This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Zeller treats ears. Dr. Dr. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. York does not treat noses. Dr. York treats ears. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. 14. Xiao treats ears. Dr. he or she must also treat throats. Xiao treats throats. Xiao does not treat ears. York does not treat noses. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. York must treat ears. Xiao treats ears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Zeller does not treat ears. Dr. Dr. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. If a doctor treats ears. Dr. 13. and throats 15. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. York treats noses. Zeller treats throats. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. In that case. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. Xiao treats throats.doctors. Zeller treats noses. York treats noses. York treats. York treats noses. Zeller does not treat ears. then Dr. (C) Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. York treats throats. York does not treat throats. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. Zeller treats throats. Dr. Dr. then he or she must also treat ears. If Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. Suppose that Dr. If Dr. which of the following must be true? Dr. York treats exactly one part of the body. noses. four on top and four on bottom. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Dr. Dr. Which of the following must be true? Dr. Xiao treats ears. 17. the . Dr. then he or she must also treat throats. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. If Dr. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. If Dr. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. (E) Dr.
they contain different types of fruit. oranges. pears. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. pears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. Compartment 1 contains apples. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. grapefruit. grapefruit. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. grapefruit. 22. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. apples. or pears.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. grapefruit. oranges. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. 18. pears.
. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. however. Gilliatt can create any mood. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. not the intent of his tax hike. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. 25. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. By raising corporate taxes. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. 24. which they could read in the Official Journal. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. Governor Kipling. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. What they don‟t realize. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike.23.
since light 3 is Off. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. (D). and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . but don‟t need to be true. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). and 6) that are each either On or Off. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. If light 2 and light 5 are On. 5. Now incorporate the rules. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. 3. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. As with Question 2. Thus. For this acceptability question. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. Finally. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. but don‟t need to be true. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. and (C) are false. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. starting with the most concrete. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). but need not. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. light 6 is Off. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. 2. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. Therefore. be true. (B). As for the others: (A). four choices violate one or more rules.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. breaking Rule 2. 2. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. but (C) has five Ons. and numbering them 1 through 10. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. leaving (B). So the sketch looks like this: 1. (E) can. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. Note that in the sketch. 4.
light 5 is also Off. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. 5. and as we figured out. Create a master sketch. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. That means light 4 is On. Otherwise. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. light 4 is On. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. light 3 is Off. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. eight lights. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. 6. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). If light 8 is Off. totaling four On lights. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). 4. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. is the number that can be determined. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. the music's message won't corrupt them. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. If this were not the case. and light 7 is Off. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. If light 6 is On. using columns or circles to . As always. Therefore. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. in either order. Questions 8-12 In this game. (E). (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. (B)Beyond the scope. Start with what you‟re given. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. it's the effects we're concerned with. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). must be true. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. (C). (E)Beyond the scope. 7. the argument predicts ruin. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do.
12. That leaves J. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. and three horizontal rows . L. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. P can serve on either committee. Start with what you‟re given. (C). L. (B). keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. then P must serve with M and N. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. 10. Therefore. then N does too. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. with three columns to represent the body parts. so K. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. Questions 13-17 In this game. O can‟t serve with M. and Throat. K. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. and (E) are false. M. but don‟t need to be true. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. N). Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. Each committee must have at least three members. three doctors (shorthanded X. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. You‟re given that L serves with M. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. and one member (J) is already on Housing. In the setup. eliminating (B). six committee members can be determined. K must serve Committee. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. eliminating (D) and (E). (C). Nose. M. As for the others: (B). This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. and P to serve on Housing. so (D). L. using their first initials (J. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. so (A) can be eliminated. Abbreviate the members‟ names. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. O. can. M. That makes three members on one committee. If O can‟t serve with P.represent the two committees. O can‟t serve with M. and N all serve together. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. N. N must serve on Rules. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). Create a master sketch. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. Since J is always on Housing. 9. be true. so put a J under Housing. but need not. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. and N must serve with M. Y. If M serves on Housing. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). Your sketch should look something like this : 8. 11. O. or (C). M. or (A). (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. (A). starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5).
15. then X must also treat throats. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. that doctor must also treat throats. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. (C). Y must treat noses. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. Yet. Rule 1 states that ears.underneath. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. Each compartment contains apples (A). If Y doesn‟t treat throats. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). so put “no” in the appropriate column. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. one by one. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. X must treat at least throats. (A) can. numbered 1-8. treat ears. one for each doctor. ears and throats only. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). and (E) can. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. Therefore. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. (B) is true. oranges (O). noses. be false. In other words. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. Look at what you have. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. (C) is correct. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. and then add your knowledge of the rules. X can. then try to make some deductions. However. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. 16. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. So (B) must be true. but need not. but need not. but need not. Go through the choices. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). if X treats throats. according to Rule 2. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. because of Rule 3. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. However. then Y must also treat throats. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. Both Y and Z must treat noses. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. then Y can‟t treat ears. be true. Since X can‟t treat noses. If Y treats ears. (D). grapefruit (G). 17. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). (D). 14. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . (D). Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. choices that can be false can be eliminated. Z also treats. 13. if Y treats it. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. If X treats ears. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. so does Z. Start with what you‟re given. must be false. (A).
e. and 4). Compare each rule to the choices. Check each choice in turn. 3. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. From that and Rules 5 and 6. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. 19. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. Since the question asks which could be true. which contains apples. 20. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). (A) is correct. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). So put an A in Compartment 1. This leaves (C). according to Rule 5. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. the four incorrect choices must be false. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). As in Question 20. From that and Rules 5 and 6. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. For this acceptability question. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. 21. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. Therefore. eliminating (D) and (E). so (B) is correct. four choices violate one or more rules. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). That leaves three remaining compartments (2. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. Place a G in Compartment 8. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. as well. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. so there are no more than four pears. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges.Incorporate the rules. However. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. and one choice violates none of them. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. (C). which contains grapefruit. Thus.
which is that unemployment increased. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. So Compartments 2. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. Compartments 2. 24. 3. since the jobs program was never implemented. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. merely her effective technique. (D). but the question of his intent versus his actions. The adjacent compartments.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. Compartment 1 contains apples. a total of four. but makes no connection to problems in humans. but on what actually happened. 6 and 7. . (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. (B)We don't know this. can‟t contain grapefruit. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. If only one compartment contains apples. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. 5. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. not to supernatural subject matter. thus increasing unemployment. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). As for the top. must be true. for instance. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. If. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. 22. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. Only (A). (B) and (C) are false. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. Therefore. 3. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. rather than how they are described. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. 23. is the maximum number. 25. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). but Compartments 2 and 3 can.
u. v. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. t.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. Sector u was constructed in 1981. positioned in that order from west to east. After 1981. y. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. x. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. and z. w.org . sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. 1. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha.
If Sector s was built in 1985. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1984 (E) 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1984. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. 1983. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1984 (D) 1983. 2.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 1985 (C) 1983. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 1986 6. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. 1984 (B) 1982. 1983. 1983 (D) 1982. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1985 5. 1985 (E) 1983.
whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . if true. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. 8.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. 9. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. only five had presented any serious complications. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. Which of the following. harmful pollutants. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. In a recent test. The Commissioner of Public Works.
Paris Highway. called the Beltway. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Blue. and Yellow Tolls. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. 10. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. motorists pass two radial highways. Madrid Highway. Red. due east. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. and Paris Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. Vienna Highway 13.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Vienna Highway. The radial highways are: London Highway. Madrid Highway. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. but no other tollbooths. London Highway. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. Red Toll. due southeast. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. Yellow Toll. which extends south from the city center. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. which runs due northeast from the city center. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. and due southwest of the city center. which extends due west from the city center. which extends due north from the city center.
Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Laura. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Oliver. Laura. Oliver. 14. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Pedro. Oliver. Pedro. Mike. Jim. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Kathy. Mike. Jim. Nick. Mike. Quentin (D) Oliver. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Quentin (C) Kathy. Kathy. Oliver. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Laura. Oliver. Mike. and Quentin—are measured for height. Nick. Laura. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Jim. Quentin (B) Jim. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Mike. Mike. Quentin (E) Pedro. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Jim is taller than Kathy. Quentin.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Nick. Kathy 15. Laura. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Nick. Pedro. Pedro. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Nick. Nick. but taller than Jim. Pedro. Kathy. Laura. Kathy. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver .
U votes “yes” on movie 4. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. T. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. and U. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and 4 (E) movies 2. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. 4. and 3. and 5. 3. 21. 2. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. 3. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. There are no abstentions. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. The five judges on the committee are Q. and 5 . If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. S votes “no” on movie 2. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. 19. S. If R votes “no” on all five movies. R. 3. and 5 (D) movies 2. If R votes “yes” on movies 1.
which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. 25. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. When workers were primarily employed by industry. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. if true. 24. control panels or electric counters. Profits are on the rise. Today. Freda Tully. . He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. Coach Parker. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM.23. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. which are forever twisting above. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. or to fingers and wrists. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. there was no competent leadership in the firm. and sales are better than ever. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. McGovern‟s new executive director. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. productivity has nearly doubled. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. Which of the following.
