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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Dr. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. Xiao treats ears. Dr. If Dr. 14. York does not treat noses. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. Zeller treats throats. which of the following must be true? Dr. Dr. then Dr. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Xiao does not treat ears. Dr. then he or she must also treat throats. (E) Dr. York treats. Dr.doctors. If Dr. York treats exactly one part of the body. Xiao treats ears. Dr. York treats ears. he or she must also treat throats. Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Zeller treats throats. 17. Which of the following must be true? Dr. York treats noses. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. Suppose that Dr. Zeller treats noses. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. 13. In that case. Xiao treats throats. York treats noses. York treats throats. York must treat ears. (C) Dr. the . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. York does not treat noses. and throats 15. York treats noses. York does not treat throats. Dr. Zeller does not treat ears. Dr. Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. Dr. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. If Dr. If a doctor treats ears. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Xiao treats throats. If Dr. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. Zeller treats ears. noses. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. then he or she must also treat ears. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. Dr. Xiao treats ears. Zeller does not treat ears. four on top and four on bottom.
22. they contain different types of fruit. grapefruit. grapefruit. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. oranges. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. 18. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. pears. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. Compartment 1 contains apples. pears. apples. pears. oranges. or pears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. grapefruit.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples.
. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals.23. 25. 24. which they could read in the Official Journal. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. not the intent of his tax hike. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. Governor Kipling. however. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. Gilliatt can create any mood. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. What they don‟t realize. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. By raising corporate taxes. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain.
4. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. As with Question 2. (D). so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). 2. and (C) are false. Now incorporate the rules. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. starting with the most concrete. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. 3. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. four choices violate one or more rules. Thus. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). Finally.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. If light 2 and light 5 are On. (E) can. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. but (C) has five Ons. Therefore. and numbering them 1 through 10. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . Note that in the sketch. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. 2. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. So the sketch looks like this: 1. but don‟t need to be true. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. (B). That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. For this acceptability question. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. but don‟t need to be true. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. light 6 is Off. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. breaking Rule 2. be true. As for the others: (A). 5. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. since light 3 is Off. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). but need not. and 6) that are each either On or Off. leaving (B). Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On.
4. Therefore. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. (E). light 3 is Off. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. Create a master sketch. the argument predicts ruin. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. If light 6 is On. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. 5. If light 8 is Off. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. 6. using columns or circles to . But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. is the number that can be determined. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. Questions 8-12 In this game. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. (E)Beyond the scope. 7. totaling four On lights. and light 7 is Off. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. (B)Beyond the scope. must be true. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. it's the effects we're concerned with. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). That means light 4 is On. light 4 is On. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). Start with what you‟re given. If this were not the case. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. eight lights. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. and as we figured out. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. Otherwise. the music's message won't corrupt them. As always. (C). Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. light 5 is also Off. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. in either order.
there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. but need not. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. That makes three members on one committee. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. Abbreviate the members‟ names. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. and one member (J) is already on Housing. N must serve on Rules. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. O.represent the two committees. (A). and Throat. As for the others: (B). and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. O can‟t serve with M. 10. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. Y. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. 9. so (A) can be eliminated. O. Questions 13-17 In this game. M. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). If O can‟t serve with P. N. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. K. Each committee must have at least three members. eliminating (D) and (E). Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. and (E) are false. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. L. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. N). Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. Start with what you‟re given. six committee members can be determined. That leaves J. P can serve on either committee. and three horizontal rows . but don‟t need to be true. Therefore. and P to serve on Housing. 11. three doctors (shorthanded X. Create a master sketch. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). with three columns to represent the body parts. then P must serve with M and N. then N does too. be true. or (A). A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. If M serves on Housing. or (C). Nose. so K. eliminating (B). L. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. 12. In the setup. M. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. M. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). You‟re given that L serves with M. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. O can‟t serve with M. and N all serve together. L. can. so (D). M. Since J is always on Housing. (C). K must serve Committee. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). Your sketch should look something like this : 8. (B). using their first initials (J. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. (C). and N must serve with M. so put a J under Housing. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together.
However. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. but need not. Look at what you have. one by one. treat ears. noses.underneath. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). ears and throats only. choices that can be false can be eliminated. but need not. If X treats ears. X can. Y must treat noses. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. (B) is true. Both Y and Z must treat noses. then Y can‟t treat ears. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. 16. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. (C). (D). if X treats throats. 14. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. Yet. (A). and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. one for each doctor. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. be false. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. Start with what you‟re given. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . Rule 1 states that ears. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. If Y treats ears. according to Rule 2. but need not. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). Z also treats. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. So (B) must be true. so put “no” in the appropriate column. must be false. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). Each compartment contains apples (A). and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. so does Z. Therefore. that doctor must also treat throats. and (E) can. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. be true. if Y treats it. However. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. numbered 1-8. oranges (O). and then add your knowledge of the rules. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. X must treat at least throats. (D). (C) is correct. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. 15. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. 17. In other words. grapefruit (G). 13. then try to make some deductions. Since X can‟t treat noses. Go through the choices. then X must also treat throats. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). (A) can. then Y must also treat throats. (D). because of Rule 3.
From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. 21. However. four choices violate one or more rules. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. Check each choice in turn. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. so there are no more than four pears.e. which contains apples. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. eliminating (D) and (E). 3. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. Therefore. 20. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. 19. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). according to Rule 5. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. As in Question 20. From that and Rules 5 and 6. For this acceptability question. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (A) is correct. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. as well. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. so (B) is correct. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. From that and Rules 5 and 6. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. So put an A in Compartment 1. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. Thus. Since the question asks which could be true. and one choice violates none of them. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3).Incorporate the rules. the four incorrect choices must be false. This leaves (C). throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. Compare each rule to the choices. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). Place a G in Compartment 8. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . 1 and 2) must have different fruits. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. (C). Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). which contains grapefruit. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. and 4).
(A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. but makes no connection to problems in humans. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. but the question of his intent versus his actions. a total of four. Only (A). To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. Compartment 1 contains apples. since the jobs program was never implemented. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. 22. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). for instance. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. 3. 25. 6 and 7. merely her effective technique. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. not to supernatural subject matter. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. but on what actually happened. 3. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. 24. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. Compartments 2. can‟t contain grapefruit. which is that unemployment increased. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. So Compartments 2. As for the top. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. is the maximum number. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). (D). (B) and (C) are false. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. Therefore. thus increasing unemployment. rather than how they are described. (B)We don't know this. 23. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. must be true. If only one compartment contains apples. 5. The adjacent compartments.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. . The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. If.
positioned in that order from west to east. u. 1. y. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. t. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. and z. x. After 1981.org . --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. v. w. Sector u was constructed in 1981. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982.
(D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. 1984 (B) 1982. 1986 6. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1985 (C) 1983. 2. 1985 (E) 1983. 1984 (D) 1983. 1983 (D) 1982. 1983. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1984 (E) 1982. 1983. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 1984. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? .(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. 1985 5. If Sector s was built in 1985.
8. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. 9. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. if true. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. harmful pollutants. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. The Commissioner of Public Works. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. only five had presented any serious complications. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. In a recent test. Which of the following. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones.
which extends south from the city center. Red Toll. due southeast. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. motorists pass two radial highways. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. and Paris Highway. but no other tollbooths. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. which extends due north from the city center. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. which runs due northeast from the city center. Blue. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. and Yellow Tolls. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Vienna Highway. 10. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. which extends due west from the city center. and due southwest of the city center. due east. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. Red. The radial highways are: London Highway. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. Vienna Highway 13. Madrid Highway. Yellow Toll. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. London Highway. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. Paris Highway. Madrid Highway. called the Beltway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll .
If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Mike. Mike. Nick. who is in turn taller than Pedro. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Jim. Quentin (D) Oliver. Jim. Jim is taller than Kathy. Nick. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Nick. Pedro. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Laura. Oliver. Mike. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Kathy. Oliver. Quentin (C) Kathy. Jim. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. 14. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Laura. Kathy 15. Pedro. Kathy. and Quentin—are measured for height. Quentin (E) Pedro. Nick. Mike. Nick. Quentin. but taller than Jim. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . The following is known: No two students are of the same height. Laura. Pedro. Oliver. Kathy. Pedro. Laura. Laura. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Kathy. Laura. Pedro. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Mike. Oliver. Mike. Quentin (B) Jim. Nick.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Oliver.
Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. T. S. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. and 5 . A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. If R votes “no” on all five movies. and 5 (D) movies 2. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 3. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. 2. and U.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. There are no abstentions. 3. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. 4. The five judges on the committee are Q. S votes “no” on movie 2. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. and 3. 19. 21. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and 5. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. and 4 (E) movies 2. R. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. U votes “yes” on movie 4. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20.
(D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. which are forever twisting above. if true. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. When workers were primarily employed by industry. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. and sales are better than ever. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. Which of the following. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. 25.23. productivity has nearly doubled. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. or to fingers and wrists. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. Freda Tully. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. . Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. there was no competent leadership in the firm. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. McGovern‟s new executive director. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. Today. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. Coach Parker. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. 24. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. control panels or electric counters. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. Profits are on the rise.
