if they remained private. Therefore. and thus save money. W. 9. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. 8. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. (C)Too specific. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. X. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. and Z. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. 3. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Four guards. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. 2. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. This is the key rule to this game. numbered 1. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. Therefore. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. not single deficiencies. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. From all that inFORMation about W. cause beriberi and pellagra. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. not of all the B vitamins. (C)As long as the machine is faster. based on the rules provided.
you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. but need not be true. X. you can simply use five dashes. If W changes assignments. The rules all have to do with the empty car.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. W is listed first. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. According to Rule 5. 10. (A) and (D) can be true. There is one child per car. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. 12. Y. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. and one choice violates none of them. must be true. numbered 1 to 5. leaving (C). Since this question asks which must be true. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. W. 13. Questions 14-16 In this game. Therefore. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. so (B) must be true. Before looking at the answer choices. Here. and only one. Z must move. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. (A). W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. In lieu of a master sketch. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. For your master sketch. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. so for Thursday‟s roster. when W remains in the same gallery. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. That eliminates (B) and (C). or are false outright. Looking at the choices. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. so one car is always empty. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. guard can remain in the same gallery. when the next day is assigned. Compare each rule to the choices. so (E) must be correct. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. For Wednesday‟s roster. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. W was assigned to gallery 1. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. 11. However. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. four choices violate one or more rules. or in gallery 3 on both days.
4. Pip. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. for the third ride. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). and one choice violates none of them. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. According to Rule 1. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. Sal. Questions 17-22 In this game. Rule 4 is always in effect. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. Stated more positively. J. 14. respectively. Start with what you are given: Rob. following Rule 1: Pip. and Quint are in Cars 1. Sal. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. as (D) correctly says. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. three family members (abbreviated B. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. Then. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. (E) must be correct. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. and 5. Now Car 3 is empty. Incorporate the rules. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride.empty. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. Pip. according to Rule 1. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Furthermore. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. 15. Pip. if Car 3 is empty. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. Pip is seated in Car 1. __ . H) take turns cooking each day. Remember. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. The order of the first ride: Rob. 16. Rob. __ . so (C) can be eliminated. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. or (A). Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Quint. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. H must cook after . Quint. Compare each choice to the rules. you‟ll know all that must be true. therefore. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. The third ride. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. Therefore. __ . Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. Car 2 is empty. for a week. Create a master sketch. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). four choices violate one or more rules. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. For this acceptability question. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. 2. If. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. That means. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. So. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. for the first ride. Sal. Quint. from Sunday to Saturday. Sal.
be true. be true. In order to be consecutive. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). leaving the other to cook twice after Monday.Tuesday. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). and (C) can. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. That takes care of Betty for the week. Therefore. 23. Wednesday. but not both. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. Tuesday. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Monday. Now. but need not. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. the four incorrect choices can be true. (B). Horace. 21. and either Sunday or Monday. Therefore. (D) remains. must cook before Tuesday. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. (E). As we deduced in the game overview. The only false choice is (E). but need not. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. That‟s (C). either one can cook. Horace needs to cook two more times. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Horace must cook on Wednesday. 19. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). Thursday. So Tuesday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. That eliminates (A) and (B). That leaves (C). If Horace cooks on Friday. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. 18. So. and Saturday can be definitely determined. 22. There are three available days. and Friday. four days. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. However. Wednesday. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. 20. Saturday. (A). then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). (D) must be true. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. Thursday. then Horace must cook on Thursday. through Sat. and Friday can be definitely determined. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. . Since Horace must cook three days. Wednesday. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Betty cooks on Tuesday. and then B must cook on Sunday. Since Horace must cook three days. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Sunday. so (C) must be true. Wed. So. Jim cooks on Wednesday. so (E) is wrong. Only (C). so (A) and (B) can. Thursday.
(C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. 24. 25. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. time spent by students overall increased. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. without giving any examples. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. Therefore. the author compares them to modern magazines. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork.
000.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. 1.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. and M—are theater critics. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. P. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. 4. L. which of the following must also be true? . joins the others at the table. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. If the statements above are true. the other four—Q. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. 2. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. a playwright. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. Three of the people—K. R is seated on the immediate right of S. who is seated on the immediate right of T. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. and T—are playwrights. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. S. R. 3.
(B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40. G. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. 6. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. and L. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. K. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease .000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. 5. certain patients will infect other patients. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. (B) An annual profit of $10. J. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact.000 is not especially high.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered.000 in the year before the war. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. more established companies. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50. If put in the same room.000 than for amounts less than $40.000. Pending further study.000. In households including more than one person. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. and where interpersonal contact is common.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. I. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. H.
and one with Disease G. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. one with Disease F.G. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. and a person with Disease J. 10. and a male with Disease K. and two educational programs. one with Disease F. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. one with Disease J. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. 7. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. two jazz programs. or Disease G. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. and one with Disease J. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. or Disease F. one with Disease I. a male with Disease K. which programs are the news programs for that day? . The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. A room is occupied by three people. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H.
and ninth second. fourth. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. 14. sixth. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. The eighth program cannot be a news program. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. eighth. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. eighth. second. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. eighth. eighth. R must get off before Q. fifth. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. 13. The seventh program is a news program. fifth. N must get off before M. and ninth first. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. who must get off before O. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. M. third. sixth. second. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. and ninth fourth.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. . sixth. if N gets off at the third stop. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. O. N. fifth. and sixth third. Q. P. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. third. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. The first program is an educational program.
which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. W. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. Y. (B) N gets off at the second stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. If X is perishable. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. 16. 19. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. The second car must always contain U. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. V. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. (E) Q gets off after M. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. if M gets off at the third stop. and if P must get off alone. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. (C) L and P get off together. X. 15. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. 18. which of the following MUST be true? . If R gets off at the fourth stop. and if N gets off after Q. (D) N gets off at the first stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. and Z— every day. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. (E) R gets off at the second stop. 17. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop.
fifth car contains V. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. sixth car contains Z. (B) The sixth car contains X. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. If W and V are perishable. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. (D) The sixth car contains W. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. and if Y and Z are perishable. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. (C) The fifth car contains V. (E) The third car contains Y. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. If Y and Z are perishable. 21. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. 20. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. . (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. 22.
Studies have shown that. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. M) and four playwrights (Q. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. Because of this finding. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. 24. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. if true. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. That implies the opposite: A . Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. Which of the following. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. because of its brightness and intensity. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. 25. L. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. but rather from some property of the color itself. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. S. R.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police.
you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. Using the sketch in the game overview. a critic. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. A single. in either order. and (E). (E) describes the same chair as (D). so (E) is also false. 4. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. and R is in Seat 5. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. That seats all the playwrights. and T is in Seat 3. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. in any order.000. 5. R. then S is in Seat 4. so eliminate (A). leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. (B). Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. 2. 7. As we saw in Question 1. then S is in Seat 3. K is in Seat 9. S. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. and R is in Seat 4. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. T is in Seat 3. 6. eliminating (A). Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. P. T is in Seat 2. only from Q‟s left. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P.000. so (C) can be true. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. L and M can be in Seats 6. a playwright. S. . To make this connection. 3. If S is two places to Q‟s right. For our sketch. if S is three places to Q‟s right. or in Seat 6: R. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. or 8. can‟t sit immediately next to L. meaning they are 4 places apart. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. so (B) is out.000 won't be considered. who is immediately right of T. (C). Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. so (D) is impossible. so (B) need not be true. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. a playwright. or in Seat 5. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. since both are playwrights. and (E) all can be true. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). (C). and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. so (A).