(B). That leaves three choices. x. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. sector v can be constructed in 1982. (D) Compared to their ancestors. Create a master sketch. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. As we‟ve just seen. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. though it used to be the other way around. v. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. However. t. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. Therefore. In order for sector w to be constructed. sector w must be constructed before sector x. and sector u is constructed in 1981. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. 2. Sector x is constructed in 1984. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. y. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. 1. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). w. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. For this question. (C). so (C). the four incorrect choices must be false. Write 1981 in u‟s space. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. Therefore. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. so (C) and (D) are out. u. . Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. Since the question asks which could be true. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. sector v must be constructed before sector w. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. and (D). That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another.
Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. causes kidney stones. respectively. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. and z. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. 1983. but when you look at the choices. if sector t is constructed in 1982. and (D). sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. (D) is correct. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. y. Now. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. sector x in 1986. Sector z can be constructed last. In fact. (C).3. So. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. which are choices (A). That eliminates (A) and (B). and so isn't parallel. 4. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. and z) because of Rule 2. and sector z in 1988. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Under this question‟s conditions. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. Therefore. Using the reverse thinking. 5. Likewise. t. (B). 1984. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. . 6. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. You need to determine two dates here. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. Otherwise. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. v. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. 1983. sector y in 1987. First. w. vitamin C. However. As we saw in the previous question. If sector v is constructed in 1982. in 1988. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. If sector t is constructed in 1982. sector y must be constructed after 1986. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. sector w in 1983 or 1984. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). So (A) is correct. sector v must be constructed by 1984. 7. Therefore (D)—1982. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. and 1984. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. y. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. That sounds too simple to be the solution. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s.
and Paris (P). From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. not their danger. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. Vienna (V). Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. If. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. due east. The four highways extend from the city outward.(E)A general claim is made. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. in . Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. 9. but noexamples are provided. V extends due south. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. Looking at the sketch. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. For the sketch. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. past the Beltway. Green (G). the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. but no other tollbooths. That means. Blue (B). (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. due southeast. and due southwest of the city. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. There are four tollbooths. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. Madrid (M). P extends due northeast. however. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. in either order. M extends due west. you‟ll pass two radial highways. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. L extends due north. 8. Red (R).
(C). in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. in either order. Check each choice in turn. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. place eight students in height order. or (E). As we deduced in Question 11. Looking at the sketch. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. Therefore. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. Use the deductions from Question 11. and check each choice in turn. (A). leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. the Paris. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). namely the Green. Q). so (E) is wrong. P. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. 13. . eliminating rule violators. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. you‟ll pass two radial highways. and Yellow Tolls. K. 11. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. If it‟s merely possible. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. M. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. N. Use your sketch. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. since their locations are described in the question. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. but no other tollbooths. and among the choices. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. and isn‟t a must. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. or the Southeast tollbooth. O. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. L. the Madrid. 12. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. For the sketch. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. Blue. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. Red. between the Madrid and the Vienna. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. Create a master sketch. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. from tallest to shortest. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible.
There‟s only one possible order here. For this acceptability question. and then. Compare each choice to the rules. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. So.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. Laura is third. eliminating (C) and (D). (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Since Laura is third. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. you can figure out the possibilities. and two available spots for students taller than her. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. only Jim. Jim. and note that there are only two students above her. Adding Rules 2 and 4. 18. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. or (B).. four choices violate one or more rules. we know that Mike. leaving (B). throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. Laura is third highest of the eight students. Nick. Quentin. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. we can definitely determine who is fourth. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. 17. and since Laura is third. but taller than Jim. For this question. or (A). If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Since there are only three available spots below . in that order. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. 16. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. 14. and who must be shorter. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest.Look at the rules. Nick. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. Oliver. with the remaining students. and one choice violates none of them. Combining our deductions. so (A) is out. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. So Quentin is taller than Jim. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. This eliminates (B) and (E). then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Rule 5 says Laura is third. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. Combine this with Rule 2. Kathy. Also. 15. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). So place the L on your piece of paper. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. or Quentin can be first. Mike. and Pedro. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro.
this must be true. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. T. Neither R nor U must vote yes. R. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. T votes yes on movie 5. and Pedro. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. Quentin. and U) to appear in a film festival. (B). and 3. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. and who must vote no. Since the question asks which choice must be true. Any of five movies (1. must be taller than Laura. so neither choice needs to be true. so (A). That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. (C). at least three of whom must vote yes.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. although both can vote yes. Laura must be taller than Kathy. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. according to Rule 3. Note that in your sketch. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. As we have just proved. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. 20. Scan the choices and stop at (D). This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. so T also votes no on movie 2. “exactly. Since S and T vote the same. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. and (E) are false. That thinking is reflected in (D). Nick. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. using an N. That leaves four judges. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. 2. 2. 3. one for each of the three movies. and 3. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. Kathy. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. it means a yes vote from T as well. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. Questions 19-22 In this game.Laura. S. figure out who must vote yes. so (D) too can be eliminated. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. Create a master sketch. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. The third yes comes from either R or U. 4.” that is. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on.” At least three yes votes are needed. being taller than at least three other students. If both vote no. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. U votes yes on movie 4. both must vote yes. 2. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. as long as one . Your sketch should look something like this: 19. and (C) can be eliminated.
so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. That deduction eliminates only (A). he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. Choose one of the two movies. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. on movie 2. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. and three unknown votes. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. and then T votes no. be true.of them does. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. 3. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. So movie 2 has two no votes. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. To conclude this. but needn‟t. So you need at least one more no vote. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. . If U does vote no. Looking at the remaining choices. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. 22. 21. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. so (C) is eliminated. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. so T must vote no on movie 2. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. and determine whether or not U votes no. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. S and T vote together. S votes no. 23. there are three yes votes. Look for the other judges that vote no. That leaves (E) to be correct. so (B) and (E) can. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. (B) is the answer. one no vote. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. R votes no. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. and 5. then the other choice is correct. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. and thus have your answer. If. We‟re left with (D) and (E).
no matter what the practice time. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. (D)Strengthens.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. (E)Strengthens. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. she must therefore have provided this leadership. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. 24. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. which discusses injuries. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. Most people used to work in industry. so this strengthens the argument. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. To weaken this contention. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. like lifting. because most people now work in the service sector. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. (D)Misreads the argument. 25.
注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. is green. same column are the same color. is yellow. is green. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. red. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. or yellow. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. 1. Light 5 is green. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. the board is green. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. same row are the same color.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. is red. 2. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. the following colors: blue. green. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3.
light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. Therefore. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. If all beaches were publicly owned. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. 8. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. In companies with only one secretary. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. . If light 6 is yellow. Which of the following. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. green. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. and yellow 5. if true. but at all times. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property.
(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. (D) On average. which are numbered 1 through 4. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. however. There are. 9. slower copiers. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. Every day. and Z. 10. but for no more than two consecutive days. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. . (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Y. however. FORMerly. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. in that order. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. but for no more than three consecutive days. X. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them.
. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. Z is listed second. and Quint are seated in cars 1. 13. 4. for the first ride. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. If Rob. 12. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. The four children are Pip. one child per car. 2.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. Pip. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. After each ride. W is listed third. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. 14. Car 5 is never empty. respectively. and 5. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. Z is listed third. Quint. Rob. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Sal. one car remaining empty. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. and Sal. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. X is listed third. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride.
Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. Sal. Jim. and Horace. Betty cooks on Tuesday. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . 17. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. Betty cooks on Wednesday. for the first ride. Pip. 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. Pip is seated in car 4. Rob is seated in car 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. and Quint are seated in cars 1. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. exactly one of the three family members cooks. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. 15. 16. If Rob. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. If Horace cooks on Friday. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. (E) Car 4 is empty. Each day in the Ring home. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. respectively. Quint is seated in car 4. and 5. 3. (D) Car 3 is empty. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week.
depicted prominent citizens in the community. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Jim cooks on Wednesday. they related stories of important events. Horace cooks on Monday. Like modern magazines.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. I know this for a fact. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. if true. Which of the following. Monday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Tuesday. Horace cooks on Wednesday. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. Tuesday. Jim cooks on Monday. Thursday. Horace Jim. . Tuesday (B) Tuesday. Tuesday. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. Thursday (C) Sunday. Friday 23. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Friday (E) Sunday. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. 24. Thursday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Friday (D) Monday.
and one choice violates none of them. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. or yellow. according to the rules provided. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. Average and below average students. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. starting with the most concrete. Therefore. in the middle. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. 4. (B). and on the bottom. light 3 is yellow. can be true. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. 3) can be the same color. Therefore. 7) can be the same color. which can be blue. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. 1. 25. red. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. lights 2. Compare each rule to the choices. 7 to 9. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. For this acceptability question. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. . 4. and light 1 is red. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. 3. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. There are three rows of three lights each.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. Put a G in light 5‟s space. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. numbered on the top. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. green. than they did in 1988. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. per week. and light 1 is red. 1 to 3. You must place the lights.e. four choices violate one or more rules. 1. however. 4 to 6. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. Based on those two deductions. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red.e. 2. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork.
lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. if the government already maintains all beaches. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. three of another and two of a third color. (D). To answer this question. Because light 1 is red. You know that light 1 is red. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. (C). leaving eight lights to be red. eliminating (A) and (B). 4. 6. 5. That‟s only two blue lights. both private and public. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. or (C). they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). so (E) can be eliminated. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. then light 4 can be yellow. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. or (C). That leaves lights 1. light 7 can‟t be red or green. Light 5 is green. so there can be a maximum of three red. and (E). then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. That eliminates (B) and (E). and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). Light 6. 3. so (D) is correct. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. or (C). or yellow. light 7 must be yellow. but lights 2. 8. However. and light 9 must be yellow. If light 6 is yellow. light 7 must be blue. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. There‟s only one green light. 2. . Also. and 8. if light 6 is yellow. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. and light 5 is green. 3. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. 7. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. 4. and 9. can be any color except green. So lights 2. according to Rule 3. 7 and 8. 7. 3. That leaves lights 2. That eliminates (A). Light 1 is red. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . There‟s only one green light. 5. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. (B). blue. As we saw in Question 2. 4.2. light 8 must be red. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. light 6 can be red. and eliminate them as choices. leaving 6.
and 4. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. based on the rules provided. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. Four guards. and Z. Y. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. 8. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. From all that inFORMation about W. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. not of all the B vitamins. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. X. Therefore. not single deficiencies. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. Therefore. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Rule 4 says Z . 9. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. This is the key rule to this game.they were made public than if they remained private. 2. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. numbered 1. cause beriberi and pellagra. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. (C)Too specific. (C)As long as the machine is faster. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. W. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. and thus save money. 3.
12. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . so for Thursday‟s roster. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. (A). Compare each rule to the choices. However.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. 13. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. For Wednesday‟s roster. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. Before looking at the answer choices. but need not be true. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. must be true. (A) and (D) can be true. If W changes assignments. Z must move. 10. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. so (E) must be correct. you can simply use five dashes. Here. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. That eliminates (B) and (C). 11. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. when the next day is assigned. There is one child per car. According to Rule 5. Therefore. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. X. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. For your master sketch. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). In lieu of a master sketch. or are false outright. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. guard can remain in the same gallery. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. W is listed first. numbered 1 to 5. Looking at the choices. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. leaving (C). The rules all have to do with the empty car. so (B) must be true. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. or in gallery 3 on both days. Since this question asks which must be true. when W remains in the same gallery. four choices violate one or more rules. Y. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. so one car is always empty. W was assigned to gallery 1. W. Questions 14-16 In this game. and one choice violates none of them. and only one. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen.
the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. as (D) correctly says. and 5. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. and Quint are in Cars 1. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. from Sunday to Saturday. Furthermore. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. Questions 17-22 In this game. therefore. 15. 16. Pip. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. According to Rule 1. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. and one choice violates none of them. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). or (A). following Rule 1: Pip. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. for the first ride. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. Sal. four choices violate one or more rules. so (C) can be eliminated. 14. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. 2. So. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. Then. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. Quint. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Therefore. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. __ . you‟ll know all that must be true. according to Rule 1. __ . Start with what you are given: Rob. Rob. That means. Car 2 is empty. Create a master sketch.empty. Rule 4 is always in effect. The third ride. Stated more positively. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. three family members (abbreviated B. The order of the first ride: Rob. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. Sal. __ . (E) must be correct. Pip is seated in Car 1. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Quint. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. for the third ride. Sal. J. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. for a week. H must cook after . only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. H) take turns cooking each day. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. Remember. Now Car 3 is empty. Pip. respectively. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. If. Compare each choice to the rules. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). Incorporate the rules. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. Pip. 4. Sal. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. Quint. if Car 3 is empty. For this acceptability question.
the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. If Horace cooks on Friday. 20. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). and Friday. through Sat. So Tuesday. . Wed. and either Sunday or Monday. That leaves (C). so (E) is wrong. Thursday. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. (E). There are three available days. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. As we deduced in the game overview. Betty cooks on Tuesday. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. and Saturday can be definitely determined. Tuesday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Thursday. 22. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. so (C) must be true. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. and Friday can be definitely determined. (D) remains. and (C) can. Horace must cook on Wednesday. Thursday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Therefore. Sunday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). Saturday. Now. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). So. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. However. (D) must be true. Wednesday. Only (C). four days. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Wednesday. be true. the four incorrect choices can be true. but need not. but need not. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits.Tuesday. be true. and then B must cook on Sunday. (B). Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. That eliminates (A) and (B). In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. That takes care of Betty for the week. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Since Horace must cook three days. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. That‟s (C). either one can cook. The only false choice is (E). Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. must cook before Tuesday. 23. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. In order to be consecutive. Horace needs to cook two more times. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. 21. So. 19. Since Horace must cook three days. but not both. so (A) and (B) can. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. Horace. Monday. 18. (A). then Horace must cook on Thursday. Therefore. Wednesday.
time spent by students overall increased. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. 25. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. Therefore. without giving any examples. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. the author compares them to modern magazines. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. 24. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork.
all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. P. 4. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. and T—are playwrights. 2. 3. If the statements above are true. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. joins the others at the table.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right.000. R. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. S. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. L. K is seated two places to Q‟s left.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. Three of the people—K. who is seated on the immediate right of T. which of the following must also be true? . a playwright. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. R is seated on the immediate right of S. and M—are theater critics. the other four—Q. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. 1.
(E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. 5. H. (B) An annual profit of $10.000. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50.000 in the year before the war. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. If put in the same room. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50.000. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. In households including more than one person.000 than for amounts less than $40. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. and L. Pending further study. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. K. 6.000 is not especially high. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. G. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. and where interpersonal contact is common. J.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. more established companies. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. certain patients will infect other patients. I. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F.
one with Disease F. two jazz programs. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. or Disease F. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. one with Disease J. which programs are the news programs for that day? . All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. or Disease G. A room is occupied by three people. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. and one with Disease G. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. and a person with Disease J. and two educational programs. and a male with Disease K. one with Disease F. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. 10. a male with Disease K. 7. one with Disease I. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day.G. and one with Disease J.
fifth.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. The seventh program is a news program. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. third. . (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. sixth. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. and ninth first. P. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. N. N must get off before M. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. and sixth third. if N gets off at the third stop. R must get off before Q. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. fifth. O. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. 14. second. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. The first program is an educational program. sixth. and ninth fourth. eighth. fourth. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. eighth. and ninth second. who must get off before O. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. sixth. fifth. M. eighth. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. Q. second. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. third. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. The eighth program cannot be a news program. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. eighth. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. 13. If no one gets off at the eighth stop.
(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. (C) L and P get off together. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. If R gets off at the fourth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. which of the following MUST be true? . (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. if M gets off at the third stop. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (E) Q gets off after M. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. W. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. 15. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. and if N gets off after Q. (B) N gets off at the second stop. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. Y. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. The second car must always contain U. and Z— every day. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. (E) R gets off at the second stop. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. 18. X. V. (D) L gets off at the second stop. 16. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. 19. If X is perishable. 17. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. and if P must get off alone. (D) N gets off at the first stop.
car containing X precedes the car containing Z. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. and if Y and Z are perishable. (E) The third car contains Y. (C) The fifth car contains V. sixth car contains Z. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. 20. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. . (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. (B) The sixth car contains X. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. fifth car contains V. 21.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. If Y and Z are perishable. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. 22. If W and V are perishable. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. (D) The sixth car contains W. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder.
Studies have shown that. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. R. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Which of the following. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. but rather from some property of the color itself. if true. because of its brightness and intensity. Because of this finding. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. 24. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. M) and four playwrights (Q. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. L. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. S. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. That implies the opposite: A . 25. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished.
2.000 won't be considered. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. so (B) need not be true. since both are playwrights. L and M can be in Seats 6. 5. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. As we saw in Question 1. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. or in Seat 6: R. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. can‟t sit immediately next to L. in any order. If S is two places to Q‟s right. and (E). you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. and T is in Seat 3. (E) describes the same chair as (D). If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. and (E) all can be true. if S is three places to Q‟s right. only from Q‟s left. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. a playwright. That seats all the playwrights. 7. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. then S is in Seat 3. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. so eliminate (A). (C). P. and R is in Seat 5. S. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. so (D) is impossible. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. T is in Seat 3. meaning they are 4 places apart. 6.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. A single. T is in Seat 2. so (E) is also false. a playwright. and R is in Seat 4. or in Seat 5. . eliminating (A). in either order. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. a critic. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. 4. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. To make this connection. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. (B). (C). specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). or 8. so (A). you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. who is immediately right of T. then S is in Seat 4.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. S. so (C) can be true. K is in Seat 9. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. R. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. 3. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). so (B) is out.000. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. Using the sketch in the game overview. For our sketch. then (E) a proposal for more than $50.000.
