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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Xiao treats ears. York does not treat noses. then Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. York treats noses. Dr. Zeller treats throats. York does not treat throats. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Dr. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. Dr. Zeller treats noses. four on top and four on bottom. and throats 15. 13. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. Which of the following must be true? Dr. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. then he or she must also treat ears. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. In that case. York treats ears. York treats noses. Zeller treats ears. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. the . 17. which of the following must be true? Dr. York must treat ears. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. Zeller treats throats. Zeller does not treat ears. York treats exactly one part of the body. Zeller does not treat ears. (E) Dr.doctors. Dr. If a doctor treats ears. Dr. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. he or she must also treat throats. Xiao treats ears. Dr. Dr. Dr. Xiao does not treat ears. If Dr. York treats throats. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. Dr. noses. Xiao treats throats. Xiao treats throats. 14. Xiao treats ears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Suppose that Dr. If Dr. Xiao does not treat noses. York does not treat noses. then he or she must also treat throats. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. If Dr. York treats noses. If Dr. Dr. (C) Dr. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. Dr. York treats. Dr.
18. or pears. 22. pears. Compartment 1 contains apples. grapefruit. pears.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. grapefruit. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. oranges. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. apples. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. they contain different types of fruit. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. oranges. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . grapefruit. pears. grapefruit.
(C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. . 24. By raising corporate taxes. 25. Gilliatt can create any mood. not the intent of his tax hike. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. Governor Kipling. however. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. which they could read in the Official Journal. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans.23. What they don‟t realize.
That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. light 6 is Off. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. As with Question 2. four choices violate one or more rules. be true. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. 4. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). If light 2 and light 5 are On. starting with the most concrete. So the sketch looks like this: 1. (E) can. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). Thus. but need not. breaking Rule 2. but don‟t need to be true. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. 5. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. and numbering them 1 through 10. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). Now incorporate the rules. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. leaving (B). 2. Note that in the sketch. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. For this acceptability question. and 6) that are each either On or Off. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. 3. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . Finally. Therefore. As for the others: (A). and (C) are false.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. but (C) has five Ons. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). 2. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. but don‟t need to be true. (B). since light 3 is Off. since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. (D).
That means light 4 is On. it's the effects we're concerned with. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). the music's message won't corrupt them. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. Questions 8-12 In this game. (C). must be true. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. 4. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. (E). (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. light 3 is Off. Therefore. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. If light 8 is Off. light 5 is also Off. eight lights. in either order. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. Start with what you‟re given. totaling four On lights. and as we figured out. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. light 4 is On. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. 7. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. using columns or circles to . Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. If this were not the case. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. is the number that can be determined. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). If light 6 is On. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. the argument predicts ruin. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. and light 7 is Off. 5. (B)Beyond the scope.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. As always. Create a master sketch. 6. (E)Beyond the scope. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. Otherwise.
M. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. three doctors (shorthanded X. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. and (E) are false. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). and one member (J) is already on Housing. You‟re given that L serves with M. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. N). As for the others: (B). Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. 9. and Throat. so K. with three columns to represent the body parts. then N does too. 10. That makes three members on one committee. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. Your sketch should look something like this : 8. (C). then P must serve with M and N. M. M. and P to serve on Housing. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. Since J is always on Housing. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. Each committee must have at least three members. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. Y. eliminating (D) and (E). Nose. or (A). N must serve on Rules. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). Create a master sketch. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. and N all serve together. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). If M serves on Housing. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. so (D). Therefore. but don‟t need to be true. N. L. eliminating (B). and N must serve with M. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. six committee members can be determined. using their first initials (J. P can serve on either committee. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. be true. M. Start with what you‟re given. and three horizontal rows . K must serve Committee. (A). O can‟t serve with M. Questions 13-17 In this game. or (C). Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. L. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. (B). so (A) can be eliminated. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. O. L. 12. That leaves J. 11. (C). In the setup. so put a J under Housing. O can‟t serve with M. If O can‟t serve with P. Abbreviate the members‟ names. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. O. K. can. but need not. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true.represent the two committees.
and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments.underneath. grapefruit (G). and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. (C) is correct. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. be true. Y must treat noses. so does Z. and (E) can. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). must be false. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. In other words. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. then try to make some deductions. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. (D). If Y doesn‟t treat throats. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. ears and throats only. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. according to Rule 2. Rule 1 states that ears. so put “no” in the appropriate column. Look at what you have. 17. Since X can‟t treat noses. So (B) must be true. then X must also treat throats. but need not. noses. that doctor must also treat throats. Z also treats. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. choices that can be false can be eliminated. then Y can‟t treat ears. However. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. one by one. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). If X treats ears. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. but need not. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. (D). numbered 1-8. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. (C). a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. (D). then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). (A) can. 13. and then add your knowledge of the rules. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. If Y treats ears. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. Each compartment contains apples (A). Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). Since the question asks which of the following must be true. Both Y and Z must treat noses. X can. then Y must also treat throats. but need not. be false. treat ears. if Y treats it. 15. (B) is true. one for each doctor. if X treats throats. Go through the choices. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. However. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. 14. Therefore. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. oranges (O). 16. Yet. X must treat at least throats. (A). is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. because of Rule 3. Start with what you‟re given. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated.
and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. 19. 21. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. For this acceptability question. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. the best way to solve this question is to first figure . Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. Compare each rule to the choices. Thus.e. 20. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. Since the question asks which could be true. according to Rule 5. So put an A in Compartment 1. That leaves three remaining compartments (2. so if Compartment 4 contains pears.Incorporate the rules. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. as well. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). Therefore. so (B) is correct. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. and 4). and one choice violates none of them. (C). However. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). From that and Rules 5 and 6. four choices violate one or more rules. This leaves (C). As in Question 20. which contains grapefruit. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. eliminating (D) and (E). Check each choice in turn. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. which contains apples. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. (A) is correct. so there are no more than four pears. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. the four incorrect choices must be false. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. Place a G in Compartment 8. 3. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. From that and Rules 5 and 6.
Compartment 1 contains apples. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. rather than how they are described. which is that unemployment increased. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. can‟t contain grapefruit. not to supernatural subject matter. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). The adjacent compartments. for instance. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. 3. 6 and 7. must be true. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. (B)We don't know this. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. Only (A). To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. 3. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. . but on what actually happened. since the jobs program was never implemented. Compartments 2. 5. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. but Compartments 2 and 3 can. 23. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). a total of four. 25. If only one compartment contains apples. So Compartments 2. (D). 24. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. but the question of his intent versus his actions. 22. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. thus increasing unemployment. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (B) and (C) are false. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. merely her effective technique. If. is the maximum number. As for the top. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. Therefore. but makes no connection to problems in humans. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit.
x. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. u. and z. 1. Sector u was constructed in 1981. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. positioned in that order from west to east. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors.org . v. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. t. After 1981.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. y. w.
which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1984 (D) 1983. 1984. If Sector s was built in 1985. 1985 (C) 1983. 2. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. 1983.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1984 (B) 1982. 1984 (E) 1982. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. 1983 (D) 1982. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. 1983. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1985 5. 1985 (E) 1983. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1986 6.
(B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. Which of the following. The Commissioner of Public Works. harmful pollutants. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. 8. 9. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. only five had presented any serious complications. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. In a recent test. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. if true. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated.
Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Paris Highway. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. Vienna Highway. Red Toll. Yellow Toll. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. Red. which extends due north from the city center. motorists pass two radial highways. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. due east. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. 10. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll .periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. and Yellow Tolls. and Paris Highway. London Highway. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Madrid Highway. called the Beltway. which runs due northeast from the city center. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. Madrid Highway. which extends due west from the city center. The radial highways are: London Highway. but no other tollbooths. Vienna Highway 13. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. Blue. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. due southeast. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. which extends south from the city center. and due southwest of the city center. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll.
Mike. Laura. and Quentin—are measured for height. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Jim is taller than Kathy. Pedro. Quentin (B) Jim. Kathy. Pedro. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . Quentin (C) Kathy. Mike. Jim. Laura. Oliver. Pedro. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Mike. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Mike. Kathy. Mike. Laura. Jim. Laura. Jim. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. 14. Oliver. Nick. Kathy 15. Pedro. Oliver. Nick. Oliver. Pedro. but taller than Jim. Laura. Quentin (D) Oliver. Kathy. Mike. Nick. Quentin. Nick. Laura. Kathy.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Nick. Nick. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. If Quentin is taller than Jim. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Quentin (E) Pedro. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Oliver.
which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. and 5 . If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. T. 4. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. 2. 21. and 5 (D) movies 2. There are no abstentions. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. and U. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. R. 19. 3. S votes “no” on movie 2. The five judges on the committee are Q. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. 3. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. and 3. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. If R votes “no” on all five movies. and 5. S. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. U votes “yes” on movie 4. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. and 4 (E) movies 2.
Freda Tully. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. productivity has nearly doubled. Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. . concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. When workers were primarily employed by industry. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. 25. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. Coach Parker. 24. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. Profits are on the rise. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. Which of the following.23. control panels or electric counters. Today. there was no competent leadership in the firm. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. which are forever twisting above. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. or to fingers and wrists. if true. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. McGovern‟s new executive director. and sales are better than ever. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director.
