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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Xiao treats throats. Zeller does not treat ears. Xiao treats ears. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. York treats throats. If a doctor treats ears. Xiao treats ears. noses. York treats noses. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. York does not treat noses. If Dr. York must treat ears. York treats. (E) Dr. and throats 15. then he or she must also treat ears. Dr. Dr. Xiao does not treat ears. York treats noses. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. In that case. Zeller treats ears. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. York does not treat throats. Zeller treats throats. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. (C) Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Dr. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. York treats ears. Xiao does not treat noses. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. York does not treat noses. 14. York treats exactly one part of the body. Dr. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. Dr. If Dr. Xiao treats ears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr.doctors. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. then Dr. he or she must also treat throats. then he or she must also treat throats. Dr. If Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. Zeller treats throats. Dr. 17. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. four on top and four on bottom. 13. the . York treats noses. Suppose that Dr. Dr. Dr. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Dr. Xiao treats throats. Which of the following must be true? Dr. Zeller does not treat ears. which of the following must be true? Dr. Dr. Zeller treats noses. Dr. If Dr.
Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. grapefruit. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. apples. pears. grapefruit. they contain different types of fruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. oranges. grapefruit. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. pears. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . Compartment 1 contains apples. oranges. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. 22. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. pears.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. or pears. grapefruit. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit.
a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. which they could read in the Official Journal. 25. Governor Kipling. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. not the intent of his tax hike.23. however. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. Gilliatt can create any mood. What they don‟t realize. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. By raising corporate taxes. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. 24. . describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems.
Thus. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). (B). be true. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. Finally. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. 2. breaking Rule 2. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. As for the others: (A). Now incorporate the rules. but (C) has five Ons. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. 3. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. So the sketch looks like this: 1. 5. If light 2 and light 5 are On. but need not. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. For this acceptability question. 4. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . As with Question 2. since light 3 is Off. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. leaving (B). but don‟t need to be true. Note that in the sketch. light 6 is Off. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. four choices violate one or more rules. but don‟t need to be true. starting with the most concrete. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. (D). (E) can. Therefore. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. and 6) that are each either On or Off. 2. and (C) are false. and numbering them 1 through 10.
4. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. That means light 4 is On. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. Create a master sketch. If this were not the case. light 3 is Off. 5. and as we figured out. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. If light 8 is Off. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). is the number that can be determined. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. Therefore. Start with what you‟re given. If light 6 is On. light 5 is also Off. the argument predicts ruin. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. (C). (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. (E). and light 7 is Off. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. must be true. As always. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. (E)Beyond the scope. it's the effects we're concerned with. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. Questions 8-12 In this game. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. totaling four On lights. (B)Beyond the scope. eight lights. in either order. the music's message won't corrupt them. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. light 4 is On. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. using columns or circles to . the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. 6.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. Otherwise. 7.
M. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. L. but don‟t need to be true. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). Your sketch should look something like this : 8. Create a master sketch. or (A). That makes three members on one committee. N must serve on Rules. (C). N). and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. If O can‟t serve with P. You‟re given that L serves with M. and N must serve with M. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together.represent the two committees. then N does too. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. and one member (J) is already on Housing. 10. Questions 13-17 In this game. Y. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). eliminating (D) and (E). so (D). eliminating (B). so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. so put a J under Housing. Nose. 12. (B). six committee members can be determined. with three columns to represent the body parts. be true. Each committee must have at least three members. Start with what you‟re given. or (C). and N all serve together. K. O. O can‟t serve with M. P can serve on either committee. so (A) can be eliminated. and three horizontal rows . O can‟t serve with M. L. If M serves on Housing. and (E) are false. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. so K. using their first initials (J. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). M. That leaves J. In the setup. then P must serve with M and N. and Throat. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. can. 9. (C). but need not. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. M. O. M. Abbreviate the members‟ names. three doctors (shorthanded X. K must serve Committee. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. Since J is always on Housing. Therefore. 11. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. N. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. As for the others: (B). (A). and P to serve on Housing. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. L. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N.
Look at what you have. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. numbered 1-8. so does Z. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. choices that can be false can be eliminated.underneath. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. X can. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. but need not. (A). and then add your knowledge of the rules. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. (D). treat ears. if X treats throats. Each compartment contains apples (A). (D). (B) is true. but need not. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). 13. then X must also treat throats. then Y must also treat throats. Yet. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. Y must treat noses. noses. because of Rule 3. Start with what you‟re given. according to Rule 2. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. So (B) must be true. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . However. Therefore. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. then Y can‟t treat ears. so put “no” in the appropriate column. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. Rule 1 states that ears. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. Since X can‟t treat noses. must be false. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. be false. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. ears and throats only. In other words. (C) is correct. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. 14. one for each doctor. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). but need not. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. Go through the choices. If X treats ears. Both Y and Z must treat noses. 16. Z also treats. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. If Y treats ears. then try to make some deductions. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. grapefruit (G). one by one. be true. 17. that doctor must also treat throats. and (E) can. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. (C). (A) can. However. X must treat at least throats. 15. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. oranges (O). if Y treats it. (D). leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses.
so if Compartment 4 contains pears. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. This leaves (C). Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. 3. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. (A) is correct. so (B) is correct. Place a G in Compartment 8. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. Thus. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). From that and Rules 5 and 6. so there are no more than four pears. Therefore. which contains apples. As in Question 20. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. Since the question asks which could be true. Check each choice in turn. 21. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. according to Rule 5. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. as well. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. (C). Your sketch should look something like this: 18. Compare each rule to the choices. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). However. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. which contains grapefruit.Incorporate the rules.e. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. eliminating (D) and (E). Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. and one choice violates none of them. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. So put an A in Compartment 1. and 4). can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. 20. 19. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. four choices violate one or more rules. the four incorrect choices must be false. From that and Rules 5 and 6. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). For this acceptability question. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2).
If only one compartment contains apples. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. but on what actually happened. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. 6 and 7. 25. but makes no connection to problems in humans. So Compartments 2. not to supernatural subject matter. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). must be true. thus increasing unemployment. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. Compartments 2. 23. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. but the question of his intent versus his actions. 24. If. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. merely her effective technique. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). which is that unemployment increased. (B) and (C) are false. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. Therefore. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. rather than how they are described. 22. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. since the jobs program was never implemented. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. Compartment 1 contains apples. The adjacent compartments. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). . it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. As for the top. Only (A). (D). and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). (B)There's no mention of her popularity. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. can‟t contain grapefruit. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. for instance. (B)We don't know this. 3. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. 5. is the maximum number. a total of four. 3. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems.
The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. u. v.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. t. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed.org . y. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. x. w. After 1981. positioned in that order from west to east. Sector u was constructed in 1981. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. and z. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. 1.
2. 1985 (C) 1983. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. If Sector s was built in 1985. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1986 6. 1984 (B) 1982. 1984 (D) 1983. 1983. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1985 5. 1983. 1984. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. 1983 (D) 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1984 (E) 1982. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1985 (E) 1983.
The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. only five had presented any serious complications. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. 9. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. The Commissioner of Public Works. In a recent test. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. if true. harmful pollutants.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. 8. Which of the following. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily.
Yellow Toll.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Red Toll. motorists pass two radial highways. Madrid Highway. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. and Paris Highway. and due southwest of the city center. but no other tollbooths. which extends south from the city center. London Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . called the Beltway. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. 10. Paris Highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. The radial highways are: London Highway. Red. which extends due north from the city center. Blue. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. Vienna Highway. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. which extends due west from the city center. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. Madrid Highway. and Yellow Tolls. which runs due northeast from the city center. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. due east. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. Vienna Highway 13. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. due southeast.
Quentin (E) Pedro. Pedro. Laura. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Oliver. Oliver. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Quentin (B) Jim. Mike. Laura. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Oliver. Jim. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Laura. Nick. Quentin (C) Kathy. Quentin. Pedro. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Kathy. Jim is taller than Kathy. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Kathy 15. Nick. Oliver. but taller than Jim. Oliver. 14. Nick. Jim. Laura. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. If Quentin is taller than Jim. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Nick.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Kathy. Laura. Pedro. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Pedro. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Kathy. Mike. Jim. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . and Quentin—are measured for height. Mike. Nick. Mike. Pedro. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Mike. Quentin (D) Oliver. Laura. Mike. Kathy. Nick.
and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and 5 . Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. S votes “no” on movie 2. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. There are no abstentions. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and U. and 4 (E) movies 2. and 5 (D) movies 2. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. 2. and 3. The five judges on the committee are Q. T. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. If R votes “no” on all five movies. 3. U votes “yes” on movie 4. and 5. 19. S. R. 21. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. 4. 3.
(D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. Freda Tully. Which of the following.23. or to fingers and wrists. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. 25. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. Coach Parker. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. there was no competent leadership in the firm. which are forever twisting above. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. control panels or electric counters. McGovern‟s new executive director. . has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. productivity has nearly doubled. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. Today. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. 24. if true. Profits are on the rise. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. and sales are better than ever. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. When workers were primarily employed by industry. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery.