Since the question asks which could be true. Create a master sketch. (B). There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. (C). You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. In order for sector w to be constructed. and (D). (D) Compared to their ancestors. However. For this question. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. though it used to be the other way around. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. and sector u is constructed in 1981. sector v can be constructed in 1982. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. sector w must be constructed before sector x. That leaves three choices. . Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. Write 1981 in u‟s space. the four incorrect choices must be false. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. w. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. x. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. u. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. so (C) and (D) are out. v. so (C).The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. Sector x is constructed in 1984. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. 2. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. As we‟ve just seen. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. Therefore. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. t. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. sector v must be constructed before sector w. 1. Therefore. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. y.
In fact. Therefore (D)—1982. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. Otherwise. First. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). and z. 6. However. and (D). So (A) is correct. v. Therefore. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. Sector z can be constructed last. If sector v is constructed in 1982. in 1988. sector w in 1983 or 1984. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. (D) is correct. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. So. respectively. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. but when you look at the choices. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. (C). That sounds too simple to be the solution. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. 1984. Under this question‟s conditions. and sector z in 1988. y. 1983. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. sector v must be constructed by 1984. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. 1983. and z) because of Rule 2. (B). causes kidney stones. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin.3. and 1984. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. That eliminates (A) and (B). You are told that sector s is built in 1985. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. If sector t is constructed in 1982. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. As we saw in the previous question. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. y. which are choices (A). Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. sector y in 1987. . sector w must be constructed before sector x. You need to determine two dates here. 5. Using the reverse thinking. 7. 4. and so isn't parallel. w. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. vitamin C. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. sector x in 1986. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. if sector t is constructed in 1982. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. Now. t. sector y must be constructed after 1986. Likewise.
and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. you‟ll pass two radial highways. not their danger. Red (R). From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest.(E)A general claim is made. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. past the Beltway. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. The four highways extend from the city outward. due southeast. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. however. and Paris (P). (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. but noexamples are provided. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. in . P extends due northeast. in either order. 9. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. L extends due north. That means. and due southwest of the city. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. V extends due south. Madrid (M). (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. Green (G). surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). Looking at the sketch. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. If. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. but no other tollbooths. M extends due west. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. 8. There are four tollbooths. Vienna (V). due east. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. For the sketch. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. Blue (B).
and check each choice in turn. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. between the Madrid and the Vienna. M. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. or (E). or the Southeast tollbooth. (C). As we deduced in Question 11. Therefore. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. from tallest to shortest. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. the Paris. O. Red. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. you‟ll pass two radial highways. since their locations are described in the question. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. Use the deductions from Question 11. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. namely the Green. . Check each choice in turn. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. and Yellow Tolls. and among the choices. and isn‟t a must. Blue. eliminating rule violators. (A). For the sketch. in either order. place eight students in height order. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. K. 13. Looking at the sketch. so (E) is wrong. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. 12. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. 11. the Madrid. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. L. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. Create a master sketch. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. Q). P. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. but no other tollbooths. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. N. Use your sketch. If it‟s merely possible. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll.
leaving (B). 15. So Quentin is taller than Jim. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. we know that Mike. Adding Rules 2 and 4. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Since Laura is third.Look at the rules. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Mike. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. Combine this with Rule 2. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. or Quentin can be first. Kathy. Combining our deductions. For this acceptability question. Laura is third. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. in that order. This eliminates (B) and (E). starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. and note that there are only two students above her. with the remaining students. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. four choices violate one or more rules. or (A). For this question. and then. eliminating (C) and (D).” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. Quentin. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. Oliver. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. So place the L on your piece of paper. and Pedro. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. and two available spots for students taller than her. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. Laura is third highest of the eight students. 14. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. 18. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. and one choice violates none of them. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. so (A) is out. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Nick. 16. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. and since Laura is third. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. So. only Jim. or (B). and who must be shorter. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4).. we can definitely determine who is fourth. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. 17. Compare each choice to the rules. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. Also. Rule 5 says Laura is third. but taller than Jim. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. Nick. Jim. you can figure out the possibilities. Since there are only three available spots below . There‟s only one possible order here. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro.
) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. using an N. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. Since the question asks which choice must be true. (B). Laura must be taller than Kathy. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. so (D) too can be eliminated. as long as one . As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. T votes yes on movie 5. Nick. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. Neither R nor U must vote yes. 2. 4. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. it means a yes vote from T as well. 3. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. this must be true. S. although both can vote yes. The third yes comes from either R or U. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. Scan the choices and stop at (D). As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. R. and (E) are false. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. Quentin. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5.” At least three yes votes are needed. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. both must vote yes. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. and Pedro. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. If both vote no. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. Create a master sketch. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. 2. at least three of whom must vote yes. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). and who must vote no. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. Any of five movies (1. As we have just proved. and 3. figure out who must vote yes. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. That thinking is reflected in (D). 20.Laura. and U) to appear in a film festival. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. 2. and (C) can be eliminated. “exactly. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. Since S and T vote the same. so T also votes no on movie 2. one for each of the three movies. Note that in your sketch. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. That leaves four judges. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. Kathy. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. according to Rule 3. and 3. U votes yes on movie 4. Questions 19-22 In this game. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. (C). being taller than at least three other students. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. T.” that is. must be taller than Laura. so (A). so neither choice needs to be true.
R votes no. If. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. S votes no. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. and 5. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. We‟re left with (D) and (E). If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. If U does vote no. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. So movie 2 has two no votes. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. so (C) is eliminated. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. 22. (B) is the answer. and three unknown votes. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. 21. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. So you need at least one more no vote. on movie 2. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. one no vote. Look for the other judges that vote no. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. 23. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. 3. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. Choose one of the two movies. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. but needn‟t. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. Looking at the remaining choices. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. That deduction eliminates only (A).of them does. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . there are three yes votes. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. . so (B) and (E) can. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. be true. and then T votes no. so T must vote no on movie 2. and determine whether or not U votes no. then the other choice is correct. S and T vote together. To conclude this. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. That leaves (E) to be correct. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. and thus have your answer.
which discusses injuries. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. because most people now work in the service sector. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. (D)Misreads the argument. To weaken this contention. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. (D)Strengthens. she must therefore have provided this leadership. no matter what the practice time.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. Most people used to work in industry. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. 24. so this strengthens the argument. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. 25. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. like lifting. (E)Strengthens. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector.
how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. same row are the same color. 2. green. the following colors: blue. red. is red. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. the board is green. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. is green. is yellow.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. or yellow.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. is green. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. same column are the same color. 1. Light 5 is green.
purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. Therefore. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. and yellow 5. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. green. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. Which of the following. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. if true. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. In companies with only one secretary. . 8. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. If all beaches were publicly owned. but at all times. If light 6 is yellow.
(D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. . Y. and Z. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. There are. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. however. but for no more than two consecutive days. (D) On average. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. however. Every day. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. X. slower copiers. FORMerly. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. 9. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. which are numbered 1 through 4. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. in that order. 10. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. but for no more than three consecutive days. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food.
and Quint are seated in cars 1. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. Pip. 14. X is listed third. If Rob. Z is listed third. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. 13.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. Car 5 is never empty. and 5. The four children are Pip. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. After each ride. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Quint. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. 4. Rob. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. one child per car. W is listed third. 12. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. for the first ride. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. respectively. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. Sal. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. . one car remaining empty. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. and Sal. 2. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. Z is listed second. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride.
Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . 4. for the first ride. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. Sal. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. Pip. Betty cooks on Wednesday. and Horace. and 5. 15. exactly one of the three family members cooks. If Horace cooks on Friday. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. Each day in the Ring home. Betty cooks on Tuesday. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. (D) Car 3 is empty. 17. Rob is seated in car 4. and Quint are seated in cars 1. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. (E) Car 4 is empty. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. 16. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. Jim. respectively. If Rob. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. Quint is seated in car 4. Pip is seated in car 4. 3.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week.
Friday 23. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. . for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. Horace cooks on Wednesday. Friday (E) Sunday. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. Tuesday. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. they related stories of important events. Thursday. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. Jim cooks on Monday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. if true. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. Friday (D) Monday. depicted prominent citizens in the community. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Jim cooks on Wednesday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. Horace cooks on Monday. Thursday (C) Sunday. Tuesday. 24. Horace Jim. Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Which of the following. I know this for a fact. If Jim cooks on Wednesday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. Tuesday. Like modern magazines. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Thursday.
Average and below average students. green. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. and light 1 is red. starting with the most concrete. There are three rows of three lights each. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. Therefore. For this acceptability question. 7 to 9. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. 1. (B). (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students.e. per week. 4. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. and on the bottom.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. Based on those two deductions. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. however. Compare each rule to the choices. or yellow. in the middle. lights 2. 2. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. than they did in 1988. and light 1 is red. light 3 is yellow. 3) can be the same color. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. Therefore.e. 1. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. 7) can be the same color. 25. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. numbered on the top. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. You must place the lights. Put a G in light 5‟s space. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. can be true. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. 3. 4. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. 4 to 6. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. which can be blue. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. according to the rules provided. . four choices violate one or more rules. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. red. 1 to 3.
or yellow. according to Rule 3. or (C). 8. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. eliminating (A) and (B). light 7 can‟t be red or green. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. 7. Light 6.2. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). if the government already maintains all beaches. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. or (C). Light 5 is green. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. can be any color except green. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . 4. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. then light 4 can be yellow. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. so there can be a maximum of three red. So lights 2. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. light 8 must be red. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. and eliminate them as choices. That‟s only two blue lights. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. Also. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. light 7 must be yellow. (B). the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. both private and public. 6. 4. 7. leaving eight lights to be red. That eliminates (A). light 6 can be red. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. 3. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. and 8. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. light 7 must be blue. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). or (C). To answer this question. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. if light 6 is yellow. 5. blue. so (E) can be eliminated. leaving 6. Because light 1 is red. and light 5 is green. 3. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. 7 and 8. That leaves lights 2. so (D) is correct. and (E). Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. If light 6 is yellow. 3. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. (C). 4. three of another and two of a third color. 5. . but lights 2. There‟s only one green light. However. There‟s only one green light. As we saw in Question 2. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. and light 9 must be yellow. 2. That eliminates (B) and (E). Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. That leaves lights 1. and 9. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. You know that light 1 is red. Light 1 is red. (D). lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. so that leaves lights 7 and 8.
based on the rules provided. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. numbered 1. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. not single deficiencies. (C)As long as the machine is faster. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. 3. and thus save money. 9. not of all the B vitamins. Four guards. This is the key rule to this game. 2. From all that inFORMation about W. and Z. W. X. (C)Too specific. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. Therefore. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. 8. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. Rule 4 says Z . it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). Therefore. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. cause beriberi and pellagra. and 4.they were made public than if they remained private. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. Y. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries.
Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. There is one child per car. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. The rules all have to do with the empty car. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. If W changes assignments. Therefore. Y. For Wednesday‟s roster. W is listed first. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Since this question asks which must be true. X. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. four choices violate one or more rules. or are false outright. must be true. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. so (B) must be true. Compare each rule to the choices. However. Here. so (E) must be correct. Looking at the choices. For your master sketch. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. 11. and one choice violates none of them. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. According to Rule 5. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. (A) and (D) can be true. W. 13. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. Questions 14-16 In this game. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. you can simply use five dashes. Before looking at the answer choices. and only one. W was assigned to gallery 1. Z must move. numbered 1 to 5. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. In lieu of a master sketch. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. (A). so for Thursday‟s roster. so one car is always empty. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. or in gallery 3 on both days. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. but need not be true. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. That eliminates (B) and (C). 10. 12. when W remains in the same gallery. guard can remain in the same gallery. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. leaving (C). this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. when the next day is assigned.
H must cook after . for the third ride. 15. Rob. 16. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. for a week. and one choice violates none of them. you‟ll know all that must be true. Therefore. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. for the first ride. respectively. four choices violate one or more rules. Quint. as (D) correctly says. Incorporate the rules. According to Rule 1. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. If. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. Sal. For this acceptability question. __ . Create a master sketch. according to Rule 1. Pip is seated in Car 1. Stated more positively. J. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). Quint. __ . then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. therefore. Pip. Sal. Now Car 3 is empty. Furthermore. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. (E) must be correct. So. Start with what you are given: Rob. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. 2. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. 14. The third ride. following Rule 1: Pip. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Compare each choice to the rules. or (A). from Sunday to Saturday. The order of the first ride: Rob. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. Sal. and 5. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. H) take turns cooking each day. Remember. three family members (abbreviated B. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. That means. so (C) can be eliminated. Questions 17-22 In this game. if Car 3 is empty. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. Sal. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). Pip. Rule 4 is always in effect. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3).empty. Then. Car 2 is empty. Quint. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. Pip. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. __ . throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. 4. and Quint are in Cars 1. Tuesday comes before Wednesday.
So Tuesday. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). and Friday. through Sat. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. be true. and Friday can be definitely determined. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. Wednesday. 20. That takes care of Betty for the week. must cook before Tuesday. either one can cook. Betty cooks on Tuesday. four days. Horace needs to cook two more times. Sunday. (E). . If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). (A). Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). (D) remains. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Therefore. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. Wednesday. the four incorrect choices can be true. Horace. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. Therefore. Wed. 21. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. So.Tuesday. 22. Tuesday. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. As we deduced in the game overview. There are three available days. 23. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. (B). then Horace must cook on Thursday. 18. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. and then B must cook on Sunday. (D) must be true. but not both. so (C) must be true. and (C) can. so (E) is wrong. but need not. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. Only (C). Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Saturday. That eliminates (A) and (B). Now. However. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. and either Sunday or Monday. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). The only false choice is (E). Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. so (A) and (B) can. That‟s (C). Thursday. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. Thursday. Since Horace must cook three days. Thursday. Horace must cook on Wednesday. If Horace cooks on Friday. In order to be consecutive. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. Monday. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). Since Horace must cook three days. and Saturday can be definitely determined. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). That leaves (C). it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. be true. 19. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. So. but need not. Wednesday.
Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). the author compares them to modern magazines. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork. Therefore. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. time spent by students overall increased. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. without giving any examples. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. 25.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. 24.
which of the following must also be true? . (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. 2. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. P. R. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. who is seated on the immediate right of T. a playwright. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. and M—are theater critics. S. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. If the statements above are true.000. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. and T—are playwrights. the other four—Q.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. 3. L. 1. Three of the people—K. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. R is seated on the immediate right of S. 4. joins the others at the table. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs.
The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. If put in the same room.000. K. H. I. (B) An annual profit of $10. 6. J. G.000. In households including more than one person. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. and where interpersonal contact is common. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50.000 in the year before the war. and L. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. certain patients will infect other patients. Pending further study. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact.000 than for amounts less than $40. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50.000 is not especially high. 5. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. more established companies.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.
The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. one with Disease F. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. two jazz programs. and one with Disease J. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. one with Disease F. 10. or Disease F. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. one with Disease I. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. and a male with Disease K. which programs are the news programs for that day? . together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. and two educational programs. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. one with Disease J. or Disease G. A room is occupied by three people. and a person with Disease J. 7. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. and one with Disease G. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic.G. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. a male with Disease K.
On Monday the first five programs are news programs. and ninth second. The eighth program cannot be a news program. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. sixth. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. who must get off before O. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. 13. The seventh program is a news program. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. The first program is an educational program. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. eighth. third. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. eighth. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. Q. fifth. third. second. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. 14. P. and ninth fourth. sixth. N must get off before M. fifth. eighth. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. N. . fourth. fifth. if N gets off at the third stop. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. M. sixth. and sixth third. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. eighth. and ninth first. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. O.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. second. R must get off before Q. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L.
and if N gets off after Q. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. If R gets off at the fourth stop. X. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. (E) R gets off at the second stop. V. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. if M gets off at the third stop. (D) N gets off at the first stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. 15. 17. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. (E) Q gets off after M. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. and Z— every day. The second car must always contain U. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. 18. 19. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. 16. and if P must get off alone. W. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. which of the following MUST be true? . (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (C) L and P get off together. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. If X is perishable. (C) N gets off at the second stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. Y.
(B) The sixth car contains X. fifth car contains V. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. (E) The third car contains Y. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. 22. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. (C) The fifth car contains V. If W and V are perishable. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. sixth car contains Z. 21. 20. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. If Y and Z are perishable. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. . the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. and if Y and Z are perishable. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. (D) The sixth car contains W.
R. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. but rather from some property of the color itself. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. Studies have shown that. because of its brightness and intensity. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. That implies the opposite: A . Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. 24. Because of this finding. 25. M) and four playwrights (Q. Which of the following. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. S. L. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. if true.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished.
(B). then S is in Seat 4. and (E) all can be true. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. so (D) is impossible. 3.000. T is in Seat 2. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. (C). Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. or in Seat 6: R. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). then (E) a proposal for more than $50. so (C) can be true. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. P. or in Seat 5. 5. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. so (B) is out. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. 2. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. in either order. a playwright. L and M can be in Seats 6. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. if S is three places to Q‟s right. so eliminate (A). As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. so (A).000 won't be considered. For our sketch. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. . who is immediately right of T. K is in Seat 9. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. can‟t sit immediately next to L. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. and T is in Seat 3. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. To make this connection. and R is in Seat 5. Using the sketch in the game overview. since both are playwrights. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. That seats all the playwrights. only from Q‟s left. 6. so (B) need not be true. so (E) is also false. and R is in Seat 4. As we saw in Question 1. and (E).000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. or 8.000. A single. S. R. then S is in Seat 3. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. If S is two places to Q‟s right. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. T is in Seat 3. (C). From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. a playwright. (E) describes the same chair as (D). place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. 4. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. eliminating (A). (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. 7. S. a critic. in any order. meaning they are 4 places apart.
(E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. 9. it's possible that these people are related to each other. L F. If put in the same room. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). then male K infects G. H + I F. Switch H and J. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. a patient with Disease L. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. If L is added to the room with F. more . I. If H is added to the same room. then K infects F. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. K. L G. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. F. If this is the case. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. 8. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. not established ones. so (A) is out. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). K G. male K. and G. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. K infects F (Rule 2). not in one particular phrase. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. You are told that one room contains patients with H. If (A). Questions 7-9 In this game. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. I. Rule 3 says L infects K. and J. and a male with K. If (A). (D). L). Another room contains patients with I. and J. one by one. (C)Too broad. If (C). The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. or F: L K. 7. eliminating (B). there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. but shorthanding the rules might help. so (A) is wrong. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. and J. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. So jot down H L. H. J. it's the change over the course of the war that is. The study isn't clear on this point. I and G switch. enters a room with H. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. If K is added. G.(B)The annual profit isn't important. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. K and G switch. Switch J and G. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. Specifically. G. (B). 6. then L infects F (Rule 3). one by one.
second. (B) and (C) are patently false. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). From here. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. There are five news programs.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. (A) and (E) can be true. must be first through fourth in whatever order. two jazz. and there are five news programs total. and since only one must be true. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. and third. two jazz programs. Start with what you know. both stated and easily deduced. fourth. one program per slot. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. (C). Your sketch should look something like this: 10. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. As for the others. and E for educational. . eighth. If the first five programs are all news programs. in whatever order. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. two jazz programs. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. Among the choices. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. and you know that one educational program is seventh. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. and one educational program to place. so place an E in slot 7. (C): only one-K infects G. The four remaining programs. and ninth. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). 11. J for jazz. (D): only one-K infects F. So (A) is correct. is correct. (E). scan the choices. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. sixth. but needn‟t be. You‟re left with one educational program. So (C) is correct. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. 12. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. Stated positively. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. One educational program is seventh. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. three news and one educational. and two educational) into order. arrange nine radio programs (five news. fifth.
