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org 我总结了 KAPLAN的题库中的逻辑题目，不知往哪里贴，只好贴到这里了，希望对大家有用。 Questions 1-4 There are ten lights in a row on a control board. The lights are numbered—1 through 10—in sequence from left to right. Each light is either on or off. The following is also known: No two consecutively numbered lights are on. No three consecutively numbered lights are off. Exactly four of the ten lights are on. Light 3 is off. 1. Which of the following could be the status of lights 1 through 10, respectively? (A) off, off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (B) on, off, off, on, off, off, on, off, on, off (C) off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on (D) off, off, on, off, on, off, on, off, on, off (E) on, off, off, off, on, on, off, off, on, off 2. If light (A) Light 1 (B) Light 2 (C) Light 5 (D) Light 6 (E) Light 7 4 is off, which of the following must be true? is on. is off. is off. is off. is on.
3. If lights 9 and 10 are off, which of the following must be true? (A) Light 1 is on. (B) Light 2 is off. (C) Light 4 is on. (D) Light 5 is on. (E) Light 6 is off. 4. If light 6 is on and light 8 is off, for how many of the lights can on-off status be determined? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7 (E) 8 5. According to the Sci-True Lab, the new micro-organism it discovered in certain lakes was identified once as spherical, once as cubical, and once as spiral, but has never been seen to assume the same shape twice.
Which of the following is implied in the above statement? (A) The new micro-organism can be expected eventually to assume every possible shape. (B) The new micro-organism is different from all organisms previously known. (C) The Sci-True Lab is not a reliable source of inFORMation about the new micro-organism. (D) The new micro-organism can be identified on the basis of some characteristic other than shape. (E) The new micro-organism can now beidentified more easily, because it has beenobserved in all its possible FORMs. 6. Punk rock gives our adolescents a nihilistic view of the world. It fosters the attitude that it is acceptable to behave in any way that strikes one‟s fancy, regardless of the consequences for anyone else. The total lack of social responsibility conveyed by this so-called music will be the ruination of a generation of America‟s youngsters. Which of the statements below, if true, undermines the conclusions in the paragraph above? (A) Movies also convey an attitude of social irresponsibility. (B) Punk rock has not found an audience among the adolescents of this nation. (C) Punk rock is not aimed at our adolescents, but at adolescents in England. (D) Punk rock has its origins in a critical stance towards our society. (E) Censorship of an art FORM inevitably gives greater appeal to the message it presents. 7. Some have suggested a correlation between not wearing a hat and being lazy — that those who don‟t wear hats are generally lazier than those who do. This, however, is not the case. I work for the unemployment office, and the majority of the applicants wear hats. The author of the argument above makes which of the following assumptions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Laziness and hat-wearing are learned behaviors. Unemployment is never given to those whoare lazy. Laziness has its origins in an individual‟s genetics. People who apply for unemployment are lazy. People who do not wear hats are generally lazier than those who do.
Questions 8-12 A student council consists of seven members: Jang, Kashani, Landon, Mezzina, Nedlin, Ozer, and Parks. Each council member serves on exactly one of the following committees: Housing and Rules. Each committee has at least three council members. Kashani and Landon serve on the same committee. Mezzina and Nedlin serve on the same committee.
Nedlin and Ozer do not serve on the same committee. Jang serves on the Housing Committee. 8. Which of the following is a pair of council members who must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Kashani (B) Jang and Mezzina (C) Mezzina and Ozer (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Ozer and Parks 9. If Jang and Kashani do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Landon serves on the Rules Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Nedlin serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Ozer serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 10. If Landon and Mezzina serve on the same committee, which of the following must be true? (A) Kashani serves on the Housing Committee. (B) Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee. (C) Ozer serves on the Rules Committee. (D) Parks serves on the Housing Committee. (E) Parks serves on the Rules Committee. 11. If Mezzina serves on the Housing Committee, the committee membership of how many of the council members can be determined? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 (E) 7 12. If Ozer and Parks do not serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on different committees? (A) Jang and Ozer (B) Landon and Ozer (C) Landon and Mezzina (D) Mezzina and Parks (E) Nedlin and Parks Questions 13-17 Doctors Xiao, York, and Zeller each treat at least one of the following: the ears, nose, and throat. None of the doctors treats any other part of the body. The following inFORMation is also known: Each of the three parts of the body is treated by at least one of the three
Dr. four on top and four on bottom. Xiao treats ears. Zeller treats throats. and throats 15. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Dr. Dr. York treats noses. Xiao treats ears. then Dr. York treats. Dr. 13. If Dr. If Dr. York does not treat throats. Zeller treats every part of the body that Dr. Xiao does not treat ears. Dr. If a doctor treats ears. then he or she must also treat throats. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. If Dr. he or she must also treat throats. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. In that case. (E) Dr. Dr. York treats ears. Dr. If Dr. Xiao treats exactly two parts of the body. Zeller does not treat the throat but that all of the other original conditions remained the same. Questions 18-22 A box is divided into eight cubic compartments of the same size. Zeller does not treat ears. Zeller treats ears. Xiao treats throats. which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the body parts treated by Dr. From left to right: the top compartments in the front are numbered 1 and 2. (D) Throats are treated by exactly two of the doctors. York does not treat noses. York treats exactly one part of the body. Suppose that Dr. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Dr. which of the following must be FALSE? Dr. Xiao treats ears. Xiao treats throats. noses. which of the following must be true? Dr. 17. York does not treat noses. Zeller treats noses. Dr. York treats throats. York must treat ears. Xiao? (A) ears only (B) throats only (C) ears and noses only (D) ears and throats only (E) ears. York treats noses. Zeller does not treat ears. then he or she must also treat ears. York treats noses. Xiao does not treat noses. (C) Dr. (B) Ears are treated by exactly one of the doctors. Dr. Dr. Which of the following must be true? Dr. the . Dr. Dr. 14. the top compartments in the back are numbered 3 and 4. Zeller treats throats.doctors.
oranges.bottom compartments in the front are numbered 5 and 6. Each compartment contains a different kind of fruit from that of the compartment directly above or below it. What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing pears? 2 3 4 5 6 What is the maximum possible number of compartments containing grapefruit? 1 2 3 4 5 compartment in the box contains apples. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. apples. Each compartment contains one type of fruit — apples. grapefruit. they contain different types of fruit. The box is filled so that: If two compartments share a side. If only one must be true? (A) Compartment (B) Compartment (C) Compartment (D) Compartment (E) Compartment . pears. which of the following 2 2 3 5 7 contains contains contains contains contains grapefruit. or pears. None of the compartments on top contains oranges. grapefruit. Compartment 1 contains apples. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. pears. 18. pears. and the bottom compartments in the back are numbered 7 and 8. grapefruit. None of the compartments on the bottom contains pears. oranges. 22. grapefruit. Which of the following pairs of compartments could contain the same kind of fruit? (A) compartment 1 and compartment 2 (B) compartment 2 and compartment 3 (C) compartment 3 and compartment 4 (D) compartment 4 and compartment 5 (E) compartment 3 and compartment 7 19. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following Compartment 2 contains Compartment 3 contains Compartment 4 contains Compartment 6 contains Compartment 7 contains could be true? apples. Compartment 8 contains grapefruit.
they claim I forced many labor-intensive industries to leave the state. she submerges herself in that atmosphere and comes up babbling like a native. a versatile group of chemicals used in Michigan in recent years to aid in the cultivation of animal feed grain. is that my purpose as stated before the legislature was to raise revenues to fund a statewide jobs program. (E) Raising taxes is not an effective way of creating jobs in industry. Which of the following most conclusively strengthens the argument above? (A) Scientists have observed an unusually high rate of intestinal cancer among consumers of Michigan dairy products over the past two years. told reporters: “The people behind this impeachment movement charge me with exacerbating our state‟s unemployment problems. which they could read in the Official Journal.” The principal flaw in Governor Kipling‟s argument is best indicated by which of the following? (A) There is no guarantee that a statewide jobs program would be effective in reducing unemployment. 24. (C) The Governor‟s constituents want to impeach him because of the effects. Governor Kipling. (C) Agricultural scientists have raised doubtsas to the effectiveness of polychlorinatedbiphenyls in promoting the growth of nutritiousgrain products for cows. however. By raising corporate taxes. They prefer to persecute me for wanting to create jobs and ease our state‟s economic woes. Gilliatt can create any mood. . Residual traces of the biphenyls used in the cultivation of feed grain have been found in the cow feed distributed to hundreds of Michigan farmers over the past three years.23. describe any member of any class through conversation so true it is almost eerie. Whether peering into a working-class flat or a country manse. What they don‟t realize. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls. responding to reports that many of his constituents were calling for his impeachment. (D) The Governor‟s claim about the intent of his tax hike is impossible to verify. 25. (B) The number of jobs created by a statewide jobs program would not offset the number of jobs lost as a result of the tax hike. (D) Industrial scientists who contributed to the research and development of poly-chlorinated biphenyls conducted extensive tests to ascertain the safety of the chemicals. not the intent of his tax hike. should be banned immediately lest they cause more harm to humans. (B) Traces of poly-chlorinated biphenyls have been found in the blood and urine of many Michigan cows. (E) The rate of sterility among Michigan cows greatly exceeds the national average.