L F. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. I. and a male with K. enters a room with H. Rule 3 says L infects K. one by one. If (C). but shorthanding the rules might help. one by one. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. K and G switch. 6. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. then K infects F. K. then male K infects G. (B). Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. If L is added to the room with F. F. Specifically. If (A). it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. If H is added to the same room. Another room contains patients with I. I and G switch. eliminating (B). H. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. and J. and G. Questions 7-9 In this game. it's the change over the course of the war that is. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. If K is added. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K.(B)The annual profit isn't important. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. I. 8. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. You are told that one room contains patients with H. so (A) is wrong. If put in the same room. not in one particular phrase. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. and J. K infects F (Rule 2). So jot down H L. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. If (A). there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. male K. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. 9. G. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). (D). certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. a patient with Disease L. The study isn't clear on this point. then L infects F (Rule 3). the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. Switch J and G. H + I F. more . and J. so (A) is out. L G. (C)Too broad. Switch H and J. it's possible that these people are related to each other. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). If this is the case. or F: L K. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. G. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. not established ones. L). J. K G. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. 7.
so place an E in slot 7. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. The four remaining programs. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. Stated positively. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. . As for the others. There are five news programs. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). two jazz programs. So (C) is correct. sixth. three news and one educational. fourth. and two educational) into order. (A) and (E) can be true. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. If the first five programs are all news programs. You‟re left with one educational program. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. fifth. scan the choices. and ninth. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. eighth. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. second. One educational program is seventh. (C): only one-K infects G. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. but needn‟t be. and you know that one educational program is seventh. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. and there are five news programs total. (E). must be first through fourth in whatever order. both stated and easily deduced. and E for educational. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. So (A) is correct. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. (D): only one-K infects F. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. in whatever order. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. (B) and (C) are patently false. Start with what you know. two jazz programs. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. 11. two jazz.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. From here. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. one program per slot. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. and third. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. (C). If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. is correct. and one educational program to place. J for jazz. Among the choices. and since only one must be true. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. arrange nine radio programs (five news. 12. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth.
but need not be true. E or N. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. M. O. N. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. N. P. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. E. J. Therefore (A). but E can also be first: E. and (D) must be true. and N gets off after Q. with O and P getting off together ninth. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. Looking at the master sketch. (B). but needn‟t be. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. (C). Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. N. 16. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. O. eliminating (D). J. That‟s three. N. E or N. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. and (E) can be true. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). If M gets off third. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. M. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. you‟d see that (E) can be true. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5).13. J. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. and one of the educational programs is seventh. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). N. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. or news-jazz-news. In order to satisfy Rule 4. N. N. so they get off at 7 and 9. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. and P remain. however. J. If R gets off fourth. N. N. E. seven members of a family (L. N. and ninth. N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . who gets off before O. E. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. Q. J. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. M gets off before O (Rule 5). If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. R must get off either first or second. then Q gets off fifth. (A). That makes four. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. (C). E. must be true: No one can get off sixth. but for every other stop only one member can get off. Incorporate the rules. so (E) is the answer. N. Only L. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. N. Under this question‟s conditions. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. J. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. so (D). E. N. so M must be seventh. N. Since no one gets off eighth. N. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). seventh. Questions 14-18 For this game. (B). then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). and P must get off sixth. 15. N. N. Since no one gets off eighth. J. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. J. O.
So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. 2-L. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. 5-Q. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. X . (B). (B). You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. 3-X. neither N nor M can get off ninth. W. (B). at the ninth stop. 6-X. Start with what you‟re given. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. and then add what you know. namely first. If R gets off fourth. Therefore. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. leaving only O and L. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). you must distribute six products (U. In other words. or sixth. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. (C). 2. Questions 19-22 In this game. 9-OP. and (E) are all possible. (C). This might get you thinking. but need not be true. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. but none are definite. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. and (E) can be true.. P can‟t get off ninth. Z) onto six boxcars. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. and (E) are all possible. L must get off at the ninth stop. (A). one product per car. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). either. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). and (E) can‟t be true. If O gets off seventh. 7-N. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. However. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. in either order. 17. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). or 3. 18. Y can‟t immediately follow W. (A) can‟t be true.Y. (D). and look for one of them as an answer choice. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. Incorporate the rules. then R can only get off at 1. Since U is in Car 2. If Y and Z are perishable. Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4.before O (Rule 5). but none have to be true. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. Create a master sketch. shorthand it U. If X is perishable. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X.. Therefore. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). third. So put a U in slot 2. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. V . 20. (B). V must precede W. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. V. then Q gets off fifth. so O must get off ninth and (A). Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. 4-R. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. (C). 8-M.X. OR If Q gets off at 5. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. L and P must get off together. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. second. then N and M must get off before seventh. (C).
Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. in either order. X. (C). Z. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). but (C) CANNOT be true. 21. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). If W and V are perishable. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. There are four possibilities. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. not all. leaving Z in Car 1. situations. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. however. so (D) need not be true. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. a precedent may already have been set. in either order. along with X. 22. not necessarily at all times. 24. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. (A). U. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. U. in either order. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. Therefore. in either order. X. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. (B). Y. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. and (E) are possible. there was some reason that . Also. for which choice no evidence is given. Therefore. V. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. U. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). is in Car 5 and Car 6. V. 25. in order: W. (A). Z.must be in Car 1 and W. (D) can be true. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. 23. Z. or W. X. Y. V. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. U is in Car 2. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. (E)Assumes that. If Y and Z are perishable. and (E) must all be true. and Car 5 with Car 6. X. (B). or W. Thus. Y. V. U. If. (B) is correct. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. Z. or W. W is in Car 1. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . U is in 2. Y. (D).
Adams. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. and Lamming—and four juniors. Best. Hiro. Carter. it doesn't affect the rationale. (A)This is a logistical problem. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. Kundala.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). it's the stressinducing qualities of red.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. and Delgado. The . regardless of the reason. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects.
Kundala (E) Hiro. if true. Adams. Best (D) Fox. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Delgado (C) Hiro. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. symbolism. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. (E) Dr. If Best is chosen to attend. Which of the following.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. Kundala. If Fox is chosen to attend. Kundala cannot be chosen. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. Best 2. rather than societal. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. If Carter is chosen for the convention. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. and style. Carter (B) Kundala. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. conflict. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Lamming must also be chosen. Anderman‟s imprisonment. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. (D) Dr. Dr. Hiro. If Hiro is chosen to attend. Hiro. Carter cannot be chosen. Lamming. 5. Because of high demand. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. . 1.