O. Under this question‟s conditions. N. or news-jazz-news. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). J. That‟s three. (B). If you stopped now and looked at the answers. E. (C). N. N. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. and one of the educational programs is seventh. In order to satisfy Rule 4. N. so M must be seventh. J. N. N. J. Incorporate the rules. If R gets off fourth. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. then Q gets off fifth. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. and ninth. Q. N. E. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. but for every other stop only one member can get off. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. Therefore (A). seventh. R must get off either first or second. Only L. J. and N gets off after Q. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. 16. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. must be true: No one can get off sixth. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). J. and P must get off sixth. J. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. M. you‟d see that (E) can be true. E. N. (C). eliminating (D). N. Since no one gets off eighth. O. N. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. and (D) must be true. so (E) is the answer. J. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. and P remain. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. however. M gets off before O (Rule 5). although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). E or N. O. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). who gets off before O. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). E. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. M. N. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. and (E) can be true. 15.13. N. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. seven members of a family (L. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). N. (A). N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. N. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). (B). Questions 14-18 For this game. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. but need not be true. If M gets off third. N. Looking at the master sketch. E or N. N. with O and P getting off together ninth. so (D). That makes four. P. J. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. but E can also be first: E. N. Since no one gets off eighth. but needn‟t be. so they get off at 7 and 9. E.
but need not be true. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. then N and M must get off before seventh. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. Create a master sketch. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. 8-M. In other words. namely first. you must distribute six products (U. Since U is in Car 2. 2-L. or sixth. 9-OP. shorthand it U. Incorporate the rules. in either order. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. (C). V . L must get off at the ninth stop. 18. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. then Q gets off fifth. However. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. and (E) are all possible. Questions 19-22 In this game. W. at the ninth stop. (C). and (E) can be true. (B). (B).Y. and (E) can‟t be true. then R can only get off at 1 or 2..before O (Rule 5). V. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). Therefore. then R can only get off at 1. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). V must precede W. and look for one of them as an answer choice. (A). You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. Y can‟t immediately follow W. 3-X. If R gets off fourth. (C). 5-Q. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. If O gets off seventh. Therefore. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. (C). who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). OR If Q gets off at 5. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. but none have to be true. So put a U in slot 2. X . X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. (D). leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. 20. and then add what you know. Z) onto six boxcars. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. 7-N. neither N nor M can get off ninth. 17. (B). using six dashes to represent the boxcars. 6-X. so O must get off ninth and (A). (B). This might get you thinking. 2. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. and (E) are all possible. third. 4-R. Start with what you‟re given. (A) can‟t be true. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. leaving only O and L. P can‟t get off ninth.X. L and P must get off together. If Y and Z are perishable. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4.. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. one product per car. or 3. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. If X is perishable. either. second. but none are definite. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3.
If W and V are perishable. U is in Car 2. and (E) must all be true. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. situations. V. (B). X. Y. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. so (D) need not be true. Z. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. (A). (E)Assumes that. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). however. and Car 5 with Car 6. There are four possibilities. (D). (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. X. 21. V. (B). 24. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). a precedent may already have been set. for which choice no evidence is given. (B) is correct. W is in Car 1. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. Therefore. Thus. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). If Y and Z are perishable. in either order. not necessarily at all times. (A). Also. and (E) are possible. (C). How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. U is in 2. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. Z. leaving Z in Car 1. or W. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. in either order. is in Car 5 and Car 6. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. Z. Z. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. 23. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. U. Y. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. not all. or W. Y. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. Y. there was some reason that . but (C) CANNOT be true. U. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. Therefore. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. U. V. along with X.must be in Car 1 and W. 22. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. in either order. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. in order: W. U. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. or W. X. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. (D) can be true. X. 25. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. in either order. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. If. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . V. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people.
in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). and Delgado. Best. Adams. Kundala. (A)This is a logistical problem. Carter. and Lamming—and four juniors. it's the stressinducing qualities of red. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. The . Hiro. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. regardless of the reason. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. it doesn't affect the rationale.
Adams. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. . Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. Kundala. Lamming must also be chosen. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. Lamming. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. Because of high demand. (D) Dr. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. Kundala (E) Hiro. Dr. (E) Dr. Best (D) Fox. Carter cannot be chosen. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Hiro. Kundala cannot be chosen. Hiro. 5. If Carter is chosen for the convention. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. if true. Carter (B) Kundala. rather than societal. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. Anderman‟s imprisonment. If Hiro is chosen to attend. Delgado (C) Hiro. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. Best 2.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. and style. If Fox is chosen to attend. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. If Best is chosen to attend. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. conflict. 1. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. symbolism. Which of the following.
Which of the following. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. R. 6. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. Q. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. Q. P. . R (E) Q. Q. non-urban. and each pet will be examined just once. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. Q. areas are now affected. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. S 8. R. P. S. Q.In order for this argument to be logically correct. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. P (C) R. R. The pets will be examined one by one. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. S (B) S. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. if true. R. S must be examined before P is examined. 7. P (D) S. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. is examined second.
(E) C. At least one comedian must appear on each show. Which of the following. (D) S must be examined first. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . G D. If CANNOT (A) A. If R is examined third. if true. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. (C) E. (E) P is examined fourth. F. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. E are comedians. Only A. G E. G 13. F F. D E. 11. 9.(D) R is examined third. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. E. (B) C. C. D. (D) A. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. C. B appears on Saturday's show. B. (E) P must be examined fourth. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night.
The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Beef Enchilada. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. and if B appears on Saturday's show. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. in ascending order of popularity. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. and Chicken Vindaloo. Chicken Dijon. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. Fish Teriyaki. but if both are selected. Chicken Dijon. Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa.(D) five (E) six 14. from first course to fourth course. chosen from a group of eight. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. Fish Teriyaki. Lobster Mombasa. The menu will consist of four entrees. Pork Szechuan. they cannot be served consecutively. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. The eight eligible entrees are. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. 17. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev. Pork Szechuan. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Pork Szechuan .
23. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X.(E) Beef Enchilada. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. Lobster Mombasa. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. it does not exist naturally in the desert. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. Fish Teriyaki. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. powerful sunlight. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. Desert X is an environment with constant. Pork Szechuan 18. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. nor does it survive long when introduced there. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. and next to no moisture. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. .
it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. 25. however. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (B) For one week in the fall. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. the literary work loses its specificity. In fact. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. . Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. The problem. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. In the hands of a Freudian critic. Desert X can support almost no plant life. 24.
Kundala isn‟t. then Carter isn‟t: If H. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). 3. then no c. Kundala. Best. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. That leaves (C). is chosen. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. but not both. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). then no K. You are given that Carter. Since the question asks who must be chosen. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. For this acceptability question. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. if Kundala is chosen. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. you can only choose one or the other. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. As Rule 1 says. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. then Fox isn‟t (if K. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. then Fox can‟t be chosen. H. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. b. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. That eliminates (A). Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. Hiro must be chosen. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. there must be at least two seniors. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. or (C). (C) and (E). but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. Compare each rule to the choices. Carter. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. Hiro. 1. violating Rule 4. aren‟t required. 4. a junior. K.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. One is Kundala. eliminating (D). then Hiro isn‟t (if c. and Kundala. . Fox. and one choice violates none of them. or (B). and a. then no F). then L. Lamming must also be chosen. In other words. being juniors. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. d for the four juniors. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. Lamming must be chosen. The three available seniors are Lamming. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. four choices violate one or more rules. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. 2. then no H). or can‟t be chosen at all. Delgado). then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. c. L for the four seniors.
there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. if B. If. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. Thus.they were written after her release. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. however. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. this has no effect. If. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. 6. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. Create a master sketch of four dashes. if A. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). then C. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. only now more of them have been identified. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. Q. then C (they were able to buy tickets). (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. however. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. place four pets (P. (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. R. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. Rule 1 states that R is second or . nothing need have changed. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. so this won't weaken the conclusion. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. 5. then not A (they didn't want them). then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. S) in an order to be examined. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand.
leaving (B). Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. Q or S. None of the choices include both F and D. Therefore. B. You need to have S before P. You are told B is on Saturday. Since S must be seen before P. You are given that Q is examined before R. Q. R. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. P. P. so S must be first and P must be fourth. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. 11. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. R. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. E and G are chosen with B. are comedians. C. either S or Q can be first. If A is the only comedian on Friday. so S can be first or second. 10. For this acceptability question. R must be third. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. F. if Q is first and R is third. without violating the rules. S before P. must appear on Saturday. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A.third. From that. there are (C) three different orders possible. if A. Then. 9. Q is either first or second. and P can be second or fourth. Questions 11-16 In this game. 8. so you need three more guests for Saturday. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. then two of the four slots are filled. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. (A). We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. are on Saturday. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. E. S. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. D. and E. R. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. Rule 1 states that only A. and one choice violates none of them. then F and D are . Therefore. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. We know R can be third. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. If R is third. Therefore E. then C and E. Rule 2 kicks in. C. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. P or Q. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. the other comedians. 12. Create a master sketch. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. but so can S. four choices violate one or more rules. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second.