5. (D). Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On. four choices violate one or more rules. If light 2 and light 5 are On. light 6 is Off.Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above? (A) Gilliatt‟s ability to convey a sense of the supernatural makes her writing highly effective. (E) violates Rule 1— we can‟t have two consecutive Ons. and since we can‟t have consecutive On lights (Rule 1) either light 1 . neither light 2 nor light 5 can be Off (Rule 2). (C) Gilliatt is uniquely skilled in describing her characters. and (C) are false. Rule 2 says no three consecutive lights can be Off. and numbering them 1 through 10. Now incorporate the rules. Rule 3 says exactly four lights are On at a time. (E) can. Rule 1 states that no two consecutive lights can be On. so light 8 must be On (Rule 2). leaving (B). 3. be true. but don‟t need to be true. Finally. then light 1 and light 6 must be Off (Rule 1). Since the question asks which choice MUST be true. As for the others: (A). starting with the most concrete. You‟re given that lights 9 and 10 are Off. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. but (C) has five Ons. Create a master sketch by drawing 10 spaces in a row. meaning there are five unknown lights (1. but need not. Rule 4 says exactly four lights are On: We already know that light 8 is on. 4. ========= A1= Questions 1-4 Start with the game stimulus: A row of ten lights (numbered 1-10) can be either On or Off. (D) Gilliatt writes dialogue that is more realistic than that written by any other author. (B). You‟re given that light 4 is Off and you know from Rule 4 that light 3 is Off. but don‟t need to be true. You know that light 3 is Off (Rule 4). For this acceptability question. (B) Gilliatt is the kind of author who is more popular with critics than with the general reader looking for escapist fiction. since light 3 is Off. (A) starts with three consecutive Offs. Thus. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. and one choice doesn‟t violate any of them. breaking Rule 2. Therefore. Rule 4 says Light 3 is off. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be On. 2. and light 7 is therefore Off (Rule 1). since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. As with Question 2. That also means that exactly 6 lights are Off at a time. From that you can deduce that only one of the first two lights can be Off. (E) It is primarily through dialogue rather than through narrative that Gilliatt makes us believe in her characters. and 6) that are each either On or Off. So the sketch looks like this: 1. (D) violates Rule 4—light 3 must be On. 2. Note that in the sketch.
(C)Sci-True Lab's reliability is never questioned. light 3 is Off. then light 9 must be On (abiding by Rule 2) and light 10 is therefore Off (via Rule 1). Create a master sketch. 6. The author argues that because punk rock fosters a nihilistic view of the world and leads to amoral behavior.or light 2 is On and light 4 and light 6 (but not light 5) are both On. (A)Just because it's capable of assuming three shapes doesn't mean it must necessarily assume any others. Questions 8-12 In this game. Otherwise. The assumption must be (D) that unemployment applicants are lazy. light 5 is also Off. you need to distribute seven students into one of two committees (Housing or Rules). (E). totaling four On lights. it can be inferred that (D) there must be some other way besides shape to identify this micro-organism. (A)(C)The causes or origins of laziness are beyond the scope. then light 5 and light 7 must both be Off (Rule 1). (E)Beyond the scope. 4. Based on evidence that applicants in an unemployment office wear hats. (C). 5. light 4 is On. As always. the lack of social responsibility it conveys will ruin a generation of young Americans. (D)The origins of rock are irrelevant. (A)InFORMation about movies doesn‟t undermine the author‟s point about punk rock — it‟s beyond the scope. one couldn't infer that people who wear hats are lazier than people who don't. (E)There's no indication that these three are the only possible FORMs the microorganism can take. If the newly discovered micro-organism has been identified in several shapes. in either order. and as we figured out. the author concludes that it's not true that people who don't wear hats are lazier than those who do. the argument predicts ruin. but doesn't promote censorship or any other plan for preventing it. But if (B) American youths don't listen to punk rock. 7. (B)Beyond the scope. Start with what you‟re given. (B)Nothing is assumed about how likely a person is to be granted unemployment benefits. eight lights. is the number that can be determined. using columns or circles to . scientists wouldn't know that it was the same micro-organism they were seeing when it took on different shapes. If light 8 is Off. That means light 4 is On. (C)Just because punk rock isn't aimed at American youth doesn't mean that Americans don't listen to it. leaving only light 1 and light 2 unknown—one is On and the other is Off. must be true. and light 7 is Off. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. there's no indication of the micro-organism's uniqueness. the music's message won't corrupt them. If this were not the case. Therefore. (E)This is the claim that the author intends to refute. If light 6 is On. it's the effects we're concerned with.
That means one committee has three members and the other committee has four members. and make as many concrete deductions as possible. but don‟t need to be true. P can serve on either committee. In the setup. with three columns to represent the body parts. That leaves J. P): Incorporate the rules into the sketch. O. Since you on the Rules serve on the (D). O. and you know from the setup that O can‟t serve with M and N. Therefore. Nose. Abbreviate the members‟ names. N. and three horizontal rows . (A). This question tests your ability to deduce beyond the strict wording of the rules. then N does too. N). and N all serve together. be true. eliminating (D) and (E). 12. Your sketch should look something like this : 8. so K and L must serve with O on the other committee. K and L (Rule 2) must serve together on Rules with O. so (D). Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. K must serve Committee. Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. and Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. using their first initials (J. Rule 2 says K and L must serve together. O must then serve on Rules (as per Rule 4). 11. but need not. eliminating (B). 10. we deduced from Rules 3 and 4 that since Rule 3 says M and N must serve together. Z) each treat at least one of the following body parts: Ears. N must serve on Rules. If O can‟t serve with P. O can‟t serve with M. and P to serve on Housing. or (A). 9. From Rule 2 and Rule 3 you can deduce that K. (D) must be true: P serves on Housing. (C). Since you‟re asked which choice MUST be true. M. so L must also Rules Committee (Rule 2). L. and N must serve with M. so (A) can be eliminated. six committee members can be determined. If M serves on Housing. M. That makes three members on one committee. Start with what you‟re given. (B). can. L. and Throat. keep in mind that the four incorrect choices can be true. K. Create a master sketch. leaving (C): L and M can‟t serve on the same committee. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 places J on the Housing Committee. there‟s a total of three on Housing (J. Rule 4 states that N and O can‟t serve together. Questions 13-17 In this game. and (E) know that J serves on the Housing Committee (Rule 5). L. then P must serve with M and N. Since J is always on Housing. Y. so put a J under Housing. and (E) are false. Each committee must have at least three members. We can‟t determine which trio is with J on Housing. (C). Rule 1 states that each committee has at least three members. M. O can‟t serve with M. and one member (J) is already on Housing.represent the two committees. so K. M. As for the others: (B). or (C). three doctors (shorthanded X. You‟re given that L serves with M. A quick deduction: Since O can‟t serve with N.