(E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. As we‟ve just seen. u. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. v. w. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. (C). so (C) and (D) are out. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. sector w must be constructed before sector x. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. However. sector v must be constructed before sector w. though it used to be the other way around. (B). Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. . x. so (C). Sector x is constructed in 1984. y. Therefore. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. and (D). There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. For this question. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. That leaves three choices. Write 1981 in u‟s space. 1. Create a master sketch. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. In order for sector w to be constructed. the four incorrect choices must be false. sector v can be constructed in 1982. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. (D) Compared to their ancestors. t. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. and sector u is constructed in 1981. Since the question asks which could be true. 2. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. Therefore. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984.
then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. Now. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. 4. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. Using the reverse thinking. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. 1983. 6. Therefore. 1983. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. sector y must be constructed after 1986. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. As we saw in the previous question. (C).3. but when you look at the choices. sector v must be constructed by 1984. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. v. 1984. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. and z) because of Rule 2. However. sector y in 1987. . y. If sector v is constructed in 1982. y. (D) is correct. First. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. 5. and (D). vitamin C. If sector t is constructed in 1982. and z. So (A) is correct. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. and so isn't parallel. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. That eliminates (A) and (B). (B). You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. if sector t is constructed in 1982. and sector z in 1988. Therefore (D)—1982. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. sector w in 1983 or 1984. That sounds too simple to be the solution. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. which are choices (A). Otherwise. causes kidney stones. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). respectively. 7. sector x in 1986. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. in 1988. Under this question‟s conditions. t. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. Likewise. w. and 1984. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. Sector z can be constructed last. You need to determine two dates here. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector w must be constructed before sector x. So. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. In fact.
and Paris (P). That means. For the sketch. and due southwest of the city. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. due east. Madrid (M). Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. There are four tollbooths. Red (R). just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. If. you‟ll pass two radial highways. Green (G). but no other tollbooths. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument.(E)A general claim is made. 8. past the Beltway. Vienna (V). P extends due northeast. due southeast. but noexamples are provided. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. not their danger. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. The four highways extend from the city outward. in . (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. in either order. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. Looking at the sketch. L extends due north. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. 9. Blue (B). By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. V extends due south. M extends due west. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. however. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period.
Use the deductions from Question 11. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. eliminating rule violators. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. Create a master sketch. As we deduced in Question 11. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. Check each choice in turn. between the Madrid and the Vienna. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. 13. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. If it‟s merely possible. (C). M. N. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). in either order. and Yellow Tolls. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. place eight students in height order. Red. the Paris. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. L. from tallest to shortest. and isn‟t a must. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. Q). P.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. namely the Green. or (E). For the sketch. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. . top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. Use your sketch. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. since their locations are described in the question. K. Looking at the sketch. Blue. or the Southeast tollbooth. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. you‟ll pass two radial highways. O. Therefore. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. (A). only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. and among the choices. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. 12. but no other tollbooths. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. 11. so (E) is wrong. and check each choice in turn. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. the Madrid. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast.
For this acceptability question. or (A). Nick. in that order. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Quentin. 14. 17. eliminating (C) and (D). we know that Mike. Nick. Jim. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third.Look at the rules. and Pedro. Since there are only three available spots below . and two available spots for students taller than her. Oliver. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). or (B). so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. with the remaining students. you can figure out the possibilities. 15. but taller than Jim. For this question. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. Also. So Quentin is taller than Jim. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. Rule 5 says Laura is third. So. we can definitely determine who is fourth. and then. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. and note that there are only two students above her. Compare each choice to the rules. Laura is third. Combining our deductions. leaving (B). only Jim. This eliminates (B) and (E). and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. 18. Mike. and who must be shorter. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. There‟s only one possible order here. or Quentin can be first. So place the L on your piece of paper. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. Since Laura is third. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. and one choice violates none of them. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. so (A) is out.. Adding Rules 2 and 4. and since Laura is third. Laura is third highest of the eight students. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. four choices violate one or more rules. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. 16. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Kathy. Combine this with Rule 2.
it needs to receive at least three yes votes. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. and (C) can be eliminated. (C). it means a yes vote from T as well. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. 2. so T also votes no on movie 2. at least three of whom must vote yes. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. 4. according to Rule 3.” At least three yes votes are needed. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. T votes yes on movie 5. Neither R nor U must vote yes. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. figure out who must vote yes. Since S and T vote the same. as long as one . That leaves four judges. and who must vote no. although both can vote yes. Any of five movies (1. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. As we have just proved. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. so (A). Scan the choices and stop at (D). 2. Create a master sketch. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. Since the question asks which choice must be true. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). Laura must be taller than Kathy. both must vote yes. using an N. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. “exactly. this must be true. Nick. being taller than at least three other students. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. 20. one for each of the three movies. and U) to appear in a film festival. 3. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. must be taller than Laura. That thinking is reflected in (D).” that is. U votes yes on movie 4. and Pedro. so neither choice needs to be true. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. and (E) are false. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. If both vote no. 2. Since Q votes yes on movies 1.Laura. Quentin. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. (B). The third yes comes from either R or U. R. T. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. Kathy. so (D) too can be eliminated. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. Questions 19-22 In this game. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. Note that in your sketch. and 3. and 3. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. S.
3. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . To conclude this. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. 22. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. but needn‟t. If U does vote no. Looking at the remaining choices. (B) is the answer. then the other choice is correct. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. 23. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. That deduction eliminates only (A). and 5. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. S and T vote together. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. If. and three unknown votes. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. there are three yes votes. We‟re left with (D) and (E). 21. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. be true.of them does. So you need at least one more no vote. and then T votes no. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. . so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. Look for the other judges that vote no. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. S votes no. and determine whether or not U votes no. That leaves (E) to be correct. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. so (B) and (E) can. one no vote. So movie 2 has two no votes. on movie 2. R votes no. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. Choose one of the two movies. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. so T must vote no on movie 2. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. and thus have your answer. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. so (C) is eliminated.
(D)Misreads the argument. which discusses injuries. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. so this strengthens the argument. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. Most people used to work in industry. because most people now work in the service sector. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. (E)Strengthens. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. 25. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. no matter what the practice time. 24. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. To weaken this contention. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . she must therefore have provided this leadership. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. like lifting. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. (D)Strengthens. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control.
2. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. same row are the same color. the board is green. red. is yellow. same column are the same color. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . green. is green. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. is green. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. the following colors: blue. 1. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. Light 5 is green. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. or yellow. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. is red.
(E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. 8. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. In companies with only one secretary. Therefore. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. if true. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. and yellow 5. Which of the following. . If light 6 is yellow. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. but at all times. green. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. If all beaches were publicly owned.
(B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. and Z. however.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. 10. Every day. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. however. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. which are numbered 1 through 4. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. FORMerly. (D) On average. slower copiers. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. in that order. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. 9. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. Y. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. . There are. X. but for no more than three consecutive days. but for no more than two consecutive days. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement.
X is listed third. one child per car. Z is listed third. and 5. If Rob. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. 14. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. Sal. and Quint are seated in cars 1. for the first ride. Z is listed second. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. 2. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. After each ride. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. . W is listed third. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. respectively. The four children are Pip. Quint. 4. Rob. 13. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. Car 5 is never empty. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. and Sal. Pip. 12. one car remaining empty. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday.
Pip is seated in car 4. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. Sal. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. 16. and Horace.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. If Horace cooks on Friday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . (B) Rob is seated in car 2. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Rob is seated in car 4. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. Betty cooks on Wednesday. If Rob. Betty cooks on Tuesday. 3. 17. 15. and 5. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. Pip. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. Each day in the Ring home. and Quint are seated in cars 1. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. Quint is seated in car 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. (E) Car 4 is empty. Jim. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. (D) Car 3 is empty. respectively. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. for the first ride. exactly one of the three family members cooks. 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday.
Horace cooks on Wednesday. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. . Tuesday. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Friday (E) Sunday. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. Tuesday. if true. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. 24. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Jim cooks on Monday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. Horace cooks on Monday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. Thursday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Horace Jim. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. Thursday. Like modern magazines. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Friday (D) Monday. Tuesday. Friday 23. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. Thursday (C) Sunday. they related stories of important events. Monday. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. Which of the following. I know this for a fact.
There are three rows of three lights each. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. and one choice violates none of them. which can be blue. 3) can be the same color. For this acceptability question. 4. can be true. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. Compare each rule to the choices. Based on those two deductions. 2. Therefore. red. and light 1 is red. Put a G in light 5‟s space. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. (B). (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. 25. or yellow. Therefore. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. numbered on the top. however. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. light 3 is yellow. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. Average and below average students. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. 3. than they did in 1988.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. four choices violate one or more rules. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. 4 to 6. 1. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988.e. and on the bottom.e. starting with the most concrete. You must place the lights. and light 1 is red. . per week. lights 2. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. 7 to 9. green. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. 1 to 3. according to the rules provided. 4. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. in the middle. 7) can be the same color. 1. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1.
or (C). then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . or (C). and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. As we saw in Question 2. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. Also. so (E) can be eliminated. 7. That‟s only two blue lights. However. can be any color except green. That leaves lights 2. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. both private and public. light 8 must be red. 3. so (D) is correct. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. eliminating (A) and (B). and 9. according to Rule 3. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. Light 5 is green. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). That leaves lights 1. 5. That eliminates (A). but lights 2. light 7 must be yellow. and light 9 must be yellow. . three of another and two of a third color. (C). leaving six lights that aren‟t red. light 7 must be blue. or yellow. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. 2. 3. Light 6. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. if light 6 is yellow. 5. 3. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. There‟s only one green light. leaving 6. if the government already maintains all beaches. Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. so there can be a maximum of three red. To answer this question. and eliminate them as choices. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. 8. You know that light 1 is red. 4. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. Because light 1 is red. and light 5 is green.2. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. 7 and 8. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. or (C). 6. That eliminates (B) and (E). and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. leaving eight lights to be red. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). light 7 can‟t be red or green. (D). 7. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. then light 4 can be yellow. 4. If light 6 is yellow. blue. So lights 2. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. 4. and (E). There‟s only one green light. (B). The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. and 8. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. Light 1 is red. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. light 6 can be red. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow.
Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. (C)Too specific. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. 8. Four guards. Y. and 4. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. not single deficiencies. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. based on the rules provided. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. X. Rule 4 says Z . W. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. not of all the B vitamins. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. numbered 1. 3. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. cause beriberi and pellagra. 2. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. and thus save money. This is the key rule to this game. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. (C)As long as the machine is faster. Therefore. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. From all that inFORMation about W. because it limits the possible orders from day to day.they were made public than if they remained private. 9. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. and Z. Therefore.
Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. The rules all have to do with the empty car. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. Here. 11. when the next day is assigned. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. you can simply use five dashes. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. must be true. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. 13. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. Looking at the choices. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. Questions 14-16 In this game. W. W is listed first. so (E) must be correct. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. so for Thursday‟s roster. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. and one choice violates none of them. when W remains in the same gallery. Before looking at the answer choices. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. so (B) must be true. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). or are false outright. Therefore. However. There is one child per car. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . W was assigned to gallery 1. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. Z must move. For your master sketch. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. In lieu of a master sketch. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. so one car is always empty. Compare each rule to the choices. That eliminates (B) and (C). leaving (C). 12. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. X. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. (A). or in gallery 3 on both days. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. but need not be true. numbered 1 to 5. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. For Wednesday‟s roster. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. and only one. Since this question asks which must be true. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. 10. guard can remain in the same gallery. (A) and (D) can be true. According to Rule 5. If W changes assignments. Y.
The third ride. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. According to Rule 1. three family members (abbreviated B. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. Furthermore. J. Then. Sal. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. if Car 3 is empty. 16. and Quint are in Cars 1. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. Pip. For this acceptability question. 14. for the first ride. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. H must cook after . Car 2 is empty. 15. __ . Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. Compare each choice to the rules.empty. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. Quint. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). Your sketch may look something like this: 17. according to Rule 1. so (C) can be eliminated. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. Quint. you‟ll know all that must be true. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. Sal. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. Rob. following Rule 1: Pip. Stated more positively. Sal. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). and Betty cooks on Tuesday. from Sunday to Saturday. Remember. Rule 4 is always in effect. Questions 17-22 In this game. Incorporate the rules. (E) must be correct. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. four choices violate one or more rules. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Pip. So. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Pip is seated in Car 1. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Start with what you are given: Rob. That means. Pip. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Quint. or (A). for a week. The order of the first ride: Rob. therefore. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. and 5. 4. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. Therefore. Create a master sketch. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. __ . 2. H) take turns cooking each day. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. for the third ride. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. Sal. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. and one choice violates none of them. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. Now Car 3 is empty. __ . Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. as (D) correctly says. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. respectively. If.
Tuesday. If Horace cooks on Friday. So. Horace must cook on Wednesday. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). Betty cooks on Tuesday. As we deduced in the game overview. Wednesday. Only (C). then Horace must cook on Thursday. but not both. four days. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. and either Sunday or Monday. 19. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. Horace needs to cook two more times. (D) remains. 18. So. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. through Sat. That eliminates (A) and (B). That takes care of Betty for the week. Since Horace must cook three days. either one can cook. 23. and Saturday can be definitely determined. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. . (B). Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. However. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). That‟s (C). so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. so (C) must be true. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). so (A) and (B) can. so (E) is wrong. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. 20. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. That leaves (C). Saturday. (E). Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. 22. Since Horace must cook three days. and Friday. Thursday. (D) must be true. In order to be consecutive. and (C) can. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). Now. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). and Friday can be definitely determined. Wednesday. Wed. There are three available days. be true. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). So Tuesday. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. the four incorrect choices can be true. Wednesday. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. but need not. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. Sunday. Thursday. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. Therefore. be true. Therefore. Thursday. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. (A). Monday. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. The only false choice is (E). 21. Horace. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. must cook before Tuesday. but need not. and then B must cook on Sunday. Tuesday.
(D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. 24. the author compares them to modern magazines. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). time spent by students overall increased. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . without giving any examples. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. 25. Therefore. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork.
which of the following must also be true? . 4. Three of the people—K. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. If the statements above are true. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left.000. a playwright. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. R is seated on the immediate right of S. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. R. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. S. and M—are theater critics. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. L.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. 1. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. and T—are playwrights. joins the others at the table. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. the other four—Q. 3. who is seated on the immediate right of T. 2. P.
and where interpersonal contact is common. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F.000 than for amounts less than $40. In households including more than one person. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. certain patients will infect other patients. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L.000. and L.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. G. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. Pending further study. I. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. If put in the same room. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50.000 in the year before the war. more established companies. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40. (B) An annual profit of $10. H.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. J. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50.000. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. K. 6. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. 5.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee.000 is not especially high.
and a person with Disease J. one with Disease F. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. a male with Disease K. which programs are the news programs for that day? . One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. and a male with Disease K.G. A room is occupied by three people. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. one with Disease J. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. 7. or Disease G. two jazz programs. 10. or Disease F. and two educational programs. and one with Disease J. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. and one with Disease G. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. one with Disease F. one with Disease I. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program.
Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. fifth. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. sixth. and ninth fourth. fifth. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. M. O. eighth. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. eighth.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. . and sixth third. Q. who must get off before O. N must get off before M. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. The first program is an educational program. P. 14. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. and ninth second. if N gets off at the third stop. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. The eighth program cannot be a news program. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. second. fourth. sixth. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. N. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. second. and ninth first. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. eighth. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. sixth. third. 13. The seventh program is a news program. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. eighth. third. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. fifth. R must get off before Q. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively.
if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. V. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. and if P must get off alone. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. If R gets off at the fourth stop. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. and Z— every day.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. 16. 17. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. (B) N gets off at the second stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. and if N gets off after Q. if M gets off at the third stop. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (C) L and P get off together. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. W. (D) N gets off at the first stop. The second car must always contain U. X. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. 18. Y. (E) R gets off at the second stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. If X is perishable. 15. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. which of the following MUST be true? . (C) N gets off at the second stop. 19. (E) Q gets off after M. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop.
a legal precedent must be established by court trial. (C) The fifth car contains V. . sixth car contains Z. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. 20. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. 21. 22. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. If W and V are perishable. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. (B) The sixth car contains X. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. (E) The third car contains Y. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. and if Y and Z are perishable. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. If Y and Z are perishable. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. (D) The sixth car contains W. fifth car contains V. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z.
more muted colors like beige and light yellow. 24. 25. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. Because of this finding. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. Which of the following. if true. S. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. Studies have shown that. but rather from some property of the color itself. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. That implies the opposite: A . (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. M) and four playwrights (Q. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. because of its brightness and intensity. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. R. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. L.
but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. and (E). so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. and T is in Seat 3. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. For our sketch. a critic. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. then S is in Seat 4. in any order. so (D) is impossible.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. so (A). 6. so (B) need not be true. To make this connection. .000. T is in Seat 2. P. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). so eliminate (A). 3. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. L and M can be in Seats 6. If S is two places to Q‟s right. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. S. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. can‟t sit immediately next to L. and R is in Seat 4. K is in Seat 9. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. That seats all the playwrights. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. R. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. since both are playwrights. 4. a playwright. only from Q‟s left. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. meaning they are 4 places apart. As we saw in Question 1. so (C) can be true. then S is in Seat 3. (C).playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. so (B) is out. or 8. or in Seat 6: R. (E) describes the same chair as (D). and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. T is in Seat 3. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. A single. and (E) all can be true. eliminating (A). The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. S. if S is three places to Q‟s right. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). 2. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. Using the sketch in the game overview. (C). or in Seat 5. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. and R is in Seat 5. 5. (B). who is immediately right of T. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. 7. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them.000 won't be considered. so (E) is also false.000. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. a playwright. in either order.
Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. or F: L K. If H is added to the same room. G. it's the change over the course of the war that is. 9. (C)Too broad. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. L). If this is the case. eliminating (B). In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. K infects F (Rule 2). then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. and J. more . so (A) is out. 6. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). If put in the same room. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. If K is added. K and G switch. and J. then K infects F. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. and a male with K. (B). K. H. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. and J. a patient with Disease L. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. Rule 3 says L infects K. (D). and G. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. J. G. Switch J and G. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. You are told that one room contains patients with H. enters a room with H. so (A) is wrong.(B)The annual profit isn't important. not established ones. So jot down H L. L F. I. it's possible that these people are related to each other. male K. If L is added to the room with F. I. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. Switch H and J. F. one by one. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. H + I F. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. If (A). (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). not in one particular phrase. L G. 8. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. If (C). then L infects F (Rule 3). Another room contains patients with I. K G. Questions 7-9 In this game. but shorthanding the rules might help. Specifically. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. I and G switch. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). The study isn't clear on this point. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. 7. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. one by one. If (A). then male K infects G.
then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. two jazz programs. (C). eighth. (E). (C): only one-K infects G. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. both stated and easily deduced. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. scan the choices. One educational program is seventh. and third. So (A) is correct. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. second. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. There are five news programs. must be first through fourth in whatever order. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). and E for educational. and one educational program to place. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. is correct. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. two jazz. Among the choices. The four remaining programs. As for the others. You‟re left with one educational program. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. two jazz programs. Start with what you know. 12. and you know that one educational program is seventh. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). 11. (A) and (E) can be true. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. and ninth. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. arrange nine radio programs (five news. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. and there are five news programs total. and two educational) into order. (D): only one-K infects F. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. If the first five programs are all news programs. but needn‟t be. So (C) is correct. J for jazz. so place an E in slot 7. Stated positively. From here. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. in whatever order. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. fifth. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. and since only one must be true. fourth. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. one program per slot. three news and one educational. sixth. . (B) and (C) are patently false.