and F. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. Beef Enchilada. That means F and D are both on Saturday. or E. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. Try each choice in turn. A must therefore be with D. That means the third comedian. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. E. and G. Friday has at least one comedian. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. However. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. you can further deduce that C. Questions 17-22 For this game. Chicken Kiev. Fish Teriyaki. B. From that you can deduce that Beef . D. and F are together. B or G and Saturday is C. D. then the other two comedians are on Friday. The groups in (A). F. Chicken Dijon. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. for two more possible lists. and G. The entrees. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. must be on Friday. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. so (C) and (E) are both possible. Since each night has at least one comedian. Although F can‟t be with D. then Saturday is A. 14. (B). G. so (A) is correct. in either order. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. (C). B or E. (C) is correct. G or E. D. violating Rule 3. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. E. You can then deduce that C and E are together. Pork Szechuan. but not definite. Chicken Vindaloo. and B or G. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. If Friday is C. (Rule 2). and there‟s your exception. so they can be eliminated. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. or (C). Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). from among F. G must be on Saturday. either one can be with E. That‟s one possible list. In fact. In other words. C. E. B or E. violating Rule 3. B. F. D. As in Question 12. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. E. 16. then Friday is A. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. If Saturday includes C. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. 15. Place B and G on either night. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. Therefore. F and B or G. and G. D.together on Friday. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. E. F. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. D. or A. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). You are given that A and C are on Saturday. D. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. B and/or G. F. Lobster Mombasa. 13. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. So either night can be C. E.
This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Beef) can‟t both be selected. (A). since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. In the order. but can‟t be consecutive. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. Therefore. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. By the way. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. Well. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. Chicken Kiev. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. one. On the overall list. 18. in that order. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. there‟s only one fish entree. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. On the overall list. Pork Szechuan.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. so (A). This question says the first entree is based around fish. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. four choices violate one or more rules. Compare each rule to the choices. violating Rule 2. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. 20. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. so the other Chicken entrees. but neither can be chicken. Kiev and Vindaloo. 21. then only . and Chicken Vindaloo. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. and Pork Szechuan. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. According to Rule 2. 17. and one choice violates none of them. So Chicken Dijon is first. is correct. That way. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. For this acceptability question. Therefore.e. 19. That leaves Beef Enchilada. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. in that order. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Lobster Mombasa. must be removed. Before looking at the choices. So (D) is correct. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. Next. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. Fish Teriyaki. (E) is the exception.
Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. .Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. 25. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. (C)Too general. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. (C) and (E) are true. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. sunny and hot. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. Pork Szechuan must be third. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. X is a desert. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). although she says she doesn't know which is more important. 23. it's that it's too powerful. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. beef. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. Y likes dry and sunny regions. correct. If there were multiple correct interpretations. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. determine all that can or must be true. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. 22. so it's dry. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. yet it doesn't. 24. If Lobster Mombasa is second. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. therefore. That leaves (B). (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. Beef Enchilada must be second. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third.
L. Which of the runners? (A) F. M. (E) O. K finished ahead of M. H. G. G.org 2. 1. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. G. F. L. L. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. O. K. or behind. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . (C) K. K. F finished ahead of both G and L. H. M. (D) K. H.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. M. O. O. K. L. M. K. J. M. O. J. J. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. L finished immediately ahead of H. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. H. There were no ties for any finishing position. L. (B) G. G. and M finished ahead of J. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. H. J. F. O. L. F.
rather than mask. first. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. ahead of G. Which of the following. If F finished fourth. Today. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . ahead of K. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. if filled into the above blank. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. 5. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. its function as a supporting structure.
doubles partners. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team. who are power players. He can choose from among eight players—M. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. who are finesse players. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. P. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. . until. This percentage steadily declined. If T is chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. it reached 3%. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. (B) The Arbican population increased. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. (D) The Arbican population decreased. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. S. N and V. 8. and V. in 1980. Q. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. (C) The Arbican population decreased. and N. and T. (E) The Arbican population increased. but N is not. If Q is chosen for the team. (B) V is not chosen for the team. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. exactly two power players will be chosen. If the statements above are true. R. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
(D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. 24. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. after all.C. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. at around 3000 BC. . the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. 25. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. which took place about 6000 years ago.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. How can it exist. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. far earlier than was previously believed. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European.
So start with F in the fourth slot. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. J. H. 2. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. then G and L (from Rule 6). so L can‟t be last. four choices violate one or more rules. But that‟s impossible since you know . or vice versa. second. eliminating (A). If H is seventh. and therefore correct. and seventh or eighth. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. try the other possibilities for H. and M finished before J. That leaves (E). and M finished before J. That leaves (A) as possible. So M must be second. in that order (according to Rule 5). you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. 3. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. and M can‟t be either first or last. M. O. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). For this acceptability question. so F can‟t finish eighth. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. and see what you can deduce. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. Compare each rule to the choices. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. Combining all of the deductions. M. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. Stated positively. If F is fourth. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. Rule 5 says K finished before M. Just to be sure. J. O is third. You can also deduce that F finished before H. O is fourth. and neither G nor L can finish first. and J to go first. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. or vice versa. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. so neither K nor M can finish last. O. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. and one choice violates none of them. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. L. H. G. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. As we deduced in the game overview. and (C) is out. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. Since L must finish before H. the only runners who can finish first are F. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. J and O. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. K can‟t be last. which can finish eighth. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. From another combination of deductions. and O. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. and K. That eliminates (B) and (D). K.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. O is exactly two spaces in front of H.
not whether they are similar or dissimilar. so far: That leaves F. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. and J to be placed. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. 4. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H)." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. In either case. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. G must be next to O. 6. To evaluate this claim. G can‟t be first. in that order. So G can finish second or fourth. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. (D) (E)Outside the scope. If a republic is pacific. Therefore. M is second. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. if H is eighth then O is fifth. While the percentage tells us the relation . and J is third. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. and K to be placed. and (E) are possible. (B) is the answer. (C). To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. (D). not how clarity affects ornament. From that it follows that if H is sixth. To conclude this. That leaves K. then according to Kant. or fourth. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. 5. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. not definite. O is third (from Rule 4).that F is fourth. (C)Irrelevant. so (A) is correct. so (B). The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. and then G is sixth. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. Since G can‟t finish before F. or belligerent. If L is fifth. G. In 1960. 7. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. second. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. M. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. K can finish in first. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. If M is seventh. as in (E). Finally. So the order. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. So K is first. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure.
Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. S. V. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. Q. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. (E)If the number migrating is the same. (A)It's possible. as it says in Rule 2. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. and Q are all power players. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 9. so there‟s too many power players. both numbers could increase. However. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. M and T are both finesse players. use your drawing on a question to question basis. Given this inFORMation. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. Questions 8-11 In this game. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. If M and P are chosen with Q. V. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. so (A) is out. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). P. but when T is chosen. select from two groups of tennis players. a power player. 8. You are given that Q. finesse (M. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. then you have two finesse players and one power player. according to Rule 5. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. to play in a tournament. only (D) is impossible. If T is chosen. or of Arbicans who made this migration. Keep it simple. Beyond that. the number migrating would have to decrease. T) and power (N. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. Check each choice. That‟s fine. then exactly two power players are chosen.between the two. V). with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. is chosen. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . but the percentage migrating has fallen. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. N. That eliminates (E). then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). and Q are all power players. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. R. one by one. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. However. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. while the percentage decreases.
11:00 am. 10. If a professor is available at a given time. Note this in your sketch. so (C) is correct. In other words. combined with the four power players. is left). any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. if exactly two power players are chosen. Therefore. (D). then N isn‟t chosen either. (E). T is not chosen for the team. and PS. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). P. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. Since the question asks which must be true. V. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. Refer to your sketch. Any of those pairs. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). If V isn‟t chosen. Q. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. so if they‟re not chosen. That makes three possible combinations. so S must be chosen. and S. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. Between 10:30 and 11:00. is the answer. Look at each column. and 12:00 pm. as defined by the rules. Use a grid. and N are all power players. P. If T is chosen. With M excluded. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. . R. a sketch is essential.players chosen. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. 10:30 am. For this game. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. How many pairs can be made from M. That leaves M. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). MS. every professor except B is available. are acceptable combinations. 11:30 am. and S to pair up. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. P. The meetings are one-half hour in length. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). and S? Three: MP. 10:00 am. As for the others: If N is not chosen. and since there are already two power players. eliminating (C). then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). there are only three available finesse player: T. the correct choice can be deduced. 11.