You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. x. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. w. v. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. In order for sector w to be constructed. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. 1. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. the four incorrect choices must be false. Since the question asks which could be true. so (C) and (D) are out. sector v must be constructed before sector w. (B). However. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. so (C). sector v can be constructed in 1982. and sector u is constructed in 1981. though it used to be the other way around. Therefore. u. Create a master sketch. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. As we‟ve just seen. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. t. sector w must be constructed before sector x. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. That leaves three choices. with the eight letters written in order from left to right.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. (C). (A) and (E) can‟t be true. . Write 1981 in u‟s space. Sector x is constructed in 1984. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. 2. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. y. and (D). the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. (D) Compared to their ancestors. Therefore. For this question. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982.
If sector t is constructed in 1982. y. 1983. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. So (A) is correct. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. sector v must be constructed by 1984. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector y must be constructed after 1986. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. If sector v is constructed in 1982. y. 1984. (C). If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. t. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. (D) is correct. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. sector w must be constructed before sector x. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. . any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. and z. but when you look at the choices. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. However. First. vitamin C. Otherwise. Under this question‟s conditions. 4. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. Therefore. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. w. (B). which are choices (A). Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. and 1984. 5. if sector t is constructed in 1982. That eliminates (A) and (B). (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. As we saw in the previous question. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. In fact. and sector z in 1988. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. and z) because of Rule 2. and so isn't parallel. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. Using the reverse thinking. You need to determine two dates here. Likewise. So. respectively. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. sector w in 1983 or 1984. v. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. in 1988. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. sector y in 1987. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). That sounds too simple to be the solution. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. Sector z can be constructed last. causes kidney stones. Therefore (D)—1982. 6. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. 1983. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector x in 1986.3. 7. and (D). then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. Now.
just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. The four highways extend from the city outward. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). due east. however. Looking at the sketch. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. past the Beltway. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. and Paris (P). V extends due south. due southeast. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. 9. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. Green (G). the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. M extends due west. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. If. Vienna (V). the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. P extends due northeast. in either order. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest.(E)A general claim is made. There are four tollbooths. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. not their danger. and due southwest of the city. For the sketch. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. in . which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. Red (R). By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. you‟ll pass two radial highways. but noexamples are provided. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. but no other tollbooths. 8. Blue (B). (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. That means. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Madrid (M). L extends due north.
Blue. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. you‟ll pass two radial highways. Use the deductions from Question 11. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. As we deduced in Question 11. and check each choice in turn. in either order. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. from tallest to shortest. Q). (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. 12. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. P. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. and among the choices. and Yellow Tolls. L. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls. (A). Use your sketch. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. O. the Paris. between the Madrid and the Vienna. namely the Green. Red. K. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. or the Southeast tollbooth. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. and isn‟t a must. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. Create a master sketch. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. 11. 13. Therefore. but no other tollbooths. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. N. place eight students in height order. Check each choice in turn. . That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. or (E). since their locations are described in the question. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). If it‟s merely possible. For the sketch. the Madrid. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. M. Looking at the sketch. (C). eliminating rule violators. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. so (E) is wrong.
then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Since there are only three available spots below . Nick. and then. Kathy. There‟s only one possible order here. Nick. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. with the remaining students. Adding Rules 2 and 4. Laura is third highest of the eight students. four choices violate one or more rules. in that order.Look at the rules. For this question. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. so (A) is out. Laura is third. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. we can definitely determine who is fourth. 17. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. Jim. only Jim. 15. we know that Mike. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. you can figure out the possibilities. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. and two available spots for students taller than her. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. leaving (B). Combining our deductions. Oliver. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. and one choice violates none of them. This eliminates (B) and (E). 14. or (A). so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. Mike. For this acceptability question. and since Laura is third. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. 18. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). So Quentin is taller than Jim. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. or (B). since Kathy is shorter than Jim. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Rule 5 says Laura is third. and note that there are only two students above her. or Quentin can be first. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. So place the L on your piece of paper. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. 16. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. and Pedro. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. and who must be shorter. eliminating (C) and (D). So. Quentin.. Also. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. but taller than Jim.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. Compare each choice to the rules. Since Laura is third. Combine this with Rule 2.
Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. so neither choice needs to be true. 2. so (D) too can be eliminated. figure out who must vote yes. T. (C). Kathy. so (A). As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. 4. and who must vote no. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1. S. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. The third yes comes from either R or U. “exactly. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes.” that is. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. (B). Note that in your sketch. If both vote no. and Pedro. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. 20. Neither R nor U must vote yes. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. as long as one . In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. Create a master sketch. and (C) can be eliminated. this must be true. at least three of whom must vote yes. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). one for each of the three movies. and 3. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total.Laura. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. Since S and T vote the same. must be taller than Laura. 3. so T also votes no on movie 2. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. As we have just proved. Laura must be taller than Kathy. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. using an N. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. Any of five movies (1. Quentin. That leaves four judges. both must vote yes. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. U votes yes on movie 4. it means a yes vote from T as well. R. Questions 19-22 In this game. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. T votes yes on movie 5. although both can vote yes. and (E) are false. 2. and U) to appear in a film festival. Nick.” At least three yes votes are needed. being taller than at least three other students. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. Scan the choices and stop at (D). As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. Since the question asks which choice must be true. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. and 3. according to Rule 3. That thinking is reflected in (D). 2.
Look for the other judges that vote no. and thus have your answer. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. be true. then the other choice is correct. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. If. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. so (B) and (E) can. one no vote. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. So movie 2 has two no votes. To conclude this. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. 3. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. 21. and 5. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. Choose one of the two movies. S votes no. so T must vote no on movie 2. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. (B) is the answer. That leaves (E) to be correct. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. and then T votes no. 23. If U does vote no. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. there are three yes votes. We‟re left with (D) and (E). so (C) is eliminated. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. and determine whether or not U votes no. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . and three unknown votes. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. but needn‟t. 22. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. That deduction eliminates only (A). then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. So you need at least one more no vote. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. on movie 2. S and T vote together. R votes no. .of them does. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. Looking at the remaining choices. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes.
(D)Misreads the argument. like lifting. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. (D)Strengthens. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. so this strengthens the argument. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. (E)Strengthens. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. because most people now work in the service sector. no matter what the practice time. 24. Most people used to work in industry.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. To weaken this contention. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. 25. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. which discusses injuries. she must therefore have provided this leadership.
the following colors: blue. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. red. is yellow. the board is green. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. or yellow. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. is green. same row are the same color. same column are the same color. 1. 2. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. is green. Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. is red.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. Light 5 is green.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. green.
If all beaches were publicly owned. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. If light 6 is yellow. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. but at all times. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. In companies with only one secretary. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. Which of the following. 8. Therefore. green. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. and yellow 5. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. . Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. if true. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches.
Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. in that order. slower copiers. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. Y. and Z. (D) On average. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. . as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. however. FORMerly. 9. Every day. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. There are. X. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. however. 10. which are numbered 1 through 4. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. but for no more than two consecutive days. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. but for no more than three consecutive days. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days.
Z is listed second. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. for the first ride. Rob. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. 12. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. Z is listed third. Pip. Car 5 is never empty. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. 14. one car remaining empty. Sal. and Quint are seated in cars 1. The four children are Pip. 2. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. X is listed third. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. If Rob. and Sal. After each ride. and 5. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. . and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Quint. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. one child per car. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. 13. W is listed third.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. 4. respectively.
No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. If Rob. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. Pip is seated in car 4. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. If Horace cooks on Friday. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. respectively. Pip. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. (E) Car 4 is empty. 16. exactly one of the three family members cooks. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. for the first ride. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. Quint is seated in car 4. (C) Sal is seated in car 5.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. and Horace. 17. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. 15. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . 4. Each day in the Ring home. Sal. Jim. Betty cooks on Wednesday. and 5. Betty cooks on Tuesday. Rob is seated in car 4. (D) Car 3 is empty. 3. and Quint are seated in cars 1.
Jim cooks on Wednesday. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Tuesday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. Monday. Thursday (C) Sunday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. I know this for a fact. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. Jim cooks on Monday. Friday 23. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Friday (D) Monday. Which of the following. . (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. 24. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Like modern magazines. Tuesday. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Thursday. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. Tuesday. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. if true. Horace cooks on Wednesday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Horace Jim. Friday (E) Sunday. Thursday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. they related stories of important events. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. Horace cooks on Monday. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22.
green. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. in the middle.e. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. Therefore. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. and on the bottom. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. 1 to 3. (B). and light 1 is red. 3. 4. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. which can be blue. 2. . reducing art to its function as a means of communication. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. Compare each rule to the choices. 7 to 9. light 3 is yellow. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. Based on those two deductions. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). according to the rules provided. Therefore. red. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. 7) can be the same color. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. 4 to 6. There are three rows of three lights each. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. 25. 1. 1. however. numbered on the top. Put a G in light 5‟s space. and light 1 is red. lights 2. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. and one choice violates none of them. Average and below average students. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. than they did in 1988. For this acceptability question. can be true. starting with the most concrete. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. 3) can be the same color. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students.e. You must place the lights. per week. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. 4. or yellow.