(D). and X must treat both ears and throats: Questions 18-22 This game concerns a box divided into eight cubic compartments. In other words. (C) and (E) can be eliminated. Rule 1 states that ears. (A) can. (A). 17. choices that can be false can be eliminated. Rule 2 says that if a doctor treats ears. and (E) state relationships that can‟t be implied. Rule 4 says X doesn‟t treat noses. be false. ears and throats only. 16. four (#1-4) on the top and four (#5-8) on the bottom. Since X can‟t treat noses. and incorporate them into your sketch: Rule 5 says Z treats throats. then Y can‟t treat ears. If Y treats neither ears nor throats. If Z doesn‟t treat ears. Each compartment contains apples (A). one for each doctor. then Y must also treat throats. because of Rule 3. Rule 3 says that any part Y treats. Y doesn‟t necessarily treat every body part that Z treats. so put “no” in the appropriate column.underneath. Since X doesn‟t treat noses (Rule 4). The intersection of doctor and body part represents whether or not the doctor treats that body part-a yes or no is sufficient: Start with the most concrete rules. Since the question asks which of the following must be FALSE. However. but need not. X must treat at least throats. Yet. and (E) can. Both Y and Z must treat noses. then X must also treat throats. then Y can‟t treat ears (or the contrapositive of Rule 2 is violated). Go through the choices. X must treat at least one of the other two body parts. must be false. Look at what you have. be true. X can. a doctor can treat throats without treating ears. If X treats ears. if Y treats it. (D). but need not. (C). grapefruit (G). Therefore. Since the question asks which of the following must be true. 13. and then add your knowledge of the rules. noses. However. then X must treat ears (abiding by Rule 1) and therefore X also treats throats (as per Rule 2). So (B) must be true. numbered 1-8. treat ears. 15. (B) is true. Rule 3 states that Z treats every body part that Y treats. then Z also doesn‟t treat ears (Rule 2) and therefore Y doesn‟t treat throats or ears (Rule 3). Y must treat noses. so put “yes” in the appropriate column. If Z doesn‟t treat throats. that doctor must also treat throats. but need not. leaving (C): Y doesn‟t treat noses. or pears (P) Create a master sketch: . is a complete and accurate list of the parts treated by X. the four choices that only can be true can be eliminated. and throats are each treated by at least one doctor. This question is a gimme — it makes sure you‟ve read the rules. Start with what you‟re given. according to Rule 2. so does Z. one by one. (C) is correct. If neither Z nor Y treats ears. then try to make some deductions. 14. If Y doesn‟t treat throats. If Y treats ears. oranges (O). if X treats throats. (D). Z also treats.
so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain apples or grapefruit. Since Compartments 2 and 3 can‟t contain apples or oranges. For this acceptability question. and there are no grapefruit in Compartments 6 and 7. (A) is correct. so (B) is correct. However. neither Compartment 2 nor Compartment 3 can. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (Rule 2). the best way to solve this question is to first figure . the four incorrect choices must be false. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartments 2 and 3. Thus. 21. 1 and 2) must have different fruits. This leaves (C). Rule 1 says that two compartments that share a side (i. (C). From that and Rules 5 and 6. and 4). and the restrictions of choice (D) don‟t apply to Compartments 2 and 3. four choices violate one or more rules. they can both contain pears (as long as Compartment 4 doesn‟t). 19. Therefore. Compartments 2 and 3 can each only contain either grapefruit or pears. eliminating (D) and (E). From Rule 4 we know that Compartments 5-8 can‟t contain pears.Incorporate the rules. From that and Rules 5 and 6. The best way to solve this question is to first figure out which compartments can‟t possibly contain pears. Compartment 4 contains pears—this could be true. So put an A in Compartment 1. throwing out violators: (A) and (C) break Rule 1—each pair shares a side. (D) and (E) are similarly eliminated since both Compartment 6 and Compartment 7 share sides with Compartment 8. Rule 2 states that each compartment contains a different fruit than the compartment directly above or below it. Rule 6 says Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. Since the question asks which could be true. a maximum of two compartments can contain pears without violating Rule 1. Rule 3 says that none of the top compartments (1-4) contain oranges. so there are no more than four pears. Check each choice in turn. you can deduce that there are no apples in Compartment 5 and no grapefruit in Compartment 4. so if Compartment 4 contains pears. As in Question 20. since Compartment 2 and Compartment 3 are not adjacent. Your sketch should look something like this: 18. Compartments 6 and 7 can each only contain either apples or oranges. eliminating rule violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 1 because both Compartments 2 and 3 share sides with Compartment 1. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain apples (Rule 2). (D) can also be ruled out: Compartment 4 can‟t contain oranges (Rule 3). Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t possibly contain the same fruit. which contains apples. leaving only (B): Compartments 2 and 3 don‟t share a side. starting with the most concrete: Compartment 1 contains apples. Rule 1 states that adjacent compartments can‟t contain the same fruit. Compare each rule to the choices. so Compartments 4 and 5 can‟t both contain oranges or pears. 3. Place a G in Compartment 8. (E) violates Rule 2—Compartment 3 is directly above Compartment 7. and Compartment 5 can‟t contain pears (Rule 4). and one choice violates none of them.e. which contains grapefruit. can be ruled out since Compartment 1 contains apples (Rule 5). That leaves three remaining compartments (2. Since Compartments 6 and 7 can‟t contain grapefruit or pears. Rule 4 says that none of the bottom compartments (5-8) contain pears. 20. according to Rule 5. as well.
If. (A) consumers of Michigan dairy products have recently been found to have a high rate of intestinal cancer. must be true. rather than how they are described. To make the connection between biphenyls and human health problems. which is that unemployment increased. (E) is also false—it violates Rule 2. 24. and 8 can possibly contain grapefruit. 3. but on what actually happened. Compartments 2. can‟t contain grapefruit. Compartment 2 contains grapefruit. but Compartment 5 can also contain grapefruit. then only Compartment 1 contains apples. (B) and (C) are false. (A)It's not the feasibility of Kipling's plan that's in question. (E)Suggests that Michigan cows were affected. merely her effective technique. (A)"Eerie" refers to Gilliatt's talents. (C)Doesn't show that biphenyls harmed either the cows or humans. 22. (D). not to supernatural subject matter. (B)Just because biphenyls were in the cows' systems doesn't necessarily mean that they were transferred to humans. but the question of his intent versus his actions. As for the top. (E)The idea was to raise taxes to fund a separate jobs program. So Compartments 2. 23. Therefore. (D)His claim can be verified in the Official Journal of the state legislature. If only one compartment contains apples. not that raising taxes would itself create jobs. 25.out which compartments can‟t possibly contain grapefruit. Compartment 1 contains apples. it's likely that the traces of biphenyls in the food fed to the cows were also ingested by humans and caused the cancer. The adjacent compartments. The flaw in his reasoning is that (C) his constituents are basing their anger not on what the governor promised. and 4 can then contain either pears or grapefruit (but not oranges—Rule 3). a total of four. is the maximum number. thus increasing unemployment. Conclusion: biphenyls should be banned from use in growing cow feed in Michigan because they pose a threat to humans. 6 and 7. (D)Weakens the argument by suggesting that biphenyls have been proven safe. You‟re left with two choices: (D) can be true. Kipling says that his constituents shouldn't blame him for causing many companies to leave the state by raising taxes. and Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). 5. 3. Only (A). but Compartments 2 and 3 can. This passage is concerned with Gilliatt's ability to describe anyone through conversation that sounds true to his or her class. there must be a connection between Michigan cows and humans who suffer health problems. . (B)We don't know this. Compartment 4 can‟t contain grapefruit (because of Rule 2). for instance. (B)There's no mention of her popularity. since the jobs program was never implemented. Rule 6 says that Compartment 8 contains grapefruit. so Compartment 4 must contain pears and then Compartments 2 and 3 must contain grapefruit (to satisfy Rule 1). but Compartment 5 can contain grapefruit. because he had meant these measures to provide for a decrease in unemployment. but makes no connection to problems in humans. The inference then is that (E) her characters are believable and realistic because of the way they talk.
The following is known about the order in which the sectors were constructed: One sector was constructed in each of the years 1981 through 1988. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:38 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A2(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:33pm ========= A2= Questions 1-6 A tunnel consists of sectors s. x. [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. (D)Gilliatt isn't compared to any other authors. v. Which of the following could be true? (A) Sector s was constructed in 1982. positioned in that order from west to east. After 1981. u. w. 1.org . y. (B) Sector s was constructed in 1983. Sector u was constructed in 1981. sectors were constructed only next to sectors already constructed. and z.(C)Gilliatt need not be unique — it‟s possible that other authors also use conversation as she does. t.