10:00. 14. can‟t meet. N. check each choice in turn. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. making as many deductions as you can. Ax and Dohee are both available. can both meet at 9:30. first find all the possible times that Ax. 16. so (B). Some principals. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. (B). Egger and Franz.13. P. So (B) is the answer. (D). using columns or circles to represent the two committees. Q. Check each choice one by one. As we saw in the previous question. Bulos and Dohee. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. For this question. (C). O. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. (A). but L and Q must serve together. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. (D). (C). P. Create a master sketch. Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. can meet three times. (D). can both meet at 10:30. Looking at your sketch. is correct. M. always look for opportunities to use previous work. Dohee is the only other professor available. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. Bulos and Franz. At 9:00. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. However. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. Those times are at 10:30. therefore M serves on Curriculum. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. Go through the rules. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. So M. 11:00. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. However. that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. the “swing” principal. Chow and Franz can meet. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. and 10:30. then Q serves on the same committee. 15. Chow. Your sketch should look . Dohee and Franz. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. or can only serve on one committee. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. but at 9:30. can only meet at 10:30. (A). so 11:30 to 12:00. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. Ax and Chow. Dohee and Egger. and 11:30. one of the principals on each committee is the same. two. (C). Ax and Bulos. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. Remember. using your sketch as the reference. 17. (B). at 9:30. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. (E). the “swing” principal. Remember. and Franz. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics).
Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. (C) and (D) are both possible. 21. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. O and P. 22. 20. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). and which one is on one committee only. leaving (C). Determine who must be on which committee. Therefore. L can‟t be on both committees. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. O. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. N. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. M. Q. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. (D). O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). so (A) is wrong. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. so neither can be on both committees. 19. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. as the other pair. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. That leaves (C). N. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. and P. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. and L. which is a violation of Rule 4. only N or O can serve on the same committee. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). Now. So (A) is the answer. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. Choices (A). leaving (D). we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. to serve on the Ethics Committee. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules.some thing like this: 18. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). if we know which one is on both committees. to serve on both committees. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. contradicting (B) and . and then check the choices. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). then L is also on the Ethics Committee. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. Otherwise. so eliminate (D) and (E). O. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. (B). You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. or (A). then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. so (C) is correct. As we‟ve already seen.
then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years.(C). not oxen. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. so India is beyond the scope. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. (D)The issue is when horses. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). so their opinion can't be applied here. (E)The horse could have been used. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . the issue is the definition of international law. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. he merely says that it doesn't. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. and as it is. or before approximately 3000 BC. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. (A)The author says that no such body exists. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. 24. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption.. were used. but there's no proof that it was. 23. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. 25.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
G.. or third. K must perform either first. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. and R are country bands. Bands F.taisha. second. 1. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. If P performs first. R must perform eighth.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. and each band must perform once and only once. L must immediately precede M in the order. K. L. Bands P. H must perform sixth. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. Q. H. and M are rock bands. The nine bands must perform one after the other.
then F performs seventh. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. Because of this. if true. then P performs first. Recently. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. performs third. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. Which of the following statements. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. For several decades. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. however. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. then M performs sixth.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. performs ninth. 5. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. (D) P must perform immediately before K. then Q performs fifth. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. performs ninth. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. In light of these findings. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. 6.(D) four (E) five 4. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. then G performs seventh. performs seventh. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. 7.
(E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. M.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. then Q must not be chosen. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. The only available lecturers are the historians L. In light of these disturbing revelations. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. however. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. Just last week. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. then N must then O must are chosen. chosen. and R. and the sociologists P. and O. L and M chosen. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. and vice versa. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. N. then M must also be chosen. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. also be chosen. not be chosen. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. 8. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. . Q. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough.
(C) If M is chosen. M. If all of the sociologists are chosen. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. N. P sometimes move W. Q. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. (D) M is not chosen. M. H. T. L is not chosen. P is not chosen. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. P. G. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. sometimes move Q and S to tears. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. N. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. O is not chosen. L. U has prepared only works by poets K. (B) R must never be chosen. R. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. (B) O is chosen. Z. N is not chosen. and to laughter. (D) If O is chosen. (E) N is not chosen. L. R. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. and P for presentation at the soiree. (E) L must never be chosen. W. Q is not chosen. S. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. and Z. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . Exactly three lecturers are chosen. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. 10. O. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. Q.9.
he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. P. table. den. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. rug. N. and wardrobe.laughter. wardrobe. 17. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. mirror. and L only (E) works by K. and L only (E) works by K. vase . If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. K. rug. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. vase vase mirror. mirror. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. table lamp. sofa. lamp. rug. rug. rug. and L only 16. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. P. sofa. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. then he or she is bored. 14. painting. N. and L only (D) works by N. painting. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. vase. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. and living room of a client‟s house. table lamp. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. table. table. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. The sofa is placed in the living room.
and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. 20. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. and if the wardrobe. table (E) table. the painting. vase (C) lamp. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. Yet . 21. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. 19. the lamp. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. rug. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. If the lamp. (E) The vase is placed in the den. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. rug (D) painting. table (B) rug. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. table. and the sofa are each placed in a different room.18. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. vase 23. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. (E) The vase is placed in the den. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. (C) The table is placed in the den.
Therefore. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. Which of the statements below. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. Research has shown. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. however. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. 24. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. his liver loses the . (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. Which one of the following. if true. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. where the legal drinking age was still 18. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. 25. Furthermore. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked.paradoxically. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. which can be fatal. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. if true.
That means K must be second. in either order. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. K. M is fifth. P and Q. respectively. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. Q. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . is a country band. in order to appear at a music marathon. Since K is first. prove or band. only. then Q must be third. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. (Rule 1). the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. or third. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. second. or third. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. and R is eighth. H is sixth. R is eighth (Rule 3). (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. L is fourth. to go in two of the first three slots. are F 3. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. R.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. respectively. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. G. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. they are first and third. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. or third. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. H. R. in either order. Since K is first. K is second. There are only two . to separate the two country bands. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. R) must be placed. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. pair. M is fifth. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. Therefore (A) is correct. in either order. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. (E): L and M must be together. L. Combine Rules 1 and 3. is a country band. That leaves two country bands. second. in either order. 1. Create a master sketch. 2. M) and three country bands (P. such as shrimp. one at a time. in either order. and R is eighth. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. Rule 4 states that K is first. incorporate the rules. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. is a country band. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. six rock bands (F. as we deduced in the game overview. If P is first. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. second.
the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. (E) must be true: H is 5. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. Since the question is worded. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. and F is ninth. respectively. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. but need not is ninth. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite..possibilities. (A). Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. If G performs before F. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. eliminate any choice that can be false. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. which of the following must be true. and (D) Q—they can be true. So we know every in either order. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. 7. (E)If anything. however. If. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. in either order. (B). (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. 4. so (B). we‟re only concerned with this city. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. . If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. 6. and P and Q. then G is seventh position except first and third. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants.
The rules. then Q is not chosen. but they‟re not being followed. without violating Rule 3. and if N is chosen. then N is chosen. Start with what you are given. O Sociologists: P. N. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. then M is chosen. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. 10. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. or M and Q. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. N. M. then not R If L + M. Q. If R and Q . so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. (B). M. and noting who can be chosen together. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. Notice that you can take L and Q. R Incorporate the rules. (D). then not Q If R. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. Since the question is worded. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. listing the available speakers. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. then M 9. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. some of the diseases may have other causes. then not Q). In other words. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. Q. then P is chosen. Therefore. Create a master sketch. then not O If O. P and N together. (C). which of the following CANNOT be true. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. then O isn‟t chosen.8. O) and sociologists (P. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. and R) are chosen. since R is chosen. and (E) are all false. So (A) is correct. shorthanded: P + N together If R. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. R) to lecture before a class. Q. then R can‟t be chosen. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests.
(E) is false. and Q. S. M must be chosen). Therefore. eliminating (C).are chosen. T. so it‟s correct. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. and we‟ve just proved that. we can only take two of the three. Since the question says possibly. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. but needn‟ t be true. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. we can only take a maximum of two from M. and P and N can be chosen. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. and O. At this point you can stop. We already took M. Therefore. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. If O and M aren‟t chosen. so take R (via Rule 4).” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). if R is chosen. P. 13. then not O. That‟s L. Scan the choices for L. so (D) is the answer. That eliminates (C). So take L and M. As we learned in Question 6. So (B) is only possible. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. Q. H and T are always . The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. if L and Q are chosen. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. Based on Rules 2 and 4. b for bored. and P. G. However. and R. for completeness. N. (A) and (D) can be true. But if L and Q are chosen. L. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. 11. That leaves (B) as correct. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. W. then M can‟t be chosen. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). the full deduction: Of Q or L. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. and M must be chosen. then M. and you find them in (D): If L. If O and M are chosen together. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. 12. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. and R are chosen. M. M must be chosen. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. and not just sometimes. or five. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. N. M. so (C). and R. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. then not Q. R. Q. Q. So. of L. and L and O can‟t chosen. l for laughter. in this case a grid: 14. H. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. Q. then R can‟t be chosen). This question is a good example of using previous work. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. not definite. or “some. Since R. M can‟t be chosen.
in any order. Depending on how you look at it. four choices violate one or more rules. or 1. Therefore. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. H by poet N and T by poet K. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. but N moves T to boredom. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter.moved to laughter. Start with the rules that are most concrete. so MW. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. (C). F and T sometimes moved to laughter. Rule 4 places S in the living room. poets L and P. and P is the exception. (D). W. and 5. and locate T. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. sometimes move four literati to tears. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). M. leaving (A). then that‟ s our answer. 3. N. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. (D) places the sofa in the den. Poet K moves T to laughter. P. so (B) is out. If (A). one literati is always moved to laughter. So (C) is out. (D). always move one literati to laughter. in any order. T. Questions 17 . For this acceptability question. R. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. and T. and work your way towards the abstract ones. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. then F and Q are always moved to tears. P. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. You can place the items in the rooms. S. Put an S in the living room. V. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. bored by poet N. so (D) is possible. so (B) and (E) are wrong. living room). Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. 16. That leaves (D). any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . Create a master sketch. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. and 4. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. but otherwise is bored. W) in three rooms (bedroom. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 15. Compare each rule to the choices. P. a violation of Rule 4. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. (C). The others: P and N. Refer to your sketch.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. den. S. and one choice violates none of them. so no PV. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. K. and there are eight items total. and (E). and Z sometimes moved to tears. throwing out violators. one literati is always moved to laughter. N. 2. (B). so the combination of poets K.