Questions 14-18 For this game. but E can also be first: E.13. E. and N gets off after Q. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. must be true: No one can get off sixth. If M gets off third. N. with O and P getting off together ninth. N. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. but needn‟t be. (A). N. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). N. M gets off before O (Rule 5). N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . If R gets off fourth. (C). or news-jazz-news. then Q gets off fifth. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. 15. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. Only L. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). N. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. O. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). and (E) can be true. so (E) is the answer. J. O. seven members of a family (L. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. N. J. N. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. Since no one gets off eighth. E. N. so they get off at 7 and 9. E. N. O. In order to satisfy Rule 4. R must get off either first or second. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. J. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. E. N. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. (B). but for every other stop only one member can get off. J. N. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). E or N. but need not be true. 16. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. Incorporate the rules. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). N. That‟s three. Q. Under this question‟s conditions. J. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. P. J. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. and P must get off sixth. Therefore (A). J. N. so M must be seventh. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. (B). That makes four. E or N. who gets off before O. so (D). and ninth. N. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. N. you‟d see that (E) can be true. N. N. and one of the educational programs is seventh. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. however. and P remain. M. E. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. J. and (D) must be true. seventh. Since no one gets off eighth. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. Looking at the master sketch. eliminating (D). (C). M.
3-X. Therefore. then N and M must get off before seventh. at the ninth stop. 5-Q. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. 9-OP. If X is perishable. Create a master sketch. and look for one of them as an answer choice. 2. and (E) can‟t be true. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. Questions 19-22 In this game. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. (C). Start with what you‟re given. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. (D). Since we already know that U is in Car 2. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. V . (B). Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. and then add what you know. 20. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. If Y and Z are perishable. L must get off at the ninth stop. then R can only get off at 1. OR If Q gets off at 5. shorthand it U. If O gets off seventh.. or sixth. you must distribute six products (U. 8-M. L and P must get off together. However. 6-X. second. X . 2-L. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). one product per car. V must precede W. neither N nor M can get off ninth. P can‟t get off ninth. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. but need not be true. Incorporate the rules. third. in either order. V. leaving only O and L. So put a U in slot 2. W. Therefore. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). Since U is in Car 2. Z) onto six boxcars. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. In other words. 4-R. Y can‟t immediately follow W. and (E) are all possible. (C). and (E) are all possible. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. 18. (B). Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. and (E) can be true. 7-N. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. This might get you thinking. (A). or 3. (C).. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). If R gets off fourth.before O (Rule 5). 17. so O must get off ninth and (A). then R can only get off at 1 or 2.X. (C). (B). but none have to be true. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. then Q gets off fifth. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4.Y. (B). numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. but none are definite. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. either. (A) can‟t be true. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). namely first. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car.
If Y and Z are perishable. or W. (D) can be true. Y. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. and (E) are possible. Y. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). X. W is in Car 1.must be in Car 1 and W. and Car 5 with Car 6. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. (C). V. leaving Z in Car 1. X. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. U is in Car 2. U. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. Y. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. U is in 2. but (C) CANNOT be true. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. (A). and (E) must all be true. however. Z. is in Car 5 and Car 6. Z. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. Y. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. so (D) need not be true. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. U. Z. not all. X. or W. in order: W. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. in either order. in either order. V. along with X. (D). and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. Z. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. Thus. for which choice no evidence is given. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. U. or W. (E)Assumes that. V. (A). V. 22. 25. Also. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. not necessarily at all times. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. (B). a precedent may already have been set. If. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . Therefore. (B) is correct. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. in either order. X. in either order. Therefore. (B). 21. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. 24. If W and V are perishable. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. There are four possibilities. situations. 23. U. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. there was some reason that .
Kundala. and Delgado. Carter. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. (A)This is a logistical problem. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. it doesn't affect the rationale. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. it's the stressinducing qualities of red.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). Best. The . (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. Hiro. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. and Lamming—and four juniors. Adams. regardless of the reason.
Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. Dr. Because of high demand. and style. If Fox is chosen to attend. If Hiro is chosen to attend. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. 5. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. (E) Dr. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. (D) Dr. Which of the following. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. Kundala (E) Hiro. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Carter cannot be chosen. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. conflict. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. Best 2.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. rather than societal. Delgado (C) Hiro. Lamming. Hiro. If Carter is chosen for the convention. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. Adams. 1. Best (D) Fox. if true. If Best is chosen to attend. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. . Anderman‟s imprisonment. Carter (B) Kundala. Kundala. symbolism. Hiro. Kundala cannot be chosen. Lamming must also be chosen. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert.
it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. P (D) S. is examined second. The pets will be examined one by one. S (B) S. R (E) Q. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. Q. R. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian.In order for this argument to be logically correct. P (C) R. non-urban. P. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. P. . (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. 7. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. if true. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. areas are now affected. Q. Which of the following. R. S must be examined before P is examined. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. R. Q. Q. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. R. S 8. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. Q. and each pet will be examined just once. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. 6. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. S.
If R is examined third. C. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (D) A. G D. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. C. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. If CANNOT (A) A. At least one comedian must appear on each show. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. E. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. (E) C. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. if true. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. D E. F F. G E. 11. (E) P must be examined fourth. (C) E. (B) C. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. D. Which of the following.(D) R is examined third. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . Only A. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. B appears on Saturday's show. (D) S must be examined first. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. F. E are comedians. (E) P is examined fourth. 9. G 13. B.
in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. The eight eligible entrees are. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. 17. Fish Teriyaki. Lobster Mombasa. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. but if both are selected. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Chicken Kiev. Lobster Mombasa. Fish Teriyaki. Chicken Kiev. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Chicken Dijon. Pork Szechuan. in ascending order of popularity. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Dijon. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Beef Enchilada. chosen from a group of eight. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. they cannot be served consecutively. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. Beef Enchilada. from first course to fourth course. and if B appears on Saturday's show. The menu will consist of four entrees. Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. and Chicken Vindaloo.(D) five (E) six 14. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. Pork Szechuan .
Lobster Mombasa. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. nor does it survive long when introduced there. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. Desert X is an environment with constant.(E) Beef Enchilada. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. it does not exist naturally in the desert. and next to no moisture. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. powerful sunlight. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. Fish Teriyaki. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. 23. Pork Szechuan 18. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. .
(D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. In fact. however. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. (B) For one week in the fall. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. the literary work loses its specificity. The problem. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. Desert X can support almost no plant life. 25. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. . Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. In the hands of a Freudian critic. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. 24. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences.
K. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. Lamming must also be chosen. or can‟t be chosen at all. then Carter isn‟t: If H. d for the four juniors. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. violating Rule 4. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. In other words. then no K. Hiro. a junior.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. As Rule 1 says. Fox. For this acceptability question. (C) and (E). then Lamming is also chosen: If b. then no H). L for the four seniors. but not both. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. and Kundala. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. being juniors. One is Kundala. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. or (B). eliminating (D). then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. is chosen. Delgado). there must be at least two seniors. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). Hiro must be chosen. or (C). Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. you can only choose one or the other. You are given that Carter. 1. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). 2. then Fox can‟t be chosen. c. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. That eliminates (A). aren‟t required. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. if Kundala is chosen. Kundala. Best. four choices violate one or more rules. Compare each rule to the choices. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. then no c. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. . then L. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. then Fox isn‟t (if K. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. Kundala isn‟t. 4. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. Lamming must be chosen. H. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. That leaves (C). Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. The three available seniors are Lamming. Since the question asks who must be chosen. b. and a. Carter. 3. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. then no F).
however. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. 5. Create a master sketch of four dashes. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. however. S) in an order to be examined. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. 6. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. then C (they were able to buy tickets). (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. if A. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. if B. place four pets (P. nothing need have changed. so this won't weaken the conclusion. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. then not A (they didn't want them). it could be the same pollution and the same victims. Thus. then C. Rule 1 states that R is second or . If. R. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself.they were written after her release. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). only now more of them have been identified. this has no effect. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. Q. If.
you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. 8. C. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 1 states that only A. D. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. then C and E. Q or S. You are given that Q is examined before R. leaving (B). and P can be second or fourth. without violating the rules. Then. Q is either first or second. B. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. From that. If R is third. but so can S. Rule 2 kicks in. S before P. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. and one choice violates none of them. For this acceptability question. 11. If A is the only comedian on Friday. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. are on Saturday. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. None of the choices include both F and D. 9. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. Create a master sketch. P. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. We know R can be third. 10. are comedians. 12. Q. if A. C. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. (A).third. so S can be first or second. P. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. either S or Q can be first. must appear on Saturday. Compare each rule to the choices. there are (C) three different orders possible. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. F. R must be third. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. R. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. Therefore. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. and E. the other comedians. so S must be first and P must be fourth. then two of the four slots are filled. E and G are chosen with B. Therefore E. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. Therefore. so you need three more guests for Saturday. if Q is first and R is third. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. You need to have S before P. P or Q. then F and D are . E. R. S. You are told B is on Saturday. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. Questions 11-16 In this game. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. R. Since S must be seen before P.