P. Q. S must be examined before P is examined. S. S 8. Q. areas are now affected. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. R. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. R. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. P. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. S (B) S. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. R. and each pet will be examined just once. Q. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. R (E) Q. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. if true. Q. Q. 6. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. is examined second. R. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. 7. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand.In order for this argument to be logically correct. . The pets will be examined one by one. non-urban. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. P (C) R. Which of the following. P (D) S. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers.
Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (E) P must be examined fourth. E. At least one comedian must appear on each show. B. G D. D E. E are comedians. 11. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. D. F. F F. and G—appear on his two weekend shows.(D) R is examined third. (E) P is examined fourth. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. G E. Only A. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. (D) A. 9. (B) C. C. (E) C. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . (C) E. C. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. if true. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. Which of the following. G 13. B appears on Saturday's show. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. (D) S must be examined first. If CANNOT (A) A. If R is examined third.
The eight eligible entrees are. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. in ascending order of popularity. Beef Enchilada. Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. Chicken Kiev. Fish Teriyaki. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. and if B appears on Saturday's show. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. The menu will consist of four entrees. Chicken Kiev. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Chicken Dijon. Beef Enchilada.(D) five (E) six 14. Pork Szechuan . Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. chosen from a group of eight. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Chicken Dijon. Lobster Mombasa. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Lobster Mombasa. 17. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. from first course to fourth course. and Chicken Vindaloo. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. but if both are selected. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. they cannot be served consecutively. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Fish Teriyaki. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu.
Pork Szechuan 18. . (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. Lobster Mombasa. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. and next to no moisture. Desert X is an environment with constant. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. powerful sunlight. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. nor does it survive long when introduced there. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef.(E) Beef Enchilada. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. Fish Teriyaki. 23. it does not exist naturally in the desert. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21.
(E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. The problem. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. In fact. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. . 25. Desert X can support almost no plant life. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. In the hands of a Freudian critic. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. 24. the literary work loses its specificity. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. however. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. (B) For one week in the fall. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child.
then Hiro isn‟t (if c. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. then no K. then Fox isn‟t (if K. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). 1. Hiro. then Carter isn‟t: If H. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. then no c. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. Since the question asks who must be chosen. then L. or can‟t be chosen at all. c. That eliminates (A). Kundala isn‟t. One is Kundala.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. As Rule 1 says. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). and a. then no F). and Kundala. you can only choose one or the other. Fox. H. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. or (B). and one choice violates none of them. Delgado). if Kundala is chosen. 2. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. Compare each rule to the choices. four choices violate one or more rules. or (C). then no H). As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. 3. L for the four seniors. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. there must be at least two seniors. You are given that Carter. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. In other words. . Carter. eliminating (D). aren‟t required. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. Kundala. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. but not both. violating Rule 4. b. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. Hiro must be chosen. The three available seniors are Lamming. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. Lamming must also be chosen. Best. K. is chosen. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. (C) and (E). The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. That leaves (C). Lamming must be chosen. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). then Fox can‟t be chosen. d for the four juniors. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. For this acceptability question. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. a junior. 4. being juniors.
Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. if A. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). R. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. only now more of them have been identified. if B. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. If. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope.they were written after her release. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. 5. however. place four pets (P. S) in an order to be examined. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). however. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. this has no effect. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. then C (they were able to buy tickets). we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. Q. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. then C. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. 6. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. Create a master sketch of four dashes. Rule 1 states that R is second or . nothing need have changed. Thus. then not A (they didn't want them). Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). If. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. so this won't weaken the conclusion. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience.
If R is third. so S can be first or second. If A is the only comedian on Friday. the other comedians. and one choice violates none of them. are comedians. F. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. so you need three more guests for Saturday. C. Then. leaving (B). D. then two of the four slots are filled.third. either S or Q can be first. S. B. Therefore. must appear on Saturday. without violating the rules. four choices violate one or more rules. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. and E. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. Rule 1 states that only A. You need to have S before P. there are (C) three different orders possible. so S must be first and P must be fourth. R. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. Therefore E. Since S must be seen before P. P. Compare each rule to the choices. 11. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. Rule 2 kicks in. 8. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. Therefore. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. (A). are on Saturday. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. 10. E and G are chosen with B. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. 9. P. Q or S. Questions 11-16 In this game. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. P or Q. C. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. S before P. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. You are given that Q is examined before R. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. We know R can be third. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. E. For this acceptability question. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. and P can be second or fourth. then C and E. From that. Q. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. then F and D are . Your sketch should look something like this: 7. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. None of the choices include both F and D. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. You are told B is on Saturday. R must be third. R. Create a master sketch. if Q is first and R is third. Q is either first or second. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. R. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. but so can S. 12. if A.
You can then deduce that C and E are together. Therefore. so (C) and (E) are both possible. violating Rule 3. That means the third comedian. then the other two comedians are on Friday. and F are together. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. F and B or G. If Friday is C. C. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. (C). and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. you can further deduce that C. E. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). However. F. either one can be with E. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. G must be on Saturday. B or E. In fact. so (A) is correct. or A. Try each choice in turn. Lobster Mombasa. so they can be eliminated. Place B and G on either night. Pork Szechuan. and F. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. and G. Although F can‟t be with D. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. E. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. The entrees. E. Since each night has at least one comedian. Friday has at least one comedian. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. (Rule 2). and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. A must therefore be with D. but not definite. for two more possible lists. F. G. must be on Friday. D. and G. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. 13. That‟s one possible list. Chicken Vindaloo. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. F. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. then Friday is A. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. So either night can be C. and B or G. (C) is correct. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. As in Question 12. If Saturday includes C. In other words. or E. D.together on Friday. and there‟s your exception. Chicken Dijon. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. 14. B. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. B. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). in either order. D. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. D. The groups in (A). 15. D. D. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. B or G and Saturday is C. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev. B or E. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. (B). Questions 17-22 For this game. E. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. From that you can deduce that Beef . and G. D. G or E. then Saturday is A. or (C). E. That means F and D are both on Saturday. F. Fish Teriyaki. E. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. violating Rule 3. 16. from among F. B and/or G.
since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. and one choice violates none of them. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. there‟s only one fish entree. Compare each rule to the choices. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. (A). Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last.e. Before looking at the choices. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. so the other Chicken entrees. Lobster Mombasa. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. one. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). That way. Next. must be removed. and Pork Szechuan. So Chicken Dijon is first. Well. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. but neither can be chicken. then only . That leaves Beef Enchilada. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. violating Rule 2. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. four choices violate one or more rules. so (A). throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. Kiev and Vindaloo. (E) is the exception. Chicken Kiev. in that order. On the overall list.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. 20. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. Therefore. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. in that order. In the order. So (D) is correct. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. According to Rule 2. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. is correct. Pork Szechuan. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. Therefore. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. 21. On the overall list. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. By the way. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. 18. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. This question says the first entree is based around fish. For this acceptability question. Fish Teriyaki. 19. and Chicken Vindaloo. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. Beef) can‟t both be selected. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. Lobster Mombasa. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. 17. but can‟t be consecutive. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon.