3. leaving only (E) as possible. (C). or 1. You know that P can‟t be with V. in either order. T. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. M. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room.den. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. L is in another room. 18. and W are in the living room. in any order. Next. L. then the third room. one room must have exactly 1 item. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. 2. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. (B). V can be in the den. and there are eight items total. then. and 4. S. with the other joining S in the living room. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. Since the living room has W. in any order. but not “always” 2. (C). and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. eliminating (C). the den. violating Rule 1. Since we can have 2. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. which claim that the den has 3 items. so the den can only contain one item. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. and (E) can be eliminated. so it‟s the answer. (D). according to Rule 2. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. 19. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. or 5 items in any given room. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. and T must therefore be in the living room. 4. If W is in the living room. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. 3. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. (B). is empty. that leaves only two items. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. as (A) states. or 5. R. but you must have at least one item in each room. (A). M. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. Since Rule 5 is suspended. and (E) are wrong. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. for the other two rooms. so (A). so either P or V is in the den. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). 4. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. Start with the second piece of information in the question. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. As we learned in Question 20. Start with S in the living room. That means the living room has more than one item. If M is with S. That eliminates (B) and (D). So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. then the living room contains W. and S. (B). but if there are 4 items in both rooms. the sofa and the vase. 3. L. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. so P is in the living room with S. 20. and S. 22. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). T is in the den. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. 21. M. Only (B) follows the rules. and the den has 2 items. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). . and 5.
If. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. 24. According to research. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. . to lower blood cholesterol levels. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. however. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. so why the increase in drunk driving. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. hence the increase in accidents. 25. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs.23. Well. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. Otherwise. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. dietary or medical. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. 7. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. If G is chosen for the issue. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. (C) H is not chosen. To test the system. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. Molly. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. If M is not chosen for the issue. then J must also be chosen.If F is chosen. one trainer and one dog per room. (E) F is not chosen. three trainers (Luis. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. . Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. Mugs. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system.
S. to the empty apartment on the same level. levels. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. one to an apartment. One of the apartments is empty. 12. W. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. and W—live in the building. W. W. between two other apartments on the same level. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. Q. Y. four on each floor. Z. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. X (E) X. W. Y. V. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. Exactly seven people—P. R. A. W (E) Z. W. W (D) W. the bottom floor is Level B. Y. Z. X (B) W. The top floor is called Level A. Command W. Y.11. W (B) X. to T‟s apartment on the same level. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. Z (C) W. W. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. W (C) Z. X 14. A (D) X. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. A. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. . T. W.
and H—are senior club members. directly above T‟s apartment. K. H. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. R‟s apartment is on Level A. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. G. and three will play dominoes. H and P must play the same game. M. 17. P . 19. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. directly above P‟s apartment. and two—P and R—are club applicants. R. K. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. F. and dominoes. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. Each person present can play only one of the three games. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. Three of those present—F. There must be a senior club member playing each game.15. G cannot play the same game that R plays. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. H. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. chess. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. F. R (B) G. M. respectively? (A) G. P. two—K and M—are junior club members. M cannot play dominoes. two will play chess.
H. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. R 20. If R plays backgammon. G. This is not merely a matter of using . (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. P. G plays backgammon. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors.(C) F. 24. K. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. P plays chess. H. M plays backgammon. G. notably Japan. F. P. K. and not those of self-interest. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. R (E) F. M. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. F plays dominoes. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. (B) Only ethical considerations. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. K. P. M. R. 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. G. M (D) H. By doing so.
they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. Something must be done about the 51. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. so it‟s out. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. 3)S can‟t be first. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. or the commissary is serving fish. and (E) has N coming after T. If all the statements above are true. and (D) has C before A. S and T.manual mowers instead of power mowers.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. Such concerns are irrelevant here. or the commissary is serving fish. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. or both. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. so they‟re out. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. so the first spice is either N or A. or both. (B) has sage first. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. (B) It is a workday. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. 25. what needs to be done must be done. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. . pollution would be drastically reduced. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. C. N. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. you may be able to meet the actors. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish.
Our sequence is A. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. leaving (C). What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. N and T will work. C. A is joined with C. (A) . C. then the 20% . (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. so scratch (D) and (E). (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. 3=========FIN A1= First. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. since we can‟ t separate A and C. put S in the second slot.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. S can‟t be first. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. the number of attacks would have increased. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. S. and it can‟t be second either. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. (D) must be false. which limits our options. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. If they don‟ t. There‟s no supporting evidence. N. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. T.000 apiece. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. S. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. Previously. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. Now we have AC and S. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. it‟s simply irrelevant. Try plugging in numbers. they‟re as fickle as short termers. so eliminate (A) and (B). (E) is the assumption. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom.
(B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. making them easy to eliminate. o. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. l. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. l and o. you see that if you cross out m. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). you have to cross out J. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. G. you must choose J. choosing J yields three possible groups. k. l and o. and since m is dance. you know you can circle k. o. Cross out m. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. With Rule 1. so we can eliminate (C). our answer. k. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. As we saw in Question 8. so (A) is correct. you have to choose the other three dance articles. so we can eliminate (E). 2)If J is chosen. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. (A) . so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. or 4 dance and 1 theater. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. F. l and o and you need go no further. and circle k. you can circle the other 3. J. and if you choose m. If you circle G . If you circle m. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. not what type of sets consumers prefer. J. m. circle k. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. choice (A) . l. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. you can‟t have m and to have F. 3)If you choose F. m can‟t be. m is not. Let‟s jump to (C). Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. you must have J. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. k. If you circle F. l and o. so there are three possibilities and (C). if G and J are circled. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . but the rest is wide open. l and o— those are your five articles. We have J. so (C) is correct. you have to cross out J and F . and if we cross out m we circle k. G or H. If you have J. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). H. we need 3 lower case and k. three. is correct.
the only one that moves trainers. k. m to M and o to O. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. l. we circle J. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. 3)With command Y. she‟s there with o. putting Onyx in 1. A second W puts M in 1. We have rooms 1. then see what commands move them to Room 2. Yes. (C). then one A? The W command puts O in 1. m. For the record. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. and M in 3. k. not dogs. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. l. m. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . (D) is out since L is in Room 2. (C) is out because M is with o. k. then moving them around according to different commands. not in 2. M is in Room 3. k. and L moves to Room 2. and (E) is out because L is with m. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. O in 2 and L in 3. L. and the second W moves her to 2. The first W moves O to 1. Ol . and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. 2)With command X. But we need five. W is called. 5)With command A. not 1. Let‟s jump to (E). Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. and Oo in Room 3. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. since if F is chosen. l. you could have G. (A) is out because O is with l. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. two Ws. We have three trainers. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. H. etc. G. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. We can‟t disprove (E). and to do that we need one X. o or G. If we circle F and G. H. Looking at the wrong choices. Mm in Room 2. J is chosen. L in 2. J. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. not with o. m or G. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. not with m. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. So we have in Room 1. H. So l returns to L. and o. m. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. but that moves trainers. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. Which choice is true of that? (B). the dogs return to their original trainers. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. 4)With command Z. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. l. so it‟s correct.and H. l. o. 2 and 3.
5)W is next to empty. W. so we know that P and T are on B. so Q is on A. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. T. P is in B-4. W is on A. And with (A) and (C). so we‟ve got our answer. V. So W and S have to be in A- . (C)‟s suggestion of Z. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. L. m. you get O. and we need a place for V. (C). W and empty. V and R are left—one will be on A. M. and as for (C) and (D). W and A puts O again in 1. 3)P and T are adjacent. it has to be next to P in B-2. O. P. L in 2. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. Q and (E). 1 or 4. Take your people. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3.correct. so since B-2 is occupied by S. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. so (E) is correct. l? One call of Z. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. but l in 2. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. L. With P in B-3. L. We have W. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. putting m in 2 and l in 3. 8 apartments—1 is empty. S. P. the dogs seek out their trainers. since T can‟t be on the end. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. (B). empty and Q on A. R and V. empty unit. 4)T is not in one of the ends. S on B. O. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. Q. so add empty to A. 2)S and Q are on different levels. (A) ‟s sequence of X. Y. Call W once. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. As for (B). T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. As for (D). how to go from l. O to M. As for the others. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. So we put S underneath in B-2. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. To get from L. and T can‟t be on an end. so either TP or PT . the other on B. S. and fill them in the eight slots. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. but that isn‟t a choice. we have no more light on the R and V issue. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. are both on A. Y lines up the dogs. Now turn to the W. So T is in 2 or 3. R. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. A. so you have Oo in 1. o to o. m. so P is in B-3. W . For the dogs. so W is on A and S is on B. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. But if you call A. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. empty. call W twice. M in 1. P is next to T. one‟s on A. not A-4.
