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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Zeller treats noses. Suppose that Dr. 14. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. York treats noses. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Xiao treats throats. (E) Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. Xiao treats ears. Xiao treats ears. Dr. York treats noses. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. 17. Xiao treats throats. Dr. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. York treats exactly one part of the body. then he or she must also treat throats. (C) Dr. In that case. If Dr. If Dr. Zeller treats throats. Dr. Dr. 13. he or she must also treat throats. the . then Dr. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. York does not treat noses. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. Dr. Zeller does not treat ears. Which of the following must be true? Dr. York does not treat throats. If Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Dr. Xiao treats ears. Zeller treats throats. York treats. If Dr. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. noses. York treats ears. Xiao does not treat ears. If a doctor treats ears. York treats throats. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. Dr. Dr. and throats 15. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. Zeller treats ears. Dr. York treats noses. Dr. Dr. York does not treat noses. four on top and four on bottom. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. which of the following must be true? Dr. then he or she must also treat ears.doctors. York must treat ears. Dr. Zeller does not treat ears. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears.
pears. pears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. 22. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. oranges. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. pears. grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. grapefruit. grapefruit. or pears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. apples. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. they contain different types of fruit. oranges. 18. Compartment 1 contains apples. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. grapefruit. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . None of the compartments on top contains oranges. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples.
(D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. Governor Kipling. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. . (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. Gilliatt can create any mood. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain.23. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. not the intent of his tax hike. By raising corporate taxes. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. 25. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. which they could read in the Official Journal. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. 24. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. however. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. What they don‟t realize. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie.
Finally. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. breaking Rule 2. If light 2 and light 5 are On. (B). so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). and 6) that are each either On or Off. Note that in the sketch. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. and (C) are false. but don‟t need to be true. starting with the most concrete. be true. Now incorporate the rules. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). For this acceptability question. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. 4. 2. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. (E) can. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. Therefore. 2. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . 5. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. and numbering them 1 through 10. (D). As for the others: (A). You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. light 6 is Off. since light 3 is Off. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. 3. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. but need not. So the sketch looks like this: 1. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. leaving (B). (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. Thus. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. but don‟t need to be true. As with Question 2. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. but (C) has five Ons. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons.
If this were not the case. 7. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. Start with what you‟re given. 6. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. the music's message won't corrupt them. eight lights. (C). must be true. If light 6 is On. is the number that can be determined. using columns or circles to . and light 7 is Off. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. That means light 4 is On. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. and make as many concrete deductions as possible.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. Questions 8-12 In this game. totaling four On lights. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. If light 8 is Off. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. and as we figured out. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. light 3 is Off. 4. (E). (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. (E)Beyond the scope. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. light 4 is On. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). the argument predicts ruin. in either order. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. Create a master sketch. 5. (B)Beyond the scope. As always. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). light 5 is also Off. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. it's the effects we're concerned with. Therefore. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. Otherwise.
but don‟t need to be true. O can‟t serve with M. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). Questions 13-17 In this game. and N all serve together. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. Start with what you‟re given. You‟re given that L serves with M. In the setup. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. N). Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. 9. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. 10. N must serve on Rules. K must serve Committee. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. Create a master sketch. (B). and (E) are false. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. M. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). then P must serve with M and N. and N must serve with M. Y. with three columns to represent the body parts. (C). and make as many concrete deductions as possible. six committee members can be determined. That makes three members on one committee. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. L. 12. L. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. Since J is always on Housing.represent the two committees. and P to serve on Housing. Abbreviate the members‟ names. M. P can serve on either committee. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. N. M. so (D). O can‟t serve with M. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. so (A) can be eliminated. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. Nose. so K. M. eliminating (D) and (E). K. can. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. 11. Your sketch should look something like this : 8. (C). starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. using their first initials (J. That leaves J. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. eliminating (B). Therefore. then N does too. and three horizontal rows . (A). O. so put a J under Housing. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). and Throat. As for the others: (B). If M serves on Housing. If O can‟t serve with P. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. L. be true. O. or (C). but need not. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. Each committee must have at least three members. or (A). and one member (J) is already on Housing. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. three doctors (shorthanded X.
In other words. that doctor must also treat throats. Look at what you have. (B) is true. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. If X treats ears. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. ears and throats only. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. if Y treats it. must be false. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). 16. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. but need not. X can. then X must also treat throats. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. grapefruit (G). but need not. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. X must treat at least throats. 14. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. 15. Both Y and Z must treat noses. However. If Y treats ears. and then add your knowledge of the rules. Since X can‟t treat noses. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. according to Rule 2. then Y must also treat throats. be true. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. choices that can be false can be eliminated. (A). then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). Go through the choices. if X treats throats. Rule 1 states that ears. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. So (B) must be true. be false. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. noses. Z also treats. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. Therefore. (D). Y must treat noses. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. but need not. because of Rule 3. (D). 13. Yet. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . and (E) can. one by one. one for each doctor. 17. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. (D). However. so put “no” in the appropriate column. Start with what you‟re given. Each compartment contains apples (A). so does Z. then try to make some deductions. treat ears. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. (C).underneath. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. (C) is correct. (A) can. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. oranges (O). then Y can‟t treat ears. numbered 1-8.
so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. Thus. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. 3. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . From that and Rules 5 and 6. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. From that and Rules 5 and 6. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. So put an A in Compartment 1. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. and one choice violates none of them. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. four choices violate one or more rules. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). so (B) is correct. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. 21. However. Check each choice in turn. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. Since the question asks which could be true. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). according to Rule 5. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. Therefore. which contains grapefruit. For this acceptability question. so there are no more than four pears. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears.Incorporate the rules. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). so if Compartment 4 contains pears. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. Place a G in Compartment 8. and 4). From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. As in Question 20. 19. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true.e. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. 20. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. This leaves (C). Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. eliminating (D) and (E). the four incorrect choices must be false. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. (C). Compare each rule to the choices. (A) is correct. which contains apples. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). as well. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side.
and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). is the maximum number. . (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. Compartment 1 contains apples. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. a total of four. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. but the question of his intent versus his actions. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. As for the top. 25. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). 6 and 7. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. but on what actually happened. The adjacent compartments. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. 22. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. which is that unemployment increased. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. not to supernatural subject matter. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. rather than how they are described. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. Therefore. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. thus increasing unemployment. merely her effective technique. but makes no connection to problems in humans. since the jobs program was never implemented. must be true. 3. (B) and (C) are false. 3. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. If. for instance. Only (A). If only one compartment contains apples. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. (D). 24. 23. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. can‟t contain grapefruit. (B)We don't know this. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. 5. So Compartments 2. Compartments 2. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2).
v. After 1981. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. y. u. x.org . Sector u was constructed in 1981. positioned in that order from west to east.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. 1. w. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. and z. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. t.
(E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. 1983. 1984 (B) 1982. If Sector s was built in 1985. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1985 (E) 1983. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1985 (C) 1983. 2. 1983 (D) 1982. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1986 6. 1985 5. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 1984. 1984 (E) 1982. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 1983. 1984 (D) 1983.
would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. 9. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. only five had presented any serious complications. if true. harmful pollutants. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. 8. The Commissioner of Public Works. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. In a recent test. Which of the following.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily.
called the Beltway. Red. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. Yellow Toll. Madrid Highway. which extends south from the city center. and Yellow Tolls. motorists pass two radial highways. The radial highways are: London Highway. Madrid Highway. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. due southeast. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . Vienna Highway. Red Toll. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. but no other tollbooths. which extends due north from the city center. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. which runs due northeast from the city center. due east. 10. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. and Paris Highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. which extends due west from the city center. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. Paris Highway. London Highway. and due southwest of the city center. Blue.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. Vienna Highway 13. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond.
Oliver. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Mike. Laura. Mike. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Kathy 15. Laura. Pedro. Jim. Jim. Oliver. Oliver. but taller than Jim. Kathy. Nick. Kathy. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Laura. Jim. Quentin (B) Jim. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Quentin (C) Kathy. Quentin (E) Pedro. Nick. Nick. and Quentin—are measured for height. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. Laura. Kathy. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Laura. Quentin (D) Oliver. Oliver is taller than Pedro. 14. Laura. Mike. Nick. Pedro. Pedro. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Pedro. Mike. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Quentin. Pedro. Oliver. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Mike. Kathy. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Nick. Jim is taller than Kathy. Oliver. Nick. Mike.
No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 3. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. and 4 (E) movies 2. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. There are no abstentions. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. If R votes “no” on all five movies. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. U votes “yes” on movie 4. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. S. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. T. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 3. and 5 (D) movies 2. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. 21. and 3. and 5 . 4. 3. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. and 5. 19.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. and U. S votes “no” on movie 2. The five judges on the committee are Q. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. R. 2. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1.
with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. Freda Tully. control panels or electric counters. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. or to fingers and wrists. there was no competent leadership in the firm. and sales are better than ever. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. When workers were primarily employed by industry. which are forever twisting above. productivity has nearly doubled. Today. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. Profits are on the rise. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. 24. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. Which of the following. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. . Coach Parker. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began.23. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. 25. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. McGovern‟s new executive director. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. if true. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years.