Lobster Mombasa. violating Rule 3. B. so (C) and (E) are both possible. D. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. From that you can deduce that Beef . (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. F. must be on Friday. D. and G. E. E. Chicken Kiev. That means F and D are both on Saturday. Although F can‟t be with D. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. That‟s one possible list. Chicken Dijon. As in Question 12. So either night can be C. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. Fish Teriyaki. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. either one can be with E. and G. but not definite. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. or (C). 15. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. C. F. and G. In other words. Chicken Vindaloo. G. 13. E. B. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. and B or G. D. D. Therefore. you can further deduce that C. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. Beef Enchilada. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). from among F. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. for two more possible lists. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. and F. (C) is correct. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. 16. B or E. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. B and/or G. (C). B or G and Saturday is C. Try each choice in turn.together on Friday. F. then Friday is A. G must be on Saturday. Pork Szechuan. F and B or G. 14. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. You can then deduce that C and E are together. Place B and G on either night. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. in either order. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. violating Rule 3. That means the third comedian. (Rule 2). or E. then Saturday is A. or A. and there‟s your exception. Questions 17-22 For this game. (B). If Friday is C. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. so (A) is correct. E. and F are together. D. B or E. E. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. G or E. D. so they can be eliminated. In fact. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). then the other two comedians are on Friday. Friday has at least one comedian. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. If Saturday includes C. The groups in (A). F. The entrees. However. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. E. A must therefore be with D. D. Since each night has at least one comedian.
leaving only (C) as a possible menu. 19. Lobster Mombasa. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. So Chicken Dijon is first. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. one. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. That leaves Beef Enchilada. By the way. Chicken Kiev. and one choice violates none of them. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. is correct. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. Beef) can‟t both be selected. there‟s only one fish entree. Well. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. That way. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. Compare each rule to the choices. and Pork Szechuan. For this acceptability question. must be removed.e. This question says the first entree is based around fish. Kiev and Vindaloo. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. and Chicken Vindaloo. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. so (A). Therefore. but neither can be chicken. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. in that order. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Lobster Mombasa. but can‟t be consecutive. On the overall list. four choices violate one or more rules. 17. Therefore. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. (A). by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. Pork Szechuan. Next. Before looking at the choices. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. then only . violating Rule 2. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. in that order. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). 21. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. In the order. so the other Chicken entrees. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. Fish Teriyaki. According to Rule 2. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. So (D) is correct. (E) is the exception. 18. 20. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. On the overall list. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon.
so it's dry. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. yet it doesn't. 23. If there were multiple correct interpretations. beef. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. . Beef Enchilada must be second.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. sunny and hot. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. it's that it's too powerful. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). 22. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. Y likes dry and sunny regions. 24. X is a desert. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. (C)Too general. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. Pork Szechuan must be third. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. therefore. That leaves (B). (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. correct. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. If Lobster Mombasa is second. (C) and (E) are true. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. determine all that can or must be true. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. 25. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth.
O. H.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. O. (C) K. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. 1. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . J. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. O. or behind. Which of the runners? (A) F. F. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. G. K. H. L. M. L finished immediately ahead of H. (E) O. K finished ahead of M. M. F finished ahead of both G and L. K. H. K. M. H. M. M. J. and M finished ahead of J. L. J. L. F.org 2. (B) G. J. G. L. L. F. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. O. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. O. G. L. There were no ties for any finishing position. H. G. (D) K. K.
would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. ahead of G.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. ahead of K. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. rather than mask. first. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. Which of the following. its function as a supporting structure. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. If F finished fourth. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . Today. 5. if filled into the above blank. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations.
in 1980. (E) The Arbican population increased. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. He can choose from among eight players—M. 8. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. exactly two power players will be chosen. (B) The Arbican population increased. . all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. who are power players. S. (B) V is not chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. and N. and V. If the statements above are true. but N is not. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. doubles partners. N and V. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. until. who are finesse players. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. and T. If Q is chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. Q. it reached 3%. (C) The Arbican population decreased. This percentage steadily declined. P. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. R. If T is chosen for the team. (D) The Arbican population decreased. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
. far earlier than was previously believed. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. after all. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. at around 3000 BC. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. How can it exist. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. which took place about 6000 years ago. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. 25. 24. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC.C. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved.
and seventh or eighth. If H is seventh. and M can‟t be either first or last. in that order (according to Rule 5). you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. 3. O. J. If F is fourth. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. four choices violate one or more rules. So M must be second. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. H. so L can‟t be last. or vice versa. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. That leaves (E).========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. M. then G and L (from Rule 6). so F can‟t finish eighth. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. and M finished before J. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). try the other possibilities for H. From another combination of deductions. second. J and O. and O. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. O is fourth. and K. 2. and J to go first. and M finished before J. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. H. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. You can also deduce that F finished before H. So start with F in the fourth slot. Compare each rule to the choices. Stated positively. and one choice violates none of them. K can‟t be last. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. That eliminates (B) and (D). O is exactly two spaces in front of H. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. K. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. M. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. and neither G nor L can finish first. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. O is third. O. Rule 5 says K finished before M. and see what you can deduce. As we deduced in the game overview. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. J. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. For this acceptability question. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. and therefore correct. and (C) is out. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. Just to be sure. Combining all of the deductions. eliminating (A). L. Since L must finish before H. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. or vice versa. That leaves (A) as possible. But that‟s impossible since you know . From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. which can finish eighth. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. G. the only runners who can finish first are F. so neither K nor M can finish last.
it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. so (B). (C)Irrelevant. as in (E). which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. in that order. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. or belligerent. To evaluate this claim. To conclude this. Finally. So K is first. and K to be placed. and then G is sixth. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. 5. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. not how clarity affects ornament. In either case. While the percentage tells us the relation . then according to Kant. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. or fourth. G must be next to O. if H is eighth then O is fifth. so far: That leaves F. (D). the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. (B) is the answer. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). 7. 6. If M is seventh. The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. O is third (from Rule 4). and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. Therefore. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. If a republic is pacific. 4. (C). To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. M. and J is third. (D) (E)Outside the scope. In 1960. From that it follows that if H is sixth. So G can finish second or fourth. and J to be placed.that F is fourth. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. not definite. and (E) are possible. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. That leaves K. If L is fifth. so (A) is correct. K can finish in first. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. So the order. G." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. second. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. Since G can‟t finish before F. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. M is second. G can‟t be first.
select from two groups of tennis players. Questions 8-11 In this game. However. R. (E)If the number migrating is the same. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. Given this inFORMation. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. (A)It's possible. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. both numbers could increase. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. so (A) is out. and Q are all power players. Check each choice. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. so there‟s too many power players. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. but the percentage migrating has fallen. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. If M and P are chosen with Q. the number migrating would have to decrease. That eliminates (E). (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. V. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. Q. then exactly two power players are chosen. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. one by one. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. P. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. T) and power (N. V). there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . N. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. a power player. as it says in Rule 2. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. according to Rule 5. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. only (D) is impossible. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. Keep it simple. but when T is chosen. 8. or of Arbicans who made this migration. Beyond that. You are given that Q. M and T are both finesse players. If T is chosen. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). However.between the two. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. is chosen. then you have two finesse players and one power player. use your drawing on a question to question basis. to play in a tournament. V. S. while the percentage decreases. finesse (M. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. 9. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. and Q are all power players. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. That‟s fine. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power).
Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. 10. every professor except B is available. Note this in your sketch. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. For this game. If T is chosen. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. and S. Therefore. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. That makes three possible combinations. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. That leaves M. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). P. Refer to your sketch. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. How many pairs can be made from M. (E). there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). Use a grid. If a professor is available at a given time. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. is the answer. With M excluded. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. the correct choice can be deduced. T is not chosen for the team. and S to pair up. and since there are already two power players. and 12:00 pm. Since the question asks which must be true. as defined by the rules. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. MS.players chosen. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). In other words. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. P. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. If V isn‟t chosen. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. so S must be chosen. and S? Three: MP. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). so (C) is correct. 10:30 am. . so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. 11:30 am. Between 10:30 and 11:00. P. eliminating (C). As for the others: If N is not chosen. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). searching for the one in which the most professors are available. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. combined with the four power players. and N are all power players. and PS. 11:00 am. 11. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. is left). Any of those pairs. then N isn‟t chosen either. V. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. 10:00 am. if exactly two power players are chosen. a sketch is essential. (D). There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). The meetings are one-half hour in length. are acceptable combinations. so if they‟re not chosen. R. there are only three available finesse player: T. Q. Look at each column.
using columns or circles to represent the two committees. can meet three times. can both meet at 10:30. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. N. or can only serve on one committee. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. 10:00. 15.13. O. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. can only meet at 10:30. So M. However. Some principals. but at 9:30. Q. at 9:30. and Franz. P. always look for opportunities to use previous work. (C). Ax and Bulos. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. so (B). that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. P. Ax and Dohee are both available. 17. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. Bulos and Dohee. and 11:30. Chow and Franz can meet. So (B) is the answer. can both meet at 9:30. (C). Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. At 9:00. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. 14. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. Those times are at 10:30. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. so 11:30 to 12:00. then Q serves on the same committee. and 10:30. Ax and Chow. Remember. one of the principals on each committee is the same. Dohee is the only other professor available. the “swing” principal. Create a master sketch. Bulos and Franz. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. therefore M serves on Curriculum. Looking at your sketch. using your sketch as the reference. Check each choice one by one. Dohee and Franz. Your sketch should look . Go through the rules. (C). but L and Q must serve together. Remember. (B). You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. M. As we saw in the previous question. can‟t meet. (B). (A). 16. (D). Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. the “swing” principal. (E). (D). Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. Chow. (A). Dohee and Egger. is correct. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. 11:00. Egger and Franz. making as many deductions as you can. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. two. For this question. check each choice in turn. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. However. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. (D). first find all the possible times that Ax.