(C) Sector v was constructed in 1985. 1985 5. 1985 (C) 1983. 1983 (D) 1982. one can determine the year of construction for how many of the sectors? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 3. 1984. 1983. The agricultural use of chemicals is environmentally unsound because the indiscriminate use of certain pesticides causes birth defects in some birds. which of the following could NOT be the sector that was constructed in 1983? (A) Sector s (B) Sector t (C) Sector v (D) Sector w (E) Sector y 4. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the years in which Sector v could have been constructed? (A) 1982 (B) 1983 (C) 1982. 2. (D) Sector v was constructed in 1986. If Sector x was constructed in 1984. 1984 (E) 1982. (E) Sector w was constructed in 1982. 1985 (E) 1983. 1984 (B) 1982. Which of the following is most similar to the argument above? . which of the following could have been built in any one of three different years? (A) Sector t (B) Sector v (C) Sector w (D) Sector x (E) Sector y 7. 1984 (D) 1983. 1986 6. If Sector s was built in 1985.If Sector x was constructed in 1986. Which of the following gives the earliest and latest possible years in which Sector w could have been constructed? (A) 1982. 1983.
which studies have shown can cause gastro-intestinal infections when ingested in sufficient quantities. would most seriously weaken the social worker‟ s conclusion? (A) Women who are expected to experience complications during delivery are encouraged to give birth in a hospital or clinic. Half of these women had chosen to have their children in a hospital or obstetric clinic. (B) doubtful that the test results are accurate. (C) Cigarette smoking is dangerous because every study done has shown a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and increased health risks. Which of the following. whereas seventeen of the hospital births had required extra attention because of complications during delivery. 9. the composition of the water in the Buckshaw County water system was monitored over a 24 hour period. (D) Vitamin supplements are dangerous because excessive consumption of vitamin C can cause kidney stones. harmful pollutants. (C) reluctant to take action when the problem may only be a temporary aberration. 8. the results of a one day test are insufficient to determine whether a reservoir is consistently contaminated. (C) Women who give birth in their homes tend to experience less stress during labor and delivery than do those who deliver in hospitals. only five had presented any serious complications. (B) Mayor Stewart is a liar because all politicians are liars. in defending her decision not to spend three million dollars to purify the reservoirs. It was discovered that the water in the reservoirs contained trace amounts of mercury and manganese. (D) Women who give birth to their children in hospitals often have shorter . (E) Many criminals are dangerous because they are willing to take a life in order to avoid capture. (E) concerned about making a decision without regard to the economics of the situation. said: “Because reservoirs are fed by streams whose composition changes daily.” The Commissioner‟s statement indicates most strongly that she is (A) skeptical about the amount of damage that small amounts of pollutants can cause. The Commissioner of Public Works. (D) doubtful of the seriousness of the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (B) Many obstetricians discourage their patients from giving birth in their homes.(A) Photocopying machines are useless because they all break down. if true. In a recent test. The social worker concluded that the home is a safer environment in which to give birth than is a hospital or clinic. the other half had chosen to give birth at home. A social worker recently surveyed two hundred women who had given birth in the last year to their first child. Of the one hundred births that occurred in the home.
A person driving on the Beltway has just passed through the Blue Toll. London Highway. Vienna Highway 13. Paris Highway. Which one of the following could not be the very next landmark she passes. Yellow Toll. and Paris Highway. which extends south from the city center. Exactly four two-way radial highways lead from the city center out to the Beltway and beyond. (E) Many complications that occur during a delivery require the use of medical equipment not easily transported to a private home. motorists pass two radial highways. completely surrounding the city of Lakeside. Madrid Highway. and due southwest of the city center. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Red Toll. If a person can drive on the Beltway from the Blue Toll to the Yellow Toll without passing any radial highways. A person can drive on which of the following three roads without passing a tollbooth? (A) London Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway (B) Madrid Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (C) London Highway to Beltway to Paris Highway (D) Paris Highway to Beltway to Vienna Highway (E) Vienna Highway to Beltway to Madrid Highway 11. Questions 10-13 There is a two-way circular highway. due east. There are four tollbooths on the Beltway—the Green. given that a landmark is either a tollbooth or a radial highway? (A) Paris Highway (B) Red Toll . and Yellow Tolls. The tollbooths are located on the Beltway at the following locations—due northwest. due southeast. but no other tollbooths. Blue. Madrid Highway (E) Red Toll. which extends due north from the city center. Yellow Toll (B) Vienna Highway. the Red Toll must be (A) the northernmost tollbooth (B) the easternmost tollbooth (C) between London and Paris Highways (D) between London and Madrid Highways (E) between Madrid and Vienna Highways 12. Red. called the Beltway. Driving on the Beltway from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Madrid Highway. Red Toll. 10. which runs due northeast from the city center. The radial highways are: London Highway. which extends due west from the city center. Which of the following could be three consecutive landmarks passed by someone driving on the Beltway. Blue Toll (C) Paris Highway.periods of labor than do those who give birth at home. Vienna Highway. Yellow Toll (D) London Highway.
Nick. Quentin (E) Pedro. Jim. Nick. Jim is taller than Kathy. how many different orders of height are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 18. Oliver. If Quentin is taller than Jim. Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Nick. Mike. Laura is the third tallest student in the class. Quentin (B) Jim. Kathy. If Quentin is shorter than Kathy but taller than Oliver. Oliver is taller than Pedro. Nick. Pedro. Laura. Pedro. Mike. Laura. but taller than Jim. Kathy. If Quentin is shorter than Nick. who must be the tallest student in class? (A) Jim (B) Kathy (C) Mike (D) Nick (E) Oliver 17. Jim.(C) Vienna Highway (D) Yellow Toll (E) Madrid Highway Questions 14-18 The eight students in a kindergarten class—Jim. Laura. Laura must be which of the following? (A) shorter than Jim (B) taller than Oliver . Mike. Quentin (D) Oliver. Quentin. Kathy. and Quentin—are measured for height. Mike. Pedro. Laura. Pedro. Mike. Oliver. Quentin (C) Kathy. Kathy 15. Laura. Kathy. one can definitely determine who is second tallest fourth tallest sixth tallest seventh tallest eighth tallest 16. Nick. Oliver. Oliver. Pedro. Laura. who is in turn taller than Pedro. Oliver. Jim. Which of the following could be a list of the students in order from tallest to shortest? (A) Jim. Nick. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Nick is the fifth tallest student. The following is known: No two students are of the same height. 14. Mike.
21. 2. (D) T votes “yes” on movie 5. The five judges on the committee are Q.(C) shorter than Pedro (D) taller than Kathy (E) taller than Quentin Questions 19-22 Five movies—which are assigned numbers from 1 to 5—are being voted on by the selection committee of a film festival. S. which of the following must be true? (A) Exactly four judges vote “yes” on movie 5. and 3. and 5 (D) movies 2. Q votes “yes” on movies 1. No judge is permitted to vote “yes” on more than three of the five movies. S votes “no” on movie 2. (C) Exactly three judges vote “yes” on movie 5. Each judge votes either “yes” or “no” on each movie. 3. If R votes “no” on all five movies. and U. Which of the following could possibly receive a “yes” vote from S but not enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 20. If R votes “yes” on movies 1. R. 3. 4. and if movie 4 is the only movie that receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. A movie needs at least three “yes” votes to be included in the festival. which of the following could possibly be the list of movies on which U votes “yes”? (A) movies 1 and 4 only (B) movies 2 and 5 only (C) movies 1. 19. and 4 (E) movies 2. If movie 5 receives enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival. (B) R votes “yes” on movie 5. (E) U votes “yes” on movie 5. T. and 5. U votes “yes” on movie 4. and 5 . 3. which of the following CANNOT receive enough “yes” votes for inclusion in the festival? (A) movie 1 (B) movie 2 (C) movie 3 (D) movie 4 (E) movie 5 22. There are no abstentions. S and T vote exactly the same way on all five movies.