making (D) correct . S. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. F. empty unit. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). So only two people could go in A-1. The question asks about A-1. chess with two and dominoes with three. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. r can‟t play with G . Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. G. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. since H is with p . 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. which is correct. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. so it‟s F. P and S are out because they‟re on B. 2)Three senior members. so we have one cap in each group. There‟s only one grouping possible.1 and B-1. p and r in dominoes is okay. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. It must be F. Now go to the Hp unit. The Rules: 1)7 people. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. 4)H and p must play the same game. and empty goes next to W in A-2. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. k and r play dominoes. (B) has F and H. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. they must play dominoes. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. so (A) is out. G. Turn to our W. since H. It‟s between V and R . 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. so H and p must play dominoes. k. Let‟s put seniors in caps. The senior can‟t be H. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. Nix (E). since they have m playing dominoes. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. If they play chess. H and p are together. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. and only dominoes has three people. directly above T in B-2. k and m are both lower . so it can‟t be H. (B). 7 slots. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. F. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. m and p. H. (or p and someone else). and juniors and applicants in lower case. p and r in dominoes. T. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together.
there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served.” That‟s summarized by (D). We must do what‟s necessary. For the record. so it‟s (A) . so k. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. so k and m can‟t be together. and we need a cap for each. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. and its aid policy. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. “notably Japan. no matter how drastic and costly. or both. (C). (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. according to the stimulus. (D):G and m in backgammon. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. to save the environment. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. or it‟ s not a workday. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. Japan. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. the workday with fish. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. is fine: F and m in backgammon. Besides. so (D)‟s correct. A makes most of its money back. which this doesn‟t mention. F and k chess. and H. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. F and m. (B)It might also be a non-workday. that the commissary is serving fish. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. true on a workday. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. p and r dominoes. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. p and r in dominoes. That way. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. and (B)‟s correct. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. but rather that it is necessary. G and k in chess and H. fish may or may not be served.) But m can‟t play dominoes.case.
The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. If the third symbol is a number. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. K. (B) F. L. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 .. X. G.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. M. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. If the third symbol is a letter. Which of the (A) E. 6. 7. then the fifth must be either B or D. T. (D) C. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. 3. Q. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. The sequence is called a combination. (E) A. 2. T.taisha. (C) B. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. W. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. R. 4. 1.
even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. and fifth symbols. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. a special visa is required. X (D) 3. 6. 9. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. T (C) 9. 4. D (B) A. Q. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. 6. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. . if true. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. The combination C. however. such as beef and poultry. P. respectively? (A) J. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. G (E) M. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. third. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. H.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. Which of the following. Z. If the statements above are true. S 4. Thus. 8. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish.
low. low. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. He decides that. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. low. low. low (D) medium. medium (B) low. low. high 9. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. medium (E) low. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. and one produces a high-pitched ring. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. medium. medium (C) medium. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. if true. high. low. one cannot argue that Which of the following. low. 7. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. 500.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. high. . would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. Last the service sector. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. high. medium. one produces a medium-pitched ring. medium. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. high. medium. medium. medium. 8. low. low. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. high. high.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. high. medium. Over the has greatly expanded. low. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. low. In the our economy is wilting. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. high. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. medium. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. high. for the sequence. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. low. of pessimistic forecasts. medium. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. (C) Fifteen years ago. Which of the following. if true. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. cost. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. . cost. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. however. According to a recent school survey. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. never engage in this aggressive play. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. (E) Work time. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. (D) Work time. 24. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams.
The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. In Option 2. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. the 5th symbol must be B or D. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. That leaves correct choice (D). the number is 2nd. So F can‟t begin and E. You end with B or D and this ends with F. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. F. . In Option 2. replace the F with a D. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. The number is 3rd. a Rule 2 no-no. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. B or D only. Only one letter comes after Y . Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. E. You‟ve used B first. That leaves (A). B is 1st. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. so (A) won‟t work. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . is correct. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. (A) begins with E. and the sequence begins with C . violating Rule 5. (E). (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. 3)In Option 2. If you start with F. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. the number is 3rd. and (E). 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. there can‟t be an F or a G . Skim to (D). Only (A) gives you that option. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. you begin with a letter later than B or D. 4=========FIN A2= First. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. so all letters must appear later than E. the 5th must be B or D. so it‟s correct. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. and B doesn‟t. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. G is 4th and 5th is B or D.
then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. As for the others. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. So (D) is correct. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. We talked about that in (A). The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. as (B) says. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. . the sequence ends with a D.S.which works with the rules for Option 2. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. economy continues to grow and prosper. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. you need a special visa. a special visa is required. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. so (C) won‟t work. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. If the population increase is slower than projected. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. (E) replaces the C with an A. As evidence. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. So (D) is correct. Focuses on cost. if you do so. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. (E)Isn‟t inferable. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to.
medium. a high. and 5th. and split up the lows 1st. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. (D) has a high 3rd. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . 3)The two high bells will stick together. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. so (E)‟s correct. either would be okay. and a medium 5th. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. a medium. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. 3rd. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. the correct answer. it could still be the most important factor overall. (A) has high. and a low. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. low in 3.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. We‟ll have to put two before this set. (E) puts the high 8th. the other high 2nd. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. and 7th. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. the medium bell 3 times. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. That works if we put a low 1st. 5th. high. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. so (D)‟s correct. so dump (D) and (E). You ring the low bell 3 times. yes. and one after. 4th. leaving us with (B). yes. low is 1st. the other high 2nd. yes. (B) medium is 2nd. medium. low is 3rd. So we‟ll put one low first. (A) puts the high bell 1st. high. high bell is 4th. and 8 rings. (A). if the highs are together and the lows are split up. yes. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. next to the high in 3. and mediums 4th and 6th. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. (C) puts a high 3rd. The beginning looks like this—low. in 3. medium. (C). and low. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. (E). The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. 4. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. and the high bell 2 times. low. 5th. Now we have to split up the lows. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. and 5. 4. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. (B) has low. (D). One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. and it‟s correct. then fill the space between with a medium. 4. a medium 4th. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. and 5. one low third. medium. and 7th.
If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. Edinburgh. medium 6th. low 7th. 4. In priority 2. Caracas. 15=========FIN A2= . What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. you could send it to Dakar. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. (D) is fine. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. (C) is fine. low. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. medium 8th. and 5. Caracas. Beijing. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. Caracas. Fresno. and no way to do that. All the others work. the dead end. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. in both cases they go next to Caracas. to Edinburgh. Fresno. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. (E). Edinburgh. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. How about (E). We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. so this is acceptable. Edinburgh. 4 and 5. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. start at the home office. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. Dakar. send the memo to Beijing. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. Having done 9 and 10. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. which makes (B) correct. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. a low 5th. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. so (C) is correct. Fresno. and medium in 3. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. You have 6 cities. (E) has high. describes a route it could not have followed. You know that‟s okay from 9. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. That‟s acceptable. Beijing. 2 types of memos. we‟ve discussed this— yes. 7 and 8. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. 1 and 2.
If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. What . We want it to end up in Edinburgh. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. (D) is correct. You have two options. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. write next to shelf 3 no J. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. and H on shelf 2. After Dakar. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. Beijing. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. (B). The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. Dakar. a dead end. G. the only place it can go is Fresno. so it won‟t work. we work with Option 1. Option 1. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. (C). put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. As far as priority 2. and Beijing. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. and in Option 2. that‟s three. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. Caracas. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. where was it sent? Priority 2. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. and L. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. That works in priority 1. go to Caracas. top to bottom. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. write next to shelf 2 no J. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. Only Beijing and Fresno. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. you‟d break Rule 3. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. so it went to Beijing. and then Beijing. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. could have seen the memo. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. and (A) is correct. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. then Edinburgh. go to Dakar. Option 2. Caracas. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. 1)In Option 1. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. F must be immediately above L . The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. the only place it can go is to Caracas. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. the dead end. and the answer is (C). (D). so (B) won‟t do it. to Caracas. go to Beijing. you can start in the home office. (A). If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. a dead end. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh.
J. we just did with (A). and H is a floater. (B) puts K and L on the same . and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. shelf 1 is empty. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1.must be true? Look at (B). So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. where shelf three is open. so the only home for K is 3. and H on 2 and that left us with L. so J is on shelf 2. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. We put F. then the only place is shelf 1. so (C) is correct. You can put H on shelf three. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. so shelf 1 has F. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. (E). can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. if shelf 3 is empty. (D). In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. L is on shelf 2. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. so it‟s on shelf 2. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. L. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. J and K are tennis trophies. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. J is on shelf two. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. If we split them up. K. If H is on shelf three. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. and 1 remains empty. and in Option 2. we‟ve already said we can. so (A)‟s correct. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. K. In Option 1. and shelf 1 is empty. K. So (B)‟s correct. so the only place for K is shelf 3. (B). “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. L. so you will work with Option 1. let‟s look at the situation. (A). so (D)‟s correct. as long as they‟re on 3. and G on 3. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. then J is on shelf two. K and J must be on the same shelf.
(A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. We get the former in (A). (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. and longevity are equally important factors. so (E)‟s our answer. (E) has J on shelf two. cost. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. but that‟s true only in Option 2. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. cost. that‟s true in Option 1 only. If most students attend services for social reasons. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. not the past 15 years. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. . (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. shelf two. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play.shelf. (C) does the trick.. Unless there are other differences. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. not because it is better than staining. (D) has F and shelf. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. but J is never on shelf three.
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