and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. That eliminates (B) and (E). Because light 1 is red. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. 3. To answer this question. light 8 must be red. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. (C). and 9. and 8. 8. Light 1 is red. There‟s only one green light. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. As we saw in Question 2. according to Rule 3. so (E) can be eliminated. 2. Light 5 is green. 6. 5. If light 6 is yellow. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. 4. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. can be any color except green. Also. 7 and 8. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. Light 6. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . . (D). You know that light 1 is red. but lights 2. That leaves lights 1. so there can be a maximum of three red. so (D) is correct. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. light 7 can‟t be red or green. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. eliminating (A) and (B). and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. That leaves lights 2. or (C). and light 9 must be yellow. and light 5 is green. three of another and two of a third color. light 7 must be blue. That eliminates (A). That‟s only two blue lights. both private and public. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. light 6 can be red. and eliminate them as choices. So lights 2. 3. light 7 must be yellow. 4.2. However. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). blue. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). if the government already maintains all beaches. leaving 6. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. 7. leaving eight lights to be red. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. or (C). 3. then light 4 can be yellow. (B). Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. 5. 4. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. if light 6 is yellow. There‟s only one green light. or (C). and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). and (E). any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. or yellow. 7.
are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. Therefore. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. (C)As long as the machine is faster. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. cause beriberi and pellagra. This is the key rule to this game. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. 3. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. and Z. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. based on the rules provided. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours.they were made public than if they remained private. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. and thus save money. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. numbered 1. From all that inFORMation about W. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. not of all the B vitamins. Four guards. and 4. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. 8. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. Rule 4 says Z . W. 9. Therefore. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). (C)Too specific. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. Y. X. not single deficiencies. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. 2. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument.
four choices violate one or more rules. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. or are false outright. 10. so (B) must be true. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. For your master sketch. and only one. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . For Wednesday‟s roster. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. X. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. Z must move. Here. Looking at the choices. The rules all have to do with the empty car. Therefore. so for Thursday‟s roster. when the next day is assigned. so (E) must be correct. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). 13. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. so one car is always empty. W is listed first. you can simply use five dashes. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. There is one child per car. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. Questions 14-16 In this game. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. However. That eliminates (B) and (C). If W changes assignments. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. leaving (C). throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. guard can remain in the same gallery. Y. numbered 1 to 5. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. Since this question asks which must be true. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. or in gallery 3 on both days. and one choice violates none of them. but need not be true. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. must be true. W was assigned to gallery 1. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. According to Rule 5. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. 11. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. W. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. (A). Before looking at the answer choices. (A) and (D) can be true. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. when W remains in the same gallery. In lieu of a master sketch. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. 12. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3.
Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. 16. Pip is seated in Car 1. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. That means. and one choice violates none of them. from Sunday to Saturday. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. according to Rule 1. three family members (abbreviated B. or (A). Compare each choice to the rules. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. four choices violate one or more rules. 2. Questions 17-22 In this game. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. and 5. The third ride. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. if Car 3 is empty. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. 15. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. __ . so (C) can be eliminated. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. Sal. respectively. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Therefore. for the first ride. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. Car 2 is empty. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). Remember. Rob. __ . and Quint are in Cars 1. __ . Now Car 3 is empty. H) take turns cooking each day. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. for a week. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. Sal. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. (E) must be correct. Pip. Start with what you are given: Rob. According to Rule 1. therefore. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. Sal. Incorporate the rules. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. If. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. So. Pip. 14. Sal. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. you‟ll know all that must be true. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. Then. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Furthermore. for the third ride.empty. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. Quint. Create a master sketch. For this acceptability question. Rule 4 is always in effect. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Pip. 4. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. J. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. H must cook after . throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. Quint. following Rule 1: Pip. Stated more positively. as (D) correctly says. The order of the first ride: Rob. Quint.
If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. four days. Tuesday. (A). . Since the question asks which must be FALSE. So Tuesday. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. Monday. Horace must cook on Wednesday. That leaves (C). That‟s (C). through Sat. Only (C). Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. However. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. so (E) is wrong. so (C) must be true. Saturday. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. and Friday. Thursday. The only false choice is (E). There are three available days. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. That eliminates (A) and (B). (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Betty cooks on Tuesday. and Friday can be definitely determined. and Saturday can be definitely determined. the four incorrect choices can be true. Thursday. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. In order to be consecutive. 19. but need not. and then B must cook on Sunday. Wednesday. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). Thursday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. and either Sunday or Monday. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. 18. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). Horace. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). be true. Wednesday. 23. (D) must be true. but need not. That takes care of Betty for the week. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. (E). Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. Wednesday. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. must cook before Tuesday. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). so (A) and (B) can. Therefore. Horace needs to cook two more times. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Since Horace must cook three days. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. then Horace must cook on Thursday. Since Horace must cook three days. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Wed. (B). If Horace cooks on Friday. Sunday. So. 22. As we deduced in the game overview. 20. and (C) can. Now.Tuesday. So. 21. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. (D) remains. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). Therefore. be true. but not both. either one can cook. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday.
To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. time spent by students overall increased. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A). --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ .(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. 25. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. 24. the author compares them to modern magazines. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. without giving any examples. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. Therefore.
2. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. and T—are playwrights. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. which of the following must also be true? . S.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. and M—are theater critics. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. the other four—Q. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. joins the others at the table. R. L. who is seated on the immediate right of T. Three of the people—K. 1. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. R is seated on the immediate right of S. 4. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. P. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. 3. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right.000. If the statements above are true. a playwright. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty.
000 is not especially high. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. G. Pending further study. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.000 in the year before the war. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses.000. (B) An annual profit of $10. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. J.000 than for amounts less than $40. H.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. and L. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. In households including more than one person. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. K. certain patients will infect other patients.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. 5. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50.000. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. 6. I. more established companies. If put in the same room. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. and where interpersonal contact is common. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease .
Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. one with Disease J. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. and one with Disease J. which programs are the news programs for that day? . and two educational programs. 10. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. or Disease G. or Disease F. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. one with Disease F. a male with Disease K. one with Disease F. two jazz programs. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. and a person with Disease J. and a male with Disease K. A room is occupied by three people. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. one with Disease I. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. and one with Disease G. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room.G. 7.
13. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. third. The first program is an educational program. sixth. R must get off before Q. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. and sixth third. second. fifth. fifth. eighth. eighth. fifth. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. if N gets off at the third stop. P. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. 14. N must get off before M. O. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. Q. third. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. The eighth program cannot be a news program. sixth. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. fourth. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. The seventh program is a news program. eighth. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. who must get off before O. eighth. and ninth second. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. and ninth fourth. M. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. . Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. sixth. second. and ninth first. N.
If R gets off at the fourth stop. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (C) L and P get off together. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. If X is perishable. 16. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. 18. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. and if N gets off after Q. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. and Z— every day. and if P must get off alone. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. V. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. W. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. X. (D) L gets off at the second stop. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. which of the following MUST be true? . The second car must always contain U. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop. 19. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. (D) N gets off at the first stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. (E) R gets off at the second stop. 15. 17. if M gets off at the third stop. Y. (E) Q gets off after M.
(D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. fifth car contains V. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. 20. . which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. (B) The sixth car contains X. (E) The third car contains Y. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. and if Y and Z are perishable. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. If Y and Z are perishable. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. sixth car contains Z.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. 21. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. (C) The fifth car contains V. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. 22. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. (D) The sixth car contains W. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. If W and V are perishable. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U.
They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. because of its brightness and intensity. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. L. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. if true. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. 24. S. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Because of this finding. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. Studies have shown that. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. That implies the opposite: A . the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. Which of the following. 25. M) and four playwrights (Q. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. but rather from some property of the color itself. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. R.
meaning they are 4 places apart. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. 5. in either order. so (E) is also false. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. 7. 4. K is in Seat 9. A single. (C). As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). since both are playwrights. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. who is immediately right of T. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. a playwright.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. a playwright. That seats all the playwrights. so (A). even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. and R is in Seat 4. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. eliminating (A). so somewhere there‟s the grouping T.000 won't be considered. so (B) need not be true. T is in Seat 2. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. in any order. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. only from Q‟s left. a critic. so (C) can be true. and R is in Seat 5. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. 6. . so eliminate (A). and T is in Seat 3. can‟t sit immediately next to L. R. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left.000. (E) describes the same chair as (D). (C). Rule 1 keeps Seats 2. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. To make this connection. or in Seat 6: R. (B). If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. 3. If S is two places to Q‟s right. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. For our sketch. S. Using the sketch in the game overview. so (D) is impossible. T is in Seat 3. and (E) all can be true. then S is in Seat 4. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. S. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. if S is three places to Q‟s right. and (E). but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. L and M can be in Seats 6. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. P. or 8. or in Seat 5. As we saw in Question 1. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5.000. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). so (B) is out. 2. then S is in Seat 3.
7. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. K. I. G. and J. F. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. Switch H and J. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. If H is added to the same room. If put in the same room. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. I and G switch. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). one by one. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. but shorthanding the rules might help. then male K infects G. (D). If (A). This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. Questions 7-9 In this game. If (A). K infects F (Rule 2). The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. 9. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. J. Another room contains patients with I. (C)Too broad. If this is the case. H + I F. (B). You are told that one room contains patients with H. so (A) is out. So jot down H L. and G. L G. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. a patient with Disease L. it's the change over the course of the war that is. eliminating (B). or F: L K. then K infects F. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). and J. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. and a male with K. and J. The study isn't clear on this point. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument.(B)The annual profit isn't important. enters a room with H. more . not established ones. Specifically. H. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. G. not in one particular phrase. male K. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. L). Switch J and G. it's possible that these people are related to each other. If (C). (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. L F. 6. K and G switch. 8. one by one. so (A) is wrong. If K is added. K G. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. Rule 3 says L infects K. I. If L is added to the room with F. then L infects F (Rule 3). Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients.
eighth. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. and since only one must be true. (A) and (E) can be true. and ninth. Stated positively. and there are five news programs total. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. two jazz programs. The four remaining programs. (C). Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. 12. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. and E for educational. and you know that one educational program is seventh. fifth. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. is correct. . so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. You‟re left with one educational program. From here. 11. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). Your sketch should look something like this: 10. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. three news and one educational. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. both stated and easily deduced. arrange nine radio programs (five news. so place an E in slot 7. As for the others. So (C) is correct. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. One educational program is seventh. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. and two educational) into order. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. If the first five programs are all news programs. second.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. (C): only one-K infects G. Start with what you know. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. J for jazz. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. So (A) is correct. two jazz programs. and one educational program to place. (E). two jazz. must be first through fourth in whatever order. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. There are five news programs. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. scan the choices. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. but needn‟t be. and third. (B) and (C) are patently false. (D): only one-K infects F. fourth. Among the choices. one program per slot. sixth. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. in whatever order. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh.