(E) The quality of Parker‟s coaching has little or no effect on the team‟s perFORMance. has provided the management skills that made this recovery possible. which are fixed for hours on computer terminals. (D) The team‟s poor perFORMance is a result of the players‟ tired state during practice. job related injuries are more likely to involve damage to eyes. dragging across or pressing on keyboards. would LEAST strengthen the above argument? (A) This firm now has a clearly defined organizational structure. because of heavy lifting and environments where the air was filled with textile fibers or coal dust. Freda Tully. if true. (B) Numerous factors could account for the decline in the basketball team‟s record. who believed that players were tired out by the time the evening practice began. with the work force increasingly employed in the service sector. productivity has nearly doubled. there was no competent leadership in the firm. or to fingers and wrists.23. In just two short years McGovern Textiles has made a nearly miraculous recovery. control panels or electric counters. which are forever twisting above. Coach Parker. 24. Which of the following. . Coach Parker bases his argument on which of the following assumptions? (A) The gymnasium could again be made available for the basketball team‟s use at 3 PM. (C) Other high school teams competing against Seagirt‟s team do not practice in the evenings. McGovern‟s new executive director. (E) Freda Tully became executive director of this firm two years ago. No business can thrive in this way without competent leadership and a clearly defined organizational structure. Profits are on the rise. (D) The new organizational structure is clearly responsible for the increase in productivity. (C) Before Freda Tully became executive director. 25. (B) The general demand for textiles has increased dramatically during the past two years. When workers were primarily employed by industry. He also realized that in 1985 the basketball practice time slot had been switched from directly after the end of classes at 3 PM to evenings at 7 PM. and sales are better than ever. injuries to the back or the lungs were among the most common health risks. Coach Parker noticed that the Seagirt High School basketball team had been losing more games per season since 1985 than it had prior to that date. concluded that his team would win more games if their practice time were moved back to 3 PM. Today.
That makes four sectors whose construction dates can be determined. (A) and (E) can‟t be true. However. x. In order for sector x to be constructed in 1984. with the eight letters written in order from left to right. eight sectors of a tunnel (s. Rule 2 says that sectors must be constructed only next to sectors already constructed. Since sector u is constructed in 1981. Rule 1 says that one sector was constructed per year between 1981 and 1988. Rule 3 says that sector u was constructed in 1981. Sector v can also be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. That leaves (B): Sector s can be constructed in 1983 if sector t is constructed in 1982. As we‟ve just seen. Therefore. (E) The relative frequency with which various body parts are injured on the job is related to the type of technology being employed. You must determine which year each of the sectors was constructed. and (D). and sector u is constructed in 1981. it must be adjacent to a sector already constructed. Rule 2 states that after 1981 sectors were constructed only if they were adjacent to sectors already constructed. remember Rule 2: To build a sector. There are two years between 1981 and 1984 (namely 1982 and 1983). (B). t. the four incorrect choices must be false. Therefore. 2. ========= A2= Questions 1-6 In this game. You can further deduce that the farther a sector is from sector u. (C). That leaves three choices. sector w must be constructed before sector x. (B) Every part of the human body is vulnerable to occupational injury at one time or another. z) are positioned in that order from west to east. . sector v must be constructed in 1982 and sector w must be constructed in 1983. Sector x is constructed in 1984. (D) Compared to their ancestors. u. so (C). Notice that two of the choices concern sector v. so (C) and (D) are out. sector v must be constructed before sector w. the smaller the number of possible years that that sector can be constructed. w. 1. (C) Today coal mining is a safer job than computer programming. From that you can deduce that in 1982 the only sectors that could possibly have been constructed were sector t or sector v. For this question. though it used to be the other way around. Since the question asks which could be true. In order for sector w to be constructed.The inFORMation above best supports which of the following conclusions? (A) Occupational injuries are becoming less serious with the passage of time. v. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sector t or sector v. y. sector v can be constructed in 1982. contemporary Americans are born with weaker eyes and wrists but stronger backs and lungs. Write 1981 in u‟s space. Create a master sketch. Sector v can also be constructed in 1984 if sector t is constructed in 1982 and sector s is constructed in 1983. sector v can‟t be constructed in 1985 or 1986.
then either sector t or sector w can be constructed in 1983. You are told that sector s is built in 1985. Sector z can be constructed last.3. v. Another way to look at this question is to start with the concrete: Sector u is constructed in 1981. (D) vitamin supplements in general are condemned because too much of one vitamin. then sector s can be constructed in 1983 and sector v can be constructed in 1984. You know that sector u is constructed in 1981. That eliminates (A) and (B). Otherwise. (D) is correct. However. 4. t. We‟ve seen in previous questions that sector t can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector x in 1986. You need to determine two dates here. (C)This is a reasonable conclusion drawnfrom unanimous research results. (B). Under this question‟s conditions. (B)This is the opposite of the stimulus: a specific claim is made based on a general principle. vitamin C. respectively. but on inFORMation about all photocopiers. 1983. and so isn't parallel. 7. y. If sector t is constructed in 1982. and z. sector w can‟t be constructed (and then neither can sectors x. As we saw in the previous question. First. causes kidney stones. the earliest sector w can be constructed is 1983 (if sector v is constructed in 1982). sector v can only be built in 1982 or 1983. Now. but when you look at the choices. any sector that is farther away from sector u than sector x is must be constructed after 1986. (A)A general principle isn't based on a single instance. (E) jumps out as the impossible one: Sector y can‟t possibly be constructed in 1983. Therefore. sector y in 1987. which are choices (A). Since sector w can‟t constructed after sectors x. w. If sector v is constructed in 1982. if sector t is constructed in 1982. So. 1983. so sector w can be constructed no later than 1985. In fact. and (D). If sector v is built in 1982 and sector w is built in 1983. The only way for sector s to be constructed in 1985 is if sector t is constructed before it. That sounds too simple to be the solution. Using the reverse thinking. Notice that between 1981 and 1985 are three years: 1982. Likewise. and 1984. y. (C). . sector y must be constructed after 1986. A general principle (agricultural use of chemicals is bad) is based on a single example (indiscriminateuse of one chemical has harmed birds). sector v can be constructed in 1982 and 1983. sector v must be constructed by 1984. the only sectors that can possibly be constructed in 1983 are sectors s. the latest that sector w can be constructed is three years before the latest year that sector z can be constructed. and sector z in 1988. in 1988. 1984. 5. is the complete list of years in which sector v can be constructed. Therefore (D)—1982. the only sectors that can be constructed in 1982 are sectors t or v. and z) because of Rule 2. then sector t must be built in 1984 so that sector s can be built in 1985. So (A) is correct. The first thing to realize is that in order for sector x to be constructed in 1986. 6. sector w in 1983 or 1984. then either sector v or sector s can be constructed in 1983. sector w must be constructed before sector x.
M extends due west. then the fact that more complications happen in a hospital is not caused by giving birth in a hospital. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. Blue (B). abbreviate the four radial highways-thus London (L). and asserting that it thus may not be necessary to purify water that was tested for such a short period. due southeast. Rule 1 places the tollbooths on the Beltway due northwest. (E)She's unwilling to spend 3 million dollars unless it's necessary.(E)A general claim is made. This would be a valid conclusion if women arbitrarily chose where to give birth. but no other tollbooths. (B)The Commissioner doesn't dispute the test results. the Commissioner is indicating her belief that (C) the pollutants may not be a regular presence in the water. and Yellow (Y): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. just whether they're representative of the water content on a regular basis. due east. Vienna (V). Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. Madrid (M). in . you‟ll pass two radial highways. There are four tollbooths. Questions 10-13 This game tests your knowledge of reading maps as well as knowing the points on a compass. V extends due south. (D)The Commissioner doesn't address the threat of gastro-intestinal infections. (A)The Commissioner is skeptical about the presence of pollutants. and due southwest of the city. Create as your master sketch a map with the city of Lakeside at the center. By establishing that the composition of the streams that feed the reservoir varies. (C)(D)Strengthens the argument. not their danger. P extends due northeast. 8. If. (E)This doesn't affect the likelihood of a complication occurring in the first place. L extends due north. but merely have been one of the elements present in the streams on the day that the water was tested. Because women who gave birth in a hospital had more complications than women who gave birth at home. surrounded by a circle (to represent the Beltway). the conclusion is that if women want to avoid complications they should give birth in their homes. the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. however. Red (R). but noexamples are provided. Green (G). past the Beltway. 9. the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. (B)Doesn't comment on the safety of giving birth either at home or in a hospital. in either order. and Paris (P). (A) women who expected complications more often chose to give birth in a hospital. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. For the sketch. less stress and shorter labor would decrease the chance of complications. The four highways extend from the city outward. Looking at the sketch. That means.