(B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. 21. Therefore. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). 20. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. That leaves (C). Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. and which one is on one committee only. Determine who must be on which committee. leaving (D). If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. O. only N or O can serve on the same committee.some thing like this: 18. 22. As we‟ve already seen. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). and P. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). Now. so eliminate (D) and (E). O. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. and then check the choices. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. to serve on both committees. O and P. which is a violation of Rule 4. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. to serve on the Ethics Committee. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. (D). so (C) is correct. (B). As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. N. (C) and (D) are both possible. leaving (C). then L is also on the Ethics Committee. so neither can be on both committees. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. Choices (A). and (E) each define the role of either N or O. N. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. M. as the other pair. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. or (A). the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. if we know which one is on both committees. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. Q. so (A) is wrong. L can‟t be on both committees. contradicting (B) and . Otherwise. So (A) is the answer. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. 19. and L. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee.
If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. 24. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. so their opinion can't be applied here. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier.(C). Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. were used. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (E)The horse could have been used. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. but there's no proof that it was. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. he merely says that it doesn't. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. so India is beyond the scope. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . or before approximately 3000 BC. and as it is. 23. the issue is the definition of international law. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. not oxen.. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. (D)The issue is when horses. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. 25. (A)The author says that no such body exists. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back.
2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .
and M are rock bands. H must perform sixth. H. second. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three .taisha. Bands F. 1. Bands P. Q.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. or third. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. and R are country bands. K. K must perform either first.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. The nine bands must perform one after the other. G. L must immediately precede M in the order. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively.. If P performs first. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. R must perform eighth. and each band must perform once and only once. L.
(B) K must perform immediately before Q. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. Recently. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. performs ninth. if true. Which of the following statements. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. 7. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. then F performs seventh. performs seventh. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. performs ninth. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. For several decades. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. (D) P must perform immediately before K. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. then Q performs fifth. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. 6.(D) four (E) five 4. however. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. Because of this. then P performs first. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. 5. then G performs seventh. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. then M performs sixth. performs third. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. In light of these findings. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions.
N.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. and vice versa. also be chosen. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. Q. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. M. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. then Q must not be chosen. then N must then O must are chosen. however. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. then M must also be chosen. chosen. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. In light of these disturbing revelations. and the sociologists P. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. The only available lecturers are the historians L. and R. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. L and M chosen. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. 8. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. . they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. and O. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. Just last week. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. not be chosen. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria.
M. G. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. Z. (D) If O is chosen. N is not chosen. P is not chosen. Q is not chosen. If all of the sociologists are chosen. R. L. Q. U has prepared only works by poets K. N. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. (D) M is not chosen. H. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. O is not chosen. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . (B) R must never be chosen. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. and P for presentation at the soiree. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. sometimes move Q and S to tears. N. L is not chosen. (C) If M is chosen. Q. and to laughter. (B) O is chosen. P. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. 10. (E) N is not chosen. S. (E) L must never be chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen.9. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. M. R. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. T. L. O. and Z. W. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. P sometimes move W.
painting. 14. rug. rug. den. table lamp. and L only (E) works by K. K. table. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. N. sofa. P. P. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room.laughter. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. mirror. table. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. and wardrobe. vase. and L only (E) works by K. N. sofa. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. table. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. and L only (D) works by N. lamp. rug. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. mirror. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. rug. vase . The sofa is placed in the living room. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. then he or she is bored. and L only 16. wardrobe. rug. 17. painting. table lamp. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. and living room of a client‟s house. vase vase mirror.
(C) The table is placed in the den.18. Yet . (E) The vase is placed in the den. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. and if the wardrobe. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. 20. rug (D) painting. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. vase 23. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. (E) The vase is placed in the den. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. If the lamp. the painting. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. table (B) rug. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. vase (C) lamp. table. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. the lamp. 19. 21. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. rug. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. table (E) table.
would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. 24. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. Which one of the following. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. if true. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. Which of the statements below. where the legal drinking age was still 18. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. Research has shown. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated.paradoxically. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. his liver loses the . they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. however. if true. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. Furthermore. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. which can be fatal. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. Therefore. 25. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically.
Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. K is second. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. in either order. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. in either order. second. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. There are only two . only. and R is eighth. second. If P is first. second. That means K must be second. to go in two of the first three slots. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. L is fourth. M) and three country bands (P. Therefore (A) is correct. R. they are first and third. L. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. in order to appear at a music marathon. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. Rule 4 states that K is first. or third. M is fifth. R) must be placed. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. is a country band. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. incorporate the rules. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. such as shrimp. as we deduced in the game overview. one at a time. (E): L and M must be together. 1. R. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. to separate the two country bands. 2. M is fifth. Since K is first. Since K is first. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. Q. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. pair. Combine Rules 1 and 3. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. H is sixth. or third. in either order. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. K. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. Create a master sketch. or third. in either order. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. prove or band. is a country band. P and Q. (Rule 1). so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. and R is eighth. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. is a country band. H. respectively. in either order. are F 3. R is eighth (Rule 3). That leaves two country bands. respectively. six rock bands (F. G. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. then Q must be third. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth.
(A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. (A). If. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. If G performs before F. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. and P and Q. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. 4. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. 7. and (D) Q—they can be true. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. and F is ninth. so (B). If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. (E)If anything. then G is seventh position except first and third. . (E) must be true: H is 5.. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. but need not is ninth.possibilities. which of the following must be true. Since the question is worded. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. we‟re only concerned with this city. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. however. So we know every in either order. in either order. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. (B). eliminate any choice that can be false. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. respectively. 6. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function.
The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. O) and sociologists (P. M. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. some of the diseases may have other causes. So (A) is correct. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. Q. then P is chosen. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. R) to lecture before a class. then M 9. then N is chosen. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. which of the following CANNOT be true. 10. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. Notice that you can take L and Q. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. O Sociologists: P. The rules. then Q is not chosen. and (E) are all false. (C). R Incorporate the rules. Start with what you are given. then not R If L + M. but they‟re not being followed. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. If R and Q . since R is chosen. then O isn‟t chosen. and noting who can be chosen together. Q. then R can‟t be chosen. Q. without violating Rule 3. then M is chosen. (D). then not Q If R. or M and Q. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. Therefore. then not O If O. then not Q). Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. and R) are chosen. listing the available speakers. M. N. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. N. (B). In other words. Create a master sketch.8. shorthanded: P + N together If R. P and N together. and if N is chosen. Since the question is worded.
S. (E) is false. Therefore. If O and M aren‟t chosen. G. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. and R. we can only take a maximum of two from M. Based on Rules 2 and 4. then not O. R. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. But if L and Q are chosen. 11. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. and not just sometimes. so (D) is the answer. As we learned in Question 6. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. (A) and (D) can be true. If O and M are chosen together. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. then M can‟t be chosen. and M must be chosen. However. 13. That leaves (B) as correct. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. N. and P and N can be chosen. and O. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. of L. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K.are chosen. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. and P. if L and Q are chosen. and R. for completeness. N. and Q. M. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. H. We already took M. P. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. So. and R are chosen. So (B) is only possible. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. Therefore. Scan the choices for L. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). H and T are always . P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. l for laughter. so take R (via Rule 4). we can only take two of the three. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. Q. so it‟s correct. but needn‟ t be true. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. eliminating (C). This question is a good example of using previous work. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. T. L. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). or “some. M must be chosen. M. Since R. and you find them in (D): If L. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. then not Q.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. 12. So take L and M. That eliminates (C). b for bored. Q. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. in this case a grid: 14. M can‟t be chosen. Q. and we‟ve just proved that. That‟s L. and L and O can‟t chosen. or five. the full deduction: Of Q or L. Q. W. Since the question says possibly. At this point you can stop. M must be chosen). because (B) says that R can never be chosen. if R is chosen. then M. then R can‟t be chosen). not definite. so (C).