K and G switch. F. Rule 3 says L infects K. and J. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). If (C). logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. then male K infects G. If (A). If (A). (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. (C)Too broad. it's the change over the course of the war that is. (B). 8. If put in the same room. If K is added. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). G. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. So jot down H L. and J. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. so (A) is wrong. I. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. and G. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. The study isn't clear on this point. 9. it's possible that these people are related to each other. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. L G. a patient with Disease L. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. K. I. 6. Another room contains patients with I. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. L). not in one particular phrase. Switch J and G. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. then K infects F. L F. H. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients.(B)The annual profit isn't important. enters a room with H. and J. Questions 7-9 In this game. more . Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. You are told that one room contains patients with H. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. (D). and a male with K. H + I F. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. K infects F (Rule 2). eliminating (B). In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. then L infects F (Rule 3). I and G switch. one by one. J. male K. not established ones. or F: L K. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. Switch H and J. If this is the case. one by one. but shorthanding the rules might help. Specifically. so (A) is out. G. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. K G. 7. If L is added to the room with F. If H is added to the same room. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F.
than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. second. and two educational) into order. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. fourth. two jazz. Among the choices. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. So (A) is correct. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. and since only one must be true. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. three news and one educational. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. arrange nine radio programs (five news. but needn‟t be. eighth. and third. (C). Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. both stated and easily deduced. and there are five news programs total. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. One educational program is seventh. 11. sixth. . (B) and (C) are patently false. is correct. and ninth. so place an E in slot 7. J for jazz. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). As for the others. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. and you know that one educational program is seventh. (E). and E for educational. and one educational program to place. You‟re left with one educational program. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. Start with what you know. one program per slot. 12. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. (C): only one-K infects G. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. scan the choices. (D): only one-K infects F. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. If the first five programs are all news programs. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. must be first through fourth in whatever order. two jazz programs. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. There are five news programs. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. in whatever order. The four remaining programs. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). From here. (A) and (E) can be true. Stated positively. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. fifth. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. So (C) is correct. two jazz programs.
so (E) is the answer. J. E. O. so M must be seventh. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. and ninth. M. (C). N. and P remain. then Q gets off fifth. Therefore (A). J. (C). starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. 15. but E can also be first: E. or news-jazz-news. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. however. N. N. J. but need not be true. N. N. 16. J. who gets off before O. (A). must be true: No one can get off sixth. P. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. J. E. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. so they get off at 7 and 9. Questions 14-18 For this game. E or N. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. N. N. J. N. M gets off before O (Rule 5). and (D) must be true. E or N. eliminating (D). Looking at the master sketch. N. N. but for every other stop only one member can get off. N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . N. O. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). with O and P getting off together ninth. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). That‟s three. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). E. Under this question‟s conditions. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. N. That makes four. Incorporate the rules. (B). Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. seven members of a family (L. so (D). (B). M. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). and (E) can be true. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. Only L. E. N. If R gets off fourth. you‟d see that (E) can be true. Since no one gets off eighth. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. Q. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off.13. and N gets off after Q. E. J. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. N. R must get off either first or second. In order to satisfy Rule 4. and one of the educational programs is seventh. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. N. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). J. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. Since no one gets off eighth. seventh. If M gets off third. N. N. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. but needn‟t be. and P must get off sixth. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. O. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth.
W. (C). 17. shorthand it U. (A). and (E) are all possible. This might get you thinking.before O (Rule 5). (B). X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. V .. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. Since U is in Car 2. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. (C). but none are definite. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. 8-M. Therefore. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. one product per car. (B). If R gets off fourth. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). So put a U in slot 2. P can‟t get off ninth. Y can‟t immediately follow W. Incorporate the rules. OR If Q gets off at 5. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. 7-N. you must distribute six products (U. Start with what you‟re given. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. or 3. or sixth. neither N nor M can get off ninth. 5-Q. (C). Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). Z) onto six boxcars. leaving only O and L. so O must get off ninth and (A). Questions 19-22 In this game. 18. and (E) can be true. L must get off at the ninth stop. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. (A) can‟t be true. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). Since we already know that U is in Car 2. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. (B). V must precede W. L and P must get off together. 3-X. at the ninth stop. In other words. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). and (E) are all possible. 2. 20. Therefore. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. third.. second. but none have to be true. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. and then add what you know. 4-R. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. 9-OP.Y. then R can only get off at 1. 6-X. and look for one of them as an answer choice. but need not be true. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. V. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. either. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. then N and M must get off before seventh. (C). (B). and (E) can‟t be true. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. If Y and Z are perishable. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open.X. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). in either order. However. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. namely first. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. (D). If O gets off seventh. 2-L. If X is perishable. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. then Q gets off fifth. X . Create a master sketch. Q and R can‟t get off ninth.
24. in either order. for which choice no evidence is given. X. (B). Because these two courses of action contradict each other. V. (E)Assumes that. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. Also. situations. U. Z. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. not necessarily at all times. X. V. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). Y. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. V. 22. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. Therefore. 21. U. If Y and Z are perishable. along with X. leaving Z in Car 1. U is in 2. 23. There are four possibilities. there was some reason that . and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. If W and V are perishable. and (E) are possible. Thus. X. Z. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. (A). the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). (B). or W. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. and Car 5 with Car 6. so (D) need not be true. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). (B) is correct. (C). then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . or W. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. Y. 25. Z. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. in either order. Therefore. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. a precedent may already have been set. W is in Car 1. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. in either order. but (C) CANNOT be true. If. in either order. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. V. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. (D) can be true. U. Z. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. Y. is in Car 5 and Car 6. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. (D). and (E) must all be true. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. X. (A). Y.must be in Car 1 and W. in order: W. or W. not all. U. U is in Car 2. however.
Adams. (A)This is a logistical problem. Hiro. Best. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. Carter. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. regardless of the reason.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. it doesn't affect the rationale. The . it's the stressinducing qualities of red. Kundala. and Lamming—and four juniors. and Delgado.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention.
Hiro. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. Lamming must also be chosen. if true. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. If Hiro is chosen to attend. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. Which of the following. . most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Dr. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Kundala. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. (E) Dr. Best 2. Lamming. Kundala (E) Hiro. If Fox is chosen to attend. Best (D) Fox. and style. Because of high demand. Delgado (C) Hiro. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. (D) Dr. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. rather than societal. If Carter is chosen for the convention. Adams. conflict. Kundala cannot be chosen. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. Carter cannot be chosen. 5. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. 1. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. Hiro.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. Anderman‟s imprisonment. If Best is chosen to attend. Carter (B) Kundala. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. symbolism.
S 8. Q. R. Q. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. The pets will be examined one by one. Q. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. non-urban. S. Q. S must be examined before P is examined. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. R. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. Which of the following. 6. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. R. P. R (E) Q. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. 7. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. R. areas are now affected. if true. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. P. P (C) R. and each pet will be examined just once. . Q. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas.In order for this argument to be logically correct. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. S (B) S. is examined second. P (D) S. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures.
and G—appear on his two weekend shows. F F. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. If CANNOT (A) A. if true. E.(D) R is examined third. F. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. At least one comedian must appear on each show. B appears on Saturday's show. E are comedians. D. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. G D. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. (D) S must be examined first. 11. G E. Which of the following. C. If R is examined third. D E. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. G 13. (E) P must be examined fourth. C. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. (E) P is examined fourth. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. (B) C. (E) C. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (C) E. B. (D) A. Only A. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . 9.
Chicken Kiev. Beef Enchilada. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15.(D) five (E) six 14. Fish Teriyaki. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Dijon. Chicken Kiev. from first course to fourth course. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. The menu will consist of four entrees. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Lobster Mombasa. in ascending order of popularity. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. but if both are selected. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. The eight eligible entrees are. Lobster Mombasa. Beef Enchilada. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. Pork Szechuan . they cannot be served consecutively. Pork Szechuan. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. and if B appears on Saturday's show. Fish Teriyaki. Chicken Dijon. and Chicken Vindaloo. chosen from a group of eight. 17. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name.
Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. it does not exist naturally in the desert. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. Pork Szechuan 18. . powerful sunlight. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. and next to no moisture. Lobster Mombasa. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree.(E) Beef Enchilada. Fish Teriyaki. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. nor does it survive long when introduced there. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. 23. Desert X is an environment with constant. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21.
(D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. the literary work loses its specificity. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. Desert X can support almost no plant life.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. The problem. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. 25. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. In fact. however. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. (B) For one week in the fall. . (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. 24. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. In the hands of a Freudian critic.
violating Rule 4. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Best. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. Delgado). In other words. then Carter isn‟t: If H. then no c. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). Fox. then Fox isn‟t (if K. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. (C) and (E). and Kundala. if Kundala is chosen. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. 4. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. then no F). One is Kundala. Lamming must be chosen. then Fox can‟t be chosen. That leaves (C). You are given that Carter. b. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. Kundala isn‟t. c. As Rule 1 says. K. 2. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. 3. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). but not both. d for the four juniors. aren‟t required. then no K. Hiro must be chosen. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. Compare each rule to the choices. a junior. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. Carter. or (B). Kundala. Lamming must also be chosen. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. there must be at least two seniors. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. you can only choose one or the other. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. L for the four seniors. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. and a. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. . The three available seniors are Lamming. H. Hiro. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. Since the question asks who must be chosen. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. being juniors. then L.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. and one choice violates none of them. 1. That eliminates (A). or can‟t be chosen at all. or (C). is chosen. then no H). eliminating (D). For this acceptability question. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. four choices violate one or more rules. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best.
only now more of them have been identified. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. however. R. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. Create a master sketch of four dashes. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. 5. so this won't weaken the conclusion. S) in an order to be examined. then C. if B. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. this has no effect. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). it could be the same pollution and the same victims. if A.they were written after her release. If. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). 6. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. If. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. Thus. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. Q. then not A (they didn't want them). there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. then C (they were able to buy tickets). (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. however. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). nothing need have changed. place four pets (P. Rule 1 states that R is second or . The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales.
We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. and one choice violates none of them. and E. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. Therefore. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. S. if Q is first and R is third. Q is either first or second. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. Since S must be seen before P. then C and E. Create a master sketch. if A. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. D. P. You are given that Q is examined before R. Q or S. 12. must appear on Saturday. are comedians. then F and D are . and P can be second or fourth. Rule 2 kicks in. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. so S must be first and P must be fourth. (A). distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. R. We know R can be third. four choices violate one or more rules. Therefore E. You need to have S before P. None of the choices include both F and D. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. P or Q.third. are on Saturday. leaving (B). E and G are chosen with B. without violating the rules. If A is the only comedian on Friday. then two of the four slots are filled. 9. Then. Rule 1 states that only A. the other comedians. R must be third. For this acceptability question. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. If R is third. E. 8. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. B. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. so you need three more guests for Saturday. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. R. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. Therefore. so S can be first or second. 11. F. but so can S. C. there are (C) three different orders possible. S before P. Q. You are told B is on Saturday. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. either S or Q can be first. R. 10. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. P. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. Questions 11-16 In this game. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. Compare each rule to the choices. C. From that.