or (E). O. M. and isn‟t a must. leaving (B) to be correct: the Vienna to the Red Toll (at the Southeast tollbooth) to the Blue Toll (at the East tollbooth). (A). or the Southeast tollbooth. and among the choices. the Madrid. the Northwest tollbooth can only be the Blue or Green Tolls. For the sketch. using eight vertical dashes to represent the height relationships between students. L. the Paris. The Blue Toll can only be the Northwest tollbooth or the East tollbooth. Use your sketch. you‟ll pass two radial highways. Q). N. top being the tallest and bottom being the shortest. the possibilities for the next landmark to be passed are the London. So the two tollbooths are the East and the Southeast. Note that the question asks which could be the three consecutive landmarks. in either order. (A) is no good because you pass the Northwest tollbooth. P. Red. . but no other tollbooths. (C). the section of the Beltway in Rule 2‟s description must be the area between the Northwest tollbooth and the East tollbooth. K. Create a master sketch. and check each choice in turn. Therefore. place eight students in height order. Although you‟re looking for the location of the Red Toll. abbreviate the students‟ names to only their first letters (J. Between the Paris and the Vienna there are two tollbooths. between the Madrid and the Vienna. from tallest to shortest. which includes the London Highway and the Paris Highway. namely the Green. in either order: The Blue Toll must be the East tollbooth. leaving (C): the London to the Beltway to the Paris—there are no tollbooths along that path. which can be the Red Toll or the Yellow Toll. Use the deductions from Question 11. Check each choice in turn. then the answer hinges on the locations of the landmarks that aren‟t written in stone. making the Green Toll the Northwest tollbooth. (B) and (E) can also be eliminated—with both you pass the Southwest tollbooth. (D) is a double whammy— you pass both the East and the Southeast tollbooths. so (E) is wrong. If it‟s merely possible. making the Red Toll the Southwest tollbooth. The only place where there are two tollbooths without a radial highway between them is between the Paris and the Vienna. The question asks which could not be the next landmark. 13. Looking at the sketch. The Yellow Toll must be the Southeast tollbooth. 12. As we deduced in Question 11. only (C) is impossible—the Blue Toll can‟t be either tollbooth next to the Vienna. Questions 14-18 In this sequence game. Rule 2 says that if you drive from the Green Toll to the Blue Toll. 11. eliminating rule violators. and Yellow Tolls. From that you can further deduce that the Yellow Toll and the Red Toll must be due southeast and due southwest. since their locations are described in the question.either order: Your sketch should look something like this: 10. That means the Green Toll and the Blue Toll must be due northwest or due east. and (D) all place the Yellow Toll at the Northwest tollbooth—but that‟s impossible. Blue. it‟s better to first find the locations of the Blue and Yellow Tolls.
or (B). we can definitely determine who is fourth. so neither Mike nor Nick can be first. 18. since Kathy is shorter than Jim. leaving three available slots for students shorter than Laura. and you know that Jim is taller than Kathy who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Oliver who is taller than Pedro. 14. Nick. so Oliver is first and Pedro is second. with the remaining students. Rule 5 says Laura is third. and who must be shorter. Nick. Combine this with Rules 2 and 3. and Kathy must be fourth through eighth. you have to figure out who must be taller than Laura.” it‟ s telling you to make a deduction based on the rules.. Now‟s a good time to use the inFORMation provided in the question: Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Pedro. This eliminates (B) and (E). and neither Jim nor Oliver can be the shortest. Rule 3 says that Oliver is taller than Pedro. Rule 1 states that no two students are the same height. There‟s only one possible order here. For this acceptability question. You are given that Kathy is taller than Quentin who‟s taller than Oliver. and Pedro. Kathy. you can figure out the possibilities. starting with the most concrete: Rule 5 says Laura is third tallest. (E) breaks Rule 3—Oliver is taller than Pedro. Oliver. Since there are only three available spots below . (D) violates Rule 4—Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. and since Laura is third. Combining our deductions. Rule 4 says Mike is shorter than Laura but taller than Nick. Kathy and Pedro can‟t be first. Rule 2 tells us that Jim is taller than Kathy. Adding Rules 2 and 4. Also. That leaves Oliver and Pedro for the top two spots. If Nick is fifth and Laura is third. and then. You are told that Quentin is shorter than Nick. and two available spots for students taller than her. Compare each choice to the rules. For this question. Mike. then Mike must be fourth (according to Rule 4). Rule 3 says Oliver is taller than Pedro. so (A) is out. and Pedro is shorter than Oliver. we know that Laura is taller than Mike who is taller than Nick who is taller than Quentin who is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. Jim. 17. and one choice violates none of them. Laura is third. leaving (B). Laura is third highest of the eight students. 16. neither Kathy nor Pedro can be the tallest. When a question says something like “one can definitely determine. and note that there are only two students above her. four choices violate one or more rules. since Jim is taller than both Kathy and Oliver.Look at the rules. eliminating (C) and (D). We can deduce that neither Mike nor Nick can be first or second. in that order. Laura must be taller than both Mike and Nick (Rule 4). throwing out violators: (C) violates Rule 2—Jim is taller than Kathy. and Quentin is taller than Jim who is taller than Kathy. So place the L on your piece of paper. So. Quentin. Since Laura is third. 15. but taller than Jim. The best way to solve this question is to determine which students must be where. So Quentin is taller than Jim. Combine this with Rule 2. or Quentin can be first. or (A). we know that Mike. only Jim. That leaves (A)—Jim must be the tallest in the class.
For our example we‟ll use a grid: Incorporate the rules. As we have just proved. so neither choice needs to be true. From Rule 4 it can be inferred that Q votes no on movie 5. As for the others: (A) and (B) can be true. 2. as long as one . T votes yes on movie 5. at least three of whom must vote yes. this must be true. it is impossible for movie 5 to get enough yes votes since there are only two judges left. Rule 6 states that S votes no on movie 2. If both vote no.” that is. 2. figure out who must vote yes. Since the question asks which choice must be true. In order for movie 5 to be included in the festival. and 3. and U) to appear in a film festival. being taller than at least three other students. That leaves four judges. 20. those three movies will have the three yes votes needed. either one of them can be taller than Laura (with Quentin).) The only constant is that Kathy and Pedro must be shorter than Laura. So you have to look for a movie that can receive no more yes votes than the two from S and T. Nick. and 3. 4. and who must vote no. it means a yes vote from T as well. both must vote yes. so (D) too can be eliminated. Oliver and Jim are the “free floaters. must be taller than Laura. Scan the choices and stop at (D). S. it needs to receive at least three yes votes. and (C) can be eliminated. As for the others: (A) and (C) are tripped up by the word. Place a Y in U‟s column corresponding to movie 4. using an N. Rule 3 says S and T vote exactly the same way. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. This leaves (E): Movie 5 can still be excluded even though S and T vote yes since Q votes no and R and U can vote either no or yes. So that‟s two yes votes out of five votes total. Laura must be taller than Kathy.Laura. T. 2. one for each of the three movies. Use shorthand and place three Y‟s in Q‟s column. Each judge votes “yes” or “no” for each movie. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. What does a yes vote from S mean? Well. That also means a movie can‟t be included if it gets at least three no votes. Rule 5 tells us that U votes yes on movie 4. R. (B). Since S and T vote the same. but both involve the “free floaters” Oliver and Jim. 5) can be selected by judges (Q. and (E) are false. That means Q must vote no on movies 4 and 5. Note that in your sketch. U votes yes on movie 4. Rule 1 states that a movie needs at least three yes votes to be included. or shorter than Laura (with Mike. you are asked to match up a judge‟s vote to the movie he or she votes on. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Q votes yes on movies 1.” At least three yes votes are needed. “exactly. The third yes comes from either R or U. although both can vote yes. Quentin. Rule 1 states that a movies needs at least three yes votes to be included. (C). Any of five movies (1. Neither R nor U must vote yes. Create a master sketch. Questions 19-22 In this game. but we proved that four yes votes can be cast. so T also votes no on movie 2. 3. That thinking is reflected in (D). and Pedro. so (A). Since Q votes yes on movies 1. Rule 2 says that no judge can vote yes more than three times. Kathy. according to Rule 3.