Start with the rules that are most concrete. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). but otherwise is bored. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. S. R. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. so (D) is possible. sometimes move four literati to tears. or 1. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. in any order. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. M. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. and 5. (B). That leaves (D). and 4. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). four choices violate one or more rules. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. P. a violation of Rule 4. so (B) is out. W) in three rooms (bedroom. Put an S in the living room. If (A). and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. 15. Compare each rule to the choices. S. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. Questions 17 . throwing out violators. N. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 3. in any order. So (C) is out. N. (C).22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. but N moves T to boredom. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. P. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. K. H by poet N and T by poet K. leaving (A). and (E). Poet K moves T to laughter. and T. (D) places the sofa in the den. and Z sometimes moved to tears.moved to laughter. V. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. so the combination of poets K. Rule 4 places S in the living room. then that‟ s our answer. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. poets L and P. 16. T. living room). S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. and work your way towards the abstract ones. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. bored by poet N. (D). (C). (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. and P is the exception. The others: P and N. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. W. and there are eight items total. Depending on how you look at it. Refer to your sketch. Therefore. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. You can place the items in the rooms. 2. den. so (B) and (E) are wrong. and locate T. one literati is always moved to laughter. always move one literati to laughter. P. For this acceptability question. then F and Q are always moved to tears. so MW. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). and one choice violates none of them. (D). so no PV. Create a master sketch. one literati is always moved to laughter.
or 5 items in any given room. V can be in the den. and there are eight items total. but not “always” 2. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). T is in the den. M. and S. for the other two rooms. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. That eliminates (B) and (D). violating Rule 1. L is in another room. and S. 18. R. (C). 19. and (E) are wrong. 4. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. then the living room contains W.den. . and the den has 2 items. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. and T must therefore be in the living room. and 4. 2. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). 4. S. in any order. M. and W are in the living room. eliminating (C). 20. Start with the second piece of information in the question. (A). Next. and 5. (D). You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. Start with S in the living room. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. (B). is empty. or 5. then. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. one room must have exactly 1 item. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. T. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. 3. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. with the other joining S in the living room. You know that P can‟t be with V. Only (B) follows the rules. M. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. 22. and (E) can be eliminated. as (A) states. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. so it‟s the answer. so P is in the living room with S. in any order. in either order. L. If M is with S. according to Rule 2. Since the living room has W. so (A). then the third room. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. but you must have at least one item in each room. As we learned in Question 20. 3. 3. the den. (C). If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. which claim that the den has 3 items. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. so either P or V is in the den. so the den can only contain one item. That means the living room has more than one item. Since we can have 2. Since Rule 5 is suspended. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. (B). or 1. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). (B). Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. that leaves only two items. L. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. 21. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. leaving only (E) as possible. the sofa and the vase. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. If W is in the living room. The den‟s 4 items must be: R.
(B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. According to research. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. Well. however. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes.23. 24. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. to lower blood cholesterol levels. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. If. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. hence the increase in accidents. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. so why the increase in drunk driving. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. . (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. dietary or medical. 25. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. Otherwise. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. If G is chosen for the issue. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. If M is not chosen for the issue. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. one trainer and one dog per room. Mugs. Molly. then J must also be chosen. (C) H is not chosen. (E) F is not chosen. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10.If F is chosen. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. three trainers (Luis. . How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. To test the system. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. 7. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places.
12. W. to the empty apartment on the same level. and W—live in the building. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. A. X (B) W. W (C) Z. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. one to an apartment. Y. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. W. W. . which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. W. The top floor is called Level A. Y. One of the apartments is empty. W (E) Z. Q. W. Z (C) W. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. four on each floor. R. Y. the bottom floor is Level B. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. levels. W. W. A. between two other apartments on the same level. W (D) W. to T‟s apartment on the same level. X (E) X. A (D) X. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other.11. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. T. W (B) X. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. Command W. V. Z. Exactly seven people—P. X 14. S. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. Z. Y.
M. G cannot play the same game that R plays. and dominoes. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. chess. H. R. H. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. 19. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. 17. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. Three of those present—F. two—K and M—are junior club members. There must be a senior club member playing each game. M. M cannot play dominoes. and two—P and R—are club applicants. R‟s apartment is on Level A. two will play chess. F. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A.15. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. directly above P‟s apartment. and three will play dominoes. F. Each person present can play only one of the three games. respectively? (A) G. directly above T‟s apartment. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. R (B) G. K. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. P. H and P must play the same game. G. and H—are senior club members. K. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. P .
C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. P. P. M. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. F plays dominoes. If R plays backgammon. 21. M plays backgammon. G. H. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. R (E) F. This is not merely a matter of using . F. M (D) H. K. K.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. G. By doing so. P. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. K. R 20. 24. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. G.(C) F. M. H. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. R. P plays chess. notably Japan. and not those of self-interest. (B) Only ethical considerations. G plays backgammon. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes.
so it‟s out. or both.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. so the first spice is either N or A. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. or the commissary is serving fish. or both. 3)S can‟t be first. pollution would be drastically reduced. so they‟re out. (B) It is a workday. N. and (E) has N coming after T. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. what needs to be done must be done. C. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. you may be able to meet the actors. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. S and T. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. 25. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. If all the statements above are true. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth.manual mowers instead of power mowers. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. (B) has sage first. Such concerns are irrelevant here. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. . and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. or the commissary is serving fish. and (D) has C before A. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. Something must be done about the 51. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel.
4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. which limits our options. Now we have AC and S. N and T will work. put S in the second slot. C.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. Previously. since we can‟ t separate A and C. S. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. If they don‟ t. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. then the 20% . the number of attacks would have increased. so scratch (D) and (E). C. N. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. so eliminate (A) and (B). There‟s no supporting evidence. T. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. leaving (C). (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%.000 apiece. it‟s simply irrelevant. Try plugging in numbers. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. 3=========FIN A1= First. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. (E) is the assumption. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. (A) . a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. S. S can‟t be first. (D) must be false. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. A is joined with C. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. Our sequence is A. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. and it can‟t be second either. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. they‟re as fickle as short termers. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs.
is correct. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. so we can eliminate (E). so (C) is correct. G. you see that if you cross out m. l and o— those are your five articles. o. m can‟t be. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. if G and J are circled. l and o. k. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. m is not.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. 2)If J is chosen. you have to cross out J and F . you have to choose the other three dance articles. you know you can circle k. With Rule 1. you must have J. Let‟s jump to (C). 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. and if we cross out m we circle k. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. k. you have to cross out J. 3)If you choose F. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. but the rest is wide open. we need 3 lower case and k. so there are three possibilities and (C). three. l. We have J. choosing J yields three possible groups. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. F. (A) . choice (A) . you can‟t have m and to have F. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. circle k. making them easy to eliminate. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. H. If you circle F. so we can eliminate (C). and circle k. G or H. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. and since m is dance. k. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. As we saw in Question 8. and if you choose m. you can circle the other 3. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . m. If you circle m. l and o and you need go no further. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). not what type of sets consumers prefer. l. If you circle G . you must choose J. our answer. or 4 dance and 1 theater. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. J. o. If you have J. J. Cross out m. l and o. l and o. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. so (A) is correct.
and H. and the second W moves her to 2. we circle J. etc. H. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. m. m. l. We have rooms 1. J is chosen. H. then see what commands move them to Room 2. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . M is in Room 3. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. Let‟s jump to (E). two Ws. m. k. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. but that moves trainers. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. she‟s there with o. not in 2. A second W puts M in 1. O in 2 and L in 3. the dogs return to their original trainers. o or G. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. For the record. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. (A) is out because O is with l. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. k. Which choice is true of that? (B). (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . not with o. L. (C) is out because M is with o. (C). m or G. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. We can‟t disprove (E). M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. not dogs. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. m to M and o to O. so it‟s correct. 4)With command Z. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. since if F is chosen. and o. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. then moving them around according to different commands. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. 3)With command Y. not with m. So l returns to L. and to do that we need one X. o. k. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. We have three trainers. H. l. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. J. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. So we have in Room 1. The first W moves O to 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. But we need five. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. not 1. and Oo in Room 3. 5)With command A. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. G. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. k. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. Yes. 2)With command X. putting Onyx in 1. Ol . If we circle F and G. l. Mm in Room 2. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. and L moves to Room 2. l. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. W is called. and (E) is out because L is with m. L in 2. l. Looking at the wrong choices. the only one that moves trainers. and M in 3. you could have G. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. 2 and 3.
and we need a place for V. so P is in B-3. l? One call of Z. but l in 2. Y lines up the dogs. P is in B-4. so we know that P and T are on B. the other on B. W and empty. O. For the dogs. S on B. S. (B). the dogs seek out their trainers. it has to be next to P in B-2. P. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. 4)T is not in one of the ends. how to go from l. 5)W is next to empty. Call W once. Q and (E). (D) puts O and l together but in 1. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. W. 1 or 4. so you have Oo in 1. you get O. empty. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. so W is on A and S is on B. P. R. so add empty to A. Now turn to the W. W is on A. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. and fill them in the eight slots. L in 2. So we put S underneath in B-2. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. O to M. But if you call A. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. L. S. As for (D). Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. o to o. Take your people. since T can‟t be on the end. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. so Q is on A. so (E) is correct. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. not A-4. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . We have W. With P in B-3. As for the others. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. we have no more light on the R and V issue. but that isn‟t a choice. A. Q. So W and S have to be in A- . are both on A. And with (A) and (C). and as for (C) and (D). O. (A) ‟s sequence of X. (C). m. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. Y. and T can‟t be on an end. one‟s on A. putting m in 2 and l in 3. P is next to T. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. so either TP or PT . M. So T is in 2 or 3. W . call W twice. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. empty and Q on A. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. m. R and V. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. L. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. W and A puts O again in 1. empty unit. T. 8 apartments—1 is empty.correct. 2)S and Q are on different levels. so since B-2 is occupied by S. so we‟ve got our answer. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. To get from L. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. L. V and R are left—one will be on A. M in 1. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. As for (B). 3)P and T are adjacent. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. V.