Place B and G on either night. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. E. B and/or G. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. Friday has at least one comedian. but not definite. G or E. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. That means the third comedian. E. F. B. Chicken Kiev. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. C. (Rule 2). E. either one can be with E. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. 16. F. 15. That means F and D are both on Saturday. (B). as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. Fish Teriyaki. (C) is correct. B. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). then the other two comedians are on Friday. Beef Enchilada. G must be on Saturday. E. from among F. violating Rule 3. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. and F. E. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). B or E. Since each night has at least one comedian. A must therefore be with D. Questions 17-22 For this game. B or G and Saturday is C. However. You can then deduce that C and E are together. or A. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. 13. in either order. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. D. F. 14. or E. Although F can‟t be with D. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. D. and there‟s your exception. so (C) and (E) are both possible. (C). for two more possible lists. Try each choice in turn. From that you can deduce that Beef . The entrees. D. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. F. Pork Szechuan. Lobster Mombasa. Chicken Vindaloo. F and B or G. so (A) is correct. In fact. As in Question 12. D. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. then Friday is A. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. then Saturday is A. D. and F are together. Chicken Dijon. So either night can be C. and G. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. or (C). and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. G. If Saturday includes C. The groups in (A). and (E) can each join B on Saturday. and G. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. must be on Friday. B or E. That‟s one possible list. E. violating Rule 3. In other words. and B or G. D. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. If Friday is C.together on Friday. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. Therefore. you can further deduce that C. so they can be eliminated. and G. D.
Pork Szechuan. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. Kiev and Vindaloo. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). and one choice violates none of them. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. By the way. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. one. According to Rule 2. Lobster Mombasa. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. 20. 17. must be removed. then only . This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Before looking at the choices.e. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. so the other Chicken entrees. in that order. This question says the first entree is based around fish. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. In the order. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. (A). you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. So Chicken Dijon is first. Chicken Kiev. and Pork Szechuan. Therefore. but can‟t be consecutive. That leaves Beef Enchilada. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. is correct. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. Fish Teriyaki. For this acceptability question. Compare each rule to the choices. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. violating Rule 2. On the overall list. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. there‟s only one fish entree. so (A). So (D) is correct. but neither can be chicken. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. (E) is the exception. in that order. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. Beef) can‟t both be selected. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. 18. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. That way. Therefore. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. four choices violate one or more rules. 19. Lobster Mombasa. Well. and Chicken Vindaloo. 21. On the overall list. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. Next. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish.
(C) and (E) are true. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. 23. If there were multiple correct interpretations. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. . She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. correct. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. If Lobster Mombasa is second. beef. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. Beef Enchilada must be second. 24. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. Y likes dry and sunny regions. determine all that can or must be true. Pork Szechuan must be third. therefore. X is a desert. sunny and hot. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). so it's dry. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. yet it doesn't.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. 25. 22. (C)Too general. That leaves (B). (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. it's that it's too powerful. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there.
(E) O. Which of the runners? (A) F. L. F finished ahead of both G and L. M. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. (D) K. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. G. (B) G. G. H. K. J. O. J. J. L finished immediately ahead of H. J. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. M. or behind. L. L. 1. M. F. O. H. and M finished ahead of J. F. O. G. M. O. L. H. L. K. K. F. H. K finished ahead of M.org 2. G. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . There were no ties for any finishing position. M. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. H. K. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. L. (C) K. O.
But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. Today. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. first. its function as a supporting structure. ahead of K. If F finished fourth. ahead of G. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. Which of the following. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. if filled into the above blank. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. 5. rather than mask. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F.
and V. If T is chosen for the team. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. until. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. and N. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. . If T is chosen for the team. who are finesse players. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. it reached 3%. Q. 8. (E) The Arbican population increased. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. but N is not. (B) The Arbican population increased. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. who are power players. N and V. (B) V is not chosen for the team. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. P. exactly two power players will be chosen. If the statements above are true. If Q is chosen for the team. S. doubles partners. (C) The Arbican population decreased. (D) The Arbican population decreased. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. and T. R. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. This percentage steadily declined. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. in 1980. He can choose from among eight players—M.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
after all. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. How can it exist. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. . (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. which took place about 6000 years ago. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. 24. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. far earlier than was previously believed.C. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. at around 3000 BC. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. 25. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first.
H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. From another combination of deductions. M. So start with F in the fourth slot. Compare each rule to the choices. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. and O. second. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). O is fourth. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. H. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. If H is seventh. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. and J to go first. As we deduced in the game overview. try the other possibilities for H. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. Just to be sure. O. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). and seventh or eighth. Since L must finish before H. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. That leaves (A) as possible. and one choice violates none of them. eliminating (A). Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. and neither G nor L can finish first. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. the only runners who can finish first are F. Combining all of the deductions.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. or vice versa. and M finished before J. in that order (according to Rule 5). and M can‟t be either first or last. So M must be second. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. But that‟s impossible since you know . J. then G and L (from Rule 6). O is third. 2. G. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. If F is fourth. K can‟t be last. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. or vice versa. which can finish eighth. J and O. so neither K nor M can finish last. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. That leaves (E). J. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. and M finished before J. H. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. That eliminates (B) and (D). so L can‟t be last. and see what you can deduce. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. M. Rule 5 says K finished before M. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. O. 3. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. four choices violate one or more rules. For this acceptability question. You can also deduce that F finished before H. K. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. so F can‟t finish eighth. L. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. and (C) is out. and K. Stated positively. and therefore correct.
Finally. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). While the percentage tells us the relation . (C)Irrelevant. and then G is sixth. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. or fourth. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. G can‟t be first. To conclude this. (D). 7. and J to be placed. So K is first. or belligerent. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. 5.that F is fourth. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. If M is seventh. (B) is the answer. If L is fifth. then according to Kant. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. if H is eighth then O is fifth. That leaves K. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. O is third (from Rule 4). In either case. Since G can‟t finish before F. so (A) is correct. G. 6. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. G must be next to O. and K to be placed. (C). The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. If a republic is pacific. not definite. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. To evaluate this claim. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). so far: That leaves F. so (B). Therefore. in that order. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. From that it follows that if H is sixth. and J is third. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). In 1960. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. as in (E). 4. The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. M is second. So G can finish second or fourth. not how clarity affects ornament. second. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. M. and (E) are possible. So the order. K can finish in first. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. (D) (E)Outside the scope.
That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. Check each choice. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. select from two groups of tennis players. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). V). it all depends on which particular players are chosen. S. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. only (D) is impossible. V. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. If T is chosen. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. so (A) is out. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. M and T are both finesse players. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). as it says in Rule 2. Questions 8-11 In this game. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. both numbers could increase. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. Given this inFORMation. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. so there‟s too many power players. T) and power (N. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). However. V. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. Q. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. P. N. but when T is chosen. is chosen. 8. If M and P are chosen with Q. or of Arbicans who made this migration. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. That‟s fine. R. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . then exactly two power players are chosen. to play in a tournament. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. a power player. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. but the percentage migrating has fallen. That eliminates (E). Beyond that. use your drawing on a question to question basis. 9. However. and Q are all power players. (A)It's possible. finesse (M. You are given that Q.between the two. and Q are all power players. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. Keep it simple. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. while the percentage decreases. then you have two finesse players and one power player. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. (E)If the number migrating is the same. one by one. the number migrating would have to decrease. according to Rule 5.
How many pairs can be made from M. so S must be chosen. is left). That makes three possible combinations. 10:30 am. If a professor is available at a given time. are acceptable combinations. so if they‟re not chosen. the correct choice can be deduced. 11. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. Since the question asks which must be true. With M excluded. (D). if exactly two power players are chosen. Any of those pairs. combined with the four power players. and since there are already two power players. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. Use a grid. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. and S. and S? Three: MP. a sketch is essential. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. T is not chosen for the team. If T is chosen. If V isn‟t chosen. MS. Refer to your sketch. and N are all power players. (E).players chosen. and PS. Therefore. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). there are only three available finesse player: T. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. That leaves M. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. P. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. In other words. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. Note this in your sketch. 10:00 am. . There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). 10. then N isn‟t chosen either. As for the others: If N is not chosen. Between 10:30 and 11:00. Look at each column. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. V. as defined by the rules. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. 11:30 am. P. The meetings are one-half hour in length. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). Q. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. P. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. R. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. so (C) is correct. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). For this game. 11:00 am. and S to pair up. eliminating (C). Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. is the answer. every professor except B is available. and 12:00 pm.
and 11:30. At 9:00. can both meet at 9:30. two. (A). Ax and Bulos. the “swing” principal. Go through the rules. So (B) is the answer. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. Looking at your sketch. but at 9:30. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. at 9:30. (E). Create a master sketch. However. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. Dohee and Egger. the “swing” principal. Remember.13. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. Ax and Chow. O. M. 11:00. Remember. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. (D). Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. and 10:30. and Franz. can‟t meet. check each choice in turn. P. Dohee and Franz. always look for opportunities to use previous work. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. As we saw in the previous question. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. So M. (D). P. 17. 14. using your sketch as the reference. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. (B). (A). Those times are at 10:30. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). Chow. (D). and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. can both meet at 10:30. can meet three times. (C). (C). but L and Q must serve together. therefore M serves on Curriculum. Your sketch should look . 15. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. Egger and Franz. 16. Some principals. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. However. Ax and Dohee are both available. (C). For this question. Bulos and Dohee. that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. so (B). Dohee is the only other professor available. first find all the possible times that Ax. 10:00. so 11:30 to 12:00. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. one of the principals on each committee is the same. making as many deductions as you can. N. Bulos and Franz. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. (B). Check each choice one by one. can only meet at 10:30. or can only serve on one committee. is correct. Q. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. then Q serves on the same committee. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. Chow and Franz can meet.