(E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. determine all that can or must be true. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. (C)Too general. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. Beef Enchilada must be second. Pork Szechuan must be third. Y likes dry and sunny regions. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. yet it doesn't. beef. (C) and (E) are true. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. so it's dry. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. therefore. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. 23. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. That leaves (B). So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. . 22. If Lobster Mombasa is second. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. If there were multiple correct interpretations. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. 25. X is a desert. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. correct. 24. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. it's that it's too powerful. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. sunny and hot.
(C) K. G. K. H. L finished immediately ahead of H. L. (B) G. and M finished ahead of J. K. K finished ahead of M. G. O. M. H. L. L. O. or behind. F finished ahead of both G and L. L. F. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . J. G. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. M. K. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. O. J. H. M. L. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. K. Which of the runners? (A) F. (D) K. L. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. O. H. G. M. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. J. J.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. There were no ties for any finishing position. M.org 2. F. (E) O. F. H. 1. O.
Which of the following. first. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. 5. rather than mask. ahead of G. its function as a supporting structure. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. If F finished fourth. Today.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. if filled into the above blank. ahead of K.
P. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. who are finesse players. This percentage steadily declined. 8. S. (B) V is not chosen for the team. He can choose from among eight players—M. in 1980. N and V. exactly two power players will be chosen. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. (E) The Arbican population increased. and T. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. (B) The Arbican population increased. Q. (C) The Arbican population decreased. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. (D) The Arbican population decreased. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. who are power players. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. but N is not. it reached 3%. and N. If T is chosen for the team. If Q is chosen for the team. until. doubles partners. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. . and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. R. If T is chosen for the team. and V. If the statements above are true.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
(C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine.C. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. after all. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. 25. How can it exist. which took place about 6000 years ago. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. . (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. far earlier than was previously believed. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. at around 3000 BC. 24.
So start with F in the fourth slot. second. the only runners who can finish first are F. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. If F is fourth. 2. and neither G nor L can finish first. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. From another combination of deductions. J and O. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. so L can‟t be last. K. so neither K nor M can finish last. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. eliminating (A). and K. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. K can‟t be last. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. Just to be sure. which can finish eighth. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. or vice versa. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. 3. As we deduced in the game overview. and one choice violates none of them. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). But that‟s impossible since you know . Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. If H is seventh. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. H. then G and L (from Rule 6). (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. Combining all of the deductions. You can also deduce that F finished before H. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. and O. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. That eliminates (B) and (D). That leaves (A) as possible. L. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. and see what you can deduce. O is fourth. Compare each rule to the choices. G. and M finished before J. four choices violate one or more rules. J. Since L must finish before H. For this acceptability question. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. in that order (according to Rule 5). Rule 5 says K finished before M. and M can‟t be either first or last. M. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. That leaves (E). M. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. O. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. and J to go first. J. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. and seventh or eighth. and therefore correct. or vice versa. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. and (C) is out. and M finished before J.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. so F can‟t finish eighth. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. O. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. O is third. Stated positively. H. try the other possibilities for H. So M must be second.
the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. (C). 4. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. G must be next to O. The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. Since G can‟t finish before F. G can‟t be first. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. in that order. In 1960. To evaluate this claim. In either case. To conclude this.that F is fourth. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. or fourth. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. so (A) is correct. not definite. if H is eighth then O is fifth. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. (B) is the answer. and (E) are possible. From that it follows that if H is sixth. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. so far: That leaves F. 6. So G can finish second or fourth. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. 7. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. While the percentage tells us the relation . then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). so (B). M. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. (D) (E)Outside the scope. then according to Kant. as in (E). K can finish in first. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. not how clarity affects ornament. Therefore. 5. If L is fifth. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. That leaves K. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. and then G is sixth. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. second. or belligerent. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. (C)Irrelevant. and K to be placed. Finally. O is third (from Rule 4). it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. If M is seventh. So K is first. and J is third. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. M is second. (D). So the order. If a republic is pacific. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. and J to be placed. G. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies.
Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. and Q are all power players. to play in a tournament. 9. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. R. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players.between the two. Beyond that. 8. That‟s fine. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. Check each choice. is chosen. V. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. and Q are all power players. However. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. according to Rule 5. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. (E)If the number migrating is the same. Keep it simple. That eliminates (E). one by one. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. (A)It's possible. use your drawing on a question to question basis. N. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. Q. but when T is chosen. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. V. so there‟s too many power players. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. only (D) is impossible. while the percentage decreases. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). then exactly two power players are chosen. P. or of Arbicans who made this migration. You are given that Q. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. S. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. so (A) is out. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. but the percentage migrating has fallen. T) and power (N. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). select from two groups of tennis players. M and T are both finesse players. a power player. V). If M and P are chosen with Q. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. as it says in Rule 2. finesse (M. If T is chosen. Questions 8-11 In this game. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. then you have two finesse players and one power player. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. both numbers could increase. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. the number migrating would have to decrease. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. However. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. Given this inFORMation.
You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. is left). and N are all power players. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). and S? Three: MP. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. so (C) is correct. and 12:00 pm. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. a sketch is essential. as defined by the rules. Between 10:30 and 11:00. If V isn‟t chosen. 11:30 am. and S. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. R. The meetings are one-half hour in length. 10:30 am. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). then N isn‟t chosen either. the correct choice can be deduced. That leaves M. is the answer. and S to pair up. every professor except B is available. Any of those pairs. Note this in your sketch. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. and PS. If a professor is available at a given time. P. As for the others: If N is not chosen. Refer to your sketch. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. .players chosen. 10. P. MS. If T is chosen. How many pairs can be made from M. Q. (D). (E). and since there are already two power players. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. there are only three available finesse player: T. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. eliminating (C). then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). Since the question asks which must be true. 11:00 am. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. 11. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. P. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. V. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). so if they‟re not chosen. Therefore. 10:00 am. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). Your sketch should look something like this: 12. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). Use a grid. combined with the four power players. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. Look at each column. so S must be chosen. if exactly two power players are chosen. In other words. T is not chosen for the team. For this game. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. are acceptable combinations. With M excluded. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. That makes three possible combinations. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions.