Create a master sketch. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. . and sector u is constructed in 1981. v. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. In order for sector w to be constructed. However. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. 1. (D) Compared to their ancestors. w. Therefore. sector v must be constructed before sector w. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. Write 1981 in u‟s space. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. t. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. so (C) and (D) are out. sector w must be constructed before sector x. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. For this question. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. 2. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. x. (C). That leaves three choices. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. and (D). Therefore. u. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. sector v can be constructed in 1982. y. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. As we‟ve just seen. so (C). (B). though it used to be the other way around. Since the question asks which could be true. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. the four incorrect choices must be false. Sector x is constructed in 1984. eight sectors of a tunnel (s.
A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. First. As we saw in the previous question. and (D). but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. Sector z can be constructed last. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. vitamin C. sector v must be constructed by 1984. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. 7. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. That sounds too simple to be the solution. So (A) is correct. 1984. sector y must be constructed after 1986. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. respectively. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. sector w in 1983 or 1984. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. in 1988. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. v. . If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. You need to determine two dates here. y. (B). any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). sector w must be constructed before sector x. 6. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. If sector t is constructed in 1982. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. In fact. and 1984. and sector z in 1988. Under this question‟s conditions. w. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. sector y in 1987. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. and so isn't parallel. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. sector x in 1986. Likewise. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. Now. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. 5. So. causes kidney stones. and z) because of Rule 2. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. t. (D) is correct. (C). You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. Using the reverse thinking. Otherwise. That eliminates (A) and (B). 1983. which are choices (A). but when you look at the choices. 1983. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. Therefore (D)—1982. and z. However.3. If sector v is constructed in 1982. if sector t is constructed in 1982. 4. Therefore. y.
Looking at the sketch. due east. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. If. L extends due north. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). but noexamples are provided. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. however. V extends due south. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. The four highways extend from the city outward. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. Vienna (V). in either order. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. M extends due west. P extends due northeast. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. in . (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. Red (R). you‟ll pass two radial highways. Green (G).(E)A general claim is made. and Paris (P). 9. 8. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. There are four tollbooths. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. That means. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. Blue (B). but no other tollbooths. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. For the sketch. due southeast. not their danger. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. Madrid (M). past the Beltway. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. and due southwest of the city.
top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. between the Madrid and the Vienna. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. place eight students in height order. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. or the Southeast tollbooth. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. K. 12. and check each choice in turn. eliminating rule violators. 13. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. the Paris. the Madrid. in either order. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. you‟ll pass two radial highways. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. N. Create a master sketch. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. As we deduced in Question 11.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. (A). Use your sketch. . and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. For the sketch. so (E) is wrong. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. M. Therefore. from tallest to shortest. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. Q). making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. but no other tollbooths. Use the deductions from Question 11. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. Blue. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. namely the Green. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. Red. and among the choices. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. O. and isn‟t a must. (C). The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). or (E). making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. and Yellow Tolls. If it‟s merely possible. Check each choice in turn. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. L. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. 11. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. P. since their locations are described in the question. Looking at the sketch. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J.
That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. we know that Mike. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. in that order. Laura is third highest of the eight students. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. and who must be shorter. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. and then. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. Oliver. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. Laura is third. Jim. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. Rule 5 says Laura is third. and note that there are only two students above her.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. and since Laura is third. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. Quentin.Look at the rules. we can definitely determine who is fourth. Combine this with Rule 2. There‟s only one possible order here. Kathy. 15. but taller than Jim. Nick. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. This eliminates (B) and (E). Mike. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. or Quentin can be first. Nick. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. So. you can figure out the possibilities. So place the L on your piece of paper. leaving (B). four choices violate one or more rules. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. Since Laura is third. 17. and one choice violates none of them. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. and Pedro. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Adding Rules 2 and 4. Combining our deductions. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. For this question. For this acceptability question. only Jim. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. 16. Also. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. and two available spots for students taller than her. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. Since there are only three available spots below . with the remaining students. eliminating (C) and (D). 18. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. So Quentin is taller than Jim. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. or (A). so (A) is out. Compare each choice to the rules.. 14. or (B).
or shorter than Laura (with Mike. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. figure out who must vote yes. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. That leaves four judges. S. must be taller than Laura. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. Laura must be taller than Kathy. so neither choice needs to be true. both must vote yes. and 3. R. 2. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. Note that in your sketch. and (C) can be eliminated. Any of five movies (1. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. “exactly. 3. and Pedro. using an N. That thinking is reflected in (D). T. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. Since S and T vote the same. 4. T votes yes on movie 5. As we have just proved. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4.Laura. Neither R nor U must vote yes. Scan the choices and stop at (D).” that is. one for each of the three movies. as long as one . 2. it means a yes vote from T as well. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. Quentin. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. so (D) too can be eliminated. being taller than at least three other students. The third yes comes from either R or U. at least three of whom must vote yes. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. Create a master sketch. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. and who must vote no. Nick. Since the question asks which choice must be true. so T also votes no on movie 2. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). and (E) are false. according to Rule 3. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. although both can vote yes. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. 20. this must be true. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. If both vote no. and U) to appear in a film festival. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. (B). Since Q votes yes on movies 1. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total.” At least three yes votes are needed. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. 2. so (A). Kathy. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. U votes yes on movie 4. and 3. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. (C). Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. Questions 19-22 In this game.
Choose one of the two movies. there are three yes votes. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. and 5. 3. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. one no vote. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. and determine whether or not U votes no. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. We‟re left with (D) and (E). and then T votes no. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. Look for the other judges that vote no. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. That leaves (E) to be correct. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. and three unknown votes. If U does vote no. on movie 2. 23. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. so (B) and (E) can. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. S votes no. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. S and T vote together. and thus have your answer. so T must vote no on movie 2. If. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. . he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. That deduction eliminates only (A). As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. (B) is the answer. So you need at least one more no vote. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. 22. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . So movie 2 has two no votes. R votes no. so (C) is eliminated. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. be true. To conclude this. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. Looking at the remaining choices. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival.of them does. 21. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. then the other choice is correct. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. but needn‟t. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined.
(E)Strengthens. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . Most people used to work in industry.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. so this strengthens the argument. To weaken this contention. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. (D)Misreads the argument. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. (D)Strengthens. because most people now work in the service sector. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. 24. which discusses injuries. no matter what the practice time. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. she must therefore have provided this leadership. like lifting. 25. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious.
and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. Light 5 is green. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. is yellow. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . the board is green. same row are the same color. same column are the same color. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. is red.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. is green. 1. 2. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. the following colors: blue. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. green. red. or yellow. is green.
If light 6 is yellow. If all beaches were publicly owned. if true. In companies with only one secretary. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. . but at all times. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. and yellow 5. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. green. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. 8. Therefore. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. Which of the following. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6.
secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. in that order. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. X. There are. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Y. and Z. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. which are numbered 1 through 4. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. however. Every day. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. however. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. (D) On average. but for no more than two consecutive days. 9. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. 10. but for no more than three consecutive days. slower copiers. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. . FORMerly. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4.
which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. The four children are Pip. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. Sal. 12. After each ride. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. 4. 13. and 5. Quint. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. and Sal. one child per car. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. for the first ride. Rob. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. . 14. Z is listed third. Z is listed second. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. W is listed third. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. one car remaining empty. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. If Rob. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. X is listed third. and Quint are seated in cars 1. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. 2. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. respectively. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. Car 5 is never empty. Pip. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days.
17. Betty cooks on Tuesday. (D) Car 3 is empty. If Horace cooks on Friday. If Rob. Betty cooks on Wednesday. and Quint are seated in cars 1. for the first ride. respectively. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . and Horace. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. Each day in the Ring home. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. 15. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Quint is seated in car 4. Pip is seated in car 4. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. Pip. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. (E) Car 4 is empty. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. 16. Jim. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. and 5. Sal. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. 4. Rob is seated in car 4. 3. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. exactly one of the three family members cooks. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days.
Like modern magazines. Friday (E) Sunday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. they related stories of important events. Thursday (C) Sunday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. Horace cooks on Wednesday. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Monday. if true. 24. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. Thursday. Horace cooks on Monday. Friday (D) Monday. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Which of the following. . depicted prominent citizens in the community. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. I know this for a fact. Friday 23. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. Tuesday. Horace Jim. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. Tuesday. Thursday. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. Tuesday. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. Jim cooks on Monday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt.
========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. four choices violate one or more rules. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. Average and below average students. Therefore. light 3 is yellow. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. per week. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. (B). lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. and light 1 is red. however. 7 to 9. 1. 4 to 6.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. in the middle. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. Therefore. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. 7) can be the same color. 4. numbered on the top. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. according to the rules provided. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. You must place the lights. which can be blue. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion.e. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). than they did in 1988. Based on those two deductions. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. For this acceptability question. 3) can be the same color. lights 2. red.e. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. can be true. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. 3. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. 1 to 3. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. 2. There are three rows of three lights each. 1. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. 4. starting with the most concrete. and one choice violates none of them. or yellow. and on the bottom. . Rule 5 says light 5 is green. Put a G in light 5‟s space. 25. and light 1 is red. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. green. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988.