As we‟ve already seen. 19. 22. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. and P. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. 20. N. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. so (C) is correct.some thing like this: 18. So (A) is the answer. O. (C) and (D) are both possible. so (A) is wrong. only N or O can serve on the same committee. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. so eliminate (D) and (E). This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. if we know which one is on both committees. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). to serve on both committees. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. so neither can be on both committees. (B). and which one is on one committee only. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). which is a violation of Rule 4. so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. and then check the choices. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. leaving (C). four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). as the other pair. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. Otherwise. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. L can‟t be on both committees. to serve on the Ethics Committee. or (A). leaving (D). O. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. (D). That leaves (C). N. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. and L. Now. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). M. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. 21. Choices (A). contradicting (B) and . Determine who must be on which committee. Q. O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. Therefore. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. O and P. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually.
then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. the issue is the definition of international law. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. and as it is. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. were used. 24. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. but there's no proof that it was. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. (E)The horse could have been used. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. (A)The author says that no such body exists. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons.(C). international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. not oxen.. so their opinion can't be applied here. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). so India is beyond the scope. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. he merely says that it doesn't. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. 23. 25. or before approximately 3000 BC. (D)The issue is when horses. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
Bands P. K. Bands F. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three .voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. H.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. Q. The nine bands must perform one after the other. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. and M are rock bands.taisha.. H must perform sixth. G. and R are country bands. 1. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. R must perform eighth. If P performs first. L must immediately precede M in the order. and each band must perform once and only once. L. K must perform either first. second. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. or third. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2.
(E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. Because of this. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. 7. For several decades. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. performs third. Recently. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. then G performs seventh. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. then P performs first. Which of the following statements. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. then F performs seventh. performs seventh. then M performs sixth. then Q performs fifth. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. (D) P must perform immediately before K. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. 5. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. however. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. if true. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. 6.(D) four (E) five 4. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. performs ninth. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. performs ninth. In light of these findings.
(E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. and R. Q. The only available lecturers are the historians L. not be chosen. chosen. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. In light of these disturbing revelations. then M must also be chosen. 8. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. L and M chosen. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. M. however. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. and vice versa. and the sociologists P. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. and O. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. N. Just last week. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. then Q must not be chosen. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. . then N must then O must are chosen.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. also be chosen.
(D) M is not chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. N. G. Q is not chosen. sometimes move Q and S to tears. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . R. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F.9. (E) L must never be chosen. T. N. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. L. P sometimes move W. P. H. N is not chosen. and Z. (E) N is not chosen. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. and to laughter. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. If all of the sociologists are chosen. and P for presentation at the soiree. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. L. (D) If O is chosen. Q. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. 10. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. S. U has prepared only works by poets K. Q. L is not chosen. O is not chosen. M. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. P is not chosen. R. (C) If M is chosen. (B) O is chosen. W. (B) R must never be chosen. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. M. Z. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. O.
lamp. table. and living room of a client‟s house. rug. painting. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. 14. mirror. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. vase . If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. table. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. K. and L only 16. vase vase mirror. 17. sofa. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. wardrobe. den. N. vase. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. P. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. rug.laughter. table. mirror. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. N. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. and L only (D) works by N. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. and L only (E) works by K. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. table lamp. The sofa is placed in the living room. rug. table lamp. sofa. painting. and L only (E) works by K. rug. rug. P. and wardrobe. then he or she is bored.
table (E) table. table. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. (E) The vase is placed in the den. 20. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. rug. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms.18. rug (D) painting. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. the painting. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. 19. Yet . then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. table (B) rug. (E) The vase is placed in the den. vase (C) lamp. 21. (C) The table is placed in the den. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. and if the wardrobe. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. vase 23. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. If the lamp. the lamp.
which can be fatal. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. 24. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. Which of the statements below. if true. Research has shown. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. if true. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. where the legal drinking age was still 18. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. Furthermore. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. however. Therefore. his liver loses the . (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. Which one of the following. 25.paradoxically.
is a country band. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. to separate the two country bands. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. respectively. 1. in either order. in either order. are F 3. and R is eighth. Since K is first. If P is first. L is fourth. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . Q. (E): L and M must be together. second. Create a master sketch. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. R. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. is a country band. H. second. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. such as shrimp. they are first and third. K. M is fifth. and R is eighth. Therefore (A) is correct. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. M is fifth. Since K is first. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. That leaves two country bands. is a country band. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. incorporate the rules. in either order. R is eighth (Rule 3). G. or third. as we deduced in the game overview. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. to go in two of the first three slots. or third. Rule 4 states that K is first. M) and three country bands (P. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. respectively. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. There are only two . only. second. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. P and Q. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. K is second. in either order. L. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. six rock bands (F. or third. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. 2. one at a time. H is sixth. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. (Rule 1). and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. pair. in order to appear at a music marathon. Combine Rules 1 and 3. R) must be placed. then Q must be third. in either order. R. prove or band. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. That means K must be second.
The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. 4. so (B). which of the following must be true. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. Since the question is worded. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. (B). eliminate any choice that can be false. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. (A). . (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. in either order. If. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. If G performs before F. 6. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock.possibilities. but need not is ninth. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. respectively. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. and (D) Q—they can be true. (E)If anything. (E) must be true: H is 5. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. however.. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. and P and Q. then G is seventh position except first and third. So we know every in either order. we‟re only concerned with this city. 7. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. and F is ninth. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants.
Q. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. (D). N. then not R If L + M. and R) are chosen. without violating Rule 3.8. P and N together. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. (B). Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. then P is chosen. M. listing the available speakers. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. The rules. Create a master sketch. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. Q. In other words. Start with what you are given. M. Therefore. or M and Q. R Incorporate the rules. but they‟re not being followed. shorthanded: P + N together If R. N. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. 10. since R is chosen. then not Q). then O isn‟t chosen. then Q is not chosen. and noting who can be chosen together. some of the diseases may have other causes. Q. Since the question is worded. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. Notice that you can take L and Q. So (A) is correct. R) to lecture before a class. O Sociologists: P. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. then N is chosen. and (E) are all false. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. which of the following CANNOT be true. If R and Q . then not O If O. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. O) and sociologists (P. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. then M 9. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. then M is chosen. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. then not Q If R. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. then R can‟t be chosen. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. and if N is chosen. (C).
P. so it‟s correct. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. then not O. T. So. That leaves (B) as correct. and P. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. H and T are always . W. M must be chosen. but needn‟ t be true. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. b for bored. or “some. If O and M aren‟t chosen. then R can‟t be chosen). R is also part of Rule 2— if R. so take R (via Rule 4). M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. Q. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). and P and N can be chosen. so (D) is the answer. not definite. if L and Q are chosen. We already took M. M can‟t be chosen. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. we can only take a maximum of two from M. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. and L and O can‟t chosen. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. At this point you can stop. and Q. and O. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. So (B) is only possible. 12. R. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. and M must be chosen. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. M. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. Therefore.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. L. then not Q. the full deduction: Of Q or L. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes.are chosen. then M can‟t be chosen. l for laughter. and R are chosen. (E) is false. so (C). 13. Since the question says possibly. H. G. This question is a good example of using previous work. in this case a grid: 14. for completeness. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. N. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. and R. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. That eliminates (C). of L. and R. As we learned in Question 6. Q. (A) and (D) can be true. eliminating (C). 11. M must be chosen). Q. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. Q. That‟s L. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. N. then M. Therefore. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). So take L and M. Based on Rules 2 and 4. Since R. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. However. and you find them in (D): If L. But if L and Q are chosen. if R is chosen. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. S. Scan the choices for L. and we‟ve just proved that. we can only take two of the three. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. M. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. or five. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. and not just sometimes. If O and M are chosen together.
and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and P is the exception. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). and L: two literati are always moved to tears. 15. For this acceptability question. You can place the items in the rooms. and 5. or 1. and 4. (D) places the sofa in the den. 2. and there are eight items total. Questions 17 . so MW. (C). then that‟ s our answer. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. S. W) in three rooms (bedroom. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). T. sometimes move four literati to tears. but N moves T to boredom. (D). So (C) is out. M. and one choice violates none of them. and (E). a violation of Rule 4. so no PV. The others: P and N. four choices violate one or more rules. V. P. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. then F and Q are always moved to tears. Refer to your sketch. Create a master sketch. leaving (A). Therefore. Depending on how you look at it. Start with the rules that are most concrete. one literati is always moved to laughter. (D). Poet K moves T to laughter. If (A).22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. always move one literati to laughter. P. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. Put an S in the living room. K. 16. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). and locate T. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. R. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. (B). so the combination of poets K. and T. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. 3. (C). bored by poet N. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. W. one literati is always moved to laughter. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. S. and Z sometimes moved to tears. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. P. throwing out violators. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. so (D) is possible. living room). in any order. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room.moved to laughter. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. That leaves (D). in any order. so (B) is out. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. poets L and P. but otherwise is bored. Rule 4 places S in the living room. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. den. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. N. so (B) and (E) are wrong. and work your way towards the abstract ones. N. H by poet N and T by poet K. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P.