While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. N. J. (A). N. but need not be true. Q. In order to satisfy Rule 4. N. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. If R gets off fourth. O. N. N. although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. E. but needn‟t be. Under this question‟s conditions. N. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. and (E) can be true. O.13. J. then Q gets off fifth. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. M. That‟s three. however. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. and P remain. N. That makes four. (C). O. but E can also be first: E. E. N. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). N. seventh. M. and P must get off sixth. and one of the educational programs is seventh. and (D) must be true. with O and P getting off together ninth. E or N. so (D). E. (B). Therefore (A). N. J. (B). Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. N. E. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. J. and ninth. E or N. N. so M must be seventh. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. eliminating (D). Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. Only L. Since no one gets off eighth. Since no one gets off eighth. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). so (E) is the answer. Looking at the master sketch. Incorporate the rules. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. seven members of a family (L. N. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. R must get off either first or second. who gets off before O. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. E. If M gets off third. J. M gets off before O (Rule 5). N. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . Questions 14-18 For this game. or news-jazz-news. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. J. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). (C). R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. P. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. and N gets off after Q. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. must be true: No one can get off sixth. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. J. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. N. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. J. but for every other stop only one member can get off. N. so they get off at 7 and 9. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. 16. N. you‟d see that (E) can be true. 15. N. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). Your sketch might look something like this: 14.
17. but none are definite. So put a U in slot 2. If Y and Z are perishable. OR If Q gets off at 5. one product per car. Questions 19-22 In this game. V must precede W. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. then Q gets off fifth. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. (A). then N and M must get off before seventh. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. However. 2. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). Start with what you‟re given. at the ninth stop. and then add what you know. 2-L. In other words. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. If R gets off fourth. and look for one of them as an answer choice. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). second. in either order. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. third. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. (C). L must get off at the ninth stop. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. and (E) can‟t be true.X. 3-X. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. V . Incorporate the rules. but none have to be true. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. you must distribute six products (U. 9-OP. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. either. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. If X is perishable. and (E) are all possible. or 3. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. Y can‟t immediately follow W. (B). leaving only O and L. 18. (B). X . Your sketch should look something like this: 19. but need not be true. That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. or sixth. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R.before O (Rule 5). and (E) can be true. (C). Therefore. (C). Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4.. then R can only get off at 1. W. neither N nor M can get off ninth. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. using six dashes to represent the boxcars.. Since U is in Car 2. so O must get off ninth and (A). 5-Q. P can‟t get off ninth. (D). 20. (C). 8-M. Therefore. shorthand it U. (B). namely first. 4-R. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. If O gets off seventh. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. This might get you thinking. 7-N. L and P must get off together. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. Z) onto six boxcars. 6-X. Create a master sketch. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. V. (B).Y. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. and (E) are all possible. (A) can‟t be true.
21. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. Y. (B) is correct. X. however. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. for which choice no evidence is given. is in Car 5 and Car 6. (A). (D). Y. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). Y. and Car 5 with Car 6. (E)Assumes that. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. Y. in either order. or W. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . along with X. V. U is in Car 2. U. so (D) need not be true. U is in 2. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. and (E) are possible. U. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some.must be in Car 1 and W. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. V. X. Z. U. If W and V are perishable. 23. situations. If Y and Z are perishable. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. There are four possibilities. a precedent may already have been set. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. If. Z. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. (C). and (E) must all be true. but (C) CANNOT be true. in either order. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). X. X. Thus. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. (B). Therefore. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. V. in order: W. Therefore. there was some reason that . (B). in either order. in either order. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. or W. leaving Z in Car 1. 22. not necessarily at all times. Z. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. 25. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. Z. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. (D) can be true. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. or W. 24. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. V. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. W is in Car 1. not all. U. (A). Also.
Kundala. and Delgado.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. The . (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. (A)This is a logistical problem. it doesn't affect the rationale. Carter. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. it's the stressinducing qualities of red. Hiro. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. Best. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. regardless of the reason. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. and Lamming—and four juniors. Adams.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D).
which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. If Best is chosen to attend. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. 1. 5. Kundala. Hiro. Lamming must also be chosen. Kundala (E) Hiro. rather than societal. Lamming. Best 2. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. conflict. Because of high demand. . only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. Adams. Carter (B) Kundala. Best (D) Fox. Hiro. symbolism.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. If Carter is chosen for the convention. Carter cannot be chosen. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. if true. Dr. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. Delgado (C) Hiro. (E) Dr. (D) Dr. If Hiro is chosen to attend. and style. Anderman‟s imprisonment. If Fox is chosen to attend. Which of the following. Kundala cannot be chosen.
P (C) R. S 8. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. Q. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. . R. Q. is examined second. R. Which of the following. 6. S (B) S. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. S. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. non-urban. and each pet will be examined just once. P.In order for this argument to be logically correct. Q. Q. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. R (E) Q. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. S must be examined before P is examined. P (D) S. 7. R. P. R. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. areas are now affected. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. Q. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. if true. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. The pets will be examined one by one.
At least one comedian must appear on each show. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . G E. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. Only A. (C) E. B. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. 9. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. If CANNOT (A) A. (D) A. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. (E) P is examined fourth. 11. F.(D) R is examined third. D E. If R is examined third. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. F F. Which of the following. (E) P must be examined fourth. (D) S must be examined first. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. (B) C. E are comedians. B appears on Saturday's show. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. D. (E) C. C. G D. C. E. G 13. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. if true.
Fish Teriyaki. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Pork Szechuan. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. they cannot be served consecutively. but if both are selected. The eight eligible entrees are. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. in ascending order of popularity. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. chosen from a group of eight. and Chicken Vindaloo. Pork Szechuan . Beef Enchilada. Beef Enchilada. 17. Lobster Mombasa. Chicken Kiev. Chicken Dijon. from first course to fourth course. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Chicken Kiev. Fish Teriyaki. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. and if B appears on Saturday's show. Chicken Dijon. Beef Enchilada. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. Lobster Mombasa. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient.(D) five (E) six 14. Pork Szechuan. The menu will consist of four entrees. Beef Enchilada. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16.
(C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. powerful sunlight. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. it does not exist naturally in the desert. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. Desert X is an environment with constant. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. Pork Szechuan 18. Fish Teriyaki. . and next to no moisture.(E) Beef Enchilada. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. Lobster Mombasa. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. 23. nor does it survive long when introduced there.
Desert X can support almost no plant life. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. . In the hands of a Freudian critic. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. The problem. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. 25. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. 24. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. however. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. (B) For one week in the fall. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. the literary work loses its specificity. In fact.
then no c. Best. and Kundala. violating Rule 4. or can‟t be chosen at all. That leaves (C). there must be at least two seniors. you can only choose one or the other. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. H. Lamming must be chosen. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. Delgado). The three available seniors are Lamming. 2. aren‟t required. then no F). The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. a junior. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). then no K. 3. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. c. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). or (B). Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. (C) and (E). and one choice violates none of them. In other words. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. then Fox isn‟t (if K. then Fox can‟t be chosen. eliminating (D). This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. For this acceptability question. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. . 4. d for the four juniors. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. Hiro must be chosen. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. then no H). four choices violate one or more rules. As Rule 1 says. K. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. then Carter isn‟t: If H. Fox. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. Lamming must also be chosen. Kundala. That eliminates (A). then L. but not both. if Kundala is chosen. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). L for the four seniors. being juniors. Carter. Kundala isn‟t. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. You are given that Carter. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. Hiro. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Since the question asks who must be chosen. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. is chosen. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. One is Kundala. Compare each rule to the choices. 1. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. b. and a. or (C).
Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. Q. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. then not A (they didn't want them). (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. if B. however. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). Rule 1 states that R is second or . (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. Thus. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. place four pets (P. this has no effect. however. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once.they were written after her release. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. If. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). S) in an order to be examined. nothing need have changed. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. then C (they were able to buy tickets). 6. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. if A. Create a master sketch of four dashes. R. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. only now more of them have been identified. If. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. then C. so this won't weaken the conclusion. 5.
and one choice violates none of them. so S must be first and P must be fourth. and E. F. E and G are chosen with B. either S or Q can be first. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. None of the choices include both F and D. if A. if Q is first and R is third. Questions 11-16 In this game. leaving (B). (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. are on Saturday. Since S must be seen before P. then F and D are . The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. 10. P. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. and P can be second or fourth. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. For this acceptability question. S. From that. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. four choices violate one or more rules. You are told B is on Saturday. If A is the only comedian on Friday. then C and E. Q or S. (A). must appear on Saturday. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. Q. R. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. without violating the rules. Therefore. R. but so can S. We know R can be third. If R is third. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. C. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. C. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. Rule 1 states that only A. 11. 9. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. the other comedians. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 2 kicks in. You need to have S before P. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. R. P or Q. E.third. R must be third. Therefore. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. S before P. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. are comedians. so you need three more guests for Saturday. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. there are (C) three different orders possible. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. Q is either first or second. 12. Therefore E. 8. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. D. Create a master sketch. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. P. B. You are given that Q is examined before R. then two of the four slots are filled. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. so S can be first or second. Then.