That leaves lights 1. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). eliminating (A) and (B). leaving six lights that aren‟t red. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. 5. 7. If light 6 is yellow. or (C). lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. So lights 2. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color.2. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). 8. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. if the government already maintains all beaches. That eliminates (B) and (E). 4. light 7 must be yellow. (D). since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). or yellow. 3. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. leaving 6. so (E) can be eliminated. There‟s only one green light. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. and (E). both private and public. can be any color except green. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. Also. Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. blue. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. Light 5 is green. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. or (C). so there can be a maximum of three red. 7. or (C). and light 5 is green. 5. There‟s only one green light. You know that light 1 is red. and 9. 7 and 8. That‟s only two blue lights. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). Light 1 is red. so (D) is correct. and eliminate them as choices. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. but lights 2. light 8 must be red. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. three of another and two of a third color. light 7 can‟t be red or green. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. . 3. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. However. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. (C). and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. 6. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. That eliminates (A). That leaves lights 2. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. To answer this question. 3. and light 9 must be yellow. light 6 can be red. light 7 must be blue. 2. Because light 1 is red. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. (B). 4. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. leaving eight lights to be red. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. Light 6. according to Rule 3. As we saw in Question 2. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. if light 6 is yellow. 4. and 8. then light 4 can be yellow. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2.
(D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. From all that inFORMation about W. Four guards. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. 3. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). and Z. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. not single deficiencies. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. Y. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. Therefore. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. (C)Too specific. Rule 4 says Z . not of all the B vitamins. Therefore. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. and 4.they were made public than if they remained private. cause beriberi and pellagra. (C)As long as the machine is faster. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. 9. W. based on the rules provided. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. This is the key rule to this game. 2. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. and thus save money. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. 8. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. X. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. numbered 1.
(A). Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. but need not be true. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. so one car is always empty. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). so (E) must be correct. (A) and (D) can be true. There is one child per car. Compare each rule to the choices. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. For your master sketch. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. Looking at the choices. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. Y. and one choice violates none of them. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. Before looking at the answer choices. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. W was assigned to gallery 1. guard can remain in the same gallery. leaving (C). If W changes assignments. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. when W remains in the same gallery. and only one. or are false outright. you can simply use five dashes. 10. 11. W. However. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. 13. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . when the next day is assigned. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. Therefore. W is listed first. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. X. For Wednesday‟s roster. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. so for Thursday‟s roster. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. or in gallery 3 on both days. Z must move. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Questions 14-16 In this game. Since this question asks which must be true. must be true. numbered 1 to 5.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. 12. Here. According to Rule 5. In lieu of a master sketch. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. so (B) must be true. The rules all have to do with the empty car. four choices violate one or more rules. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. That eliminates (B) and (C).
Sal. from Sunday to Saturday. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. For this acceptability question. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. and 5. Pip is seated in Car 1. __ . Furthermore. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. J. Car 2 is empty. Start with what you are given: Rob. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. H must cook after . 14. or (A). The order of the first ride: Rob. So. therefore. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Then. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. __ . 4. as (D) correctly says. Sal. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. Rule 4 is always in effect. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. if Car 3 is empty. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. and one choice violates none of them. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. for the third ride. Compare each choice to the rules. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. Questions 17-22 In this game. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. Stated more positively. so (C) can be eliminated. Pip. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. Remember. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. H) take turns cooking each day.empty. (E) must be correct. four choices violate one or more rules. __ . you‟ll know all that must be true. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). respectively. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. Therefore. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). according to Rule 1. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. The third ride. Quint. and Quint are in Cars 1. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. Pip. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. Now Car 3 is empty. Rob. for the first ride. 2. three family members (abbreviated B. If. for a week. 16. Incorporate the rules. Sal. According to Rule 1. Quint. Create a master sketch. Pip. That means. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. following Rule 1: Pip. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. Sal. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). Quint. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. 15. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days.
So Tuesday. and Friday can be definitely determined. either one can cook. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. Horace. Horace needs to cook two more times. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). In order to be consecutive. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. must cook before Tuesday. 20. Wednesday. . Wednesday. four days. but need not. Now. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. 18. be true. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. Since Horace must cook three days. so (C) must be true.Tuesday. 22. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Monday. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. (D) must be true. and then B must cook on Sunday. As we deduced in the game overview. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Therefore. However. Therefore. Wednesday. so (E) is wrong. Wed. That‟s (C). through Sat. 21. and Friday. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. Thursday. be true. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. but not both. (E). (D) remains. then Horace must cook on Thursday. The only false choice is (E). and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). Since Horace must cook three days. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). Sunday. and Saturday can be definitely determined. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. and either Sunday or Monday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Saturday. Tuesday. Thursday. If Horace cooks on Friday. There are three available days. 19. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. so (A) and (B) can. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). Only (C). the four incorrect choices can be true. That takes care of Betty for the week. So. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. 23. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. Jim cooks on Wednesday. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. Thursday. That leaves (C). If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. (B). and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. but need not. So. (A). deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. Betty cooks on Tuesday. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. That eliminates (A) and (B). and (C) can. Horace must cook on Wednesday. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday.
with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). 25. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. without giving any examples. the author compares them to modern magazines. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . Therefore. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. time spent by students overall increased. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. 24. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style.
all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. 4. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. Three of the people—K. S. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. 1. K is seated two places to Q‟s left.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. 3. and T—are playwrights.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. the other four—Q. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. R is seated on the immediate right of S. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. who is seated on the immediate right of T. which of the following must also be true? . (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. joins the others at the table. If the statements above are true. 2. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. R. L. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. and M—are theater critics.000. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. a playwright. P. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right.
(E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. K. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. more established companies. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. 5.000. and where interpersonal contact is common. H.000 in the year before the war. Pending further study. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. I. In households including more than one person. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure.000 is not especially high.000. G.000 than for amounts less than $40. J. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. certain patients will infect other patients. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. (B) An annual profit of $10. If put in the same room. and L. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. 6. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.
or Disease G. and one with Disease J. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. and one with Disease G. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. two jazz programs. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. one with Disease F. and a male with Disease K. or Disease F. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. which programs are the news programs for that day? . and two educational programs. one with Disease J. A room is occupied by three people. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. 7. a male with Disease K. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. one with Disease I. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. 10.G. and a person with Disease J. one with Disease F.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. M. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. and sixth third. fifth. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. third. second. fourth. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. if N gets off at the third stop. second. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. third. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. 13. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. and ninth fourth. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. P. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. 14. and ninth first. eighth. sixth. sixth. N must get off before M. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. N. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. . and if L gets off at the fifth stop. eighth. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. O. eighth. The seventh program is a news program. fifth. fifth. R must get off before Q. Q. and ninth second. sixth. who must get off before O. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. The eighth program cannot be a news program. The first program is an educational program. eighth.
If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. X. 15. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. Y. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. (C) L and P get off together. and if P must get off alone. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. If X is perishable. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. if M gets off at the third stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. (E) R gets off at the second stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. 18. If R gets off at the fourth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop. W. The second car must always contain U. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. (E) Q gets off after M. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. 17. (D) N gets off at the first stop. which of the following MUST be true? . 16. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. and if N gets off after Q. V. and Z— every day. (D) L gets off at the second stop. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. 19. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops.
fifth car contains V. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. (B) The sixth car contains X. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. 21. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. (D) The sixth car contains W. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. and if Y and Z are perishable. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. sixth car contains Z. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. (C) The fifth car contains V. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. If Y and Z are perishable. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. . If W and V are perishable. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. (E) The third car contains Y. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. 20. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. 22. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. car containing X precedes the car containing Z.
Because of this finding. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. L. but rather from some property of the color itself. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. 24. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. That implies the opposite: A . because of its brightness and intensity. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. M) and four playwrights (Q. 25. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Studies have shown that. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. R. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. if true. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. S. Which of the following.
(E) describes the same chair as (D). To make this connection. If S is two places to Q‟s right. That seats all the playwrights. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. then S is in Seat 3. 4.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. T is in Seat 3. R. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. so (C) can be true. . S. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. only from Q‟s left. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. As we saw in Question 1. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. then S is in Seat 4. eliminating (A). (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. 3. meaning they are 4 places apart. so (A). (C). and (E). (C). From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. 5. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. who is immediately right of T. since both are playwrights. and R is in Seat 5. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S.000. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. a playwright. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. or in Seat 5. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. if S is three places to Q‟s right. and R is in Seat 4. a critic. K is in Seat 9. and (E) all can be true. 7. a playwright. S. or in Seat 6: R. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. or 8. 6. For our sketch. in either order. so (D) is impossible. can‟t sit immediately next to L. A single. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. 2. P. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. (B). place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50.000 won't be considered. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). L and M can be in Seats 6. in any order. so (B) is out.000. and T is in Seat 3. so (B) need not be true. so eliminate (A). T is in Seat 2. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. Using the sketch in the game overview. so (E) is also false. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right.
logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. I. L F. I. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. (B). This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. one by one. If this is the case. not in one particular phrase. If (C). Questions 7-9 In this game. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. G. so (A) is out. Specifically. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. You are told that one room contains patients with H. male K. Rule 3 says L infects K. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). G. K and G switch. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. Another room contains patients with I. K. then K infects F. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. (D). If H is added to the same room. 7. then L infects F (Rule 3). eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. I and G switch. If put in the same room. Switch J and G. J. If (A). one by one. enters a room with H. it's the change over the course of the war that is. 6. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. H. 9. K infects F (Rule 2). If (A). not established ones. more . H and I together infect F (Rule 4). F. If K is added. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. If L is added to the room with F. a patient with Disease L. it's possible that these people are related to each other. H + I F. 8. L). but shorthanding the rules might help. The study isn't clear on this point. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. L G. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. and G. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument.(B)The annual profit isn't important. then male K infects G. so (A) is wrong. or F: L K. and a male with K. and J. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. So jot down H L. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). (C)Too broad. eliminating (B). (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. K G. and J. and J. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. Switch H and J. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies.