Start with S in the living room. and W are in the living room. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. 3. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. or 5. in either order. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). T is in the den. Since we can have 2. Since Rule 5 is suspended. or 1. which claim that the den has 3 items. Only (B) follows the rules. . Since the living room has W. eliminating (C). L. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). (C). and the den has 2 items. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. If M is with S. (B). and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). 3. M. T. 4. 4.den. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. but not “always” 2. V can be in the den. and (E) can be eliminated. the sofa and the vase. the den. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. so either P or V is in the den. 18. Start with the second piece of information in the question. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. for the other two rooms. Next. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. R. 19. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. one room must have exactly 1 item. violating Rule 1. is empty. and S. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. but you must have at least one item in each room. If W is in the living room. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. and T must therefore be in the living room. (A). and 4. according to Rule 2. (D). then the third room. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. in any order. or 5 items in any given room. That eliminates (B) and (D). and (E) are wrong. 21. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. with the other joining S in the living room. As we learned in Question 20. as (A) states. leaving only (E) as possible. that leaves only two items. 20. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. and 5. and S. then the living room contains W. 22. in any order. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. so P is in the living room with S. so (A). so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). 3. L. M. (C). As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. S. (B). so it‟s the answer. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. then. M. so the den can only contain one item. and there are eight items total. That means the living room has more than one item. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. You know that P can‟t be with V. L is in another room. 2. (B). and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct.
especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. to lower blood cholesterol levels. so why the increase in drunk driving. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. however. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. hence the increase in accidents. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. even though eggs are high in cholesterol.23. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. 25. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. . but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. According to research. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. dietary or medical. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. If. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. Well. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. Otherwise. 24. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. Mugs. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. Molly. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. (C) H is not chosen. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. (E) F is not chosen. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. To test the system. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. If G is chosen for the issue. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. . each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. three trainers (Luis. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. If M is not chosen for the issue. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. then J must also be chosen. 7. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. one trainer and one dog per room.If F is chosen. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands.
W. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. A. Z (C) W. V. W. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. Y. to the empty apartment on the same level. to T‟s apartment on the same level. W. four on each floor. and W—live in the building. W (B) X. Command W. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. W (E) Z. W. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. X 14. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. Q. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. Y. Z. between two other apartments on the same level. The top floor is called Level A. one to an apartment. 12. One of the apartments is empty. Z. W (C) Z. Exactly seven people—P. W. W. W.11. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. W (D) W. S. A. Y. R. T. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. the bottom floor is Level B. X (B) W. . levels. X (E) X. A (D) X. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. Y.
There must be a senior club member playing each game. R.15. two will play chess. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. M. G. and two—P and R—are club applicants. 17. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. F. and three will play dominoes. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. respectively? (A) G. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. H. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. and dominoes. directly above T‟s apartment. G cannot play the same game that R plays. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. R (B) G. H and P must play the same game. M. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. Each person present can play only one of the three games. directly above P‟s apartment. F. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. H. K. P. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. two—K and M—are junior club members. P . and H—are senior club members. Three of those present—F. K. 19. chess. M cannot play dominoes. R‟s apartment is on Level A.
(D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. (B) Only ethical considerations. G. and not those of self-interest. P. M. 21. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. K. M plays backgammon. If R plays backgammon. G. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. notably Japan. P plays chess. 24. G plays backgammon. H. H. This is not merely a matter of using . European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. P. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. G. R (E) F. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. M. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. F plays dominoes. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. K. R 20. F. By doing so. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. R. M (D) H.(C) F. K. P.
Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. C. or both. and (E) has N coming after T. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. and (D) has C before A. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. . Such concerns are irrelevant here. or the commissary is serving fish.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. so it‟s out. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. N. Something must be done about the 51. 25. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. what needs to be done must be done. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. or both. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. or the commissary is serving fish. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. (B) It is a workday.manual mowers instead of power mowers. If all the statements above are true. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. pollution would be drastically reduced. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. so they‟re out. you may be able to meet the actors. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. 3)S can‟t be first. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. (B) has sage first. S and T. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. so the first spice is either N or A. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience.
since we can‟ t separate A and C. C. Our sequence is A. so scratch (D) and (E). implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. 3=========FIN A1= First. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. which limits our options. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. leaving (C). so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. If they don‟ t. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. they‟re as fickle as short termers. Try plugging in numbers. put S in the second slot. so eliminate (A) and (B). (D) must be false. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. S. Previously. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. N and T will work. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. then the 20% . T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. Now we have AC and S. There‟s no supporting evidence. C. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. N. the number of attacks would have increased. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. T.000 apiece. S. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. S can‟t be first. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. and it can‟t be second either. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. (E) is the assumption. A is joined with C. (A) . and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. it‟s simply irrelevant. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. (D)Appointed judges show consistency.
not what type of sets consumers prefer. l and o. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. (A) . we need 3 lower case and k. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. you see that if you cross out m. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. and if you choose m. G or H. our answer. With Rule 1. k. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. and since m is dance. three. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. you have to cross out J and F . 2)If J is chosen. l. If you circle m. so (A) is correct. l and o— those are your five articles. If you have J. F. you can circle the other 3. If you circle F. l. Let‟s jump to (C). you must have J. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. If you circle G . so we can eliminate (C). l and o. you know you can circle k. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. so we can eliminate (E). and if we cross out m we circle k. you have to cross out J. We have J. if G and J are circled. is correct. l and o. choice (A) . you must choose J. As we saw in Question 8. or 4 dance and 1 theater. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). m can‟t be. but the rest is wide open. choosing J yields three possible groups. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. and circle k. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. H. Cross out m. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. l and o and you need go no further. J. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. 3)If you choose F. so there are three possibilities and (C). (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. o. making them easy to eliminate. k. you can‟t have m and to have F. you have to choose the other three dance articles. so (C) is correct. circle k. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). m. J. G. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. m is not. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. k. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . o. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k.
and (E) is out because L is with m. putting Onyx in 1. the only one that moves trainers. A second W puts M in 1. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. o. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. 4)With command Z. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. (A) is out because O is with l. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. H. k. not 1. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. m.and H. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. l. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. the dogs return to their original trainers. so it‟s correct. W is called. M is in Room 3. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. 2)With command X. not with m. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. J. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. 2 and 3. (C). O in 2 and L in 3. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. k. since if F is chosen. Which choice is true of that? (B). k. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. l. then moving them around according to different commands. you could have G. m. The first W moves O to 1. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. Let‟s jump to (E). Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . We have rooms 1. Looking at the wrong choices. and to do that we need one X. then see what commands move them to Room 2. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. Mm in Room 2. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. L. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. k. For the record. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. etc. not in 2. and L moves to Room 2. m. we circle J. not with o. m to M and o to O. We can‟t disprove (E). (D) is out since L is in Room 2. 5)With command A. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. but that moves trainers. If we circle F and G. So we have in Room 1. L in 2. l. m or G. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. H. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. l. We have three trainers. H. J is chosen. (C) is out because M is with o. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . she‟s there with o. and o. not dogs. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. So l returns to L. and M in 3. But we need five. two Ws. and Oo in Room 3. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. o or G. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. Yes. l. 3)With command Y. Ol . and the second W moves her to 2. G. and the dog in Room 3 stays put.
we have no more light on the R and V issue. M in 1. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. O.correct. W and empty. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. W. Y lines up the dogs. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. (C). 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. P. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. so since B-2 is occupied by S. call W twice. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. l? One call of Z. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. o to o. one‟s on A. Take your people. S. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. S on B. empty unit. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. So W and S have to be in A- . L. M. R and V. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. Q. and fill them in the eight slots. R. so either TP or PT . L in 2. Call W once. 3)P and T are adjacent. and we need a place for V. W is on A. But if you call A. P is next to T. (B). A. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. the other on B. So we put S underneath in B-2. For the dogs. so P is in B-3. L. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. the dogs seek out their trainers. and as for (C) and (D). are both on A. empty and Q on A. We have W. since T can‟t be on the end. P. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. P is in B-4. but that isn‟t a choice. so (E) is correct. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. (A) ‟s sequence of X. you get O. As for (B). putting m in 2 and l in 3. m. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. so Q is on A. W . how to go from l. 5)W is next to empty. To get from L. so add empty to A. m. W and A puts O again in 1. And with (A) and (C). Q and (E). Y. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. so we know that P and T are on B. So T is in 2 or 3. empty. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. Now turn to the W. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. O. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. 2)S and Q are on different levels. so we‟ve got our answer. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. so W is on A and S is on B. V and R are left—one will be on A. T. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. S. V. With P in B-3. 4)T is not in one of the ends. L. 8 apartments—1 is empty. and T can‟t be on an end. so you have Oo in 1. but l in 2. it has to be next to P in B-2. 1 or 4. O to M. not A-4. As for (D). As for the others.
