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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Zeller does not treat ears. Dr. Dr. York does not treat noses. Zeller treats throats. Dr. Which of the following must be true? Dr. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Dr. then he or she must also treat throats. Xiao treats ears. Zeller does not treat ears. 14. 17. Xiao does not treat ears. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. (E) Dr. he or she must also treat throats. Xiao treats ears. If Dr. then Dr. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. York does not treat noses. Zeller treats ears. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Dr. Dr. York treats exactly one part of the body. Zeller treats throats. York does not treat throats. If Dr. Dr. York must treat ears. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. Xiao does not treat noses. If Dr. Dr. Xiao treats throats. four on top and four on bottom. which of the following must be true? Dr. Dr. York treats noses. York treats noses. If a doctor treats ears. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. (C) Dr. the . 13. Dr. and throats 15. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. York treats ears. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. Dr. York treats throats. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Dr. Zeller treats noses. Xiao treats throats. Suppose that Dr. York treats noses. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Xiao treats ears.doctors. then he or she must also treat ears. York treats. If Dr. In that case. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. noses.
Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. oranges.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. pears. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. they contain different types of fruit. pears. 22. grapefruit. 18. oranges. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. apples. grapefruit. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. grapefruit. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. pears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. Compartment 1 contains apples. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. or pears. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. grapefruit.
should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. . is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. Governor Kipling. which they could read in the Official Journal. Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years.23. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. Gilliatt can create any mood.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. By raising corporate taxes. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average. they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. 24. however. 25. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. What they don‟t realize. not the intent of his tax hike. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment.
That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. and (C) are false. 4. but need not. As with Question 2. and numbering them 1 through 10. but don‟t need to be true. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. Thus. (D). For this acceptability question. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. 3. and 6) that are each either On or Off. 2. neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). So the sketch looks like this: 1. breaking Rule 2. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. Finally. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). starting with the most concrete. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. If light 2 and light 5 are On. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. four choices violate one or more rules. You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. leaving (B). but (C) has five Ons. Now incorporate the rules. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. (E) can. (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). As for the others: (A). light 6 is Off. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . 2. be true. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. (B). (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. since light 3 is Off. but don‟t need to be true. 5. Therefore. Note that in the sketch.
(E). you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. using columns or circles to . light 4 is On. Otherwise. Therefore. 4. light 3 is Off. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. (E)Beyond the scope. 6. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. it's the effects we're concerned with. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. (C). If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. and light 7 is Off. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. light 5 is also Off. That means light 4 is On. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. Create a master sketch. 7. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior. If this were not the case. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). If light 8 is Off. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1).or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. Questions 8-12 In this game. Start with what you‟re given. is the number that can be determined. (C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. the music's message won't corrupt them. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. in either order. and as we figured out. 5. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. As always. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. (B)Beyond the scope. eight lights. totaling four On lights. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. If light 6 is On. must be true. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. the argument predicts ruin.
Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. K. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. but need not. six committee members can be determined. That leaves J. can. so K. Each committee must have at least three members. O. O can‟t serve with M. so (D). three doctors (shorthanded X. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. be true. Nose. As for the others: (B). Your sketch should look something like this : 8. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. or (C). Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. (C). (B). 10. 11. so put a J under Housing. then N does too. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. K must serve Committee. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N. That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. N). L. If O can‟t serve with P. N. 9. M. and N all serve together. M. and three horizontal rows . using their first initials (J. and Throat. eliminating (D) and (E). and N must serve with M. but don‟t need to be true. Abbreviate the members‟ names. This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. Therefore. O. with three columns to represent the body parts. P can serve on either committee. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. L. O can‟t serve with M. You‟re given that L serves with M. (A). M. Since J is always on Housing. Create a master sketch. then P must serve with M and N. 12. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. In the setup. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. If M serves on Housing. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. Y. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. M. That makes three members on one committee. Questions 13-17 In this game. so (A) can be eliminated. N must serve on Rules. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. and P to serve on Housing. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. (C). or (A). and make as many concrete deductions as possible. L. and (E) are false. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. eliminating (B).represent the two committees. and one member (J) is already on Housing. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). Start with what you‟re given.
15. 14. Both Y and Z must treat noses. (A). 16. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. treat ears. (C). (C) and (E) can be eliminated. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. Go through the choices. then try to make some deductions. Yet. and then add your knowledge of the rules. if Y treats it. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. However. If X treats ears. (C) is correct. (B) is true. be false. X can. (D). If Y treats neither ears nor throats. grapefruit (G). oranges (O). but need not. 17. must be false. that doctor must also treat throats. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. 13. Since X can‟t treat noses.underneath. so does Z. Look at what you have. Y must treat noses. However. ears and throats only. If Y treats ears. one for each doctor. numbered 1-8. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. Therefore. is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. Rule 1 states that ears. but need not. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. according to Rule 2. noses. X must treat at least throats. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. (D). then Y can‟t treat ears. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. if X treats throats. be true. (D). the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. but need not. choices that can be false can be eliminated. then Y must also treat throats. Z also treats. In other words. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. then X must also treat throats. so put “no” in the appropriate column. and (E) can. (A) can. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). Start with what you‟re given. one by one. because of Rule 3. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. Each compartment contains apples (A). If Z doesn‟t treat ears. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). So (B) must be true. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated).
Incorporate the rules. Check each choice in turn. (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). 21. eliminating (D) and (E). and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. four choices violate one or more rules. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. As in Question 20. which contains grapefruit. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). So put an A in Compartment 1. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. For this acceptability question. and one choice violates none of them. This leaves (C). the best way to solve this question is to first figure . Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. However. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). Therefore. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. and 4).e. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. so there are no more than four pears. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. From that and Rules 5 and 6. Place a G in Compartment 8. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). (C). Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. Compare each rule to the choices. From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). That leaves three remaining compartments (2. Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. so (B) is correct. 3. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. as well. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. which contains apples. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. (A) is correct. according to Rule 5. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. From that and Rules 5 and 6. 20. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. 19. Thus. and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. Since the question asks which could be true. the four incorrect choices must be false.
(D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). 24. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. but on what actually happened. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. Only (A). not to supernatural subject matter. but makes no connection to problems in humans. but the question of his intent versus his actions. 25. The adjacent compartments. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. 3. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. 6 and 7. rather than how they are described.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. which is that unemployment increased. but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. . but Compartments 2 and 3 can. 22. If. If only one compartment contains apples. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. merely her effective technique. 5. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). must be true. thus increasing unemployment. 23. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. (B)We don't know this. 3. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. Compartments 2. (B) and (C) are false. a total of four. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. for instance. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. since the jobs program was never implemented. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. Therefore. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. As for the top. So Compartments 2. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. (D). To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. can‟t contain grapefruit. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). is the maximum number. Compartment 1 contains apples.
After 1981. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. v. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. y. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. t. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. u. x. Sector u was constructed in 1981. 1.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. and z.org . positioned in that order from west to east. w. The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988.
If Sector x was constructed in 1986. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. 1984 (D) 1983. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 1984 (B) 1982. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. 1983. 1983. 1985 5. which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. 1986 6. 1985 (E) 1983. 2. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . 1985 (C) 1983. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. 1984. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982.(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 1984 (E) 1982. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. If Sector s was built in 1985. 1983 (D) 1982.
In a recent test. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes. 9. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. if true. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. 8.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. Which of the following.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. harmful pollutants. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. The Commissioner of Public Works. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. only five had presented any serious complications. (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture.
Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. Red. A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. Paris Highway. called the Beltway. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway. due southeast. motorists pass two radial highways. and due southwest of the city center. Yellow Toll. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. and Yellow Tolls.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. London Highway. Madrid Highway. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. which extends due west from the city center. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Madrid Highway. The radial highways are: London Highway. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway. Blue. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. due east. Vienna Highway 13. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. 10. Red Toll. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . but no other tollbooths. Vienna Highway. which extends south from the city center. which extends due north from the city center. which runs due northeast from the city center. and Paris Highway. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11.
Jim is taller than Kathy. Mike. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. Pedro. Kathy. Oliver. Kathy. Quentin (B) Jim. Oliver. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Pedro. Mike. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Quentin (C) Kathy. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Laura. Mike. Quentin (E) Pedro. Pedro. Mike. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Kathy. Oliver. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Nick. Nick. Jim. Laura. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. Quentin. Jim. but taller than Jim. Pedro. and Quentin—are measured for height. Jim. Nick. Oliver. Nick. Nick. Oliver. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Laura. Mike. Kathy 15. Laura.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Pedro. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Kathy. Laura. Laura. 14. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Mike. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . The following is known: No two students are of the same height. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Nick. Quentin (D) Oliver.
3. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. If R votes “no” on all five movies. R. and U. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. S.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. 3. T. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. 2. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. and 5. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. 21. 4. The five judges on the committee are Q. S votes “no” on movie 2. U votes “yes” on movie 4. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. 19. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. There are no abstentions. and 3. and 5 . and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. and 4 (E) movies 2. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. 3. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. and 5 (D) movies 2.
(D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. which are forever twisting above. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. or to fingers and wrists. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. and sales are better than ever. Freda Tully. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. 24. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. When workers were primarily employed by industry. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. Coach Parker. Which of the following. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. Profits are on the rise. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. there was no competent leadership in the firm. McGovern‟s new executive director. 25. if true. . Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. (E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. control panels or electric counters. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. productivity has nearly doubled. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings.23. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. Today. dragging across or pressing on keyboards.
sector v must be constructed before sector w. u. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. However. In order for sector w to be constructed. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. For this question. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. and (D). Sector x is constructed in 1984. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Since the question asks which could be true. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. x. Therefore. (C). and sector u is constructed in 1981. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. 2. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. v. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. (B). so (C) and (D) are out. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. (D) Compared to their ancestors. That leaves three choices. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986. w. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Write 1981 in u‟s space. As we‟ve just seen. t. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. sector v can be constructed in 1982. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. so (C). remember Rule 2: To build a sector. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. Create a master sketch. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. the four incorrect choices must be false. Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. Therefore. 1. though it used to be the other way around. . y. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. with the eight letters written in order from left to right.