A must therefore be with D. If Friday is C. (Rule 2). from among F. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. and F. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. D. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. Place B and G on either night. G. (C) is correct. E. B. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. The groups in (A). Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. violating Rule 3. F. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. for two more possible lists. F. D. 13. D. B or G and Saturday is C. Beef Enchilada. must be on Friday. E. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. B. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. but not definite. E. D. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. Questions 17-22 For this game. In other words. Chicken Kiev. Try each choice in turn. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. D. From that you can deduce that Beef . F. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. so (C) and (E) are both possible. 16. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. so (A) is correct. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. D. The entrees. B and/or G. E. (B). Lobster Mombasa. F. C. Friday has at least one comedian. Although F can‟t be with D. D. If Saturday includes C. Therefore. and there‟s your exception. B or E. and G. in either order. So either night can be C. then Friday is A. or E. then Saturday is A. then the other two comedians are on Friday. either one can be with E. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. That means the third comedian. However. or A. That‟s one possible list. G or E. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. Chicken Vindaloo. You can then deduce that C and E are together. violating Rule 3. or (C). E. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. Chicken Dijon. so they can be eliminated. G must be on Saturday. 14. In fact. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. and G. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). and B or G. F and B or G. 15. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. and F are together. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. E. you can further deduce that C. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. Pork Szechuan. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). Since each night has at least one comedian. Fish Teriyaki. B or E. and G. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian.together on Friday. (C). That means F and D are both on Saturday. As in Question 12. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated.
You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. Next. This question says the first entree is based around fish. Pork Szechuan. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. Therefore. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. On the overall list. Therefore. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. and Pork Szechuan. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. On the overall list. Chicken Kiev. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. but can‟t be consecutive. In the order. For this acceptability question. (A). According to Rule 2. Lobster Mombasa. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first.e. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. Compare each rule to the choices. one. So (D) is correct. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. but neither can be chicken. in that order. 17. in that order. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. is correct. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. so (A). you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. 20. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. Kiev and Vindaloo. and one choice violates none of them. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. Fish Teriyaki. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. violating Rule 2. By the way. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. Lobster Mombasa. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. That way. So Chicken Dijon is first. 21. (E) is the exception. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. so the other Chicken entrees. Well. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. four choices violate one or more rules. 18. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. That leaves Beef Enchilada. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. and Chicken Vindaloo. Before looking at the choices. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. there‟s only one fish entree. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. Beef) can‟t both be selected. 19. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. must be removed. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. then only . so Chicken Dijon can only be second.
beef. (C)Too general. but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. 23. 22. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. it's that it's too powerful. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. therefore. . The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. so it's dry. sunny and hot. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. If Lobster Mombasa is second. Y likes dry and sunny regions. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. X is a desert. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. correct. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. determine all that can or must be true. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. If there were multiple correct interpretations. 25. Beef Enchilada must be second. (C) and (E) are true. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. Pork Szechuan must be third. That leaves (B). 24. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. yet it doesn't.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo.
J. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. 1. G. L. M. J. H. (E) O. Which of the runners? (A) F. J. O. K. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. (D) K.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. F. G. K. There were no ties for any finishing position. H. G. F finished ahead of both G and L. O. L. G. F. M. L finished immediately ahead of H. K. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. L. M. O. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. L. H. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . F. O. and M finished ahead of J.org 2. L. H. K finished ahead of M. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. (C) K. L. O. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. or behind. H. J. M. M. K. (B) G.
Which of the following. ahead of K. if filled into the above blank. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. Today. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. rather than mask. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. ahead of G. If F finished fourth. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . 5. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. its function as a supporting structure. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. first. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O.
S. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. R. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. . but N is not. and N. (D) The Arbican population decreased. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. 8. who are power players. exactly two power players will be chosen. it reached 3%.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. (C) The Arbican population decreased. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. and V. in 1980. If the statements above are true. (B) V is not chosen for the team. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. N and V. He can choose from among eight players—M. This percentage steadily declined. (B) The Arbican population increased. and T. P. doubles partners. Q. until. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. (E) The Arbican population increased. If Q is chosen for the team. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. If T is chosen for the team. who are finesse players. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. If T is chosen for the team.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
25. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. 24. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake.C. . at a site thought to be 6000 years old. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. which took place about 6000 years ago. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. far earlier than was previously believed. at around 3000 BC. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. How can it exist. after all. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC.
For this acceptability question. Combining all of the deductions. and (C) is out. 3. J. and therefore correct. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. J. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. which can finish eighth. and J to go first. Since L must finish before H. and K. and M finished before J. If F is fourth. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. four choices violate one or more rules. M. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. or vice versa. then G and L (from Rule 6). or vice versa. O. Stated positively. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. 2. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. O is third. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. Rule 5 says K finished before M. Compare each rule to the choices. Just to be sure. so F can‟t finish eighth. If H is seventh. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. and seventh or eighth. So M must be second. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). in that order (according to Rule 5). the following runners can‟t finish first: H. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. K can‟t be last. That leaves (A) as possible. H. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. G. and neither G nor L can finish first. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. But that‟s impossible since you know . Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. so neither K nor M can finish last. O. As we deduced in the game overview. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. That eliminates (B) and (D). K. You can also deduce that F finished before H. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. and see what you can deduce. L. second. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. H. eliminating (A). and M finished before J. J and O. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. and O.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. O is fourth. and one choice violates none of them. From another combination of deductions. the only runners who can finish first are F. So start with F in the fourth slot. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. try the other possibilities for H. and M can‟t be either first or last. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. so L can‟t be last. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. That leaves (E). M. O is exactly two spaces in front of H.
The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. so (B). which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. 7. and J to be placed. M. if H is eighth then O is fifth. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. as in (E). not how clarity affects ornament. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. To conclude this. G must be next to O. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). and (E) are possible. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. so (A) is correct. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). G can‟t be first. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. and J is third. 5. From that it follows that if H is sixth. G. Finally. not definite. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. 4. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. (C). So K is first. (D). or belligerent. Since G can‟t finish before F. and then G is sixth. While the percentage tells us the relation . K can finish in first. in that order. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. If a republic is pacific. (C)Irrelevant. or fourth. M is second. The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. If L is fifth. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. 6. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. So G can finish second or fourth. Therefore. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. That leaves K. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. (D) (E)Outside the scope. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. To evaluate this claim. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. second. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. and K to be placed. In 1960. so far: That leaves F. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. (B) is the answer. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. So the order. O is third (from Rule 4). By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. If M is seventh.that F is fourth. then according to Kant. In either case.
only (D) is impossible. However. but the percentage migrating has fallen. T) and power (N. then you have two finesse players and one power player. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. That eliminates (E). then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases.between the two. then exactly two power players are chosen. That‟s fine. the number migrating would have to decrease. (E)If the number migrating is the same. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. while the percentage decreases. so there‟s too many power players. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. You are given that Q. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. Q. Questions 8-11 In this game. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. Check each choice. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. 8. V. as it says in Rule 2. or of Arbicans who made this migration. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. use your drawing on a question to question basis. but when T is chosen. both numbers could increase. according to Rule 5. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. 9. Given this inFORMation. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. one by one. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. to play in a tournament. P. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). R. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). is chosen. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. V. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. N. a power player. M and T are both finesse players. finesse (M. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. S. However. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. V). and Q are all power players. so (A) is out. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. (A)It's possible. Keep it simple. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). Beyond that. and Q are all power players. If T is chosen. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. select from two groups of tennis players. If M and P are chosen with Q.
Note this in your sketch. Between 10:30 and 11:00. P. The meetings are one-half hour in length. a sketch is essential. 11:30 am. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. if exactly two power players are chosen. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. and S to pair up. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. and since there are already two power players. and N are all power players. MS. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. . How many pairs can be made from M. That leaves M. eliminating (C). That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. is left). there are only three available finesse player: T. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). 10:00 am. Therefore. then N isn‟t chosen either. If V isn‟t chosen. 10. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). so if they‟re not chosen. Any of those pairs. the correct choice can be deduced. In other words. With M excluded.players chosen. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. As for the others: If N is not chosen. combined with the four power players. Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. (D). T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. 11:00 am. Look at each column. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. For this game. T is not chosen for the team. Refer to your sketch. and S? Three: MP. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. That makes three possible combinations. so (C) is correct. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. every professor except B is available. and PS. are acceptable combinations. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. P. 11. If T is chosen. P. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). as defined by the rules. Since the question asks which must be true. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. V. is the answer. Q. 10:30 am. (E). If a professor is available at a given time. R. so S must be chosen. and 12:00 pm. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). and S. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. Use a grid.