(A) and (E) can be true. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). Abbreviate the programs as N for news. J for jazz. fourth. and since only one must be true. and ninth. As for the others. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. sixth. 11. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. scan the choices. Among the choices. One educational program is seventh. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. From here. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. There are five news programs. one program per slot. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. So (A) is correct. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. is correct. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. and you know that one educational program is seventh. So (C) is correct. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. two jazz programs. so place an E in slot 7. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). (B) and (C) are patently false. and third. and one educational program to place. The four remaining programs. and there are five news programs total. Stated positively. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. fifth. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. You‟re left with one educational program. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. If the first five programs are all news programs. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. eighth. in whatever order. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. 12. second. Start with what you know. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. two jazz programs. (D): only one-K infects F. three news and one educational. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. arrange nine radio programs (five news. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. (C). (C): only one-K infects G. must be first through fourth in whatever order. and E for educational. . two jazz. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. but needn‟t be. (E).than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. both stated and easily deduced. and two educational) into order. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson.
then Q gets off fifth. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. and P remain. That makes four. (A). N. N. If R gets off fourth. (C). then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). N. N. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. N. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). If M gets off third. 16. Since no one gets off eighth. J. so (D). R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. seven members of a family (L. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. so M must be seventh. J. R must get off either first or second. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. J. Incorporate the rules. O. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). E. and ninth. N. M. J. N. N. N. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). Your sketch might look something like this: 14. J. E. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. so (E) is the answer. Under this question‟s conditions. Looking at the master sketch. and P must get off sixth. but need not be true. O. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. N. eliminating (D). But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. so they get off at 7 and 9. N. Only L. and (E) can be true. Q. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). N. seventh. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . M gets off before O (Rule 5). you‟d see that (E) can be true. who gets off before O. however. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. Since no one gets off eighth. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. and (D) must be true. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. N. E or N. N. but needn‟t be. J. M. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). (C). but for every other stop only one member can get off. N.13. but E can also be first: E. (B). E or N. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. or news-jazz-news. Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. J. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. Therefore (A). 15. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. and one of the educational programs is seventh. N. with O and P getting off together ninth. Questions 14-18 For this game. J. P. N. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. N. E. That‟s three. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). (B). In order to satisfy Rule 4. and N gets off after Q. E. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. E. must be true: No one can get off sixth. O.
and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. namely first. in either order. but need not be true. Create a master sketch. 17. third. but none are definite. then R can only get off at 1 or 2.Y. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. one product per car. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). However. (B). X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct.. (A) can‟t be true. 6-X. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. L must get off at the ninth stop. 20. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. W. or 3. (A). This might get you thinking. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. In other words. leaving only O and L. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1).. 2. V .X. (C). 18. 3-X. L and P must get off together. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. Incorporate the rules. Since U is in Car 2. so O must get off ninth and (A). and (E) can‟t be true. and (E) can be true. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car.before O (Rule 5). then Q gets off fifth. P can‟t get off ninth. 5-Q. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. Y can‟t immediately follow W. Therefore. If O gets off seventh. (B). If R gets off fourth. X . Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. (B). X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). 7-N. (C). With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. and look for one of them as an answer choice. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. 8-M. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. at the ninth stop. and (E) are all possible. 2-L. 4-R. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. and then add what you know. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. shorthand it U. (C). (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. If Y and Z are perishable. V must precede W. If X is perishable. 9-OP. Questions 19-22 In this game. OR If Q gets off at 5. you must distribute six products (U. (C). either. but none have to be true. V. Therefore. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. and (E) are all possible. (B). neither N nor M can get off ninth. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. second. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. or sixth. So put a U in slot 2. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). then N and M must get off before seventh. then R can only get off at 1. Start with what you‟re given. (D). You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. Z) onto six boxcars.
Y. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. so (D) need not be true. 22. If. U. but (C) CANNOT be true. If W and V are perishable. There are four possibilities. is in Car 5 and Car 6. Z. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. (D). 23. U is in Car 2. not all. X. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. W is in Car 1. Z. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. If Y and Z are perishable. or W. X. a precedent may already have been set. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. along with X. in either order. or W. in either order. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . there was some reason that .must be in Car 1 and W. X. Z. and Car 5 with Car 6. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). Thus. leaving Z in Car 1. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. and (E) are possible. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. V. or W. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. (D) can be true. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. situations. Y. U. U. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. and (E) must all be true. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. in either order. (B). Therefore. Therefore. Y. Y. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. in either order. Also. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. (E)Assumes that. V. not necessarily at all times. (B) is correct. V. U is in 2. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). however. (C). Z. (B). (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. in order: W. for which choice no evidence is given. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. (A). V. U. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. 25. X. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. 21. (A). 24. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y.
Hiro. Adams. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. The .org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. Kundala. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. Carter. Best. and Lamming—and four juniors. it's the stressinducing qualities of red. (A)This is a logistical problem. it doesn't affect the rationale. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. and Delgado.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. regardless of the reason.
conflict. If Fox is chosen to attend. If Best is chosen to attend. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. Because of high demand. Hiro. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. Which of the following. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. (D) Dr. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. If Carter is chosen for the convention. Kundala. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. Carter (B) Kundala. rather than societal. . Adams. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. 1. Delgado (C) Hiro. Dr. Lamming must also be chosen. Best (D) Fox. Kundala (E) Hiro. Carter cannot be chosen. if true. Anderman‟s imprisonment. (E) Dr. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. and style. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. 5. symbolism. Lamming. Hiro. If Hiro is chosen to attend. Kundala cannot be chosen. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. Best 2.
R. Which of the following. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. 7. P (D) S. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. if true. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. R. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. P. . (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. R (E) Q.In order for this argument to be logically correct. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. S. P (C) R. Q. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. The pets will be examined one by one. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. Q. is examined second. Q. R. and each pet will be examined just once. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. Q. 6. Q. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. areas are now affected. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. P. non-urban. S (B) S. S 8. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. S must be examined before P is examined. R. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience.
11.(D) R is examined third. G D. (C) E. F. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. At least one comedian must appear on each show. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. E. C. (B) C. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (D) S must be examined first. 9. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. B. Only A. if true. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. B appears on Saturday's show. E are comedians. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. G 13. (E) P is examined fourth. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. If CANNOT (A) A. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. D. (D) A. If R is examined third. (E) C. C. Which of the following. G E. F F. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. (E) P must be examined fourth. D E.
If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. they cannot be served consecutively. The menu will consist of four entrees. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Kiev. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. Chicken Dijon. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. The eight eligible entrees are. but if both are selected. and if B appears on Saturday's show. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. from first course to fourth course. Lobster Mombasa. chosen from a group of eight. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. in ascending order of popularity. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Dijon. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Beef Enchilada. Fish Teriyaki. 17. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. Lobster Mombasa. Beef Enchilada. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. Fish Teriyaki. Beef Enchilada. and Chicken Vindaloo.(D) five (E) six 14. Pork Szechuan .
If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. powerful sunlight. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. 23. nor does it survive long when introduced there. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. Lobster Mombasa. and next to no moisture. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. Pork Szechuan 18. . Desert X is an environment with constant. Fish Teriyaki. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. it does not exist naturally in the desert.(E) Beef Enchilada. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree.
(E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. The problem. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. In the hands of a Freudian critic. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. 25. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. the literary work loses its specificity. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. 24. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. In fact. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. . Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. Desert X can support almost no plant life. (B) For one week in the fall. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. however. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality.
then no K. then no F). As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. a junior. being juniors. there must be at least two seniors. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. aren‟t required. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. Delgado). (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. then Fox can‟t be chosen. if Kundala is chosen. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. Kundala isn‟t. violating Rule 4. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. or can‟t be chosen at all. 1. then Carter isn‟t: If H. For this acceptability question. then Fox isn‟t (if K. That leaves (C). This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. L for the four seniors. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. Best. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. One is Kundala. That eliminates (A). 3. but not both. H. K. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. (C) and (E). In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Kundala. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. . In other words. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. and Kundala. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. Lamming must also be chosen. four choices violate one or more rules. Lamming must be chosen. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. d for the four juniors. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. then no c. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). You are given that Carter. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. b. is chosen. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. or (C). or (B). but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. The three available seniors are Lamming.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. Fox. you can only choose one or the other. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. and one choice violates none of them. eliminating (D). then L. c. Since the question asks who must be chosen. Hiro. Carter. and a. then no H). 2. Hiro must be chosen. As Rule 1 says. 4. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4.
There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. this has no effect. Create a master sketch of four dashes. only now more of them have been identified. nothing need have changed. place four pets (P. R. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. then C (they were able to buy tickets). Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. Q. S) in an order to be examined. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. Rule 1 states that R is second or . (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. 6. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. if A. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself.they were written after her release. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. however. 5. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. then C. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). then not A (they didn't want them). The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. if B. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. If. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. so this won't weaken the conclusion. If. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. Thus. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. however. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available.