The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. That sounds too simple to be the solution. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). 6. 1984. Using the reverse thinking. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. t. Otherwise. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. w. sector w must be constructed before sector x. Sector z can be constructed last. and z. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. However. respectively. y. If sector t is constructed in 1982. Therefore. That eliminates (A) and (B). any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. v. which are choices (A). the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. if sector t is constructed in 1982. but when you look at the choices. If sector v is constructed in 1982. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. You need to determine two dates here. So. Likewise. Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. 5. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. 1983. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. (B). and so isn't parallel. and z) because of Rule 2. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. causes kidney stones. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. sector x in 1986. y. 7. In fact. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). sector y must be constructed after 1986. Now. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. (C). sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. Therefore (D)—1982. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983.3. sector w in 1983 or 1984. sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. in 1988. and sector z in 1988. and (D). the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. As we saw in the previous question. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. and 1984. So (A) is correct. Under this question‟s conditions. 4. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector y in 1987. (D) is correct. 1983. then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. sector v must be constructed by 1984. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. First. . vitamin C.
(E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary. in . If. Blue (B). Looking at the sketch. not their danger. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. past the Beltway. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. and Paris (P).(E)A general claim is made. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. The four highways extend from the city outward. V extends due south. and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. 9. 8. M extends due west. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. and due southwest of the city. L extends due north. That means. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. due east. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. Madrid (M). (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. P extends due northeast. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. Red (R). For the sketch. due southeast. abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. in either order. the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. Green (G). but no other tollbooths. but noexamples are provided. There are four tollbooths. Vienna (V). however. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. you‟ll pass two radial highways. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway.
So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. Q). Check each choice in turn. the Paris. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. . or (E). (A). and among the choices. eliminating rule violators. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. but no other tollbooths. As we deduced in Question 11. you‟ll pass two radial highways. 13. P. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. O. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. L. Therefore. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. N. or the Southeast tollbooth. If it‟s merely possible. Looking at the sketch. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. and check each choice in turn. M. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. K. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. (C). Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. between the Madrid and the Vienna. and Yellow Tolls. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. Red. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. in either order. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. 11. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. from tallest to shortest. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. the Madrid. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. place eight students in height order. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. so (E) is wrong. and isn‟t a must. since their locations are described in the question. Blue. Use your sketch. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. namely the Green. For the sketch. Create a master sketch. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. Use the deductions from Question 11. 12. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls.
This eliminates (B) and (E). four choices violate one or more rules. So. only Jim. 16. Laura is third highest of the eight students. Combining our deductions. Kathy. and since Laura is third. you can figure out the possibilities. Quentin. Nick. So place the L on your piece of paper. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura. Compare each choice to the rules. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. 17. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. There‟s only one possible order here. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. For this question. Oliver. Rule 5 says Laura is third. but taller than Jim. or (A). throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. and two available spots for students taller than her. Laura is third. in that order. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules. Mike. we know that Mike. 18. Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. so (A) is out. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. and Pedro. Combine this with Rule 2. and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. For this acceptability question. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. and who must be shorter. with the remaining students. and one choice violates none of them. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). or (B). we can definitely determine who is fourth. eliminating (C) and (D).. 14.Look at the rules. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Adding Rules 2 and 4. and note that there are only two students above her. Since there are only three available spots below . Jim. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. 15. and then. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. Nick. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. or Quentin can be first. So Quentin is taller than Jim. Since Laura is third. Also. leaving (B). Combine this with Rules 2 and 3.
Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. so (D) too can be eliminated. both must vote yes. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. Create a master sketch. 20. That thinking is reflected in (D).” that is. Laura must be taller than Kathy. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1.” At least three yes votes are needed. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. figure out who must vote yes. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. and (C) can be eliminated. “exactly. so neither choice needs to be true. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin). Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. That leaves four judges. R. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. at least three of whom must vote yes. 2. one for each of the three movies. 2. and (E) are false. it means a yes vote from T as well. Any of five movies (1. Since the question asks which choice must be true. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. Neither R nor U must vote yes. U votes yes on movie 4. according to Rule 3. Kathy. 2. Note that in your sketch. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. Since S and T vote the same. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. Questions 19-22 In this game. and who must vote no. If both vote no. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. S. 3. As we have just proved. Scan the choices and stop at (D). Quentin. (C). and 3. and U) to appear in a film festival. and 3. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. T votes yes on movie 5. this must be true. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. and Pedro. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. Since Q votes yes on movies 1. being taller than at least three other students. T. (B). That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. The third yes comes from either R or U. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes.Laura. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. although both can vote yes. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. must be taller than Laura. so (A). or shorter than Laura (with Mike. Nick. so T also votes no on movie 2. using an N. For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. 5) can be selected by judges (Q.) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. as long as one . 4.
you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. and three unknown votes. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . and thus have your answer. (B) is the answer. If U does vote no. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. there are three yes votes. . so (C) is eliminated. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. 23. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. and then T votes no. S votes no. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. The other four movies all received at least three no votes. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. so (B) and (E) can. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. Choose one of the two movies. Look for the other judges that vote no. That deduction eliminates only (A). Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. on movie 2. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. So you need at least one more no vote. 22. Looking at the remaining choices. 21. S and T vote together. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. So movie 2 has two no votes. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. We‟re left with (D) and (E). (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. be true. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. and 5. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. To conclude this. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. 3.of them does. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. one no vote. That leaves (E) to be correct. so T must vote no on movie 2. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. If. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. then the other choice is correct. and determine whether or not U votes no. but needn‟t. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. R votes no. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3.
no matter what the practice time. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. because most people now work in the service sector. Most people used to work in industry. (D)Misreads the argument. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. To weaken this contention. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. (D)Strengthens. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. so this strengthens the argument. 25. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. which discusses injuries. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. like lifting. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. (E)Strengthens.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant. 24. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. she must therefore have provided this leadership. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 .
the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. the following colors: blue. is green. is yellow. same column are the same color. is red. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that . Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. same row are the same color. or yellow. green. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. 2. the board is green. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. is green. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. Light 5 is green. 1. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4.org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. red.
would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. Which of the following. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers.light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. but at all times. If all beaches were publicly owned. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. If light 6 is yellow. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. if true. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying. and yellow 5. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. In companies with only one secretary. green. . (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. Therefore. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. 8. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to.
(C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. 10. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. Y. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. but for no more than two consecutive days. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. which are numbered 1 through 4. Every day. X. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. but for no more than three consecutive days. 9. in that order. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. . which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. and Z. FORMerly. however. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1. however. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. slower copiers. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. There are. (D) On average. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4.(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals.
day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. and 5. 2. W is listed third. After each ride. respectively. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. and Sal. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. . 12. Pip. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. If Rob. 4. Rob. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. Quint. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Sal. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. Car 5 is never empty. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. 14. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. one car remaining empty. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. one child per car.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. The four children are Pip. for the first ride. and Quint are seated in cars 1. X is listed third. Z is listed second. Z is listed third. 13.
(B) Rob is seated in car 2. Jim. and Quint are seated in cars 1. Betty cooks on Tuesday. Quint is seated in car 4. 4. respectively. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2. (D) Car 3 is empty. Pip. 3. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. If Horace cooks on Friday. Each day in the Ring home. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. exactly one of the three family members cooks. (E) Car 4 is empty. 15. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. and 5. 16. and Horace. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. for the first ride. Rob is seated in car 4. Sal. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. If Rob. Pip is seated in car 4. 17. Betty cooks on Wednesday.
Jim cooks on Monday. Like modern magazines. Friday (D) Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Tuesday. Thursday. Jim cooks on Wednesday. Thursday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. they related stories of important events. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Friday 23. if true. Friday (E) Sunday. 24. Horace cooks on Wednesday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. . one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. I know this for a fact. Horace Jim. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. Tuesday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. Which of the following. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. Thursday (C) Sunday. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Monday. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. Horace cooks on Monday. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. Tuesday.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20.
(E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. four choices violate one or more rules. and one choice violates none of them. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. . per week. numbered on the top. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. which can be blue. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. 2. green. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. in the middle. Therefore. however. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. (B). and the fact that there‟s only one green light. 4 to 6. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. red. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. light 3 is yellow. 4.e. than they did in 1988. For this acceptability question. 1. 7 to 9. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. Therefore. 7) can be the same color. 25. 3) can be the same color. Based on those two deductions. expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). and light 1 is red. 4. (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i. can be true. according to the rules provided. lights 2. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i.e. and light 1 is red. Put a G in light 5‟s space. starting with the most concrete. 1 to 3. There are three rows of three lights each. You must place the lights. Compare each rule to the choices.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. 3. 1. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. or yellow. In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. Average and below average students. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. and on the bottom.