Check each choice one by one. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. (D). so (B). Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. (B). is correct. However. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. (E). Looking at your sketch. Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. one of the principals on each committee is the same. first find all the possible times that Ax. (C). check each choice in turn. then Q serves on the same committee. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. but at 9:30. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. can meet three times. Bulos and Franz.13. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. Bulos and Dohee. Ax and Chow. M. (D). can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. can both meet at 10:30. Ax and Dohee are both available. and Franz. therefore M serves on Curriculum. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. can both meet at 9:30. can only meet at 10:30. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. (D). P. at 9:30. (B). Chow. As we saw in the previous question. Ax and Bulos. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. Go through the rules. the “swing” principal. that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. and 11:30. (C). Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. Some principals. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. using your sketch as the reference. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. 17. always look for opportunities to use previous work. (A). so 11:30 to 12:00. (A). 16. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. Q. can‟t meet. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). making as many deductions as you can. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. For this question. Those times are at 10:30. 10:00. 14. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. N. So (B) is the answer. 11:00. P. Dohee and Franz. So M. (C). Chow and Franz can meet. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. Your sketch should look . At 9:00. and 10:30. the “swing” principal. but L and Q must serve together. two. Create a master sketch. Dohee and Egger. 15. Dohee is the only other professor available. Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. Remember. or can only serve on one committee. Egger and Franz. Remember. However. O.
and P. if we know which one is on both committees. Determine who must be on which committee.some thing like this: 18. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. Therefore. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. to serve on the Ethics Committee. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. So (A) is the answer. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. O and P. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). O. and which one is on one committee only. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. As we‟ve already seen. and L. or (A). then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. L can‟t be on both committees. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. That leaves (C). M. the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. leaving (D). Q. 21. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. contradicting (B) and . We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. (B). then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). Now. (C) and (D) are both possible. so (A) is wrong. and then check the choices. so eliminate (D) and (E). Otherwise. so neither can be on both committees. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. which is a violation of Rule 4. only N or O can serve on the same committee. Choices (A). so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. 20. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. 19. 22. N. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. so (C) is correct. as the other pair. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. (D). leaving (C). O. N. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). to serve on both committees.
(D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. (A)The author says that no such body exists. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. he merely says that it doesn't.. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties.(C). were used. not oxen. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. so their opinion can't be applied here. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. 25. (D)The issue is when horses. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used. so India is beyond the scope. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. 24. and as it is. but there's no proof that it was. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. 23. the issue is the definition of international law. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . but he needn't assume that most do violate them. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. or before approximately 3000 BC. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
R must perform eighth. L. If P performs first. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively. G. Bands F. second. H.. The nine bands must perform one after the other. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three .taisha. Q. Bands P. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. 1. and M are rock bands.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. or third. H must perform sixth. and R are country bands. and each band must perform once and only once. L must immediately precede M in the order. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. K. K must perform either first. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands.
but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. Which of the following statements. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. (D) P must perform immediately before K. then P performs first. then Q performs fifth. if true. then M performs sixth. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first.(D) four (E) five 4. Because of this. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. performs seventh. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. performs ninth. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . In light of these findings. performs third. however. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. 7. Recently. For several decades. performs ninth. 6. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. then G performs seventh. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. then F performs seventh. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. 5.
they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. In light of these disturbing revelations. and O. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. not be chosen. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. and the sociologists P. Just last week. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. and vice versa. then N must then O must are chosen. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. and R. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. L and M chosen. N. . M. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. Q. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. then M must also be chosen. 8. also be chosen. chosen. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. then Q must not be chosen. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. however. The only available lecturers are the historians L.
Q. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. (C) If M is chosen. R. M. T. (E) N is not chosen. S. O. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. P is not chosen. and P for presentation at the soiree. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. Z. U has prepared only works by poets K. L. O is not chosen. G. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. Q is not chosen. (B) O is chosen. (D) If O is chosen. N is not chosen.9. sometimes move Q and S to tears. (E) L must never be chosen. (D) M is not chosen. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. P sometimes move W. L. R. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. H. (B) R must never be chosen. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. and to laughter. Exactly four lecturers are chosen. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. If all of the sociologists are chosen. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. M. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. N. L is not chosen. P. 10. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. W. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. and Z. Q. N.
table. table lamp. mirror. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. painting. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. N. lamp. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. rug. sofa. N. den. The sofa is placed in the living room. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. 17. and L only (E) works by K. painting. rug.laughter. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. rug. 14. rug. and L only (E) works by K. then he or she is bored. wardrobe. and L only (D) works by N. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. vase. sofa. table. K. and living room of a client‟s house. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. table. vase . and L only 16. mirror. rug. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. vase vase mirror. P. and wardrobe. P. table lamp.
(C) The table is placed in the den. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. 20. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. 19. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. table. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. table (E) table. 21. vase (C) lamp. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms.18. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. (E) The vase is placed in the den. Yet . then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. table (B) rug. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. vase 23. (E) The vase is placed in the den. the painting. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. rug (D) painting. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. rug. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. the lamp. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. and if the wardrobe. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. If the lamp.
they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. Which one of the following. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. which can be fatal. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. if true. where the legal drinking age was still 18. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. his liver loses the . Furthermore. 24. Research has shown. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. however. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. Therefore. Which of the statements below. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol.paradoxically. if true. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. 25. as well as cholesterol that is ingested.
Q. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. L is fourth. prove or band. R. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. in either order. M is fifth. to separate the two country bands. to go in two of the first three slots. G. is a country band. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. as we deduced in the game overview. in either order. (E): L and M must be together. H is sixth. in either order. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. six rock bands (F. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. R is eighth (Rule 3). That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. respectively. second. and R is eighth. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. second. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. H. 2. respectively. Therefore (A) is correct. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. Since K is first. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. they are first and third. Create a master sketch. one at a time. Combine Rules 1 and 3. That means K must be second. second. M is fifth. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. then Q must be third. There are only two . incorporate the rules. such as shrimp. P and Q. are F 3. L. (Rule 1). is a country band. 1. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. pair. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. R. K. in order to appear at a music marathon. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. M) and three country bands (P. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. K is second. and R is eighth. If P is first. R) must be placed. That leaves two country bands. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. in either order. or third. is a country band. only. or third. or third. Rule 4 states that K is first. Since K is first. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. in either order. then L and M must be fourth and fifth.
Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. (E) must be true: H is 5. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. in either order. and (D) Q—they can be true. respectively. however. Since the question is worded. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. and P and Q. If G performs before F. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. (E)If anything. eliminate any choice that can be false. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. 6. then G is seventh position except first and third.possibilities. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. 7. we‟re only concerned with this city. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. and F is ninth. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. but need not is ninth. so (B). the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. If. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. . (B). The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. 4. (A).. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. So we know every in either order. which of the following must be true.
That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. M. then Q is not chosen. then not Q). then M is chosen. R Incorporate the rules. then not O If O. Since the question is worded.8. then M 9. (B). since R is chosen. some of the diseases may have other causes. and if N is chosen. Create a master sketch. Start with what you are given. N. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. O) and sociologists (P. then R can‟t be chosen. then not R If L + M. then O isn‟t chosen. then not Q If R. N. So (A) is correct. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. and (E) are all false. or M and Q. O Sociologists: P. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. In other words. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. Therefore. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. (C). Q. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. shorthanded: P + N together If R. Q. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. If R and Q . Q. and noting who can be chosen together. but they‟re not being followed. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. 10. then N is chosen. P and N together. M. and R) are chosen. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. then P is chosen. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. The rules. without violating Rule 3. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. listing the available speakers. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. R) to lecture before a class. Notice that you can take L and Q. which of the following CANNOT be true. (D). (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests.
Q. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. M must be chosen. (E) is false. of L. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. so (C). and P and N can be chosen. and R. then M can‟t be chosen. for completeness. N. If O and M are chosen together. then R can‟t be chosen). we can only take a maximum of two from M. That‟s L. M must be chosen). However. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. Since the question says possibly. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. Therefore. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. b for bored. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. M can‟t be chosen. N. so it‟s correct. and we‟ve just proved that. S. But if L and Q are chosen. T. so take R (via Rule 4). M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. So (B) is only possible. H. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. W. in this case a grid: 14. the full deduction: Of Q or L. At this point you can stop. and Q. if R is chosen. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. H and T are always . This question is a good example of using previous work. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. That leaves (B) as correct. So take L and M. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. That eliminates (C). and O. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. We already took M. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. Based on Rules 2 and 4. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). Q. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. M. eliminating (C). and L and O can‟t chosen. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. R. and M must be chosen. or five. Therefore. As we learned in Question 6. 12. or “some. Scan the choices for L.are chosen. 11. Since R. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. and R are chosen. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. then not Q. and you find them in (D): If L. (A) and (D) can be true. So. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. Q. then not O. we can only take two of the three. l for laughter.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. and R. P. 13. and not just sometimes. L. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. G. so (D) is the answer. but needn‟ t be true. then M. and P. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. M. not definite. If O and M aren‟t chosen. Q. if L and Q are chosen.
sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. Compare each rule to the choices. So (C) is out. Refer to your sketch. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. den. (C). and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. four choices violate one or more rules. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). so (D) is possible. but otherwise is bored. W. Therefore. and locate T. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. For this acceptability question. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. then that‟ s our answer. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. poets L and P. so the combination of poets K. S. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . and one choice violates none of them. or 1. Questions 17 . and sometimes move a literati to laughter. and work your way towards the abstract ones. P. (B). leaving (A). That leaves (D).moved to laughter. The others: P and N. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). with circles or columns representing the different rooms. P. N. a violation of Rule 4. W) in three rooms (bedroom. and 4. sometimes move four literati to tears. Start with the rules that are most concrete. K. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). four literati are sometimes moved to tears. one literati is always moved to laughter. M. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. Rule 4 places S in the living room. N. and Z sometimes moved to tears. and (E). Put an S in the living room. V.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. so no PV. S. Poet K moves T to laughter. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. so (B) and (E) are wrong. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. 2. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. one literati is always moved to laughter. You can place the items in the rooms. in any order. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. T. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. 15. living room). so (B) is out. Depending on how you look at it. P. 3. but N moves T to boredom. 16. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. throwing out violators. (D). (D). If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. always move one literati to laughter. then F and Q are always moved to tears. If (A). in any order. (C). so MW. and 5. R. bored by poet N. and P is the exception. and T. (D) places the sofa in the den. and there are eight items total. Create a master sketch. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. H by poet N and T by poet K.