B. P or Q. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. Q or S. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. C. 8. four choices violate one or more rules. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. if A. None of the choices include both F and D. R. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. if Q is first and R is third. 10. Since S must be seen before P. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. there are (C) three different orders possible. You are told B is on Saturday. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. D. are comedians. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. E and G are chosen with B. then F and D are . Then. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. C. Create a master sketch. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. so S can be first or second. R. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order.third. 9. the other comedians. R. leaving (B). You are given that Q is examined before R. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. must appear on Saturday. and P can be second or fourth. Therefore. P. (A). You need to have S before P. From that. Rule 2 kicks in. Q. are on Saturday. so you need three more guests for Saturday. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. S before P. We know R can be third. Q is either first or second. 11. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. 12. and one choice violates none of them. Rule 1 states that only A. but so can S. then C and E. For this acceptability question. then two of the four slots are filled. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. Therefore E. Compare each rule to the choices. F. E. If A is the only comedian on Friday. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. and E. Therefore. without violating the rules. If R is third. so S must be first and P must be fourth. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. either S or Q can be first. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. S. Questions 11-16 In this game. P. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. R must be third.
you can further deduce that C. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. F. Fish Teriyaki. In fact. Chicken Vindaloo. D. so they can be eliminated. and there‟s your exception. or E. As in Question 12. then the other two comedians are on Friday. G or E. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. Try each choice in turn. If Saturday includes C. so (C) and (E) are both possible. 13. F. You can then deduce that C and E are together. then Saturday is A. A must therefore be with D. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. (C). You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. B or E. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. 16. D. but not definite. That means F and D are both on Saturday. Chicken Kiev. D. violating Rule 3. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. G. The entrees. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. violating Rule 3. 14. E. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. and G. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. D. F and B or G. 15. then Friday is A. (Rule 2). in either order. from among F. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. B. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. F. Since each night has at least one comedian. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. B or E. C. From that you can deduce that Beef . The groups in (A). and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. must be on Friday. So either night can be C. E. If Friday is C. Questions 17-22 For this game. G must be on Saturday. In other words. D. That‟s one possible list. for two more possible lists. (B). Friday has at least one comedian. (C) is correct. Beef Enchilada. F. B. or A. so (A) is correct. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. Place B and G on either night. and F are together. E. E. B and/or G. That leaves one spot open for either B or G.together on Friday. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). That means the third comedian. E. Pork Szechuan. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. However. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. and B or G. and F. E. Although F can‟t be with D. or (C). B or G and Saturday is C. D. Chicken Dijon. and G. Therefore. and G. either one can be with E. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. D. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. Lobster Mombasa.
Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. On the overall list. Pork Szechuan. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. Beef) can‟t both be selected. Chicken Kiev. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. violating Rule 2. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third.e. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. Well. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. For this acceptability question. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. but neither can be chicken. 18. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. (E) is the exception. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. Fish Teriyaki. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. in that order. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. According to Rule 2. and Chicken Vindaloo. but can‟t be consecutive. So Chicken Dijon is first. four choices violate one or more rules. then only . In the order. one. and Pork Szechuan. so (A). This question says the first entree is based around fish. That leaves Beef Enchilada. By the way. Next. 21. Lobster Mombasa. So (D) is correct. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. and one choice violates none of them. is correct. Lobster Mombasa. That way. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Therefore. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. 17. Therefore. 20. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. Before looking at the choices. Compare each rule to the choices. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. there‟s only one fish entree. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. On the overall list. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. (A). It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. 19. in that order. so the other Chicken entrees. must be removed. Kiev and Vindaloo. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu.
therefore. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. (C)Too general. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. If there were multiple correct interpretations. Pork Szechuan must be third. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. X is a desert. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. Beef Enchilada must be second. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. 23. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. beef. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. determine all that can or must be true. 24. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. 22. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. If Lobster Mombasa is second. sunny and hot. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. . (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. it's that it's too powerful. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. 25. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. Y likes dry and sunny regions. yet it doesn't. That leaves (B). correct. so it's dry. (C) and (E) are true. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third.
or behind. K. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. K. There were no ties for any finishing position. H. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. O. F. (D) K.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H.org 2. H. K. Which of the runners? (A) F. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . L. M. (C) K. J. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. L. L finished immediately ahead of H. J. L. F. O. L. M. M. F finished ahead of both G and L. O. F. G. O. G. H. M. L. O. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. (E) O. K finished ahead of M. J. K. H. 1. M. L. and M finished ahead of J. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. (B) G. G. J. H. G.
M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. rather than mask. If F finished fourth. if filled into the above blank. 5. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. Which of the following. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. its function as a supporting structure. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. Today. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. ahead of K. first. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . ahead of G. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations.
it reached 3%. R. (B) V is not chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team. until. N and V. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. (E) The Arbican population increased.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. and N. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. If T is chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. exactly two power players will be chosen. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. If the statements above are true. (D) The Arbican population decreased. S. who are finesse players. . He can choose from among eight players—M. This percentage steadily declined. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. in 1980. P. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. and V. Q. and T. 8. doubles partners. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. (C) The Arbican population decreased. who are power players. (B) The Arbican population increased. but N is not. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. If Q is chosen for the team.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
. 25. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies.C. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. How can it exist. at around 3000 BC. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. after all. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. far earlier than was previously believed. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. which took place about 6000 years ago. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. 24.
O is exactly two spaces in front of H. H. and M finished before J. K can‟t be last. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. You can also deduce that F finished before H. or vice versa. and (C) is out. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. so L can‟t be last. From another combination of deductions. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. and one choice violates none of them. Since L must finish before H. Compare each rule to the choices. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. If F is fourth. 3. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. J. For this acceptability question. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. the only runners who can finish first are F. and see what you can deduce. so neither K nor M can finish last. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. Just to be sure. 2. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. Rule 5 says K finished before M. As we deduced in the game overview. Stated positively. Combining all of the deductions. and M can‟t be either first or last. L. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. and O. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. K. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. or vice versa. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. O. G. and K. But that‟s impossible since you know . Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. then G and L (from Rule 6). we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. So start with F in the fourth slot. and J to go first. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. second. M. and M finished before J. J. try the other possibilities for H. That leaves (E). in that order (according to Rule 5). H. and seventh or eighth. which can finish eighth. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. so F can‟t finish eighth. and neither G nor L can finish first. J and O. eliminating (A). That eliminates (B) and (D). H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. O. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. O is fourth. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. M. If H is seventh. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). That leaves (A) as possible. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. So M must be second. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. O is third. four choices violate one or more rules. and therefore correct.
So K is first. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. (C)Irrelevant. and then G is sixth. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. (B) is the answer. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. second. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. If L is fifth. So the order. (C). That leaves K. 4.that F is fourth. 7. M. Finally. If M is seventh. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. While the percentage tells us the relation . or fourth. G can‟t be first. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. To evaluate this claim." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. Therefore. To conclude this. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. (D). (D) (E)Outside the scope. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. In 1960. so (A) is correct. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. if H is eighth then O is fifth. not how clarity affects ornament. then according to Kant. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. or belligerent. G. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. Since G can‟t finish before F. not definite. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. and J to be placed. and K to be placed. From that it follows that if H is sixth. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. and (E) are possible. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. 6. as in (E). The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. So G can finish second or fourth. O is third (from Rule 4). an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. In either case. If a republic is pacific. so (B). K can finish in first. 5. so far: That leaves F. G must be next to O. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. M is second. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. and J is third. in that order. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general.
as it says in Rule 2. Beyond that. the number migrating would have to decrease. so (A) is out. so there‟s too many power players. P. then exactly two power players are chosen. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. use your drawing on a question to question basis. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. M and T are both finesse players. 9. That eliminates (E). T) and power (N. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. is chosen. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. Check each choice. and Q are all power players. a power player. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. V. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). S. However. V. while the percentage decreases. finesse (M. (A)It's possible. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. and Q are all power players. However. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). it all depends on which particular players are chosen. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. select from two groups of tennis players. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. one by one. Questions 8-11 In this game. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. R. but when T is chosen. both numbers could increase. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . Given this inFORMation. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. to play in a tournament. Keep it simple. according to Rule 5. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. You are given that Q. (E)If the number migrating is the same. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. That‟s fine. If M and P are chosen with Q. then you have two finesse players and one power player.between the two. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. V). Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). If T is chosen. Q. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. only (D) is impossible. 8. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. but the percentage migrating has fallen. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. N. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. or of Arbicans who made this migration.
P. MS. In other words. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. are acceptable combinations. 11:30 am. and N are all power players. Refer to your sketch. 10:00 am. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. combined with the four power players. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. and S to pair up. Look at each column. 11:00 am. and PS. P. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. If T is chosen. Between 10:30 and 11:00. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. Any of those pairs. then N isn‟t chosen either. Since the question asks which must be true. (D). That leaves M. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. As for the others: If N is not chosen. P. the correct choice can be deduced. so if they‟re not chosen. V.players chosen. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). and S? Three: MP. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. so S must be chosen. With M excluded. as defined by the rules. That makes three possible combinations. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). there are only three available finesse player: T. Q. T is not chosen for the team. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). Use a grid. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. 10. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). If a professor is available at a given time. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. and S. 10:30 am. How many pairs can be made from M. and 12:00 pm. If V isn‟t chosen. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. and since there are already two power players. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. so (C) is correct. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). The meetings are one-half hour in length. For this game. . 11. every professor except B is available. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. is left). searching for the one in which the most professors are available. Note this in your sketch. if exactly two power players are chosen. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). (E). a sketch is essential. eliminating (C). Therefore. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. is the answer. R. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor.
Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. Those times are at 10:30. (B). 10:00. can‟t meet. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. Some principals. For this question. (E). Dohee and Franz. Remember. Ax and Dohee are both available. N. So (B) is the answer. Ax and Bulos. So M. (A). Bulos and Dohee. 16. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. so (B). is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. the “swing” principal. Create a master sketch. one of the principals on each committee is the same. two. 11:00. using your sketch as the reference. Chow. Bulos and Franz. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. O. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. then Q serves on the same committee. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. is correct. can both meet at 10:30. and 10:30. (C). that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. Your sketch should look . making as many deductions as you can. As we saw in the previous question. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. At 9:00. Go through the rules. can both meet at 9:30. can only meet at 10:30. (C). first find all the possible times that Ax. can meet three times. However. so 11:30 to 12:00. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. at 9:30. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. (A). using columns or circles to represent the two committees. but L and Q must serve together. Egger and Franz. Dohee and Egger. (C). P. P. Remember. However. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). As for the others: Chow and Dohee. (D). (D). Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. 14. therefore M serves on Curriculum. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. the “swing” principal. (B). Chow and Franz can meet. Ax and Chow. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. check each choice in turn. M. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. 17. (D). Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. Check each choice one by one.13. Q. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. and Franz. always look for opportunities to use previous work. Looking at your sketch. 15. but at 9:30. and 11:30. or can only serve on one committee. Dohee is the only other professor available.
O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees.some thing like this: 18. That leaves (C). so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). to serve on the Ethics Committee. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. N. or (A). If Q is on the Ethics Committee. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. 22. Choices (A). meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. Otherwise. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). and then check the choices. 21. which is a violation of Rule 4. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. O. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. and which one is on one committee only. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. so neither can be on both committees. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. leaving (C). contradicting (B) and . So (A) is the answer. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. as the other pair. M. so eliminate (D) and (E). Therefore. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. 19. Q. O and P. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). and (E) each define the role of either N or O. Now. L can‟t be on both committees. to serve on both committees. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. 20. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. only N or O can serve on the same committee. Determine who must be on which committee. O. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. As we‟ve already seen. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. and L. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. (D). (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. N. leaving (D). As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. so (C) is correct. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. (B). If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. (C) and (D) are both possible. so (A) is wrong. and P. if we know which one is on both committees.
--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist.(C). If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. he merely says that it doesn't. (A)The author says that no such body exists. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. the issue is the definition of international law. not oxen. or before approximately 3000 BC. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. 25. and as it is. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago.. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. 24. 23. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. so India is beyond the scope. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. were used. (D)The issue is when horses. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. (E)The horse could have been used. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. but there's no proof that it was. so their opinion can't be applied here.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. H. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. and each band must perform once and only once. Bands F.taisha. K. L. 1. R must perform eighth. Bands P. The nine bands must perform one after the other. G. and R are country bands. L must immediately precede M in the order.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. or third. If P performs first. Q.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . H must perform sixth. K must perform either first. second. and M are rock bands.. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon.
then F performs seventh. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. performs third. performs ninth. Because of this. In light of these findings. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. For several decades. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. then Q performs fifth. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . (D) P must perform immediately before K.(D) four (E) five 4. then M performs sixth. however. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. 7. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. performs seventh. 6. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. then G performs seventh. performs ninth. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. Recently. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. Which of the following statements. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. 5. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. then P performs first. if true.
then Q must not be chosen. and O. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. not be chosen. The only available lecturers are the historians L. and vice versa. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. Q. chosen. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. and R. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. then N must then O must are chosen. In light of these disturbing revelations. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. then M must also be chosen. however. Just last week. M. N. 8.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. and the sociologists P. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. . Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. L and M chosen. also be chosen.
and Z. (E) N is not chosen. (D) If O is chosen. W. Q is not chosen. O. T. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. Q. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. Q. L. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. M. M. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. P sometimes move W. sometimes move Q and S to tears. and P for presentation at the soiree. G. L is not chosen. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. (C) If M is chosen. L. H. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. N. R. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. R. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. S. 10.9. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. O is not chosen. (D) M is not chosen. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. N is not chosen. P. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. (B) R must never be chosen. If all of the sociologists are chosen. (E) L must never be chosen. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. and to laughter. N. Z. U has prepared only works by poets K. P is not chosen. (B) O is chosen.
and L only (E) works by K. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. The sofa is placed in the living room. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. vase . sofa. table. N. table. lamp. and wardrobe. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. P.laughter. P. and L only (D) works by N. K. and living room of a client‟s house. painting. mirror. table lamp. N. 14. rug. rug. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. and L only 16. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. table lamp. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. 17. then he or she is bored. sofa. and L only (E) works by K. vase vase mirror. rug. den. mirror. rug. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. vase. rug. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. table. wardrobe. painting.
rug. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms.18. table (B) rug. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. 19. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. the lamp. 20. vase 23. If the lamp. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. (E) The vase is placed in the den. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. and if the wardrobe. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. (C) The table is placed in the den. vase (C) lamp. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. 21. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. (E) The vase is placed in the den. table. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. Yet . table (E) table. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. rug (D) painting. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. the painting. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people.
excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. which can be fatal. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. where the legal drinking age was still 18. 25. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. his liver loses the . Which of the statements below. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. however. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. Research has shown. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. 24. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. if true.paradoxically. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. Which one of the following. Furthermore. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. if true. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. Therefore.
one at a time. (E): L and M must be together. That leaves two country bands. R) must be placed. six rock bands (F. second. second. If P is first. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Combine Rules 1 and 3. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. is a country band. or third. pair. L is fourth. M is fifth. Create a master sketch. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. as we deduced in the game overview. incorporate the rules. is a country band. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. K. in either order. in either order. is a country band. respectively. 1. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. they are first and third. H is sixth. 2. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. M is fifth. That means K must be second. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. P and Q. (Rule 1). What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. There are only two . the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. R. H. and R is eighth. to separate the two country bands. Rule 4 states that K is first. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. to go in two of the first three slots. or third. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . are F 3. prove or band. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. R is eighth (Rule 3). in either order. Q. Since K is first. in either order. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. G. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. in order to appear at a music marathon. M) and three country bands (P. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. K is second. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. such as shrimp. L. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. then Q must be third. only. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. or third. Since K is first. in either order. second. Therefore (A) is correct. and R is eighth. respectively. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. R.
it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. we‟re only concerned with this city. however. which of the following must be true. (A). The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. then G is seventh position except first and third. and (D) Q—they can be true. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. So we know every in either order. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. If G performs before F. 6. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. so (B). (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. (E)If anything. and F is ninth. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. . eliminate any choice that can be false. (E) must be true: H is 5.possibilities. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. Since the question is worded. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes.. 7. respectively. but need not is ninth. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. in either order. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. If. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (B). Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. and P and Q. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. 4. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function.
That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. N. then not O If O. O) and sociologists (P. N. then not Q If R. Since the question is worded. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. and if N is chosen. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. Start with what you are given. and (E) are all false. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. since R is chosen. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. In other words. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. shorthanded: P + N together If R. then Q is not chosen. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. then P is chosen. then not Q). M. (B). which of the following CANNOT be true. then M is chosen.8. M. So (A) is correct. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. then O isn‟t chosen. P and N together. Q. Create a master sketch. without violating Rule 3. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. O Sociologists: P. Q. Therefore. and noting who can be chosen together. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. If R and Q . Q. The rules. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. or M and Q. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. then N is chosen. listing the available speakers. but they‟re not being followed. (C). (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. (D). R) to lecture before a class. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. then R can‟t be chosen. then M 9. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. Notice that you can take L and Q. 10. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. and R) are chosen. some of the diseases may have other causes. R Incorporate the rules. then not R If L + M.
and R. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. and L and O can‟t chosen. and P. If O and M are chosen together. Since R. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. Q. M must be chosen). We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. or five. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. and Q. If O and M aren‟t chosen. Therefore. or “some. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. L. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. H and T are always . because (B) says that R can never be chosen. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. (E) is false. then not Q. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. eliminating (C). then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. so (D) is the answer. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. H. if R is chosen. M. (A) and (D) can be true. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. M can‟t be chosen. R. Therefore. and P and N can be chosen. in this case a grid: 14. l for laughter. But if L and Q are chosen. N. and M must be chosen. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. 13. b for bored. So take L and M. 11. G. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). then M. then R can‟t be chosen). so (C). As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. and R are chosen. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. Scan the choices for L. then M can‟t be chosen. the full deduction: Of Q or L.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. if L and Q are chosen. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. M must be chosen. However. we can only take two of the three. Q. We already took M. Since the question says possibly. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. and R. so it‟s correct. then not O. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). and not just sometimes. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. of L. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. So (B) is only possible. and O. so take R (via Rule 4). As we learned in Question 6. 12. Based on Rules 2 and 4. not definite. This question is a good example of using previous work. M. Q. Q. That‟s L. So. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. That leaves (B) as correct.are chosen. and you find them in (D): If L. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. T. we can only take a maximum of two from M. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. for completeness. P. and we‟ve just proved that. W. At this point you can stop. That eliminates (C). N. but needn‟ t be true. S.
with circles or columns representing the different rooms. (D) places the sofa in the den. Poet K moves T to laughter. and 4. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. M. throwing out violators. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. For this acceptability question. so (B) and (E) are wrong. or 1. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. a violation of Rule 4. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. Create a master sketch. S. (D). P. poets L and P. S. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). Refer to your sketch. 2. V. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). four choices violate one or more rules. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. and (E). den. That leaves (D). and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. always move one literati to laughter. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. P. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. and 5. Start with the rules that are most concrete. Depending on how you look at it. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. You can place the items in the rooms. H by poet N and T by poet K. but N moves T to boredom. leaving (A). and there are eight items total. and T. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). The others: P and N. so no PV. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. (B). P. and Z sometimes moved to tears. T. so MW. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. Rule 4 places S in the living room. (D). (C). Therefore. W) in three rooms (bedroom. So (C) is out. but otherwise is bored. so the combination of poets K. and one choice violates none of them. (C). one literati is always moved to laughter. 15. living room). Questions 17 . one literati is always moved to laughter. sometimes move four literati to tears. Compare each rule to the choices. N. in any order. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). bored by poet N. and work your way towards the abstract ones. so (D) is possible. 16. Put an S in the living room. and locate T. K. 3. so (B) is out. W. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. and sometimes move a literati to laughter.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. R. then F and Q are always moved to tears.moved to laughter. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. in any order. If (A). N. then that‟ s our answer. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and P is the exception.