If they play chess. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. 4)H and p must play the same game. since H. so it can‟t be H. There‟s only one grouping possible. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. H and p are together. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. Now go to the Hp unit. Nix (E). R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). making (D) correct . and only dominoes has three people. and juniors and applicants in lower case. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. r can‟t play with G . S. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. k and m are both lower .1 and B-1. H. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. m and p. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. p and r in dominoes is okay. and empty goes next to W in A-2. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. empty unit. The Rules: 1)7 people. (B) has F and H. 2)Three senior members. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. The senior can‟t be H. It‟s between V and R . so it‟s F. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. F. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. The question asks about A-1. they must play dominoes. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. T. p and r in dominoes. G. Turn to our W. So only two people could go in A-1. so H and p must play dominoes. 7 slots. directly above T in B-2. (or p and someone else). two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. so (A) is out. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. P and S are out because they‟re on B. Let‟s put seniors in caps. since they have m playing dominoes. chess with two and dominoes with three. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. F. (B). ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. which is correct. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. k and r play dominoes. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. k. since H is with p . It must be F. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. G. so we have one cap in each group.
F and k chess. p and r in dominoes. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. is fine: F and m in backgammon. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope.” That‟s summarized by (D). (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities.case. so k. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. so k and m can‟t be together. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. the workday with fish. For the record. but rather that it is necessary. according to the stimulus. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. and we need a cap for each. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (D):G and m in backgammon. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. fish may or may not be served. (C). so it‟s (A) . (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. and its aid policy. and (B)‟s correct. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. p and r dominoes. G and k in chess and H. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. that the commissary is serving fish. so (D)‟s correct. We must do what‟s necessary. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. A makes most of its money back. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. no matter how drastic and costly. true on a workday. Besides.) But m can‟t play dominoes. Japan.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. to save the environment. That way. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. “notably Japan. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. or it‟ s not a workday. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. or both. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. which this doesn‟t mention. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. F and m. and H.
Q. R. 2. L. 6. 7. W. 1. Which of the (A) E. G.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. (C) B. T. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number.taisha. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 .. If the third symbol is a number. (B) F. K. (D) C. X. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. 4. M. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. T. (E) A. then the fifth must be either B or D. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. 3. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. The sequence is called a combination. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. If the third symbol is a letter.
(B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. however. Which of the following. 8. 4. Thus. third. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. If the statements above are true. Q. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. a special visa is required. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. P. and fifth symbols.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. The combination C. such as beef and poultry. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. Z. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. X (D) 3. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. D (B) A. S 4. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. . 9. T (C) 9. 6. if true. H. G (E) M. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. respectively? (A) J. 6.
low. and one produces a high-pitched ring. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. high. Last the service sector. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. one cannot argue that Which of the following. low. . medium. medium. low. medium. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. low. high.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. high. 500. for the sequence. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. 8. medium. low. low (D) medium. medium. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. medium. 7. high. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. medium. medium. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. low. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. He decides that. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. low. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. Over the has greatly expanded. In the our economy is wilting. medium. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. high 9. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. low. high. medium (E) low. low. high. high. medium (B) low. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. medium (C) medium. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. one produces a medium-pitched ring. if true. of pessimistic forecasts. high. low. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. high. low. low.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
(D) Not all students responded to the survey. (E) Work time. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. however. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. cost. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. 24. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. Which of the following. . (D) Work time. (C) Fifteen years ago. if true. According to a recent school survey. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. never engage in this aggressive play. cost. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity.
In Option 1 you can‟t use F . The number is 3rd. In Option 2. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. So F can‟t begin and E. 4=========FIN A2= First. In Option 2. there can‟t be an F or a G . (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. and B doesn‟t. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. the 5th must be B or D. so it‟s correct. (E). and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. so (A) won‟t work. That leaves (A). (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. a Rule 2 no-no. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. violating Rule 5. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. B or D only. the number is 3rd. and the sequence begins with C . and (E). You end with B or D and this ends with F. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. Only (A) gives you that option. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. B is 1st. is correct. so all letters must appear later than E. the number is 2nd. replace the F with a D. Skim to (D). That leaves correct choice (D). 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. the 5th symbol must be B or D. E. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. . so write under the 5th space in Option 2. If you start with F. (A) begins with E. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. 3)In Option 2. You‟ve used B first. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. F. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. Only one letter comes after Y . you begin with a letter later than B or D. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them.
growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. (E)Isn‟t inferable. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. as (B) says. We talked about that in (A). (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. So (D) is correct. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. economy continues to grow and prosper. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. As for the others. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. Focuses on cost. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. So (D) is correct. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. a special visa is required. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. If the population increase is slower than projected. the sequence ends with a D. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. so (C) won‟t work. . in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. you need a special visa. not that it‟s prospering more than ever.S. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. As evidence. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. (E) replaces the C with an A. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy.which works with the rules for Option 2. if you do so. the author cites the expansion of the service sector.
(A) has high. (E). a medium 4th. 5th. and 5. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. it could still be the most important factor overall. either would be okay. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. (C) puts a high 3rd. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. The beginning looks like this—low. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. a high. one low third. and a medium 5th. medium. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . and the high bell 2 times. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. and mediums 4th and 6th. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. medium. medium. so (D)‟s correct. the medium bell 3 times. and 8 rings. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. low in 3. You ring the low bell 3 times. and 7th. and a low. 4. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. yes. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. so dump (D) and (E). and one after. 3rd. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. and split up the lows 1st. (B) medium is 2nd. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. Now we have to split up the lows. then fill the space between with a medium. (C). high. leaving us with (B). (A) puts the high bell 1st. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. and low. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. in 3. the other high 2nd. high. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. That works if we put a low 1st. and 5th. We‟ll have to put two before this set.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 5th. high bell is 4th. and 5. yes. yes. low. and 7th. a medium. 4th. low is 1st. medium. the correct answer. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. (D). (D) has a high 3rd. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. next to the high in 3. so (E)‟s correct. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. (A). 4. and it‟s correct. 4. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. So we‟ll put one low first. yes. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. (B) has low. (E) puts the high 8th. 3)The two high bells will stick together. low is 3rd. the other high 2nd. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell.
a low 5th. Caracas. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. so this is acceptable. How about (E). to Fresno but you don‟t have to. Fresno. to Edinburgh. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. (C) is fine. we‟ve discussed this— yes. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. medium 6th. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. Beijing. 15=========FIN A2= . (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. which makes (B) correct. Edinburgh. in both cases they go next to Caracas. Edinburgh. you could send it to Dakar. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. 7 and 8. the dead end. start at the home office. That‟s acceptable. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. 2 types of memos. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. Caracas. and no way to do that. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. (E). and 5. send the memo to Beijing. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. All the others work. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. (E) has high. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. You know that‟s okay from 9. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. Fresno. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. so (C) is correct. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. 4. and medium in 3. Caracas. Having done 9 and 10. In priority 2.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. 4 and 5. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. (D) is fine. Beijing. low 7th. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. low. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. You have 6 cities. Fresno. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. 1 and 2. medium 8th. describes a route it could not have followed. Dakar. Edinburgh.
and in Option 2. then Edinburgh. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. After Dakar. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. (B). we work with Option 1. write next to shelf 3 no J. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. you‟d break Rule 3. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. (A). 1)In Option 1. a dead end. That works in priority 1. the dead end. G. go to Caracas. You have two options. F must be immediately above L . and L. and H on shelf 2. Caracas. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. the only place it can go is Fresno. Beijing. and Beijing. (D). 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. where was it sent? Priority 2. and then Beijing. and (A) is correct. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. to Caracas. (C). where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. could have seen the memo. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. so it went to Beijing. Only Beijing and Fresno. go to Dakar. that‟s three. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. Option 2. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. As far as priority 2. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. Dakar. a dead end. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. write next to shelf 2 no J. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. go to Beijing. (D) is correct. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. Option 1. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. and the answer is (C). top to bottom. Caracas. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. so (B) won‟t do it. so it won‟t work. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. you can start in the home office. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. the only place it can go is to Caracas. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. What . Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno.
You can put H on shelf three. So (B)‟s correct. L. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. then J is on shelf two. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. let‟s look at the situation. we‟ve already said we can. K. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. we just did with (A).must be true? Look at (B). If we split them up. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. so (A)‟s correct. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. then the only place is shelf 1. (E). so you will work with Option 1. so (C) is correct. (D). so the only home for K is 3. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. as long as they‟re on 3. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. (A). In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. K. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. J is on shelf two. so shelf 1 has F. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. so (D)‟s correct. so J is on shelf 2. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. and H on 2 and that left us with L. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. J and K are tennis trophies. and in Option 2. (B) puts K and L on the same . and 1 remains empty. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. where shelf three is open. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. and G on 3. (B). because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. We put F. L. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. so it‟s on shelf 2. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. L is on shelf 2. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. and shelf 1 is empty. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. K and J must be on the same shelf. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. J. so the only place for K is shelf 3. In Option 1. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. shelf 1 is empty. K. and H is a floater. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. If H is on shelf three. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. if shelf 3 is empty.
(B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. If most students attend services for social reasons. that‟s true in Option 1 only.shelf. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. but that‟s true only in Option 2. cost. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. not because it is better than staining. (C) does the trick.. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. but J is never on shelf three. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. (D) has F and shelf. shelf two. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. cost. Unless there are other differences. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. not the past 15 years. . (E) has J on shelf two. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. and longevity are equally important factors. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. We get the former in (A). (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. so (E)‟s our answer.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.