the den. or 5 items in any given room.den. in any order. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. but not “always” 2. Since Rule 5 is suspended. 4. M. and W are in the living room. 2. eliminating (C). 21. S. so it‟s the answer. which claim that the den has 3 items. that leaves only two items. If M is with S. Since the living room has W. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. in any order. L. (B). So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. leaving only (E) as possible. and S. That eliminates (B) and (D). M. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. 19. Since we can have 2. (C). Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. according to Rule 2. and there are eight items total. T is in the den. L is in another room. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. Start with the second piece of information in the question. (B). but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. 3. and 4. in either order. (D). 20. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. . or 5. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. and the den has 2 items. so the den can only contain one item. one room must have exactly 1 item. the sofa and the vase. and T must therefore be in the living room. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. and 5. R. so (A). Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). and (E) can be eliminated. 3. V can be in the den. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. (C). then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. M. and S. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. (A). As we learned in Question 20. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. but you must have at least one item in each room. for the other two rooms. T. You know that P can‟t be with V. 3. violating Rule 1. L. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). with the other joining S in the living room. Start with S in the living room. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. 18. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. so either P or V is in the den. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. then the living room contains W. If W is in the living room. 22. That means the living room has more than one item. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. (B). then. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. 4. is empty. or 1. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). Next. and (E) are wrong. Only (B) follows the rules. as (A) states. then the third room. so P is in the living room with S.
(A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. Well. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. to lower blood cholesterol levels. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels.23. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. dietary or medical. . (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. According to research. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. If. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. however. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. 24. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. so why the increase in drunk driving. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. hence the increase in accidents. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. 25. Otherwise. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
one trainer and one dog per room. (E) F is not chosen. To test the system. three trainers (Luis. then J must also be chosen. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. Molly. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. Mugs. If G is chosen for the issue.If F is chosen. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. If M is not chosen for the issue. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. (C) H is not chosen. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. 7. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. .
Q. W. One of the apartments is empty. the bottom floor is Level B. between two other apartments on the same level. 12. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. W (C) Z. X (B) W. W. Y. W (B) X. X 14. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. Z. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. A (D) X. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. W (D) W. to T‟s apartment on the same level. Z (C) W. A. to the empty apartment on the same level. X (E) X. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. S. The top floor is called Level A.11. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. W. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. T. Command W. W. . V. Z. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. one to an apartment. four on each floor. W. W. Y. W. Exactly seven people—P. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. W (E) Z. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. Y. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. R. A. levels. Y. and W—live in the building.
and H—are senior club members. H. Three of those present—F. M cannot play dominoes. R‟s apartment is on Level A. K. two will play chess.15. There must be a senior club member playing each game. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. Each person present can play only one of the three games. G. P . M. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. and two—P and R—are club applicants. K. 19. H. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. chess. two—K and M—are junior club members. M. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. R (B) G. F. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. directly above T‟s apartment. 17. directly above P‟s apartment. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. and dominoes. R. H and P must play the same game. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. and three will play dominoes. respectively? (A) G. F. G cannot play the same game that R plays. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. P.
P. and not those of self-interest. By doing so. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. R (E) F. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. M (D) H. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. G plays backgammon. P. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. P plays chess. G. 24. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. F. K.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. R. If R plays backgammon. R 20. (B) Only ethical considerations. K.(C) F. G. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. M. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. This is not merely a matter of using . European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. H. notably Japan. M. P. G. H. K. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. F plays dominoes. M plays backgammon. 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game.
(B) has sage first. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. (B) It is a workday. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. or the commissary is serving fish. and (E) has N coming after T. pollution would be drastically reduced. 25. or both. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. so it‟s out. S and T. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment.manual mowers instead of power mowers. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. and (D) has C before A. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. If all the statements above are true. so they‟re out. so the first spice is either N or A. or the commissary is serving fish. 3)S can‟t be first. C. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. you may be able to meet the actors. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. what needs to be done must be done. Something must be done about the 51. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. or both. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. N. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. . Such concerns are irrelevant here.
He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. so scratch (D) and (E). A is joined with C. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. S. then the 20% . A can‟t be last since C comes after A. and it can‟t be second either. since we can‟ t separate A and C. C. so eliminate (A) and (B). Previously. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. If they don‟ t. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges.000 apiece. N. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. There‟s no supporting evidence. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. N and T will work. 3=========FIN A1= First. C. Now we have AC and S. it‟s simply irrelevant. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. T. 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. (E) is the assumption. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. which limits our options. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. S. S can‟t be first. Try plugging in numbers. Our sequence is A. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. (A) . the number of attacks would have increased. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. leaving (C). (A) If judges want to keep their jobs.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. put S in the second slot. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. they‟re as fickle as short termers. (D) must be false.
J. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. or 4 dance and 1 theater. so (A) is correct. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. k. but the rest is wide open. With Rule 1. so we can eliminate (E). and if we cross out m we circle k. choice (A) . (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. so (C) is correct. Let‟s jump to (C). 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. we need 3 lower case and k. G. and circle k. l. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. you can circle the other 3. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. you know you can circle k. making them easy to eliminate. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. If you circle m. (A) . o. We have J. o. our answer. you have to cross out J. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. m can‟t be. you can‟t have m and to have F. you must choose J. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. J. If you have J. If you circle F. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). l and o. if G and J are circled. so there are three possibilities and (C). You can combine Rules 2 and 3. so we can eliminate (C). (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. circle k. and since m is dance. As we saw in Question 8. you must have J. choosing J yields three possible groups. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). 2)If J is chosen. three. 3)If you choose F. l and o— those are your five articles. m. If you circle G . you see that if you cross out m. not what type of sets consumers prefer. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. l and o. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. you have to choose the other three dance articles. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . l. H. l and o. and if you choose m. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. l and o and you need go no further. G or H. Cross out m. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. you have to cross out J and F . m is not. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. k. is correct. k. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. F.
the only one that moves trainers. since if F is chosen. 4)With command Z. H. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. then moving them around according to different commands. and L moves to Room 2. H. k. not in 2. and the second W moves her to 2. The first W moves O to 1. o. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. Which choice is true of that? (B). and the dog in Room 3 stays put. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. we circle J. A second W puts M in 1. l. l. W is called. We can‟t disprove (E). The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. m. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. and to do that we need one X. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. etc. Looking at the wrong choices. not dogs. L. o or G. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. you could have G. J. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. So we have in Room 1. m to M and o to O. and (E) is out because L is with m. (C). but that moves trainers. k. m. two Ws. then see what commands move them to Room 2. m. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . L in 2. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. G. m or G. So l returns to L. not 1. not with o. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. the dogs return to their original trainers. she‟s there with o. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. If we circle F and G. For the record. l. M is in Room 3. Let‟s jump to (E).and H. and Oo in Room 3. not with m. l. k. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. Mm in Room 2. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. We have three trainers. (A) is out because O is with l. putting Onyx in 1. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. k. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. so it‟s correct. l. But we need five. Ol . ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. and M in 3. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. H. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. 5)With command A. and o. Yes. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. J is chosen. We have rooms 1. 3)With command Y. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. 2 and 3. (C) is out because M is with o. O in 2 and L in 3. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . 2)With command X. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G.
V. how to go from l. so since B-2 is occupied by S. empty. so add empty to A. empty and Q on A. We have W. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. Y. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. O. so Q is on A. Q. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . 1 or 4. putting m in 2 and l in 3. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. W and A puts O again in 1. but l in 2. the other on B. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. O to M. S on B. so P is in B-3. we have no more light on the R and V issue. call W twice. Take your people. P is next to T. W is on A. and fill them in the eight slots. V and R are left—one will be on A. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. the dogs seek out their trainers. So T is in 2 or 3. so you have Oo in 1. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. W . As for the others. And with (A) and (C). o to o. so we know that P and T are on B. m. 8 apartments—1 is empty. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. l? One call of Z. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. you get O. it has to be next to P in B-2. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. and we need a place for V. 2)S and Q are on different levels. L in 2. (A) ‟s sequence of X. To get from L. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. S. (C). (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. m. M in 1. and as for (C) and (D). since T can‟t be on the end. so we‟ve got our answer. P. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. But if you call A.correct. P is in B-4. W. not A-4. So W and S have to be in A- . O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. empty unit. one‟s on A. L. 3)P and T are adjacent. Call W once. As for (D). As for (B). Q and (E). (B). L. M. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. A. so either TP or PT . 2 and 3—call it again and get M. For the dogs. R. So we put S underneath in B-2. and T can‟t be on an end. T. 4)T is not in one of the ends. L. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. so (E) is correct. With P in B-3. W and empty. P. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. Y lines up the dogs. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. so W is on A and S is on B. O. S. Now turn to the W. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. are both on A. 5)W is next to empty. R and V. but that isn‟t a choice.