You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. and (E) are wrong. That eliminates (B) and (D). M. Start with the second piece of information in the question. and 5. for the other two rooms. is empty. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. so it‟s the answer. but not “always” 2. (C). so (A). as (A) states.den. and 4. and (E) can be eliminated. R. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. That means the living room has more than one item. in either order. with the other joining S in the living room. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). 4. and the den has 2 items. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 22. Next. so the den can only contain one item. so P is in the living room with S. 4. and S. violating Rule 1. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. eliminating (C). (A) and (C) are missing P and V. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. one room must have exactly 1 item. or 5 items in any given room. but you must have at least one item in each room. and T must therefore be in the living room. 2. then the living room contains W. the den. 3. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. then. You know that P can‟t be with V. or 1. L. T is in the den. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. 21. T. S. then the third room. the sofa and the vase. and S. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. so either P or V is in the den. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. 18. (B). (B). Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. that leaves only two items. V can be in the den. Since the living room has W. M. (C). Since Rule 5 is suspended. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. 19. which claim that the den has 3 items. 3. (B). in any order. according to Rule 2. If M is with S. and W are in the living room. (A). L. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. . If W is in the living room. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. in any order. leaving only (E) as possible. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. Since we can have 2. L is in another room. and there are eight items total. Start with S in the living room. 20. M. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). 3. Only (B) follows the rules. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. or 5. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). As we learned in Question 20. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. (D).
the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. so why the increase in drunk driving. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. . (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. Otherwise. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. dietary or medical. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. According to research. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. hence the increase in accidents. If. Well. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. to lower blood cholesterol levels. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more.23. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. 25. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. however. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. 24. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. . Molly. To test the system. 7. one trainer and one dog per room. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. three trainers (Luis. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms.If F is chosen. (C) H is not chosen. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. If G is chosen for the issue. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. (E) F is not chosen. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. If M is not chosen for the issue. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. Mugs. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. then J must also be chosen. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10.
A. One of the apartments is empty. W. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. X (B) W. W. Y. Y. T. W. 12. levels. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. Z. W (B) X. four on each floor. W (E) Z. S. Y. W (D) W. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. X 14. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. the bottom floor is Level B. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. (D) Luis will be in Room 3.11. . between two other apartments on the same level. V. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. Command W. W. and W—live in the building. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. A. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. W. Q. one to an apartment. to T‟s apartment on the same level. Y. W. The top floor is called Level A. Z (C) W. W (C) Z. Z. X (E) X. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. to the empty apartment on the same level. Exactly seven people—P. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. W. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. A (D) X. R. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command.
M. M. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. G cannot play the same game that R plays. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. and H—are senior club members. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. H. There must be a senior club member playing each game. directly above T‟s apartment. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. H. P . R (B) G. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. two will play chess. F. Each person present can play only one of the three games.15. directly above P‟s apartment. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. H and P must play the same game. and dominoes. R‟s apartment is on Level A. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. and two—P and R—are club applicants. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. P. chess. 17. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. R. respectively? (A) G. M cannot play dominoes. two—K and M—are junior club members. G. and three will play dominoes. Three of those present—F. 19. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. K. K. F. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B.
” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. G. P. If R plays backgammon. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. H. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. P. K. 24. and not those of self-interest. notably Japan. R. H. M.(C) F. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. P plays chess. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. G. P. K. F plays dominoes. M (D) H. This is not merely a matter of using . should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. K. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. M plays backgammon. 21. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. G. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. G plays backgammon. F. (B) Only ethical considerations. By doing so. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. M. R 20. R (E) F.
they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. or both. Something must be done about the 51. (B) has sage first. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. S and T. C. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. and (D) has C before A. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. If all the statements above are true. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. pollution would be drastically reduced. so they‟re out. 3)S can‟t be first.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. Such concerns are irrelevant here. (B) It is a workday. . so the first spice is either N or A. or the commissary is serving fish. or the commissary is serving fish. and (E) has N coming after T. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. or both. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. you may be able to meet the actors. 25. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. what needs to be done must be done. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment.manual mowers instead of power mowers. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. N. so it‟s out.
so eliminate (A) and (B). (D) must be false. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. since we can‟ t separate A and C. N and T will work. so scratch (D) and (E). We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. leaving (C). so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. they‟re as fickle as short termers. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. which limits our options. put S in the second slot. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. S. T. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. If they don‟ t. (E) is the assumption. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. Now we have AC and S. C. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. it‟s simply irrelevant.000 apiece. Our sequence is A. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. the number of attacks would have increased. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. 3=========FIN A1= First. S can‟t be first.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. and it can‟t be second either. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. (A) . while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. A is joined with C. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. C. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. S. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. then the 20% . There‟s no supporting evidence. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. N. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. Previously. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. Try plugging in numbers. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom.
and circle k. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. so we can eliminate (E). you can‟t have m and to have F. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. three. l and o. and if we cross out m we circle k. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. 2)If J is chosen. not what type of sets consumers prefer. choice (A) . or 4 dance and 1 theater. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. k. k. and since m is dance. circle k. F. is correct. if G and J are circled. you have to cross out J and F . 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. so (A) is correct. We have J. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. making them easy to eliminate. k. J. (A) . As we saw in Question 8. If you circle F. you must have J. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. you know you can circle k. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. J. but the rest is wide open. If you have J. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. l. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. l. 3)If you choose F. so we can eliminate (C). (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. so there are three possibilities and (C). (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. and if you choose m. o. If you circle G . l and o. H. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. we need 3 lower case and k. G or H. you see that if you cross out m. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. m can‟t be. so (C) is correct. l and o and you need go no further. you have to choose the other three dance articles. our answer. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. Let‟s jump to (C). If you circle m. you can circle the other 3. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . Cross out m. you must choose J. G. l and o. you have to cross out J. m is not. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. m. l and o— those are your five articles. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. choosing J yields three possible groups. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. With Rule 1. o.
not dogs. H. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. L in 2. We can‟t disprove (E). To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. and (E) is out because L is with m. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. and L moves to Room 2. l. (C) is out because M is with o. you could have G. G. not with m. O in 2 and L in 3. J is chosen. then see what commands move them to Room 2. 2)With command X. So we have in Room 1. and M in 3. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. Yes. Which choice is true of that? (B). o.and H. since if F is chosen. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. Looking at the wrong choices. We have rooms 1. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. 3)With command Y. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. so it‟s correct. etc. J. W is called. H. k. Mm in Room 2. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. m. L. l. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. then moving them around according to different commands. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. 5)With command A. If we circle F and G. H. and to do that we need one X. Ol . We also want to get l from 1 to 2. k. we circle J. the only one that moves trainers. the dogs return to their original trainers. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. two Ws. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . and the second W moves her to 2. she‟s there with o. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. l. o or G. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. l. We have three trainers. A second W puts M in 1. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. For the record. k. not in 2. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. Let‟s jump to (E). m. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. not with o. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. So l returns to L. l. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . m or G. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. and Oo in Room 3. M is in Room 3. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. and o. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. putting Onyx in 1. k. but that moves trainers. m to M and o to O. But we need five. not 1. (C). M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. (A) is out because O is with l. 2 and 3. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. The first W moves O to 1. 4)With command Z. m.
A. and we need a place for V. so P is in B-3. L in 2. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. but that isn‟t a choice. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3.correct. putting m in 2 and l in 3. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. so (E) is correct. W and A puts O again in 1. P. so W is on A and S is on B. As for (B). ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. R. L. W . Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. So we put S underneath in B-2. so you have Oo in 1. how to go from l. 8 apartments—1 is empty. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. To get from L. With P in B-3. we have no more light on the R and V issue. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. are both on A. so add empty to A. M. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. and T can‟t be on an end. V. 2)S and Q are on different levels. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. Take your people. S on B. We have W. it has to be next to P in B-2. one‟s on A. (A) ‟s sequence of X. S. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. you get O. Q and (E). m. (C). W is on A. 3)P and T are adjacent. so since B-2 is occupied by S. P. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. But if you call A. And with (A) and (C). M in 1. For the dogs. 1 or 4. W. So T is in 2 or 3. T. So W and S have to be in A- . Y lines up the dogs. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. empty unit. o to o. m. Now turn to the W. Y. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. (B). S. Q. but l in 2. since T can‟t be on the end. and as for (C) and (D). O to M. L. and fill them in the eight slots. O. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. 5)W is next to empty. so either TP or PT . O. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. call W twice. P is next to T. P is in B-4. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. As for the others. so we‟ve got our answer. empty and Q on A. W and empty. not A-4. 4)T is not in one of the ends. L. R and V. the other on B. Call W once. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. the dogs seek out their trainers. so we know that P and T are on B. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . so Q is on A. l? One call of Z. empty. As for (D). V and R are left—one will be on A.
k and m are both lower . S. p and r in dominoes. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. (B) has F and H. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. k. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. The Rules: 1)7 people. It‟s between V and R . There‟s only one grouping possible. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. G. If they play chess.1 and B-1. they must play dominoes. since H. Nix (E). The question asks about A-1. since they have m playing dominoes. G. F. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. 7 slots. It must be F. 4)H and p must play the same game. So only two people could go in A-1. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. p and r in dominoes is okay. (B). and juniors and applicants in lower case. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. Turn to our W. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. 2)Three senior members. which is correct. so (A) is out. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. and only dominoes has three people. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. H and p are together. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. so we have one cap in each group. Let‟s put seniors in caps. making (D) correct . since H is with p . (or p and someone else). empty unit. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). There are three groups—backgammon with two people. so H and p must play dominoes. directly above T in B-2. m and p. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. so it‟s F. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. k and r play dominoes. so it can‟t be H. The senior can‟t be H. and empty goes next to W in A-2. F. chess with two and dominoes with three. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. r can‟t play with G . r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. P and S are out because they‟re on B. T. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. Now go to the Hp unit. H.