Also. if light 6 is yellow. So lights 2. 2. That eliminates (A). That eliminates (B) and (E). and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. Light 1 is red. (D). lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. (B). 6. Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. 4. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). or (C). then light 4 can be yellow. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. or yellow. and light 5 is green. both private and public. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. and 9. To answer this question. light 7 must be yellow. light 7 must be blue. There‟s only one green light. If light 6 is yellow. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. or (C). There‟s only one green light. 8.2. can be any color except green. according to Rule 3. Light 6. That leaves lights 1. leaving 6. 5. 7 and 8. so (D) is correct. and (E). Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. 3. eliminating (A) and (B). Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. 4. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. blue. determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. That‟s only two blue lights. and 8. That leaves lights 2. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. or (C). 7. However. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. leaving eight lights to be red. 3. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). 7. so there can be a maximum of three red. (C). . lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). You know that light 1 is red. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . so (A) and (C) are incomplete. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. three of another and two of a third color. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. so (E) can be eliminated. light 6 can be red. light 7 can‟t be red or green. Light 5 is green. the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. but lights 2. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow. and eliminate them as choices. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. Because light 1 is red. 4. 3. and light 9 must be yellow. As we saw in Question 2. 5. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. light 8 must be red. if the government already maintains all beaches.
(B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. This is the key rule to this game. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. Therefore. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. not single deficiencies. X. numbered 1. Y. 3. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. W. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. based on the rules provided. cause beriberi and pellagra. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. and 4. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. which is the time she'd save with the new machine. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. Rule 4 says Z . (C)Too specific. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. 2. (C)As long as the machine is faster.they were made public than if they remained private. 8. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. and Z. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. not of all the B vitamins. Four guards. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. and thus save money. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. 9. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. because it limits the possible orders from day to day. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. Therefore. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). From all that inFORMation about W. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments.
so one car is always empty. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. (A). Y. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. and only one. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. There is one child per car. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. X. the four incorrect choices either need not be true. W. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). 11. so (E) must be correct. According to Rule 5. leaving (C). Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Therefore. so for Thursday‟s roster. when W remains in the same gallery. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. when the next day is assigned. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. 12. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. 13. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. or in gallery 3 on both days. (A) and (D) can be true. you can simply use five dashes. If W changes assignments. Questions 14-16 In this game. 10. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. but need not be true. Compare each rule to the choices. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. That eliminates (B) and (C). so (B) must be true. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. For your master sketch. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. Z must move. The rules all have to do with the empty car. In lieu of a master sketch. Before looking at the answer choices. However. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Here. guard can remain in the same gallery. numbered 1 to 5. must be true. For Wednesday‟s roster. or are false outright. Looking at the choices. four choices violate one or more rules. W was assigned to gallery 1. Since this question asks which must be true. and one choice violates none of them. W is listed first. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one.
(E) must be correct. Quint. Pip. Furthermore. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. you‟ll know all that must be true. H) take turns cooking each day. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Questions 17-22 In this game. Car 2 is empty. so (C) can be eliminated. Quint. Quint. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. according to Rule 1. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. The third ride. and Quint are in Cars 1. Rule 4 is always in effect. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. H must cook after . Therefore. That means. Incorporate the rules. Remember. 16. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). The order of the first ride: Rob. 15. only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. Sal. According to Rule 1. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. and 5. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. For this acceptability question. or (A). 4. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. Rob. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride.empty. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. and one choice violates none of them. for the first ride. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Sal. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. Compare each choice to the rules. __ . so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. therefore. Stated more positively. J. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. Now Car 3 is empty. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3). if Car 3 is empty. 2. Start with what you are given: Rob. Then. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. Pip. as (D) correctly says. __ . Create a master sketch. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. respectively. 14. from Sunday to Saturday. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. for a week. __ . then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. If. Pip is seated in Car 1. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. following Rule 1: Pip. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday. Sal. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. three family members (abbreviated B. four choices violate one or more rules. Sal. for the third ride. So. Pip.
That takes care of Betty for the week. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. (D) must be true. Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Since Horace must cook three days. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. Therefore. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. Only (C). and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Jim cooks on Wednesday. either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). Thursday. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. but need not. (B). In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. and then B must cook on Sunday. must cook before Tuesday. Therefore. and Saturday can be definitely determined. Wed. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. so (C) must be true. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. be true. 19. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. either one can cook. Now. 18. Thursday. Thursday. 20. Since Horace must cook three days. Sunday. Horace needs to cook two more times. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game.Tuesday. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. Monday. through Sat. There are three available days. Since Horace cooks three times during the week. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). be true. Wednesday. So Tuesday. That leaves (C). but need not. so (E) is wrong. If Horace cooks on Friday. 23. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. and either Sunday or Monday. . That‟s (C). The only false choice is (E). the four incorrect choices can be true. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. (E). Tuesday. 21. so (A) and (B) can. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Wednesday. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. 22. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. However. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. Horace. In order to be consecutive. then Horace must cook on Thursday. Betty cooks on Tuesday. and Friday. Horace must cook on Wednesday. and (C) can. Wednesday. (A). (D) remains. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). So. As we deduced in the game overview. Saturday. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. and Friday can be definitely determined. So. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). That eliminates (A) and (B). four days. but not both. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3).
(B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. 25. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. Therefore. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. without giving any examples. Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. 24. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A).(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. time spent by students overall increased. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. the author compares them to modern magazines. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere.
and T—are playwrights. joins the others at the table. 1. Three of the people—K. who is seated on the immediate right of T. which of the following must also be true? . If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. P. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright.000. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. S. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. a playwright. and M—are theater critics. 2. R. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. R is seated on the immediate right of S. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. If the statements above are true. L. the other four—Q. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. 3. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. 4. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left. K is seated two places to Q‟s left.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs.
and where interpersonal contact is common. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10.000. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. 5. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L.000 in the year before the war. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease . certain patients will infect other patients. In households including more than one person.000.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict. 6. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. (B) An annual profit of $10.000 is not especially high. I. G.000 than for amounts less than $40. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact. and L. If put in the same room. J. Pending further study. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. more established companies. K. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered. H. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50.
If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. and one with Disease J.G. two jazz programs. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. 10. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. one with Disease I. together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. and a male with Disease K. one with Disease J. a male with Disease K. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. one with Disease F. A room is occupied by three people. and one with Disease G. which programs are the news programs for that day? . These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. or Disease G. one with Disease F. and two educational programs. or Disease F. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. 7. and a person with Disease J. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day.
N must get off before M. eighth. N. third. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. and ninth first.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. sixth. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. The seventh program is a news program. O. second. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. Q. sixth. if N gets off at the third stop. The eighth program cannot be a news program. third. P. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. 14. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. second. M. who must get off before O. and sixth third. and ninth fourth. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. sixth. On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. and ninth second. The first program is an educational program. 13. fifth. . how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. eighth. eighth. fourth. eighth. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. R must get off before Q. fifth. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. fifth.
(E) Q gets off after M. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (D) N gets off at the first stop. and if N gets off after Q. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (D) L gets off at the second stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. and Z— every day. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. 19. (E) R gets off at the second stop. 16. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. if M gets off at the third stop. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. which of the following MUST be true? . (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. (C) L and P get off together. Y. V. If X is perishable. If R gets off at the fourth stop. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. The second car must always contain U. X. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. 17. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. W. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. and if P must get off alone. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. 15. If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. 18. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop.
all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. 21. 22. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. (C) The fifth car contains V. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. 20. (E) The third car contains Y. If Y and Z are perishable. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. (D) The sixth car contains W. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. . (B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. If W and V are perishable. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. car containing X precedes the car containing Z. a legal precedent must be established by court trial.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23. (B) The sixth car contains X. fifth car contains V. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. sixth car contains Z. and if Y and Z are perishable.
They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. Studies have shown that. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. if true. That implies the opposite: A . Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. 25. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. Which of the following. 24. M) and four playwrights (Q. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. R. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. but rather from some property of the color itself. because of its brightness and intensity. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. Because of this finding. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. S. L. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. T) around a circular table with ten chairs.
If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. . so (D) is impossible. since both are playwrights. so (C) can be true. and R is in Seat 5. Rule 1 keeps Seats 2.000. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. A single. (E) describes the same chair as (D). P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible. S. T is in Seat 2. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. 5. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. only from Q‟s left. can‟t sit immediately next to L. who is immediately right of T. 2. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. in any order. so eliminate (A). (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. and (E). (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. 3. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. (C). (C). From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. so (B) is out. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. P. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. a playwright. K is in Seat 9. a critic. or 8. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship.000. the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. meaning they are 4 places apart. or in Seat 6: R. L and M can be in Seats 6. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. then S is in Seat 4. if S is three places to Q‟s right.000 won't be considered. T is in Seat 3. R. S.playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. and R is in Seat 4. If S is two places to Q‟s right. To make this connection. in either order. As we saw in Question 1. 7. so (B) need not be true. and T is in Seat 3. For our sketch. 4. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. 6. (B). Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. Using the sketch in the game overview. That seats all the playwrights. then S is in Seat 3. eliminating (A). and (E) all can be true. a playwright. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII). so (A). or in Seat 5. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. so (E) is also false.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50.
logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. Specifically. G. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. Switch H and J. and a male with K. I. H + I F. Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. (D). there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. K infects F (Rule 2). You are told that one room contains patients with H. (C)Too broad. it's the change over the course of the war that is. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. Rule 3 says L infects K. H. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. If (C). G. not in one particular phrase. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. If L is added to the room with F. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. Questions 7-9 In this game. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. enters a room with H. then K infects F. Another room contains patients with I. and J. If (A). If put in the same room. but shorthanding the rules might help. 8. eliminating (B). K. If K is added. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections. F. or F: L K. it's possible that these people are related to each other. J. and G. So jot down H L. one by one. male K. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. a patient with Disease L. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. L). and J. not established ones. one by one. I and G switch. then L infects F (Rule 3). Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. If (A). (B). K and G switch. then male K infects G. more . (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. 6. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). K G. and J. L G. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. If H is added to the same room. so (A) is wrong. 9. I. 7. Switch J and G. so (A) is out.(B)The annual profit isn't important. L F. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). The study isn't clear on this point. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. If this is the case.
Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. but needn‟t be. and one educational program to place. fifth. J for jazz. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. There are five news programs. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. and you know that one educational program is seventh. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. fourth. and since only one must be true. scan the choices. and ninth. Among the choices. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. As for the others. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. both stated and easily deduced. two jazz. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. must be first through fourth in whatever order. and there are five news programs total. (C): only one-K infects G. 12. You‟re left with one educational program. So (C) is correct. Start with what you know. One educational program is seventh. two jazz programs. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. So (A) is correct. (D): only one-K infects F. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. (B) and (C) are patently false. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. one program per slot. second. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. (A) and (E) can be true. The four remaining programs. and E for educational. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. so place an E in slot 7. . eighth. in whatever order. (E). since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. and third. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. sixth.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. Stated positively. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. and two educational) into order. (C). two jazz programs. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). If the first five programs are all news programs. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. is correct. 11. arrange nine radio programs (five news. From here. three news and one educational.
(B). If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. That makes four. but E can also be first: E. N. but for every other stop only one member can get off. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. N. That‟s three. 16. so (E) is the answer. O. E or N. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth. M. Since no one gets off eighth. E. then Q gets off fifth. E. P. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. N. J. E. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. E. and one of the educational programs is seventh. then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . with O and P getting off together ninth. Questions 14-18 For this game. N. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. J. but needn‟t be. N. you‟d see that (E) can be true. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. N. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. Looking at the master sketch. J. J. and N gets off after Q. N. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. (C). Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). J. N. N. Under this question‟s conditions. so M must be seventh. N. J. seven members of a family (L. so they get off at 7 and 9. N. Incorporate the rules. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. If M gets off third. seventh. M gets off before O (Rule 5). (A). Since no one gets off eighth. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). N. but need not be true. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. E or N. and (D) must be true. M. O. If R gets off fourth. Only L. or news-jazz-news. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth). although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). Therefore (A). and P must get off sixth. and P remain. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. so (D). N. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). (C). J.13. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. R must get off either first or second. O. however. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. must be true: No one can get off sixth. who gets off before O. (B). it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. N. Q. In order to satisfy Rule 4. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. N. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. E. and ninth. and (E) can be true. N. 15. J. N. N. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). eliminating (D).
In other words. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. and (E) are all possible. (B). You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. third. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). or 3. but none are definite. 3-X. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). X . and look for one of them as an answer choice. (A) can‟t be true. Start with what you‟re given. W. leaving only O and L. or sixth. but none have to be true. L must get off at the ninth stop. Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. P can‟t get off ninth. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. shorthand it U. There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. but need not be true. one product per car. So put a U in slot 2. 5-Q. then N and M must get off before seventh. 8-M. Create a master sketch. 4-R. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3.. second. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. neither N nor M can get off ninth. you must distribute six products (U.X. numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. 18. OR If Q gets off at 5. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). If Y and Z are perishable.Y. and (E) can be true. at the ninth stop. (A). the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. L and P must get off together. (C). Therefore. in either order. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. Y can‟t immediately follow W. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. namely first. either. (B). X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. (D). So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. (B). V. so O must get off ninth and (A). Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. If O gets off seventh. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4.. Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). then R can only get off at 1 or 2. (C). and (E) are all possible. V must precede W. Since U is in Car 2. and (E) can‟t be true. If R gets off fourth. Therefore. 6-X. V . That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. (B). X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. However. then Q gets off fifth. Incorporate the rules. Z) onto six boxcars. If X is perishable. 20. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. and then add what you know. (C). 9-OP. This might get you thinking. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. 7-N. 2-L. then R can only get off at 1. (C). 17. Questions 19-22 In this game. 2.before O (Rule 5).
(A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. Z. (C). The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. however. and (E) are possible. The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. Thus. U. If Y and Z are perishable. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). or W. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). 21. presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. W is in Car 1. Therefore. 23. V. (D) can be true. (B) is correct. and Car 5 with Car 6. Y. U is in 2. V. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . 25. in either order. in either order. along with X. not all. X. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. a precedent may already have been set. V. If W and V are perishable. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. 22. Z. U. Therefore. for which choice no evidence is given. There are four possibilities. X. Z. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. X. and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. and (E) must all be true. (B). if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. Y. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. or W. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. (B). and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. situations. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. but (C) CANNOT be true. X. Y. V. 24. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. or W. U. (A). (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. Z. in either order. Also. (E)Assumes that. U. (D). leaving Z in Car 1. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. in order: W. (A). Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. there was some reason that . so (D) need not be true. this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. Y. is in Car 5 and Car 6. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. in either order. U is in Car 2. If. not necessarily at all times.must be in Car 1 and W.
in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). and Delgado. (A)This is a logistical problem. Adams. The . Best. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. Hiro. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. it doesn't affect the rationale. and Lamming—and four juniors. Kundala. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. it's the stressinducing qualities of red.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. regardless of the reason. (E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. Carter.
5. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. and style. symbolism. . Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. Kundala cannot be chosen. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. if true. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. Hiro. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. Adams. If Carter is chosen for the convention. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. Carter (B) Kundala. Lamming. (D) Dr. 1. rather than societal. Kundala (E) Hiro. Delgado (C) Hiro. Carter cannot be chosen. Best (D) Fox. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Kundala. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. If Best is chosen to attend. conflict. Lamming must also be chosen. Dr. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. If Hiro is chosen to attend. Anderman‟s imprisonment. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. Hiro. Which of the following. Because of high demand. Best 2. (E) Dr. If Fox is chosen to attend.
R. non-urban. is examined second. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. and each pet will be examined just once. Q. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. Q. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. R. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. S must be examined before P is examined. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. if true. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. S (B) S. Q. (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. S. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. R. 6. Q. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. . P. 7. (E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. R. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures. P (D) S. Q.In order for this argument to be logically correct. areas are now affected. R (E) Q. The pets will be examined one by one. Which of the following. S 8. P. P (C) R.
(B) C. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. (D) A. (E) C.(D) R is examined third. C. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. 11. D. F F. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (E) P is examined fourth. and G—appear on his two weekend shows. C. At least one comedian must appear on each show. if true. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. G E. E. 9. (C) E. E are comedians. D E. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. B. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . Only A. B appears on Saturday's show. (E) P must be examined fourth. If R is examined third. G 13. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. (D) S must be examined first. Which of the following. F. If CANNOT (A) A. G D.
Chicken Dijon. Chicken Kiev. The menu will consist of four entrees. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. but if both are selected. Fish Teriyaki. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. in ascending order of popularity. they cannot be served consecutively. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. Chicken Kiev. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. 17. Beef Enchilada. chosen from a group of eight. and if B appears on Saturday's show. Fish Teriyaki. Pork Szechuan. and Chicken Vindaloo. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. from first course to fourth course. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. Lobster Mombasa. The eight eligible entrees are. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. Beef Enchilada. Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. Chicken Dijon. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu.(D) five (E) six 14. Pork Szechuan . The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other.
Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. Lobster Mombasa. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. Pork Szechuan 18. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. . The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. Desert X is an environment with constant. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. powerful sunlight. and next to no moisture. it does not exist naturally in the desert. 23.(E) Beef Enchilada. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. Fish Teriyaki. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. nor does it survive long when introduced there.
the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X. the literary work loses its specificity. (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work. however. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. 24. In fact. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. In the hands of a Freudian critic. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. (B) For one week in the fall. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. 25. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. . others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. The problem. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. Desert X can support almost no plant life.
if Kundala is chosen. Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. . The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. or (B). then no F). K. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. eliminating (D). The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. violating Rule 4. 1. you can only choose one or the other. and a. aren‟t required. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. there must be at least two seniors. 4. Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. Delgado). Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. is chosen. four choices violate one or more rules. and Kundala.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. H. Kundala isn‟t. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). Since the question asks who must be chosen. Hiro. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. For this acceptability question. a junior. Best. then no K. Fox. or (C). Lamming must be chosen. then Fox isn‟t (if K. then Fox can‟t be chosen. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. then L. Kundala. but not both. then Lamming is also chosen: If b. Carter. As Rule 1 says. 3. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. In other words. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). Hiro must be chosen. then no H). or can‟t be chosen at all. One is Kundala. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. 2. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. being juniors. (C) and (E). d for the four juniors. then Carter isn‟t: If H. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. That eliminates (A). throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. L for the four seniors. then no c. and one choice violates none of them. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). You are given that Carter. That leaves (C). Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. c. b. The three available seniors are Lamming. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. Compare each rule to the choices. Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. Lamming must also be chosen.
(A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available.they were written after her release. nothing need have changed. Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. 5. if A. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true. There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. Rule 1 states that R is second or . it could be the same pollution and the same victims. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. place four pets (P. this has no effect. Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. then C (they were able to buy tickets). then C. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. if B. 6. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. however. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). Thus. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. Create a master sketch of four dashes. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. only now more of them have been identified. If. so this won't weaken the conclusion. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. then not A (they didn't want them). (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. however. R. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. Q. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. S) in an order to be examined. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. If.
8. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. D. F. R. then F and D are . Therefore. Q or S. Q. are on Saturday. You are told B is on Saturday. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. 11. Questions 11-16 In this game. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. S before P. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. 10. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S. If R is third. so S can be first or second. if A. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. C. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. R. so you need three more guests for Saturday. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. Therefore. Q is either first or second. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. and one choice violates none of them. R. four choices violate one or more rules. Rule 1 states that only A. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. but so can S. Rule 2 kicks in. P. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. For this acceptability question.third. P. The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. then two of the four slots are filled. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. Therefore E. None of the choices include both F and D. Since S must be seen before P. without violating the rules. there are (C) three different orders possible. Then. so S must be first and P must be fourth. From that. if Q is first and R is third. 9. You need to have S before P. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. B. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. 12. must appear on Saturday. P or Q. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. C. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. Create a master sketch. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. the other comedians. then C and E. Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. and E. You are given that Q is examined before R. E and G are chosen with B. E. (A). leaving (B). either S or Q can be first. If A is the only comedian on Friday. Compare each rule to the choices. S. We know R can be third. and P can be second or fourth. are comedians. R must be third.
so (C) and (E) are both possible. Friday has at least one comedian. In fact. Chicken Kiev. B or G and Saturday is C. D. and G. either one can be with E. Place B and G on either night. F. in either order. F. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. D. B. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. for two more possible lists. G or E. (C) is correct. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. and F. but not definite. In other words. then Friday is A. From that you can deduce that Beef . D. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. F. Therefore.together on Friday. then Saturday is A. E. G. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. (C). must be on Friday. (B). You can then deduce that C and E are together. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. and B or G. C. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. However. That‟s one possible list. or (C). Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). That means the third comedian. Chicken Dijon. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. Pork Szechuan. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D. 16. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. so (A) is correct. If Friday is C. D. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. D. A must therefore be with D. As in Question 12. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated. F. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. violating Rule 3. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. Fish Teriyaki. violating Rule 3. E. Although F can‟t be with D. (Rule 2). As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). and G. That leaves one spot open for either B or G. you can further deduce that C. E. E. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. from among F. E. Beef Enchilada. B or E. 14. or A. Try each choice in turn. and there‟s your exception. so they can be eliminated. Lobster Mombasa. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. So either night can be C. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. and G. Since each night has at least one comedian. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. Questions 17-22 For this game. If Saturday includes C. The groups in (A). Chicken Vindaloo. B. F and B or G. and F are together. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. or E. 13. D. The entrees. That means F and D are both on Saturday. E. B and/or G. B or E. then the other two comedians are on Friday. 15. G must be on Saturday. D. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together.
On the overall list. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. then only . Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. 21. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. 18. (A). Pork Szechuan. but neither can be chicken. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Well. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. and one choice violates none of them. Next. in that order. (E) is the exception. but can‟t be consecutive. Therefore. 19. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. By the way. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. According to Rule 2. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. Before looking at the choices. 20. there‟s only one fish entree. Compare each rule to the choices. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. So (D) is correct. Kiev and Vindaloo. That leaves Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. Chicken Kiev. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. one. and Chicken Vindaloo. violating Rule 2. Lobster Mombasa. That way. so (A). Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. Fish Teriyaki. On the overall list. In the order. So Chicken Dijon is first. is correct. so the other Chicken entrees. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. Therefore. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. Lobster Mombasa. Beef) can‟t both be selected. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. 17. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. in that order.e. and Pork Szechuan. This question says the first entree is based around fish. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. four choices violate one or more rules. must be removed. For this acceptability question.
but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. Y likes dry and sunny regions. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. determine all that can or must be true. it's that it's too powerful. (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. 22. yet it doesn't. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. If Lobster Mombasa is second. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo. therefore. Beef Enchilada must be second. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. That leaves (B). (C)Too general. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. 23. If there were multiple correct interpretations. Pork Szechuan must be third. 25. correct. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. 24. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. so it's dry. beef.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. . (C) and (E) are true. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. X is a desert. sunny and hot.
J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. 1. K. F. L. M. L. L. K. M. O. Exactly two runners finished between H and O.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. O. L. L. (B) G. M.org 2. O. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. K finished ahead of M. H. L. O. G. M. G. J. F. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. Which of the runners? (A) F. H. J. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . H. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. F finished ahead of both G and L. M. and M finished ahead of J. F. (C) K. H. L finished immediately ahead of H. H. G. J. (E) O. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. O. (D) K. K. or behind. There were no ties for any finishing position. K. J. G.
The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure. Which of the following. its function as a supporting structure. rather than mask. 5. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . if filled into the above blank. ahead of G. Today. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. first. ahead of K. which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. If F finished fourth.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3.
If Q is chosen for the team. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. but N is not. who are finesse players. doubles partners. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. Q. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. who are power players. (B) The Arbican population increased. until. R. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. (E) The Arbican population increased. (D) The Arbican population decreased. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. 8. This percentage steadily declined. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. in 1980. and T. If T is chosen for the team. S. it reached 3%. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team. (B) V is not chosen for the team. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. If the statements above are true. N and V. . and N. He can choose from among eight players—M. If T is chosen for the team. and V. P. (C) The Arbican population decreased. exactly two power players will be chosen.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
at around 3000 BC. 24. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. after all. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. which took place about 6000 years ago. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. 25. Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. How can it exist. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. far earlier than was previously believed. . (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons.C. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies.
and M finished before J. and K. H. and neither G nor L can finish first. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. which can finish eighth. K can‟t be last. J and O. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. and seventh or eighth. and see what you can deduce. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. K. M. or vice versa. and J to go first. L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). O. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. and therefore correct. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. So M must be second. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. in that order (according to Rule 5). G. Rule 5 says K finished before M. O is fourth. four choices violate one or more rules. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. If H is seventh. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. O is third. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. That eliminates (B) and (D). If F is fourth. so neither K nor M can finish last. Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. the only runners who can finish first are F. Just to be sure. and M finished before J. or vice versa. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. so F can‟t finish eighth. and M can‟t be either first or last. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. Combining all of the deductions. Since L must finish before H. 2. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. But that‟s impossible since you know . Compare each rule to the choices. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. From another combination of deductions. You can also deduce that F finished before H. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. second. and O. O. M. so L can‟t be last. then G and L (from Rule 6). eliminating (A). so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. 3. H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. H. So start with F in the fourth slot. and (C) is out. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. As we deduced in the game overview. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). try the other possibilities for H. Stated positively. For this acceptability question. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. and one choice violates none of them. J. That leaves (A) as possible. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. J. L. That leaves (E).
The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. G must be next to O. Therefore. second. and J to be placed. not definite. (C)Irrelevant." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. To conclude this. then according to Kant. (D) (E)Outside the scope. and then G is sixth. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). From that it follows that if H is sixth. If M is seventh. 4. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. So K is first. That leaves K. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. If a republic is pacific. M is second. K can finish in first. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). not how clarity affects ornament. 5. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. and (E) are possible. (C). So G can finish second or fourth. Finally. or fourth. (B) is the answer. In 1960.that F is fourth. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. if H is eighth then O is fifth. as in (E). so (A) is correct. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. If L is fifth. (D). The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. In either case. While the percentage tells us the relation . 7. in that order. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. 6. and J is third. (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. or belligerent. and K to be placed. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. G. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. Since G can‟t finish before F. M. G can‟t be first. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). so far: That leaves F. So the order. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. To evaluate this claim. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. so (B). O is third (from Rule 4).
You are given that Q. while the percentage decreases. both numbers could increase. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. V. finesse (M. (A)It's possible. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. 8. but when T is chosen. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. so (A) is out. That eliminates (E). If T is chosen. P. and Q are all power players. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. the number migrating would have to decrease. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen. is chosen. as it says in Rule 2. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q. and Q are all power players. but the percentage migrating has fallen. N. So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. If M and P are chosen with Q. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. according to Rule 5. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. M and T are both finesse players. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. use your drawing on a question to question basis. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. it all depends on which particular players are chosen. Beyond that. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). or of Arbicans who made this migration. a power player. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. V. Keep it simple. T) and power (N. then you have two finesse players and one power player. S. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. (E)If the number migrating is the same. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. one by one. However.between the two. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. Q. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. Questions 8-11 In this game. Given this inFORMation. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. Check each choice. 9. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. to play in a tournament. R. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. V). so there‟s too many power players. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. select from two groups of tennis players. only (D) is impossible. then exactly two power players are chosen. However. That‟s fine. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch.
Note this in your sketch. V. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. 11:30 am. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). Look at each column. every professor except B is available. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. 10. and S to pair up. (E). That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. and 12:00 pm. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. is the answer. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). and PS. so S must be chosen. MS. there are only three available finesse player: T. P. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. combined with the four power players. There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). then N isn‟t chosen either. Q. the correct choice can be deduced. T is not chosen for the team. Any of those pairs. so (C) is correct. In other words. How many pairs can be made from M. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. R. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. so if they‟re not chosen. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. 10:30 am. (A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). As for the others: If N is not chosen. are acceptable combinations. Refer to your sketch. That leaves M. The meetings are one-half hour in length. For this game. a sketch is essential. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. 11:00 am. searching for the one in which the most professors are available. Between 10:30 and 11:00. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. If V isn‟t chosen. P. P. if exactly two power players are chosen. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. If a professor is available at a given time. . is left). (D). Use a grid. Since the question asks which must be true. If T is chosen. and S? Three: MP. That makes three possible combinations. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. and N are all power players. and S. Therefore. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. eliminating (C). 11. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. as defined by the rules. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). and since there are already two power players. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one.players chosen. 10:00 am. With M excluded.