19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. since H is with p . m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. they must play dominoes. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. since they have m playing dominoes. G. The question asks about A-1. Nix (E). H and p are together. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess.1 and B-1. making (D) correct . p and r in dominoes is okay. since H. T. empty unit. k and m are both lower . so it‟s out and (D) is correct. (or p and someone else). If they play chess. so (A) is out. H. (B). Turn to our W. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. P and S are out because they‟re on B. F. F. k. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. k and r play dominoes. It must be F. S. m and p. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. It‟s between V and R . Let‟s put seniors in caps. So only two people could go in A-1. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. G. directly above T in B-2. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. (B) has F and H. so it‟s F. and empty goes next to W in A-2. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. 7 slots. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. p and r in dominoes. so H and p must play dominoes. chess with two and dominoes with three. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. and juniors and applicants in lower case. 4)H and p must play the same game. There‟s only one grouping possible. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. Now go to the Hp unit. The Rules: 1)7 people. and only dominoes has three people. 2)Three senior members. so it can‟t be H. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. The senior can‟t be H. which is correct. so we have one cap in each group. r can‟t play with G . 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H.
Besides. but rather that it is necessary. For the record. Japan. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. so (D)‟s correct. “notably Japan. no matter how drastic and costly. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. so it‟s (A) . that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. A makes most of its money back. fish may or may not be served. p and r dominoes. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. G and k in chess and H. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. F and k chess.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. and (B)‟s correct. true on a workday. (D):G and m in backgammon. that the commissary is serving fish.) But m can‟t play dominoes. so k. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . and we need a cap for each. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. or both. and its aid policy. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. according to the stimulus. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. is fine: F and m in backgammon.case. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. to save the environment. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors.” That‟s summarized by (D). (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. That way. F and m. (C). there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. which this doesn‟t mention. We must do what‟s necessary. and H. so k and m can‟t be together. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. the workday with fish. or it‟ s not a workday. p and r in dominoes. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied.
3. X.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. (C) B. G.. W. (E) A. 6. 2.taisha. The sequence is called a combination. If the third symbol is a letter. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. T. L. M. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. R. then the fifth must be either B or D. 1. 4. (B) F. 7. T. K.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. (D) C. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. Which of the (A) E. If the third symbol is a number. =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. Q.
8. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. Q. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. Which of the following. 6. Z. 6. S 4. however. G (E) M. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. and fifth symbols. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. D (B) A. H. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. such as beef and poultry. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. third. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. Thus. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. If the statements above are true. a special visa is required. P. if true. . 9. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. The combination C. 4. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. respectively? (A) J. T (C) 9. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. X (D) 3. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein.
high. In the our economy is wilting. high. low. medium (E) low. low. medium. high. one produces a medium-pitched ring. high. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. low. high. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. 8. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. He decides that. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. 7. medium. low (D) medium. high 9. low. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. . (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. for the sequence. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. 500.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. medium. medium. low. low. of pessimistic forecasts. Over the has greatly expanded. high.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. medium. low. medium (B) low. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. high. high. medium. one cannot argue that Which of the following. medium. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. Last the service sector. if true. and one produces a high-pitched ring. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. medium. medium (C) medium. low. low. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. low. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. low. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. medium. high. low.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
Which of the following. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. cost. (C) Fifteen years ago. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. 24. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (E) Work time. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. cost. however. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. if true. never engage in this aggressive play. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. .(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. According to a recent school survey. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. (D) Work time. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams.
The number is 3rd. replace the F with a D. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. and B doesn‟t. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. E. That leaves (A). (E). That leaves correct choice (D). violating Rule 5. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. the 5th symbol must be B or D. In Option 2. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. so it‟s correct. the number is 2nd. 4=========FIN A2= First. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. 3)In Option 2. (A) begins with E. Only one letter comes after Y . B or D only. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. and (E). The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. you begin with a letter later than B or D. You end with B or D and this ends with F. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. Only (A) gives you that option. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. there can‟t be an F or a G . B is 1st. In Option 2. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. . the 5th must be B or D. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. a Rule 2 no-no. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. Skim to (D). so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. the number is 3rd. F. Each has 4 letters and 1 number.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. So F can‟t begin and E. so (A) won‟t work. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. is correct. If you start with F. so all letters must appear later than E. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. You‟ve used B first. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. and the sequence begins with C . so you‟re left with only D for 5th. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y.
so (C) won‟t work. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that.which works with the rules for Option 2. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. . then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. As for the others. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish.S. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. As evidence. as (B) says. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. (E)Isn‟t inferable. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. So (D) is correct. We talked about that in (A). a special visa is required. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. if you do so. So (D) is correct. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. Focuses on cost. the sequence ends with a D. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. economy continues to grow and prosper. you need a special visa. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. If the population increase is slower than projected. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. (E) replaces the C with an A. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering.
Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. So we‟ll put one low first. medium. 4. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. and low. 5th. (C) puts a high 3rd. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. in 3. low. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. yes. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. (D). and one after. (E) puts the high 8th. and 7th. low is 1st. (E). the correct answer. yes. 3)The two high bells will stick together. the other high 2nd. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. You ring the low bell 3 times. and 8 rings. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. (C). 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. (D) has a high 3rd. and a low. the medium bell 3 times. Now we have to split up the lows. either would be okay. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 4th. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. and mediums 4th and 6th. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. a medium 4th. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. We‟ll have to put two before this set. and 5th. next to the high in 3. so dump (D) and (E). leaving us with (B). it could still be the most important factor overall. The beginning looks like this—low. yes. and 7th. low is 3rd. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. medium. a medium. high bell is 4th. and it‟s correct. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. 4. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. (A) puts the high bell 1st. 4. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. medium. low in 3. one low third. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. That works if we put a low 1st. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. so (D)‟s correct. and split up the lows 1st. high. and 5. 3rd. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. (B) medium is 2nd. then fill the space between with a medium. (A). (A) has high. 5th. and the high bell 2 times. a high. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. and a medium 5th. so (E)‟s correct. and 5. (B) has low. the other high 2nd. yes. high. medium.
Fresno. low 7th. so (C) is correct. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. and no way to do that. Edinburgh. to Edinburgh. Dakar. so this is acceptable. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. 4. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. 7 and 8. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. (D) is fine. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. a low 5th. That‟s acceptable. which makes (B) correct. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. How about (E). 15=========FIN A2= . (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. medium 8th. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. All the others work. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. you could send it to Dakar. low. Caracas. 2 types of memos. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. Fresno. Edinburgh. describes a route it could not have followed. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. the dead end. in both cases they go next to Caracas. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. send the memo to Beijing. and medium in 3. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. (E) has high. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. Edinburgh. start at the home office. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. Fresno. we‟ve discussed this— yes. Caracas. medium 6th. 4 and 5. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. You know that‟s okay from 9. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. Beijing. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. Having done 9 and 10. (C) is fine. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. (E). In priority 2. 1 and 2. Caracas. You have 6 cities. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. and 5. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. Beijing.
where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. so it won‟t work. go to Caracas. and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. Caracas. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. go to Beijing. Option 2. (A). and in Option 2. (C). the dead end. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. and L. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. then Edinburgh. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. you‟d break Rule 3. top to bottom. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. (D) is correct. As far as priority 2. a dead end. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. 1)In Option 1. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. we work with Option 1. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. could have seen the memo. F must be immediately above L . going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. and (A) is correct. write next to shelf 2 no J. That works in priority 1. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. a dead end. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. so (B) won‟t do it. to Caracas. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. the only place it can go is Fresno. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. G. (B). Dakar. so it went to Beijing. What . that‟s three. and H on shelf 2. and then Beijing. Beijing. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. where was it sent? Priority 2. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. and the answer is (C). you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. you can start in the home office. After Dakar. the only place it can go is to Caracas. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. Caracas. Option 1. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. and Beijing. (D). so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. Only Beijing and Fresno. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. write next to shelf 3 no J. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. go to Dakar. You have two options. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first.
(A). J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. J. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. if shelf 3 is empty. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. so you will work with Option 1.must be true? Look at (B). then the only place is shelf 1. and G on 3. K. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. (E). so the only home for K is 3. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. and in Option 2. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. K and J must be on the same shelf. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. and shelf 1 is empty. If H is on shelf three. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. K. K. (B). To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. so J is on shelf 2. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. (B) puts K and L on the same . can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. we just did with (A). L is on shelf 2. so (D)‟s correct. You can put H on shelf three. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. and H is a floater. J is on shelf two. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. So (B)‟s correct. and H on 2 and that left us with L. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. so the only place for K is shelf 3. as long as they‟re on 3. where shelf three is open. so (C) is correct. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. If we split them up. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. and 1 remains empty. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. let‟s look at the situation. so (A)‟s correct. We put F. L. so shelf 1 has F. L. In Option 1. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. (D). we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. shelf 1 is empty. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. then J is on shelf two. we‟ve already said we can. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. J and K are tennis trophies. so it‟s on shelf 2.
We get the former in (A). (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. not because it is better than staining. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. cost. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. that‟s true in Option 1 only. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. but that‟s true only in Option 2. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. so (E)‟s our answer. .shelf. If most students attend services for social reasons. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. Unless there are other differences. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. and longevity are equally important factors. shelf two. cost. (E) has J on shelf two. but J is never on shelf three. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. not the past 15 years. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption.. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. (C) does the trick. (D) has F and shelf.
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