14. At 9:00. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. can meet three times. Looking at your sketch. Ax and Dohee are both available. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. Bulos and Franz. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. 11:00. or can only serve on one committee. (C). that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. Some principals. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. can both meet at 10:30. (D). using your sketch as the reference. 16. Go through the rules. (A). Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. Dohee and Egger. can only meet at 10:30.13. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. and 11:30. (B). Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. Create a master sketch. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. Ax and Bulos. Q. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. (C). Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. two. so (B). and Franz. first find all the possible times that Ax. Remember. M. always look for opportunities to use previous work. Bulos and Dohee. Chow and Franz can meet. Dohee and Franz. therefore M serves on Curriculum. Dohee is the only other professor available. but L and Q must serve together. 15. So M. Egger and Franz. P. O. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. Those times are at 10:30. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. Chow. and 10:30. (B). (A). Your sketch should look . Remember. 10:00. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. is correct. at 9:30. can both meet at 9:30. so 11:30 to 12:00. (C). then Q serves on the same committee. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. However. (D). making as many deductions as you can. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. the “swing” principal. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). For this question. 17. (E). one of the principals on each committee is the same. As we saw in the previous question. check each choice in turn. Check each choice one by one. but at 9:30. So (B) is the answer. the “swing” principal. P. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. can‟t meet. N. Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. (D). However. Ax and Chow. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal.
and N is also on the Ethics Committee. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. O. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. if we know which one is on both committees. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. Choices (A). or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. and which one is on one committee only. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. as the other pair. so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. and P. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). So (A) is the answer. That leaves (C). to serve on the Ethics Committee. 22. contradicting (B) and . which is a violation of Rule 4. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). Now. L can‟t be on both committees. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). then L is also on the Ethics Committee. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. leaving (C). (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. and then check the choices. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). so eliminate (D) and (E). N. (D). the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. leaving (D). M. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. and L. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. or (A). O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). and (E) each define the role of either N or O. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. 20. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. so (A) is wrong. O. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. Otherwise. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. As we‟ve already seen. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. to serve on both committees. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. Determine who must be on which committee. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. (B). Q. O and P. (C) and (D) are both possible. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. so (C) is correct. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). only N or O can serve on the same committee. 21.some thing like this: 18. Therefore. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. N. so neither can be on both committees. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). 19.
the issue is the definition of international law. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier.(C). Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. not oxen. he merely says that it doesn't. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 .. 23. but there's no proof that it was. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. 24. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. and as it is. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. 25. so India is beyond the scope. so their opinion can't be applied here. or before approximately 3000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used. were used. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. (D)The issue is when horses. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. (A)The author says that no such body exists. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope.
2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .
taisha. or third. K must perform either first. G. Q. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. and each band must perform once and only once.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. Bands F. L. K. The nine bands must perform one after the other. L must immediately precede M in the order. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three .voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. H must perform sixth. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. Bands P. R must perform eighth. and M are rock bands.. H. 1. second. If P performs first. and R are country bands.
performs ninth. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. if true. performs ninth. 5. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. however.(D) four (E) five 4. performs seventh. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. Because of this. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. Which of the following statements. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. then Q performs fifth. performs third. In light of these findings. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. then F performs seventh. then P performs first. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. 6. 7. (D) P must perform immediately before K. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. then M performs sixth. then G performs seventh. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. For several decades. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. Recently. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes.
(B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. N. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. chosen. not be chosen. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. and vice versa. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. and O. In light of these disturbing revelations. then Q must not be chosen. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. L and M chosen. M. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. Q. also be chosen. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. and R. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. then M must also be chosen. . Just last week. however.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. and the sociologists P. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. 8. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. The only available lecturers are the historians L. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. then N must then O must are chosen. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. and to laughter. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen.9. (D) If O is chosen. and Z. sometimes move Q and S to tears. O is not chosen. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. W. M. M. L is not chosen. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. L. and P for presentation at the soiree. Q. Q. 10. (B) O is chosen. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. S. L. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. T. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. (D) M is not chosen. R. (B) R must never be chosen. If all of the sociologists are chosen. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. P. R. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. (E) N is not chosen. Q is not chosen. H. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. (C) If M is chosen. P is not chosen. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. U has prepared only works by poets K. Z. N is not chosen. N. N. (E) L must never be chosen. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. G. O. P sometimes move W.
Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. painting. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. P. and wardrobe. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. and living room of a client‟s house. K. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. den. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. P. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. mirror. table. and L only 16. vase . lamp. mirror. and L only (E) works by K. 17. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. rug. vase. table lamp. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. and L only (E) works by K. table. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. painting. and L only (D) works by N. vase vase mirror. rug. rug. N. rug. table. N. 14. sofa. rug. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. sofa. wardrobe. The sofa is placed in the living room. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. table lamp.laughter. then he or she is bored.
(E) The vase is placed in the den. the painting. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. (E) The vase is placed in the den. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. rug. and if the wardrobe. 21. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. table.18. Yet . A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. table (E) table. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. the lamp. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. vase (C) lamp. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. 20. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. 19. table (B) rug. rug (D) painting. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. (C) The table is placed in the den. vase 23. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. If the lamp.
Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. 25. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. Which one of the following. his liver loses the . (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. if true. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. Research has shown. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. Furthermore. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. if true. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. however. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. where the legal drinking age was still 18. 24.paradoxically. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. which can be fatal. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. Which of the statements below. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. Therefore. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question.
R is eighth (Rule 3). and R is eighth. 1. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. (E): L and M must be together. M is fifth. Combine Rules 1 and 3. respectively. are F 3. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. M is fifth. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. K is second. in either order. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. such as shrimp. in order to appear at a music marathon. P and Q. 2. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. in either order. as we deduced in the game overview. H. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. pair. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. M) and three country bands (P. is a country band. G. Q. and R is eighth. incorporate the rules. prove or band. or third. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . Therefore (A) is correct. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. in either order. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. L is fourth. second. to separate the two country bands. L. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. K. second. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. then Q must be third. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. (Rule 1). and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. R. That leaves two country bands. six rock bands (F. Since K is first. H is sixth. second. is a country band. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. Create a master sketch. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. they are first and third. If P is first. in either order. That means K must be second. only. respectively. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. or third. or third. in either order. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. one at a time. is a country band. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. Since K is first. Rule 4 states that K is first. R) must be placed. R. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. There are only two . to go in two of the first three slots. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together.
Always look for opportunities to use previous work. then G is seventh position except first and third. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. which of the following must be true. If. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. eliminate any choice that can be false. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime.. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. (A). So we know every in either order. we‟re only concerned with this city. (E)If anything. so (B). 6. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. in either order. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. Since the question is worded. respectively. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. but need not is ninth. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. and F is ninth. 7. (E) must be true: H is 5.possibilities. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. however. 4. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. and (D) Q—they can be true. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. . Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. and P and Q. (B). for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. If G performs before F. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2.
and (E) are all false. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. then not O If O. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. then not Q). some of the diseases may have other causes. or M and Q. then not Q If R. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. and noting who can be chosen together. N. Q. (D). P and N together. then M is chosen. shorthanded: P + N together If R. then M 9. Q. (B). R) to lecture before a class. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. then Q is not chosen. M. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. Create a master sketch. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. and R) are chosen. then R can‟t be chosen. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. Notice that you can take L and Q. Q. without violating Rule 3. since R is chosen. M. then O isn‟t chosen. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. R Incorporate the rules. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. N. Since the question is worded. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough.8. (C). If R and Q . Therefore. 10. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. but they‟re not being followed. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. which of the following CANNOT be true. So (A) is correct. O) and sociologists (P. Start with what you are given. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. In other words. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. listing the available speakers. then P is chosen. The rules. then N is chosen. O Sociologists: P. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. and if N is chosen. then not R If L + M. Rule 2 says if R is chosen.