13. Dohee and Egger. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. (D). so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. first find all the possible times that Ax. (D). (E). Those times are at 10:30. N. As we saw in the previous question. Chow. M. Ax and Dohee are both available. (A). Q. Remember. Remember. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. (C). can meet three times. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. (C). and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). Dohee and Franz. check each choice in turn. For this question. 14. P. two. Ax and Bulos. using your sketch as the reference. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. so 11:30 to 12:00. Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. the “swing” principal. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. so (B). (C). (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. always look for opportunities to use previous work. (B). then Q serves on the same committee. Check each choice one by one. Your sketch should look . that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. However. Chow and Franz can meet. can only meet at 10:30. Go through the rules. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. At 9:00. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. at 9:30. 16. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. therefore M serves on Curriculum. can both meet at 10:30. the “swing” principal. 10:00. and 11:30. Egger and Franz. P. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. (A). Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. one of the principals on each committee is the same. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. 17. Bulos and Franz. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. Create a master sketch. but at 9:30. 11:00. can‟t meet. Ax and Chow. Dohee is the only other professor available. Some principals. (B). Looking at your sketch. making as many deductions as you can. O. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. can both meet at 9:30. (D). Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. So M. using columns or circles to represent the two committees. and Franz. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. and 10:30. is correct. Bulos and Dohee. 15. However. but L and Q must serve together. So (B) is the answer. or can only serve on one committee. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal.
Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together. That leaves (C). can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). then L is also on the Ethics Committee. 20. 19. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. 21. and P. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. Q. as the other pair. if we know which one is on both committees. L can‟t be on both committees. and then check the choices. leaving (D). then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. (B). so (A) is wrong. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. N. Otherwise. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). Determine who must be on which committee. O.some thing like this: 18. M. O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. leaving (C). As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. which is a violation of Rule 4. meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together. If Q is on the Ethics Committee. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. (D). so neither can be on both committees. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. and which one is on one committee only. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). only N or O can serve on the same committee. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. to serve on the Ethics Committee. or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. and L. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. or (A). so (C) is correct. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. (C) and (D) are both possible. As we‟ve already seen. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. 22. Now. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. O. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. so eliminate (D) and (E). to serve on both committees. N. Choices (A). O and P. contradicting (B) and . So (A) is the answer. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. Therefore. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees.
23. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. he merely says that it doesn't. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. so their opinion can't be applied here. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . were used. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. so India is beyond the scope. but he needn't assume that most do violate them.. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. 24. (A)The author says that no such body exists. (D)The issue is when horses. or before approximately 3000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used. and as it is. 25. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt.(C). Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. not oxen. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. but there's no proof that it was. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. the issue is the definition of international law. (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans.
2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .
taisha.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. and each band must perform once and only once. Q. K. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2. or third. and M are rock bands. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. Bands P. second. L. The nine bands must perform one after the other. Bands F. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. G. L must immediately precede M in the order. If P performs first. and R are country bands. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . 1. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. K must perform either first. H. R must perform eighth. H must perform sixth..
(D) four (E) five 4. 7. then G performs seventh. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. Because of this. (D) P must perform immediately before K. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. then M performs sixth. In light of these findings. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. then P performs first.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. performs third. performs seventh. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. however. For several decades. if true. Which of the following statements. 5. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. Recently. 6. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. performs ninth. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. then F performs seventh. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise. then Q performs fifth. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. performs ninth. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with .
they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. Just last week. and vice versa. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body. chosen. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. M. N. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. Q. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. then Q must not be chosen. . then M must also be chosen. L and M chosen. and the sociologists P. and O. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. 8. also be chosen. not be chosen. and R. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. In light of these disturbing revelations. then N must then O must are chosen. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. however. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed.more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. The only available lecturers are the historians L.
Exactly four lecturers are chosen. (D) M is not chosen. Q. (B) O is chosen. (B) R must never be chosen. Q. G. L. and to laughter. R. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. T. Z. N. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. sometimes move Q and S to tears. S. P sometimes move W. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. Exactly three lecturers are chosen. W.9. (D) If O is chosen. L. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. Q is not chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. (C) If M is chosen. N. O. O is not chosen. (E) L must never be chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. H. M. R. P. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . and Z. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. U has prepared only works by poets K. 10. If all of the sociologists are chosen. and P for presentation at the soiree. L is not chosen. N is not chosen. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. P is not chosen. (E) N is not chosen. M. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13.
and L only (D) works by N. rug. sofa. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above.laughter. table lamp. painting. and L only 16. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. rug. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. N. and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. painting. sofa. table lamp. P. table. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. and L only (E) works by K. The sofa is placed in the living room. then he or she is bored. K. vase . The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. wardrobe. mirror. rug. vase vase mirror. P. and wardrobe. den. and L only (E) works by K. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. and living room of a client‟s house. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. rug. rug. mirror. table. 17. lamp. vase. 14. table. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. N.
then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. table (B) rug. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. the lamp. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. If the lamp. vase 23. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. rug. (E) The vase is placed in the den. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. table. Yet . 19. the painting. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. table (E) table. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. and if the wardrobe. vase (C) lamp. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. (E) The vase is placed in the den. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. (C) The table is placed in the den. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. 20. 21. rug (D) painting. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom.18.
egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. Which one of the following. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes.paradoxically. however. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. Furthermore. 24. 25. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. which can be fatal. if true. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. his liver loses the . where the legal drinking age was still 18. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. Therefore. Research has shown. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. if true. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. Which of the statements below. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. as well as cholesterol that is ingested.
in either order. and R is eighth. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. Since K is first. six rock bands (F. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. M is fifth. second. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. Since K is first. G. to go in two of the first three slots. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. only. in either order. That means K must be second. prove or band. R. is a country band. Q. R. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. in order to appear at a music marathon. in either order. That leaves two country bands. incorporate the rules. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. in either order. Rule 4 states that K is first. H is sixth. then Q must be third. or third. respectively. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. one at a time. R) must be placed.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. M is fifth. second. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. pair. respectively. R is eighth (Rule 3). such as shrimp. or third. H. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. second. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. is a country band. they are first and third. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. as we deduced in the game overview. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. and R is eighth. L is fourth. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. If P is first. L. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. or third. is a country band. There are only two . then L and M must be fourth and fifth. P and Q. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. are F 3. 2. Combine Rules 1 and 3. Create a master sketch. M) and three country bands (P. Therefore (A) is correct. to separate the two country bands. so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. K is second. (Rule 1). That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. K. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. in either order. (E): L and M must be together. 1.
it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. we‟re only concerned with this city. and (D) Q—they can be true. Always look for opportunities to use previous work. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock.possibilities. . those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. (A). (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. then G is seventh position except first and third. 6. (B). and F is ninth. (E) must be true: H is 5.. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. eliminate any choice that can be false. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is. (E)If anything. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. So we know every in either order. however. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. respectively. and P and Q. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. in either order. which of the following must be true. If G performs before F. If. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. 7. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. 4. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. Since the question is worded. so (B). We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. but need not is ninth. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime.
then M is chosen. Since the question is worded. Create a master sketch. which of the following CANNOT be true. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. then not O If O. listing the available speakers. Notice that you can take L and Q. and (E) are all false. Q. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. then Q is not chosen. and noting who can be chosen together. so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. In other words. then not Q). 10. Therefore. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. O Sociologists: P. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. M. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. Start with what you are given. R) to lecture before a class. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. some of the diseases may have other causes. (D). Q. but they‟re not being followed. or M and Q. without violating Rule 3. M. (B). the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. N. since R is chosen. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. If R and Q . and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. Q. shorthanded: P + N together If R. (C). (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. So (A) is correct. P and N together. N. The rules. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. then N is chosen. then not R If L + M. then R can‟t be chosen. and R) are chosen. R Incorporate the rules. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. then M 9. then P is chosen. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. and if N is chosen. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. then not Q If R. That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen. then O isn‟t chosen.8. O) and sociologists (P. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this.
That eliminates (C). Therefore. then R can‟t be chosen). We already took M. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. Q. we can only take two of the three. b for bored. and R. and P. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. S. N. so (C). in this case a grid: 14. Since R. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. and Q. and we‟ve just proved that. then M. We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. Scan the choices for L. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. This question is a good example of using previous work. Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. That‟s L. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. we can only take a maximum of two from M. As we learned in Question 6. so it‟s correct. M. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. That leaves (B) as correct. T. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. (A) and (D) can be true. M must be chosen. It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. for completeness. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. (E) is false. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). R. if L and Q are chosen.are chosen. not definite. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. P. Q. then not Q. So take L and M. the full deduction: Of Q or L. and P and N can be chosen. Therefore. G. eliminating (C). and R are chosen. or “some. and R. M can‟t be chosen. or five. H. Since the question says possibly. 13. then M can‟t be chosen. So (B) is only possible. if R is chosen. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. Q. so (D) is the answer. H and T are always . and M must be chosen. Based on Rules 2 and 4. then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). and not just sometimes. l for laughter. 12. W. and L and O can‟t chosen. M must be chosen). and O. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. of L. At this point you can stop. and you find them in (D): If L. but needn‟ t be true. But if L and Q are chosen. M. N. 11. So. Q. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. If O and M are chosen together. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. However. If O and M aren‟t chosen. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. L. so take R (via Rule 4). then not O.