25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. We must do what‟s necessary. so k. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. and (B)‟s correct. Besides. A makes most of its money back. that the commissary is serving fish. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. G and k in chess and H. and we need a cap for each.” That‟s summarized by (D). That way. true on a workday. according to the stimulus. Japan. For the record. or both. F and m. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. (D):G and m in backgammon. (B)It might also be a non-workday. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. to save the environment. so it‟s (A) .” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. so k and m can‟t be together. and H. so (D)‟s correct. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. but rather that it is necessary. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. and its aid policy. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. no matter how drastic and costly. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. or it‟ s not a workday. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. is fine: F and m in backgammon. (C). (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. p and r in dominoes. fish may or may not be served.) But m can‟t play dominoes.case. p and r dominoes. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. the workday with fish. “notably Japan. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. F and k chess. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. which this doesn‟t mention.
(B) F. 7. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. X. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. K. Q. If the third symbol is a letter. 1. 6. 3. R. T.. 2. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . T. L. then the fifth must be either B or D. (D) C. M. The sequence is called a combination.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. W. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2.taisha. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. G. (E) A. (C) B. If the third symbol is a number. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. 4. Which of the (A) E.
would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. and fifth symbols. 6. X (D) 3. Q. 8. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. if true. T (C) 9. respectively? (A) J. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. 9. Thus. 6. a special visa is required. Which of the following. such as beef and poultry. S 4. Z. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. If the statements above are true. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. 4. P. however. G (E) M. . D (B) A. third. H. The combination C.
7. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. and one produces a high-pitched ring. medium (C) medium. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. medium. In the our economy is wilting. medium (B) low. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. low. high. medium. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. 500. medium (E) low. high. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. one cannot argue that Which of the following. if true. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. low. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. high. medium. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. high. medium. low. high 9. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. medium. Last the service sector. low. low (D) medium. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. medium. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. low. medium. high. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. Over the has greatly expanded. of pessimistic forecasts.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. low.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. high. high. for the sequence. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. low. 8. low. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. one produces a medium-pitched ring. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. low. medium. high. high. . low. He decides that. low. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. medium. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. low.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
rather than to leave the wood unfinished. (E) Work time. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. never engage in this aggressive play. 24. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. cost. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. . and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. According to a recent school survey. cost. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. if true. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. however. Which of the following. (C) Fifteen years ago. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. (D) Work time.
The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. B or D only. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. the number is 3rd. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. 3)In Option 2. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. You‟ve used B first. there can‟t be an F or a G . G is 4th and 5th is B or D. You end with B or D and this ends with F. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. and (E). In Option 2. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. F. If you start with F. the 5th symbol must be B or D. That leaves (A). so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. 4=========FIN A2= First. the number is 2nd. Skim to (D). violating Rule 5.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. so (A) won‟t work. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. The number is 3rd. E. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. (E). is correct. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. B is 1st. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. Only (A) gives you that option. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. So F can‟t begin and E. (A) begins with E. Only one letter comes after Y . the 5th must be B or D. That leaves correct choice (D). replace the F with a D. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. so all letters must appear later than E. a Rule 2 no-no. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. . In Option 2. and B doesn‟t. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. you begin with a letter later than B or D. so it‟s correct. and the sequence begins with C . figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. In Option 1 you can‟t use F .
As evidence. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. . as (B) says. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. (E)Isn‟t inferable. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. the sequence ends with a D.S. As for the others. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If.which works with the rules for Option 2. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. If the population increase is slower than projected. a special visa is required. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. (E) replaces the C with an A. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. economy continues to grow and prosper. We talked about that in (A). if you do so. So (D) is correct. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. so (C) won‟t work. Focuses on cost. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. So (D) is correct. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. you need a special visa.
2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. so (D)‟s correct. 5th. it could still be the most important factor overall. low is 1st.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. 4. high. (C) puts a high 3rd. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. You ring the low bell 3 times. and mediums 4th and 6th. (B) medium is 2nd. 3rd. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . so dump (D) and (E). low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. and low. and 7th. and it‟s correct. and 5. 4. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. Now we have to split up the lows. (E) puts the high 8th. then fill the space between with a medium. yes. That works if we put a low 1st. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. so (E)‟s correct. and split up the lows 1st. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. either would be okay. medium. the other high 2nd. high bell is 4th. leaving us with (B). one low third. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. and 7th. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. in 3. the correct answer. and a low. The beginning looks like this—low. (C). (A) has high. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. a medium 4th. So we‟ll put one low first. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. low. a high. low is 3rd. and one after. yes. and the high bell 2 times. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. and a medium 5th. and 5. yes. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. medium. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. (A). high. (B) has low. the medium bell 3 times. (D). We‟ll have to put two before this set. the other high 2nd. and 5th. (E). we have eight spots for bells to be rung. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. next to the high in 3. medium. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. 4th. 4. and 8 rings. a medium. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. 5th. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. medium. (A) puts the high bell 1st. 3)The two high bells will stick together. yes. (D) has a high 3rd. low in 3.
How about (E). All the others work. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. 1 and 2. You know that‟s okay from 9. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. start at the home office. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. low 7th. so this is acceptable. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. Caracas. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. you could send it to Dakar. Dakar. (D) is fine. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. You have 6 cities. which makes (B) correct. 4 and 5. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. and no way to do that. Edinburgh. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. send the memo to Beijing. in both cases they go next to Caracas. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. and 5. Caracas. Fresno. the dead end. medium 8th. (C) is fine. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. to Edinburgh. describes a route it could not have followed. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. 4. Fresno. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. 2 types of memos. a low 5th. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. Edinburgh. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. Fresno. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. (E) has high. and medium in 3. 7 and 8.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. 15=========FIN A2= . we‟ve discussed this— yes. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. medium 6th. That‟s acceptable. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. Beijing. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. Beijing. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. In priority 2. (E). a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. so (C) is correct. low. Edinburgh. Having done 9 and 10. Caracas.
If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. You have two options. (B). So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. that‟s three. (C). top to bottom. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. go to Caracas. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. Dakar. so it went to Beijing. and the answer is (C). (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. we work with Option 1. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. so it won‟t work. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. to Caracas. 1)In Option 1. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. write next to shelf 2 no J. Caracas. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. go to Dakar. so (B) won‟t do it. the only place it can go is to Caracas. (D). (A). and in Option 2. Only Beijing and Fresno. where was it sent? Priority 2. write next to shelf 3 no J. then Edinburgh. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. What . Beijing. G. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. the dead end. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. F must be immediately above L . Caracas. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. That works in priority 1. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. go to Beijing. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. the only place it can go is Fresno. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. Option 2. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. As far as priority 2. you‟d break Rule 3. (D) is correct. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. could have seen the memo. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. and H on shelf 2. Option 1. a dead end. and then Beijing. and L. After Dakar. a dead end. you can start in the home office. and (A) is correct. and Beijing.
can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. (D). we‟ve already said we can. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. and H is a floater. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. so shelf 1 has F. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. If H is on shelf three. and in Option 2. so (D)‟s correct. J and K are tennis trophies. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. so (C) is correct. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. J is on shelf two. so J is on shelf 2. if shelf 3 is empty. then the only place is shelf 1. so it‟s on shelf 2. L. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. You can put H on shelf three. L is on shelf 2. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. and G on 3. (A). where shelf three is open. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. If we split them up. (E). then J is on shelf two. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. So (B)‟s correct. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. shelf 1 is empty. (B) puts K and L on the same . K. We put F. L. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. and 1 remains empty. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. K. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. as long as they‟re on 3. In Option 1. so you will work with Option 1. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. and shelf 1 is empty. and H on 2 and that left us with L. so (A)‟s correct. J. K. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. K and J must be on the same shelf. let‟s look at the situation. we just did with (A). so the only place for K is shelf 3. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. (B).must be true? Look at (B). Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. so the only home for K is 3. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3.
It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. . shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. not the past 15 years..shelf. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. If most students attend services for social reasons. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. that‟s true in Option 1 only. but that‟s true only in Option 2. (E) has J on shelf two. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. but J is never on shelf three. (C) does the trick. so (E)‟s our answer. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. cost. Unless there are other differences. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. We get the former in (A). (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. (D) has F and shelf. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. cost. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. not because it is better than staining. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. shelf two. and longevity are equally important factors. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. (C) says if H is on on shelf three.
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