If O and M are chosen together. and O. P. so take R (via Rule 4). At this point you can stop. So (B) is only possible. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. Q. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. Q. we can only take a maximum of two from M. for completeness. This question is a good example of using previous work. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. Therefore. so (D) is the answer. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. But if L and Q are chosen. if R is chosen. 13. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. So take L and M. So. M must be chosen). then M can‟t be chosen. so (C). As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). b for bored. then not Q. Scan the choices for L. M. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. We already took M. Q. and you find them in (D): If L. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. and Q. l for laughter. S. H. If O and M aren‟t chosen. W. and M must be chosen. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. R. then not O. or “some. and R. and R. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. Therefore. As we learned in Question 6. (E) is false. eliminating (C). M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. Based on Rules 2 and 4. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. not definite. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. (A) and (D) can be true. then M. However. M must be chosen. if L and Q are chosen. and not just sometimes. Since the question says possibly. but needn‟ t be true. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. and R are chosen. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. N.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. M. then R can‟t be chosen). H and T are always .are chosen. or five. M can‟t be chosen. Since R. That‟s L. and we‟ve just proved that. in this case a grid: 14. That eliminates (C). T. of L. and P and N can be chosen. That leaves (B) as correct. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. 12. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. we can only take two of the three. so it‟s correct. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. 11. N. the full deduction: Of Q or L. and L and O can‟t chosen. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). and P. L. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. Q. G. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen.
and (E). You can place the items in the rooms. living room). S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. or 1. but N moves T to boredom. 2. Poet K moves T to laughter. but otherwise is bored. and T. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). Put an S in the living room. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). P. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. If (A). If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. So (C) is out. (B). so (D) is possible. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. always move one literati to laughter. M. V. so (B) is out. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. and one choice violates none of them. four choices violate one or more rules. Depending on how you look at it.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. 15. N. 16. and Z sometimes moved to tears. P. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. poets L and P. S. one literati is always moved to laughter. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. one literati is always moved to laughter. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. The others: P and N. a violation of Rule 4. N. (D). Create a master sketch. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. and 4. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. Start with the rules that are most concrete. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. H by poet N and T by poet K. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. R. leaving (A). Compare each rule to the choices. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. in any order. sometimes move four literati to tears. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. (D) places the sofa in the den. so (B) and (E) are wrong. W. and locate T. so no PV. bored by poet N. and 5. Therefore. then F and Q are always moved to tears. (D). so MW. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. (C). so the combination of poets K. den. and P is the exception. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. and work your way towards the abstract ones. W) in three rooms (bedroom. and there are eight items total.moved to laughter. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. Refer to your sketch. Rule 4 places S in the living room. For this acceptability question. That leaves (D). 3. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. then that‟ s our answer. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. Questions 17 . (C). throwing out violators. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). P. T. in any order. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . K. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. S.
3. violating Rule 1. eliminating (C). and T must therefore be in the living room. and (E) are wrong. and S. or 5 items in any given room. L. (B). you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. which claim that the den has 3 items. according to Rule 2. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. and 4. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. L. That eliminates (B) and (D). and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. 21. and S. as (A) states. 4. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. leaving only (E) as possible. Start with the second piece of information in the question. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). (D). T. with the other joining S in the living room. Start with S in the living room. is empty. (B). we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. in either order. 18. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. and W are in the living room. (C). M. Since the living room has W. and (E) can be eliminated. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. in any order. and 5. that leaves only two items. but you must have at least one item in each room. so (A). or 1. so the den can only contain one item. then the living room contains W. and the den has 2 items. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). R. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. Since Rule 5 is suspended. Since we can have 2. Next. the sofa and the vase. That means the living room has more than one item. You know that P can‟t be with V. (A). in any order. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. then. T is in the den. so it‟s the answer. 3. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. so P is in the living room with S. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. M. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. V can be in the den. . 20. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 3. (B). We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. or 5. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). 4. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). for the other two rooms. M. If M is with S. then the third room. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. Only (B) follows the rules. If W is in the living room. and there are eight items total. but not “always” 2. As we learned in Question 20. (C).den. 22. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. L is in another room. S. the den. one room must have exactly 1 item. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. so either P or V is in the den. 19. 2. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room.
(B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. 25. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. 24. so why the increase in drunk driving. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. hence the increase in accidents. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. . People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. Otherwise. dietary or medical. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. however.23. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. According to research. to lower blood cholesterol levels. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. Well. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. If.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. . Mugs. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. (E) F is not chosen. one trainer and one dog per room.If F is chosen. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. Molly. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. If G is chosen for the issue. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. then J must also be chosen. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. (C) H is not chosen. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. three trainers (Luis. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. To test the system. 7. If M is not chosen for the issue. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands.
W. A. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. . and W—live in the building. T. to T‟s apartment on the same level. One of the apartments is empty. W. A (D) X. 12. X (E) X. W (D) W. V. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. to the empty apartment on the same level. W. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. W (C) Z. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. W. Command W. W. the bottom floor is Level B. Z (C) W. S. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. levels. W (E) Z. The top floor is called Level A. between two other apartments on the same level. one to an apartment. four on each floor. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. Y. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. Z. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. Y. X (B) W. W (B) X. Z.11. A. X 14. Exactly seven people—P. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. Y. R. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. Q. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. W. W. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. Y.
15. There must be a senior club member playing each game. M cannot play dominoes. R (B) G. and dominoes. two will play chess. chess. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. H. R‟s apartment is on Level A. K. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. and two—P and R—are club applicants. Three of those present—F. 17. P. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. F. 19. H and P must play the same game. respectively? (A) G. R. F. and three will play dominoes. H. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. two—K and M—are junior club members. G cannot play the same game that R plays. K. M. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. P . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. G. M. Each person present can play only one of the three games. directly above T‟s apartment. directly above P‟s apartment. and H—are senior club members. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B.
M plays backgammon. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. P. P. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. If R plays backgammon. P. G plays backgammon. 24. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. By doing so. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. G. M. M. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. H. (B) Only ethical considerations. K. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. This is not merely a matter of using . F plays dominoes. G. R 20. K. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. R. notably Japan. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. H. G. K. R (E) F. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. F. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. P plays chess. M (D) H. 21.(C) F. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. and not those of self-interest.
Such concerns are irrelevant here.manual mowers instead of power mowers. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. pollution would be drastically reduced. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. or the commissary is serving fish. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. or both. and (D) has C before A. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. or both. 3)S can‟t be first. what needs to be done must be done. C. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. so the first spice is either N or A. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. (B) has sage first. Something must be done about the 51. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. so it‟s out. so they‟re out. N. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. S and T. and (E) has N coming after T. (B) It is a workday. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. . you may be able to meet the actors. or the commissary is serving fish. 25. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. If all the statements above are true. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel.