leaving (A). and T. Create a master sketch. four literati are sometimes moved to tears. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. P. V. You can place the items in the rooms. in any order. and 5. N. W) in three rooms (bedroom. but N moves T to boredom. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. (D) places the sofa in the den. (D). so MW. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. Start with the rules that are most concrete. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. P. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). then F and Q are always moved to tears. and there are eight items total. and 4. (C). Therefore. 2. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. so (D) is possible. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and one choice violates none of them. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. so the combination of poets K. throwing out violators. P. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). 3. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. Questions 17 . so no PV. four choices violate one or more rules. a violation of Rule 4. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. den. S. S. (D). and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. so (B) is out. and P is the exception. then that‟ s our answer. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). 15. five literati are sometimes moved to tears. So (C) is out. N. Poet K moves T to laughter. H by poet N and T by poet K. T. Rule 2 states that M must be with W. or 1. so (B) and (E) are wrong. and Z sometimes moved to tears. Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. and work your way towards the abstract ones. (C). one literati is always moved to laughter. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. If (A). sometimes move four literati to tears. That leaves (D). bored by poet N.moved to laughter. K. and (E). always move one literati to laughter. Compare each rule to the choices.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. R. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. For this acceptability question. in any order. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. Refer to your sketch. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. Put an S in the living room. (B). either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . Rule 4 places S in the living room. but otherwise is bored. 16. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. living room). and locate T. Depending on how you look at it. poets L and P. M. W. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). one literati is always moved to laughter. The others: P and N.
and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). 2. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. L. (C). . and there are eight items total. in any order. 20. but not “always” 2. 4. and T must therefore be in the living room. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. the sofa and the vase. If M is with S. 22. in any order. 3. T is in the den. V can be in the den. Since Rule 5 is suspended. Since the living room has W. M. leaving only (E) as possible. the den. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. in either order. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. L is in another room. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. eliminating (C). then. L. Only (B) follows the rules. M. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. (B). but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. Start with the second piece of information in the question. 4. and S. and (E) can be eliminated. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). but if there are 4 items in both rooms. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. (C). and 4. Start with S in the living room. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. 21. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. 3. so (A). so P is in the living room with S. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. That eliminates (B) and (D). (D). There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. T. As we learned in Question 20. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. for the other two rooms. and the den has 2 items. (A). At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. is empty. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. 18. and 5. If W is in the living room. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. which claim that the den has 3 items. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. then the living room contains W.den. and S. so it‟s the answer. that leaves only two items. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). then the third room. Next. S. 3. one room must have exactly 1 item. with the other joining S in the living room. as (A) states. so the den can only contain one item. and W are in the living room. according to Rule 2. or 1. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. (B). Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. You know that P can‟t be with V. 19. or 5. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms. so either P or V is in the den. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. Since we can have 2. That means the living room has more than one item. violating Rule 1. (B). and (E) are wrong. but you must have at least one item in each room. R. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. or 5 items in any given room. M. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy.
so why the increase in drunk driving. . the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood. however. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. 24. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. Otherwise. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. According to research. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. to lower blood cholesterol levels. (B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. Well. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. dietary or medical. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. 25. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary.23. If. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. hence the increase in accidents. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms. If M is not chosen for the issue. Mugs. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. (C) H is not chosen. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. To test the system. then J must also be chosen.If F is chosen. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. 7. Molly. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. (D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. (E) F is not chosen. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. one trainer and one dog per room. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. If G is chosen for the issue. . The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. three trainers (Luis. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen.
W. Y. (D) Luis will be in Room 3. W. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. W. and W—live in the building. the bottom floor is Level B. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. Z. W (C) Z. W (B) X.11. W. A. Command W. One of the apartments is empty. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. Exactly seven people—P. between two other apartments on the same level. A (D) X. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. . W (E) Z. Q. T. S. W. four on each floor. W (D) W. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. W. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. one to an apartment. W. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. to the empty apartment on the same level. to T‟s apartment on the same level. Y. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. levels. Z. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. X 14. V. R. A. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. Z (C) W. The top floor is called Level A. 12. Y. Y. X (E) X. X (B) W.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. R‟s apartment is on Level A. P. and two—P and R—are club applicants. K. respectively? (A) G. 17. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18. There must be a senior club member playing each game. directly above T‟s apartment. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. two will play chess. H. Each person present can play only one of the three games. which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. and H—are senior club members.15. chess. and dominoes. K. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. R. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. directly above P‟s apartment. G. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. G cannot play the same game that R plays. F. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. two—K and M—are junior club members. F. M cannot play dominoes. 19. R (B) G. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. and three will play dominoes. If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. H and P must play the same game. Three of those present—F. H. M. P . P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. M.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. F. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. If R plays backgammon. M plays backgammon. M (D) H. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. K.” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. notably Japan. R (E) F. R. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. M. 24. G. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. 21. By doing so. M. K. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. (B) Only ethical considerations. F plays dominoes. K. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. G plays backgammon. and not those of self-interest. P. P plays chess. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. H. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. This is not merely a matter of using . European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. P. P. G. G. H. R 20.(C) F.
or the commissary is serving fish. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. Something must be done about the 51. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. C. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. If all the statements above are true. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. (B) has sage first. It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues.manual mowers instead of power mowers. so the first spice is either N or A. (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. N. and (D) has C before A. so it‟s out. pollution would be drastically reduced. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary. what needs to be done must be done. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. . Such concerns are irrelevant here. 25. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. and (E) has N coming after T. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. or the commissary is serving fish. 3)S can‟t be first. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. you may be able to meet the actors. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. or both. so they‟re out. (B) It is a workday. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. or both. S and T. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish.
What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. (E) is the assumption. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. S. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. so eliminate (A) and (B). (D) must be false. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. since we can‟ t separate A and C. T. while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. S can‟t be first. N and T will work. S. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. C. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. it‟s simply irrelevant. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. they‟re as fickle as short termers. then the 20% . 3=========FIN A1= First. N. C. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics.000 apiece. Try plugging in numbers. There‟s no supporting evidence. leaving (C). A is joined with C. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. Our sequence is A. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. If they don‟ t. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. and it can‟t be second either. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. so scratch (D) and (E). put S in the second slot. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of. Now we have AC and S. the number of attacks would have increased. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. Previously. (A) . 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. which limits our options. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters.
========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. l and o and you need go no further. F. and if you choose m. 2)If J is chosen. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. and since m is dance. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). If you circle G . Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. you have to cross out J. l. l. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. J. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. our answer. m. choice (A) . H. J. you must have J. choosing J yields three possible groups. and circle k. you can‟t have m and to have F. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen.decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. you must choose J. 3)If you choose F. making them easy to eliminate. As we saw in Question 8. 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. l and o. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. l and o. so (C) is correct. is correct. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. you see that if you cross out m. three. circle k. if G and J are circled. l and o. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. k. m is not. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. you have to choose the other three dance articles. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. you know you can circle k. but the rest is wide open. k. and if we cross out m we circle k. m can‟t be. If you have J. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . G or H. you have to cross out J and F . The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. so (A) is correct. o. we need 3 lower case and k. With Rule 1. Cross out m. you can circle the other 3. G. If you circle F. not what type of sets consumers prefer. l and o— those are your five articles. (A) . Let‟s jump to (C). so we can eliminate (E). so we can eliminate (C). Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. k. We have J. o. If you circle m. or 4 dance and 1 theater. so there are three possibilities and (C).
k. L. and L moves to Room 2. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. not in 2. k. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. not with m. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. We can‟t disprove (E). Looking at the wrong choices. Which choice is true of that? (B). but that moves trainers. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. 2)With command X. l. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. 4)With command Z. then see what commands move them to Room 2. So we have in Room 1. For the record. and (E) is out because L is with m. she‟s there with o. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. m to M and o to O.and H. etc. G. then moving them around according to different commands. we circle J. the dogs return to their original trainers. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. k. k. W is called. o or G. not with o. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. H. The first W moves O to 1. Yes. not dogs. and the second W moves her to 2. (C). We have three trainers. Let‟s jump to (E). m. So l returns to L. J. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. A second W puts M in 1. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. l. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. l. since if F is chosen. putting Onyx in 1. H. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. 5)With command A. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. and Oo in Room 3. m or G. not 1. (C) is out because M is with o. l. o. in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. the only one that moves trainers. If we circle F and G. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. m. Mm in Room 2. and to do that we need one X. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. you could have G. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. m. two Ws. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . and M in 3. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. and o. 3)With command Y. J is chosen. M is in Room 3. But we need five. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. H. Ol . so it‟s correct. O in 2 and L in 3. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. We have rooms 1. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. (A) is out because O is with l. 2 and 3. L in 2. l.
W.correct. M in 1. Q and (E). O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. S. M. but that isn‟t a choice. P is next to T. So W and S have to be in A- . P. so you have Oo in 1. empty. So T is in 2 or 3. Q. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. R and V. As for (D). so since B-2 is occupied by S. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. W and A puts O again in 1. 4)T is not in one of the ends. empty unit. so P is in B-3. putting m in 2 and l in 3. With P in B-3. O to M. 5)W is next to empty. (B). but l in 2. S. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. empty and Q on A. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. P is in B-4. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. we have no more light on the R and V issue. And with (A) and (C). So we put S underneath in B-2. m. Y lines up the dogs. not A-4. L. Take your people. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. one‟s on A. A. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. and as for (C) and (D). (D) puts O and l together but in 1. W . W is on A. P. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. so W is on A and S is on B. R. L. so Q is on A. To get from L. the other on B. 2)S and Q are on different levels. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. V and R are left—one will be on A. T. Call W once. W and empty. As for the others. the dogs seek out their trainers. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. it has to be next to P in B-2. you get O. and T can‟t be on an end. how to go from l. so (E) is correct. m. so we‟ve got our answer. O. 3)P and T are adjacent. call W twice. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. As for (B). For the dogs. V. 8 apartments—1 is empty. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . so we know that P and T are on B. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. O. L. Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. Y. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. l? One call of Z. (C). so either TP or PT . 1 or 4. L in 2. Now turn to the W. (A) ‟s sequence of X. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. o to o. and we need a place for V. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. S on B. and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. are both on A. and fill them in the eight slots. We have W. so add empty to A. But if you call A. since T can‟t be on the end.
Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. F. so (A) is out. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. they must play dominoes. since H. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. and juniors and applicants in lower case. k and m are both lower .1 and B-1. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. Turn to our W. 7 slots. The Rules: 1)7 people. F. and only dominoes has three people. so H and p must play dominoes. Now go to the Hp unit. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. and empty goes next to W in A-2. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. So only two people could go in A-1. so it can‟t be H. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. G. H and p are together. (B). since they have m playing dominoes. The senior can‟t be H. The question asks about A-1. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. T. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. There‟s only one grouping possible. k. G. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. making (D) correct . 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. 2)Three senior members. Let‟s put seniors in caps. p and r in dominoes. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. since H is with p . 4)H and p must play the same game. Nix (E). Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. so we‟ll keep an eye on it. (B) has F and H. empty unit. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. r can‟t play with G . H. so it‟s F. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. P and S are out because they‟re on B. chess with two and dominoes with three. Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. so we have one cap in each group. r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. (or p and someone else). p and r in dominoes is okay. If they play chess. k and r play dominoes. It must be F. S. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. directly above T in B-2. which is correct. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. m and p. Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. It‟s between V and R .
true on a workday. or both. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. G and k in chess and H. Besides. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus. according to the stimulus. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. that the commissary is serving fish. p and r dominoes. fish may or may not be served. so k. and H. (D):G and m in backgammon. which this doesn‟t mention. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. no matter how drastic and costly. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. so it‟s (A) . That way. so (D)‟s correct. (C). A makes most of its money back.” That‟s summarized by (D). there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . and (B)‟s correct.) But m can‟t play dominoes. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. is fine: F and m in backgammon. so k and m can‟t be together. F and k chess. Japan. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. and its aid policy. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. For the record. but rather that it is necessary. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. the workday with fish. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation. F and m. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. (B)It might also be a non-workday. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. “notably Japan. or it‟ s not a workday. (B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. p and r in dominoes. We must do what‟s necessary. and we need a cap for each. to save the environment.case.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid.
X. (E) A. 3. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. then the fifth must be either B or D. G. If the third symbol is a letter. 7. 1. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. (C) B. Q.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. (D) C. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2.taisha.. If the third symbol is a number. 2. 4. M. L.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. The sequence is called a combination. Which of the (A) E. K. W. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. T. (B) F. T. 6. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. R. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . =========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard.
Thus. 4. a special visa is required. such as beef and poultry. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. however. if true. current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. Z. The combination C. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. X (D) 3. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. third. Q. D (B) A. S 4. even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. 6. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. respectively? (A) J. Which of the following. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. and fifth symbols. G (E) M. 8. . P. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. If the statements above are true. 9.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades. T (C) 9. 6. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. H. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing.
medium. 500. low. 7. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. high. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. of pessimistic forecasts. low. high. Last the service sector. one cannot argue that Which of the following. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. and one produces a high-pitched ring. low (D) medium. high 9. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. medium (B) low. medium (C) medium. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. low. low. for the sequence. high. low. . (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. Over the has greatly expanded. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. medium. low. one produces a medium-pitched ring. high. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. medium (E) low. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. low.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. In the our economy is wilting. medium. medium. medium. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. low. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. high. low. high. high. low. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. if true. high. medium. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. medium. high.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. low. He decides that. medium. 8. low. medium. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
(D) Not all students responded to the survey. (D) Work time. According to a recent school survey.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. however. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. never engage in this aggressive play. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. (E) Work time. cost. (E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. 24. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. Which of the following. . and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. (C) Fifteen years ago. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. cost. if true. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams.
the number is 3rd. and the sequence begins with C . G is 4th and 5th is B or D. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. so all letters must appear later than E. Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. violating Rule 5. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. E. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. and B doesn‟t. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. That leaves (A). The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. You‟ve used B first.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. So F can‟t begin and E. Skim to (D). F. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd. (A) begins with E. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. the 5th must be B or D. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. Only one letter comes after Y . the 5th symbol must be B or D. If you start with F. The number is 3rd. 3)In Option 2. a Rule 2 no-no. there can‟t be an F or a G . and (E). so (A) won‟t work. B is 1st. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. (E). . 4=========FIN A2= First. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. you begin with a letter later than B or D. so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. so it‟s correct. replace the F with a D. You end with B or D and this ends with F. In Option 2. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. That leaves correct choice (D). In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. B or D only. is correct. the number is 2nd. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. Only (A) gives you that option. Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. In Option 2.
If the population increase is slower than projected. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days. (E) replaces the C with an A. As evidence. . He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. so (C) won‟t work. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. So (D) is correct. as (B) says. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. As for the others. if you do so. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. We talked about that in (A). but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. not that it‟s prospering more than ever.which works with the rules for Option 2. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. a special visa is required. So (D) is correct. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. economy continues to grow and prosper. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply. But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. Focuses on cost. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. you need a special visa. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. (E)Isn‟t inferable.S. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. the sequence ends with a D. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. the author cites the expansion of the service sector.
Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. (E) puts the high 8th. and low. (E). and 5. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. so dump (D) and (E). One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. it could still be the most important factor overall. (B) medium is 2nd. so (E)‟s correct. (C) puts a high 3rd. and 7th. yes. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. low. yes. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. low is 3rd. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. and it‟s correct. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. and a low. a medium 4th. (D) has a high 3rd. (A). Now we have to split up the lows. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings. 5th. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. (A) puts the high bell 1st. and 7th. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. (B) has low. 5th. (A) has high. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. the other high 2nd. yes. next to the high in 3. and mediums 4th and 6th. so (D)‟s correct.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. That works if we put a low 1st. medium. the correct answer. yes. (C). leaving us with (B). and a medium 5th. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . low in 3. either would be okay. and split up the lows 1st. high bell is 4th. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. So we‟ll put one low first. 4. and one after. The beginning looks like this—low. low is 1st. 4. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. We‟ll have to put two before this set. high. a medium. in 3. medium. a high. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. then fill the space between with a medium. 3)The two high bells will stick together. and the high bell 2 times. the medium bell 3 times. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. You ring the low bell 3 times. (D). low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. 4th. medium. 4. and 5th. one low third. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. medium. and 5. high. the other high 2nd. and 8 rings. ========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. 3rd.
so (C) is correct. How about (E). You know that‟s okay from 9. Having done 9 and 10. (E) has high. In priority 2. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. Fresno. so this is acceptable. Edinburgh. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. 7 and 8. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. the dead end. a low 5th. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. All the others work. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. 4 and 5. That‟s acceptable. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. Fresno. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. (C) is fine. and 5. start at the home office. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. medium 8th. (E). a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. describes a route it could not have followed. we‟ve discussed this— yes. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. 15=========FIN A2= . medium 6th. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. in both cases they go next to Caracas. Beijing. 4. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. Caracas. Edinburgh. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. Dakar. You have 6 cities. ========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. Edinburgh. 1 and 2. low 7th. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. 2 types of memos. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. and no way to do that. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium. to Edinburgh. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar. Caracas. If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. send the memo to Beijing. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. Caracas. and medium in 3. Beijing. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. you could send it to Dakar. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. Fresno. (D) is fine. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. which makes (B) correct. low.
you‟d break Rule 3. and Beijing. F must be immediately above L . If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. the dead end. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. G. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. you can start in the home office. write next to shelf 3 no J. Caracas. and in Option 2. (B). After Dakar. go to Beijing. we work with Option 1. then Edinburgh. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. a dead end. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno. You have two options. As far as priority 2. the only place it can go is to Caracas. top to bottom. 1)In Option 1. Dakar. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. and (A) is correct. so it won‟t work. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar. so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. Option 2. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. Beijing. The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. and the answer is (C). and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. to Caracas. go to Dakar. the only place it can go is Fresno. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. go to Caracas.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. (D). Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. (A). could have seen the memo. a dead end. What . 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. and H on shelf 2. and then Beijing. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. That works in priority 1. so (B) won‟t do it. that‟s three. and L. write next to shelf 2 no J. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. (D) is correct. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. where was it sent? Priority 2. Only Beijing and Fresno. (C). The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. Option 1. Caracas. so it went to Beijing. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing.
In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. and G on 3. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3.must be true? Look at (B). can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. L is on shelf 2. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. K. so the only place for K is shelf 3. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. J is on shelf two. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. so J is on shelf 2. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. We put F. and shelf 1 is empty. if shelf 3 is empty. J and K are tennis trophies. L. let‟s look at the situation. and in Option 2. and H on 2 and that left us with L. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. So (B)‟s correct. so the only home for K is 3. K. as long as they‟re on 3. we just did with (A). and H is a floater. (A). 20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. If we split them up. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. so (C) is correct. We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. shelf 1 is empty. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. we‟ve already said we can. so (A)‟s correct. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. so you will work with Option 1. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. (E). J. and 1 remains empty. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. so shelf 1 has F. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. so it‟s on shelf 2. (B). What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. L and G can be on the same shelf in both. (D). J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. then the only place is shelf 1. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. L. (B) puts K and L on the same . so (D)‟s correct. In Option 1. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. then J is on shelf two. K. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. If H is on shelf three. You can put H on shelf three. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. K and J must be on the same shelf. where shelf three is open.
cost.. cost. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions. shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. that‟s true in Option 1 only. not because it is better than staining. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. . so (E)‟s our answer. (D) has F and shelf. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. We get the former in (A). (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. and longevity are equally important factors. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. If most students attend services for social reasons. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. (E) has J on shelf two. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. Unless there are other differences. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. but that‟s true only in Option 2. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. but J is never on shelf three. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. shelf two.shelf. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. (C) does the trick. not the past 15 years. would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time.
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