21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. they must play dominoes. G. k and m are both lower . T. So only two people could go in A-1. k. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. (or p and someone else). which is correct. p and r in dominoes. The question asks about A-1. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. k and r play dominoes. Let‟s put seniors in caps. since H is with p . If they play chess. The senior can‟t be H. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. S. Turn to our W. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. It must be F. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. 4)H and p must play the same game. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. making (D) correct . It‟s between V and R . There‟s only one grouping possible. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. Now go to the Hp unit. H and p are together. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. and juniors and applicants in lower case. F. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. so H and p must play dominoes. and only dominoes has three people. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. since H. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. so it can‟t be H. empty unit. so it‟s F. so we have one cap in each group. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game.1 and B-1. chess with two and dominoes with three. p and r in dominoes is okay. G. Nix (E). there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. directly above T in B-2. m and p. r can‟t play with G . F. so (A) is out. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. (B). P and S are out because they‟re on B. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. 7 slots. The Rules: 1)7 people. and empty goes next to W in A-2. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. since they have m playing dominoes. H. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. 2)Three senior members. (B) has F and H. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H.
so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. so k and m can‟t be together. is fine: F and m in backgammon. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. That way. which this doesn‟t mention. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. so k. or it‟ s not a workday. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. and its aid policy.” That‟s summarized by (D).” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. true on a workday. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. F and k chess. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. p and r in dominoes. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (D):G and m in backgammon. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . but rather that it is necessary. according to the stimulus. and we need a cap for each. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. F and m. fish may or may not be served. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. p and r dominoes. Japan. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. that the commissary is serving fish. “notably Japan. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. the workday with fish. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. and H. so it‟s (A) . (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. (C). (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. no matter how drastic and costly. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served.) But m can‟t play dominoes. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. For the record. or both. so (D)‟s correct. Besides. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. We must do what‟s necessary.case. G and k in chess and H. and (B)‟s correct. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. A makes most of its money back. to save the environment.
G. L. W. 4. 6. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. 3. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. (E) A. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. 1. (D) C.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. T. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination.. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. T. K. Q. then the fifth must be either B or D.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.taisha. M. If the third symbol is a letter. Which of the (A) E. (B) F. The sequence is called a combination. If the third symbol is a number. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. 7. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . (C) B. X. 2. R.
however. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. third. The combination C. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. H. D (B) A. 6. . Which of the following. S 4. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. and fifth symbols.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. Thus. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. P. 6. Z. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. 4. X (D) 3. respectively? (A) J. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. such as beef and poultry. if true. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. Q. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. 8. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. If the statements above are true. G (E) M. T (C) 9. a special visa is required. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. 9. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish.
The high bell must be rung twice in succession. 7. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. high 9. low. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. medium. low. low. of pessimistic forecasts. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. medium.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. medium. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. for the sequence. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. low. 8. high. medium (C) medium. He decides that. if true. low. one produces a medium-pitched ring. high. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. high. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. Last the service sector. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. medium (B) low. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. . medium. one cannot argue that Which of the following. medium. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. medium. 500. low. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. medium (E) low. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. medium. high. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. high. high. high. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. Over the has greatly expanded. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. low. low. medium. low. low. high. In the our economy is wilting. low. and one produces a high-pitched ring. medium. low (D) medium. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. high.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. low.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. Which of the following. if true. cost. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. . This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. According to a recent school survey. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. 24. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. (C) Fifteen years ago. (D) Work time. cost. however. never engage in this aggressive play. (E) Work time. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity.
replace the F with a D. 4=========FIN A2= First. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. the 5th symbol must be B or D. B is 1st. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. .========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. F. In Option 2. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. so all letters must appear later than E. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. and (E). (A) begins with E. If you start with F. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. B or D only. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. the number is 2nd. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. (E). 3)In Option 2. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. You end with B or D and this ends with F. the 5th must be B or D. In Option 2. Only (A) gives you that option. the number is 3rd. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. you begin with a letter later than B or D. a Rule 2 no-no. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. and B doesn‟t. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . The number is 3rd. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. is correct. and the sequence begins with C . The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. So F can‟t begin and E. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. E. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. there can‟t be an F or a G . That leaves (A). so (A) won‟t work. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. Only one letter comes after Y . violating Rule 5. Skim to (D). Each has 4 letters and 1 number. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. That leaves correct choice (D). You‟ve used B first. so it‟s correct.
(D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. So (D) is correct. As evidence. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall.which works with the rules for Option 2. (E)Isn‟t inferable. the sequence ends with a D. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. Focuses on cost. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. If the population increase is slower than projected. you need a special visa. . and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. if you do so. As for the others. economy continues to grow and prosper. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. (E) replaces the C with an A. a special visa is required. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. so (C) won‟t work. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. We talked about that in (A). Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. So (D) is correct. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. as (B) says. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone.S.
(E) puts the high 8th. and low. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. so dump (D) and (E). Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. high. 4. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. high bell is 4th. the correct answer. (A). medium.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. so (E)‟s correct. medium. You ring the low bell 3 times. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. then fill the space between with a medium. That works if we put a low 1st. 3)The two high bells will stick together. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. in 3. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. and the high bell 2 times. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. medium. 4th. and 5. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. (D) has a high 3rd. 4. low is 1st. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. Now we have to split up the lows. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. (B) has low. and 5th. low. the medium bell 3 times. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. a medium 4th. The beginning looks like this—low. and it‟s correct. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. and mediums 4th and 6th. next to the high in 3. leaving us with (B). 5th. So we‟ll put one low first. (A) has high. (A) puts the high bell 1st. 4. high. medium. the other high 2nd. (E). One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. 5th. and 7th. and 7th. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. and a low. (C) puts a high 3rd. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. yes. and 5. yes. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. (C). low is 3rd. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. (D). so (D)‟s correct. either would be okay. low in 3. and one after. and split up the lows 1st. (B) medium is 2nd. and 8 rings. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. yes. 3rd. yes. a medium. it could still be the most important factor overall. the other high 2nd. one low third. We‟ll have to put two before this set. and a medium 5th. a high.
Fresno. Dakar. 2 types of memos. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. How about (E). In priority 2. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. You have 6 cities. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. Edinburgh. send the memo to Beijing. Beijing. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. medium 8th. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. low. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. and 5. Edinburgh. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. (D) is fine. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. Caracas. Fresno. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. which makes (B) correct. so this is acceptable. low 7th. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. you could send it to Dakar. (C) is fine. 4. All the others work. in both cases they go next to Caracas. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. That‟s acceptable. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. (E). to Fresno but you don‟t have to. we‟ve discussed this— yes. a low 5th. Caracas. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. You know that‟s okay from 9. 1 and 2. Caracas. to Edinburgh. so (C) is correct. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. 4 and 5. start at the home office. Having done 9 and 10.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. 15=========FIN A2= . Beijing. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. and no way to do that. and medium in 3. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. (E) has high. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. Edinburgh. the dead end. Fresno. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. medium 6th. 7 and 8. describes a route it could not have followed. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th.
If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. write next to shelf 3 no J. a dead end. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. the dead end. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. the only place it can go is to Caracas. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. that‟s three. and in Option 2. so it won‟t work. (D) is correct. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. could have seen the memo. Only Beijing and Fresno. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. (A). and (A) is correct. As far as priority 2. Caracas. you‟d break Rule 3. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. Beijing. so it went to Beijing. G. and then Beijing. 1)In Option 1. the only place it can go is Fresno. top to bottom. so (B) won‟t do it. (D). (C). a dead end. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. write next to shelf 2 no J. and Beijing. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. and the answer is (C). F must be immediately above L . In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. Option 2. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. What . You have two options. After Dakar. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. and L. go to Beijing. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. Dakar. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. Option 1. That works in priority 1. go to Dakar. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. to Caracas. (B). We want it to end up in Edinburgh. you can start in the home office. where was it sent? Priority 2. go to Caracas. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. we work with Option 1. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. Caracas. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. and H on shelf 2. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. then Edinburgh.
To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. In Option 1. You can put H on shelf three. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. If H is on shelf three. K.must be true? Look at (B). we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. so the only place for K is shelf 3. so shelf 1 has F. (A). let‟s look at the situation. shelf 1 is empty. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. So (B)‟s correct. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. so (D)‟s correct. so the only home for K is 3. (B). it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. so (C) is correct. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. (D). F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. and G on 3. so (A)‟s correct. We put F. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. and shelf 1 is empty. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. K. K and J must be on the same shelf. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. J. L. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. and H is a floater. so J is on shelf 2. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. as long as they‟re on 3. If we split them up. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. if shelf 3 is empty. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. then J is on shelf two. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. and in Option 2. (B) puts K and L on the same . (E). In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. J and K are tennis trophies. J is on shelf two. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. we‟ve already said we can. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. we just did with (A). and 1 remains empty. so you will work with Option 1. where shelf three is open. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. and H on 2 and that left us with L. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. so it‟s on shelf 2. L. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. K. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. L is on shelf 2. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. then the only place is shelf 1. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2.
but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. not because it is better than staining. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. We get the former in (A). not the past 15 years. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. (E) has J on shelf two. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. but J is never on shelf three. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. .shelf. cost. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample.. but that‟s true only in Option 2. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. (C) does the trick. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. so (E)‟s our answer. (D) has F and shelf. shelf two. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. Unless there are other differences. that‟s true in Option 1 only. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. and longevity are equally important factors. If most students attend services for social reasons. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. cost. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time.
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