(C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of.000 apiece. Now we have AC and S. it‟s simply irrelevant. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. N. 3=========FIN A1= First. the number of attacks would have increased. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. which limits our options. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. C. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. (D) must be false. (A) . A is joined with C. T. There‟s no supporting evidence. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. so eliminate (A) and (B). (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. since we can‟ t separate A and C. Our sequence is A. S. Try plugging in numbers. N and T will work. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. they‟re as fickle as short termers. so scratch (D) and (E). then the 20% . (B) doesn‟t support the argument. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. S can‟t be first. C. If they don‟ t. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. and it can‟t be second either. put S in the second slot. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. Previously. leaving (C). The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. S. (E) is the assumption.
m can‟t be. m. l and o— those are your five articles. l and o. J. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. G or H. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. If you circle m. we need 3 lower case and k. three. o. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. Cross out m. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. l and o. l. so there are three possibilities and (C). If you circle G . not what type of sets consumers prefer. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. Let‟s jump to (C). m is not. choosing J yields three possible groups. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. you have to choose the other three dance articles. so (A) is correct. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). Any of the rest can be fifth—F. o. you must have J.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. choice (A) . and if we cross out m we circle k. our answer. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . but the rest is wide open. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). Rule 3 says you have to circle J. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. you see that if you cross out m. making them easy to eliminate. k. l and o and you need go no further. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. 2)If J is chosen. With Rule 1. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. F. k. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. you can‟t have m and to have F. so (C) is correct. k. circle k. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. you have to cross out J and F . (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. As we saw in Question 8. If you circle F. is correct. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. you must choose J. 3)If you choose F. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. you have to cross out J. J. and since m is dance. and if you choose m. l and o. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. or 4 dance and 1 theater. (A) . if G and J are circled. you can circle the other 3. and circle k. so we can eliminate (C). Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. l. so we can eliminate (E). We have J. H. you know you can circle k. If you have J. G.
k. W is called. k. the dogs return to their original trainers. 2)With command X. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . For the record. 3)With command Y. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. But we need five. she‟s there with o. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. and L moves to Room 2. G. M is in Room 3. m to M and o to O. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . not 1. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. two Ws. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. etc. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. Ol . o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. L. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. and (E) is out because L is with m. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. putting Onyx in 1. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. L in 2. We have rooms 1. (C) is out because M is with o. not with o. m. H. k. then moving them around according to different commands. and Oo in Room 3. and M in 3. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. l. k. If we circle F and G. and to do that we need one X. o or G. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. and the second W moves her to 2. you could have G. 2 and 3. Which choice is true of that? (B). l. J is chosen. 5)With command A. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. A second W puts M in 1. not dogs.and H. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. We have three trainers. l. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. Let‟s jump to (E). H. we circle J. O in 2 and L in 3. We can‟t disprove (E). the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. The first W moves O to 1. since if F is chosen. then see what commands move them to Room 2. not with m. Mm in Room 2. So we have in Room 1. not in 2. J. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. m. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. Yes. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. so it‟s correct. l. H. but that moves trainers. 4)With command Z. o. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. m or G. (A) is out because O is with l. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. l. Looking at the wrong choices. the only one that moves trainers. and o. m. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. So l returns to L. (C).
L. Now turn to the W. But if you call A. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. the other on B. Call W once. W and A puts O again in 1. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. To get from L. 5)W is next to empty. empty and Q on A. R.correct. As for (B). how to go from l. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. L in 2. P. M in 1. A. 4)T is not in one of the ends. P is in B-4. but that isn‟t a choice. so Q is on A. L. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. are both on A. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. and we need a place for V. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. so we know that P and T are on B. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. o to o. We have W. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. W is on A. and T can‟t be on an end. and as for (C) and (D). so (E) is correct. With P in B-3. S on B. Take your people. empty. so add empty to A. Q and (E). (A) ‟s sequence of X. so we‟ve got our answer. putting m in 2 and l in 3. so P is in B-3. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. so W is on A and S is on B. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. but l in 2. 1 or 4. W and empty. you get O. 8 apartments—1 is empty. it has to be next to P in B-2. S. so you have Oo in 1. So we put S underneath in B-2. W. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . (B). empty unit. call W twice. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. O to M. And with (A) and (C). T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. P. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. Y lines up the dogs. As for (D). so since B-2 is occupied by S. l? One call of Z. V. L. M. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. one‟s on A. 3)P and T are adjacent. and fill them in the eight slots. S. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. so either TP or PT . So W and S have to be in A- . V and R are left—one will be on A. m. the dogs seek out their trainers. O. Q. m. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. R and V. T. (C). not A-4. 2)S and Q are on different levels. So T is in 2 or 3. For the dogs. Y. P is next to T. As for the others. we have no more light on the R and V issue. O. since T can‟t be on the end. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. W .
It‟s between V and R . Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. so it‟s F. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). H and p are together. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. Turn to our W. chess with two and dominoes with three. k and r play dominoes.1 and B-1. (B) has F and H. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. p and r in dominoes. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. Nix (E). 2)Three senior members. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. so H and p must play dominoes. which is correct. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. The question asks about A-1. (or p and someone else). so it‟s out and (D) is correct. making (D) correct . m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. k. so (A) is out. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. and only dominoes has three people. H. So only two people could go in A-1. 4)H and p must play the same game. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. since H. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. since H is with p . since they have m playing dominoes. and empty goes next to W in A-2. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. 7 slots. so we have one cap in each group. Now go to the Hp unit. P and S are out because they‟re on B. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. r can‟t play with G . directly above T in B-2. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. they must play dominoes. (B). With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. k and m are both lower . T. F. The senior can‟t be H. F. G. The Rules: 1)7 people. empty unit. G. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. It must be F. S. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. so it can‟t be H. and juniors and applicants in lower case. p and r in dominoes is okay. Let‟s put seniors in caps. If they play chess. There‟s only one grouping possible. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. m and p.
(A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. true on a workday. That way.” That‟s summarized by (D). We must do what‟s necessary. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. so k. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. or it‟ s not a workday. (C). Japan. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . which this doesn‟t mention. F and m. fish may or may not be served. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. so (D)‟s correct. A makes most of its money back. and its aid policy. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. and (B)‟s correct. to save the environment. so it‟s (A) . and H. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. (B)It might also be a non-workday. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. Besides. (D):G and m in backgammon. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. according to the stimulus. and we need a cap for each. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. the workday with fish. p and r dominoes. “notably Japan. is fine: F and m in backgammon.) But m can‟t play dominoes. F and k chess. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. G and k in chess and H. p and r in dominoes. or both. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. so k and m can‟t be together. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. no matter how drastic and costly. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument.case.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. but rather that it is necessary. For the record. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. that the commissary is serving fish. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost.
(E) A. G. T. T. X. 2.. 1. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. W. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. 6. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. (D) C. 7. then the fifth must be either B or D. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same.taisha. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. If the third symbol is a number. The sequence is called a combination. (B) F. K. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . R. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. 4.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. M. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. If the third symbol is a letter. Q. 3. Which of the (A) E. L. (C) B.
(D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. Q. G (E) M. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. H. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. If the statements above are true. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. respectively? (A) J. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. 6.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. . F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. such as beef and poultry. a special visa is required. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. third. S 4. and fifth symbols. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. 4. however. if true. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. Thus. P. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. 6. T (C) 9. D (B) A. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. 8. X (D) 3. Z. Which of the following. The combination C. 9.
(D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. if true. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. medium. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. high. low. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. medium. He decides that.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. 8. low.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. 7. low. high. low. medium. medium (E) low. of pessimistic forecasts. high. medium (C) medium. and one produces a high-pitched ring. high. high. Last the service sector. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. one produces a medium-pitched ring. high. medium (B) low. low. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. low (D) medium. medium. for the sequence. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. Over the has greatly expanded. low. high. medium. medium. one cannot argue that Which of the following. medium. medium. . (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. low. low. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. high. low. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. low. low. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. high. low. 500. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. In the our economy is wilting. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. high 9. medium. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
if true. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. cost. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. (E) Work time. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. Which of the following. (C) Fifteen years ago. 24. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. According to a recent school survey. never engage in this aggressive play. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. . This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. (D) Work time. however. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. cost.
so it‟s correct. 3)In Option 2. So F can‟t begin and E. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. That leaves correct choice (D). (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. B is 1st. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. (E). and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. the 5th symbol must be B or D. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. and the sequence begins with C . and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. You‟ve used B first. the number is 3rd. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. the number is 2nd. F. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. That leaves (A). If you start with F. You end with B or D and this ends with F. B or D only. there can‟t be an F or a G . The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. so (A) won‟t work. Only one letter comes after Y . 4=========FIN A2= First. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. and B doesn‟t. replace the F with a D. The number is 3rd. a Rule 2 no-no. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. Skim to (D). the 5th must be B or D. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. E. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. you begin with a letter later than B or D. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. is correct. In Option 2. (A) begins with E. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. and (E). Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. Only (A) gives you that option. In Option 2. . violating Rule 5. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. so all letters must appear later than E.
The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. (E) replaces the C with an A. a special visa is required. (E)Isn‟t inferable. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. Focuses on cost. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. the sequence ends with a D. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. economy continues to grow and prosper. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. If the population increase is slower than projected. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. so (C) won‟t work. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If.S. . So (D) is correct. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. you need a special visa. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. We talked about that in (A).which works with the rules for Option 2. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. As for the others. As evidence. if you do so. So (D) is correct. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. as (B) says. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas.
a medium. and it‟s correct. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. and one after. yes. and 7th. medium. (A) puts the high bell 1st. yes. and 7th. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. (A) has high. low is 3rd. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. 5th. The beginning looks like this—low. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. one low third. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. (B) medium is 2nd. and 5. the other high 2nd. and the high bell 2 times. and 5. the medium bell 3 times. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. 4. leaving us with (B). (A). So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. high. and 5th. so (D)‟s correct. 3)The two high bells will stick together. You ring the low bell 3 times. low. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. medium. so dump (D) and (E). 4. high bell is 4th. We‟ll have to put two before this set. 4. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . and split up the lows 1st. so (E)‟s correct. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. That works if we put a low 1st. a high. (D). low is 1st. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. 5th. and mediums 4th and 6th. it could still be the most important factor overall. (E). yes. (D) has a high 3rd. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. yes. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. and 8 rings. in 3. (E) puts the high 8th. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. the correct answer. either would be okay. and a low. the other high 2nd. then fill the space between with a medium. 4th. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. medium. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. (C). medium. next to the high in 3. and low. and a medium 5th. 3rd. high. (B) has low. a medium 4th. Now we have to split up the lows. (C) puts a high 3rd. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. low in 3. So we‟ll put one low first.
and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. All the others work. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. (E) has high. and 5. start at the home office.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. Edinburgh. and medium in 3. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. to Edinburgh. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. Edinburgh. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. Dakar. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. medium 8th. describes a route it could not have followed. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. 7 and 8. Caracas. (D) is fine. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. Caracas. (C) is fine. 4 and 5. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. so (C) is correct. Having done 9 and 10. which makes (B) correct. low 7th. Beijing. (E). (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. you could send it to Dakar. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. That‟s acceptable. Caracas. send the memo to Beijing. In priority 2. You know that‟s okay from 9. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. and no way to do that. 15=========FIN A2= . 1 and 2. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. Fresno. Edinburgh. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. the dead end. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. medium 6th. Fresno. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. Fresno. in both cases they go next to Caracas. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. we‟ve discussed this— yes. so this is acceptable. 2 types of memos. Beijing. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. How about (E). it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. You have 6 cities. a low 5th. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. 4. low.
so it went to Beijing. F must be immediately above L . 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. the only place it can go is to Caracas. go to Caracas. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. and (A) is correct. What . and H on shelf 2. and in Option 2. and L. Only Beijing and Fresno. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. and Beijing. (A). The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. and the answer is (C). (D). So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. (B). go to Beijing. where was it sent? Priority 2. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. write next to shelf 2 no J. you can start in the home office. That works in priority 1. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. Caracas. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. to Caracas. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. you‟d break Rule 3. we work with Option 1. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. could have seen the memo. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. that‟s three. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. G. the dead end. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. 1)In Option 1. top to bottom. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. a dead end. then Edinburgh. Caracas. write next to shelf 3 no J. go to Dakar. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. Option 1. Beijing. Option 2. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. so (B) won‟t do it. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. After Dakar. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. (C). and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. the only place it can go is Fresno. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. and then Beijing. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. You have two options. so it won‟t work. a dead end.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. As far as priority 2. (D) is correct. Dakar.
So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. (D). we‟ve already said we can. and shelf 1 is empty. and H is a floater. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. (E). so the only place for K is shelf 3. so the only home for K is 3. so you will work with Option 1. and H on 2 and that left us with L. and 1 remains empty. J. If we split them up. In Option 1. so (A)‟s correct. You can put H on shelf three. then J is on shelf two. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. K. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. So (B)‟s correct. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. then the only place is shelf 1. (B). The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. K and J must be on the same shelf. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. if shelf 3 is empty. L.must be true? Look at (B). 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. as long as they‟re on 3. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. where shelf three is open. L. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. so J is on shelf 2. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. K. so (D)‟s correct. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. (A). we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. and in Option 2. L is on shelf 2. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. K. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. We put F. J is on shelf two. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. If H is on shelf three. let‟s look at the situation. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. and G on 3. we just did with (A). J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. so (C) is correct. J and K are tennis trophies. shelf 1 is empty. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. so shelf 1 has F. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. so it‟s on shelf 2. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. (B) puts K and L on the same . it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct.
but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. so (E)‟s our answer. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. (D) has F and shelf. not because it is better than staining. shelf two. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. and longevity are equally important factors. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. cost. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. (E) has J on shelf two. . but that‟s true only in Option 2. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. but J is never on shelf three. We get the former in (A). (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. that‟s true in Option 1 only. If most students attend services for social reasons. cost. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity.shelf. not the past 15 years. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. (C) does the trick. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild.. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. Unless there are other differences.
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