For movie 2 you know that Q votes yes. Looking at the remaining choices. If movie 4 is the only one included in the festival. You are told in the question that R votes yes on movies 1. but needn‟t. Coach Parker concludes that the switch in practice time has caused his team to lose more games. (A)Parker isn't arguing that switching practice time is practical. so the other three judges must all vote no in order to keep movie 3 out of the festival. That deduction eliminates only (A). even though Rule 5 states that U votes yes on movie 4. and 5. then the other choice is correct. Therefore U can vote yes without affecting the exclusion of movie 5 from the festival. on movie 2. so (C) is eliminated. determine which movie gets at least three no votes. So U can vote yes on movie 2 and movie 4. Since this question asks which movie CANNOT receive enough yes votes. so both must vote no—if they vote yes. The only effect mentioned is that the players are more tired. but that the team would win more games if it were switched. 23. To conclude this. We‟re left with (D) and (E). The other four movies all received at least three no votes. You are told that R votes no on all five movies. That leaves (E) to be correct. If you determine that U votes no on movie 2. Rule 6 says S votes no on movie 2. 3. S and T vote together. (B)Weakens the argument by suggesting that practice time might not be the only factor contributing to the team's perFORMance. (B) is the answer. so (A) and (C) can‟t be determined. Thus Parker assumes that (D) the players' tired state at practice leads to poor game perFORMance. then movie 4 is the only movie to receive at least three yes votes. he must assume that something about evening practices leads to poor perFORMance in games. So movie 2 has two no votes. If U does vote no. As for the others: Movies 1 and 3 each have one yes vote . 22. U can vote yes or no without disrupting the condition that movie 2 be excluded from the festival. (C)Parker is only concerned with the perFORMance of his own team. Choose one of the two movies. Let‟s look at movie 3: We know that Q votes yes and R votes yes on movie 3. U can‟t possibly vote yes on movie 3. and then T votes no. and thus have your answer. one no vote. You need to determine which movies U could possibly vote yes on. and three unknown votes. be true. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. you‟ll eliminate two of the choices. so T must vote no on movie 2. Right off the bat you can eliminate (B) and (C)—neither choice mentions movie 4.of them does. and that switching the time back to afternoons will better their perFORMance. Movies 4 and 5 then have two no votes but three unknown votes. As for movie 5: We know that Q votes no and R votes yes. For proof: We have already seen that U can vote yes on movies 2 and 4. S votes no. there are three yes votes. Movie 2 has at least three no votes. R votes no. 21. . So you need at least one more no vote. If. and the only difference between them is that one choice includes movie 3 and the other choice includes movie 5. and determine whether or not U votes no. That means R votes either yes or no on movies 2 and 4. Look for the other judges that vote no. you see that movie 2 is mentioned in two of them. so (B) and (E) can. Rule 3 tells us that S and T vote the same. so it CANNOT receive enough yes votes to be included in the festival.
like lifting. no matter what the practice time. (D)Strengthens. it's necessary to find an for the boom in business that's not connected to her. not the overall frequency of on the job injuries. and thus could have led to an improvement in business no matter who was the executive director. (A)The author doesn't indicate which kind of injury he thinks is more serious. not in-born weaknesses --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:41 PM callasun 麦田守望者 . which discusses injuries. if the improvements occurred in the last two years. it's likely that she had something to do with the changes. (E)Strengthens. Thus (E) the frequency with which injuries occur to different body parts is related to the type of technology being used on the job. (D)Misreads the argument. and if Tully has been the executive director for that time. (B)The issue is the frequency of injury to certain body parts. more people are injured in the service sector because more people work in the service sector. because most people now work in the service sector. 25. Now most injuries are caused to body parts like hands by machines found in the service sector. so this strengthens the argument. so most injuries were caused to backs and lungs by industrial factors. (A)The author says a clearly defined organizational structure is necessary for improved business. (C)Thus Tully's leadership likely provided the competent leadership necessary to the improvement. (C)Coal mining is not necessarily safer. Tully could have been responsible for organizing the new structure. An increase in demand for textiles (B) would be beyond her control. To weaken this contention. and since Freda Tully is the new executive director. she must therefore have provided this leadership. The author says that the improvements over the past two years are the result of competent leadership and clearly defined structure. 24. Most people used to work in industry.(E)The quality of Parker's coaching is a constant.
Which of the following could be any one of three colors? (A) light 2 (B) light 3 (C) light 4 (D) light 6 (E) light 7 3. 2. Each light is one of No two lights in the No two lights in the Exactly one light on Light 1 is red. same row are the same color. same column are the same color. how many lights are NOT red? (A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5 (E) 4 4. green. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the colors that .org lightboard consists of nine lights arranged in three rows and three From left to right: the lights in the top row are numbered 1 to 3.注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A3(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A3= Questions 1-6 A square columns. the board is green. is yellow. Light 5 is green. If the maximum number of lights on the board are red. the following colors: blue. or yellow. those in numbered [zt] voodoo7 taisha. and those in the bottom row are 7 to 9. red. the middle row are numbered 4 to 6. 1. is green. Which of (A) Light 3 (B) Light 3 (C) Light 4 (D) Light 4 (E) Light 6 the following could be true? is red. is red. is green.
Which of the following. (C) The public already has some access to many beaches during the off-season months. soon there will be nothing left worth having access to. .light 7 could be? (A) blue only (B) green only (C) yellow only (D) blue and yellow (E) blue. In companies with only one secretary. the average secretary spends 100 hours a year at the photocopier. we would have to rely on government funds to maintain them. green. If the minimum possible number of the lights are blue. 8. We should consider carefully before nationalizing more coastal property. (E) Some privately owned beaches are not well maintained. It is true that more people would have access to the ocean and beaches not only during the summer. how many of the lights are blue? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4 7. but at all times. If all beaches were publicly owned. (B) The government is currently responsible for the maintenance of both public and private beaches. (D) Other private property has been nationalized in the past with no complaints from the original owners of the property. Therefore. would most weaken the argument above? (A) The public does not want additional access to beaches. if true. (B) The high-speed photocopier is no more expensive than are regular copiers. But at what cost? If the beaches are not cared for adequately. If light 6 is yellow. which one of the following must also be yellow? (A) light 3 (B) light 4 (C) light 7 (D) light 8 (E) light 9 6. A new high-speed copier would reduce time at the copier by 50 percent. Which of the following is an assumption necessary to the author‟s argument? (A) Only secretaries would use the high-speed photocopier. and yellow 5. purchasing the high-speed copier will save money for any such company whose secretary spends time on photocopying.
(C) The high-speed photocopier is as easy to operate as are present. Neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains in the same gallery from one day to the next. Which of the following is the most reliable conclusion to be drawn from the above evidence? (A) Beriberi and pellagra supplement. (E) Purchasing and maintaining the high-speed photocopier would cost less than does 50 hours of the average secretary‟s time. and pellagra by lack of the B vitamin niacin. in general no person will be deficient in any one B vitamin without being deficient in all or most of them. X. which are numbered 1 through 4. (D) Deficiencies in the B individuals. secretaries‟ salaries are rising and the prices of photocopiers are remaining constant. W can remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. (D) On average. contracted neither beriberi nor pellagra. however. (C) Beriberi and pellagra niacin and vitamin B1. (E) Beriberi and pellagra Questions 10-13 The Cloudcroft Museum employs four guards—guards W. The assignments change from day to day according to the following rules: Exactly one guard must remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. but for no more than two consecutive days. There are. Human volunteers put on diets designed to lack vitamin B1 or niacin alone. but for no more than three consecutive days. and Z. (B) Beriberi and pellagra vitamins. which of the following could possibly be Tuesday's roster? can be cured by virtually any kind of B-vitamin are caused by deficiencies of a combination of B only occur in individuals whose diets lack both vitamins have entirely different effects on different are not caused by B vitamin deficiencies. . however. 10. slower copiers. Z can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. FORMerly. If Monday's roster of guards is X Z Y W. Y. as many degrees and variations of B vitamin deficiencies as there are different individuals. Any day‟s roster of guards lists the guards assigned to galleries 1 through 4. The other three guards must change galleries from one day to the next. each guard must be assigned to one of the museum's four galleries. in that order. W can only remain in the same gallery from one day to the next if that gallery is either gallery 1 or gallery 3. 9. Every day. Since the B vitamins almost invariably occur together in food. it was thought that beriberi was caused by a simple deficiency of vitamin B1.
numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Quint. day (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Wednesday's roster is W X Y Z. Rob and Pip must change places for the next ride. 4. and Sal. X is listed third. which of the following must be true of Thursday's roster? W is listed first. W is listed third. (B) W is assigned to gallery 3 on Monday. Z is listed third. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Car 1 is empty. 2. Rob. one car remaining empty. the arrangement of children in cars changes according to the following rules: If car 1 or car 3 is the empty car for a particular ride. . If car 2 or car 4 is the empty car for a particular ride. Z is listed second. which of the following must be true of the guard assignments for that third day? (A) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. and if Wednesday is Z's third consecutive in gallery 4. (E) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 2. respectively. 13. 14. for the first ride. and 5. and Quint are seated in cars 1. (B) X is assigned to gallery 2 or gallery 4. After each ride. If Rob. Sal.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) X X Y Y Z W Z Z Z Y Z W W X W Y Y X W X 11. Questions 14-16 Four children are taking several rides on a ferris wheel that consists of exactly five cars. (D) Y is assigned to gallery 4 on Tuesday. If Z is assigned to gallery 3 for three consecutive days. (E) Z remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. then the child in car 3 must move to the empty car for the next ride. All four children are on the ferris wheel for each ride. If X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3 from Monday to Tuesday. (C) W remains in the same gallery from Monday to Tuesday. (C) X is assigned to gallery 1 or gallery 4. No other movements of children are possible from ride to ride. Pip. which of the following must be true? (A) Z is assigned to gallery 2 on Monday. Car 5 is never empty. 12. one child per car. The four children are Pip.
and Quint are seated in cars 1. Horace does not cook after Tuesday during this week. 15. Pip. If Quint is seated in car 1 for the first ride. Quint is seated in car 4. and Horace. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the family members who must cook before Tuesday during this week? (A) Betty . on which other day must Horace cook? Sunday Monday Wednesday Thursday Saturday 19. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following could be true? Betty cooks on Monday. respectively. Betty cooks on Tuesday. 3.(B) (C) (D) (E) Sal is seated in car 3. Betty does not cook before Wednesday during this week. Sal. Rob is seated in car 4. Horace cooks on exactly three of the seven days. (B) Rob is seated in car 2. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. (D) Car 3 is empty. and if Pip and Rob change places for the second ride. The following is known about one Sunday to Saturday period: Betty and Jim each cook on exactly two of the seven days. Pip is seated in car 4. for the first ride. No one in the Ring family cooks on consecutive days. exactly one of the three family members cooks. If Rob. Jim. 16. 17. 4. (E) Car 4 is empty. Each day in the Ring home. If Horace cooks on Friday. and 5. where will Pip be seated for the third ride? (A) car 1 (B) car 2 (C) car 3 (D) car 4 (E) car 5 Questions 17-22 The Ring family consists of Betty. Jim does not cook before Tuesday during this week. (C) Sal is seated in car 5. Betty cooks on Wednesday. which of the following must be true for the second ride? (A) Pip is seated in car 2.
Tuesday. for how many of the seven days of this week can determine who cooks? 2 3 4 5 6 22. Friday 23. Monday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday. In the twelfth century the stained glass windows of cathedrals were perceived less as works of art than as chronicles of the ordinary lives of the townspeople. Suppose that Horace cooks on three consecutive days during this week but that all of the other inFORMation remains the same. A hodgit is a decorative object constructed of reeds and glass. (D) Egypt has never in its history imported hodgits. since I bought it in the official government gift shop on my most recent trip to Cairo. Horace cooks on Wednesday. Friday (D) Monday. Which of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days for which one can determine who cooks? (A) Monday. Which of the following. Tuesday (B) Tuesday. (C) Egypt is by far the world‟s largest producer of hodgits. and functioned as a record to preserve events for later generations. (B) The reeds from which the hodgit is made are of a kind that grows only in Egypt. Horace Jim. if true. Thursday. which of the following must be FALSE? Jim cooks on Sunday. 24. Like modern magazines.(B) (C) (D) (E) 20. Tuesday. Jim cooks on Monday. Thursday. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. depicted prominent citizens in the community. Friday (E) Sunday. Thursday (C) Sunday. would lend strongest support to the conclusion that the author‟s hodgit was built in Egypt? (A) All of the hodgits built in the past two years were built in Egypt. Horace If Betty cooks on Saturday. one (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jim Horace Betty. Jim cooks on Wednesday. (E) The author‟s hodgit is made in the traditional Egyptian style. Tuesday. I know this for a fact. Horace cooks on Monday. . This particular hodgit was built in Egypt. they related stories of important events.
(B). (C) The amount of time devoted to schoolwork by above average students increased from 1988 to 1989. 1 to 3. citing examples to illustrate a desired conclusion. reducing art to its function as a means of communication. numbered on the top. 4. (D) There were more high school students in1989 than there were in 1988. in the middle. lights 2 and 3 can‟t be red. 4 to 6. (D) breaks Rule 2-lights 1 and 4 are in the same column. Therefore. and the fact that there‟s only one green light. 3. green. Place an R in light 1‟s space in your sketch. and light 1 is red. Rule 3 says there‟s only one green light (and it‟s light 5). expressing as fact something that is merely an opinion. You must place the lights. There are three rows of three lights each. 25. . In 1989 high school students devoted more time to schoolwork. and light 1 is red. or yellow. 7) can be the same color. Compare each rule to the choices. Put a G in light 5‟s space. 3) can be the same color.e. Therefore. 7 to 9. 2. Rule 1 states that no two lights in the same row (i. Rule 4 says light 1 is red. (C) and (E) both violate Rule 3-only one green light. Rule 5 says light 5 is green. and one choice violates none of them. which can be blue. Create a master sketch: Incorporate the rules. spent less time per week on their schoolwork in 1989 than they did in 1988. 4. Rule 2 says that no two lights in the same column (i.e. (B) Above average students devote more time to their schoolwork than do other students. four choices violate one or more rules.The author of this passage makes her point by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) comparing something foreign with something more familiar to her readers. starting with the most concrete. according to the rules provided. 1. lights 2. can be true. however. (E) There were more above average students in 1989 than there were in 1988. stating her opinion and explaining why she holds it. ========= A3= Questions 1-6 This game asks you to arrange nine lights in a square lightboard. 1. lights 4 and 7 can‟t be red. and 7 are each either blue or yellow: 1. per week. Based on those two deductions. than they did in 1988. throwing out violators: (A) violates Rule 1-lights 1 and 3 are in the same row. Which of the following can be validly concluded from the inFORMation above? (A) High school teachers assigned more work in 1989 than they did in 1988. and on the bottom. Average and below average students. red. light 3 is yellow. For this acceptability question.
leaving 6. 7 and 8. and since light 7 can‟ t be green and can‟t be the same color as any other light in the column. Use previous work to eliminate certain colors as possibilities. That leaves lights 2. and light 5 is the green light (Rule 5). according to Rule 3. if the government already maintains all beaches. but lights 2. 4. Light 7 is in the same column is light 1 (red) and light 4 (blue). the eight lights must be split up into three of one color. or (C). light 6 can be red. Since the question asks which choice can be any one of three colors. and (E). There are no rules that limit which lights can or can‟t be either blue or yellow. (B). To answer this question. lights 2 and 3 also can‟t be red. That eliminates (B) and (E). Determine an order in which there are only two blue lights. 4. Since you are looking for lights that must be yellow. 4. Only two of those three can be red without violating Rules 1 and 2. since they‟re in the same row as light 1 (Rule 1). 5. eliminating (A) and (B). any light that can or must be another color cannot be included. so there can be a maximum of three red. then lights 4 and 5 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 1. and light 9 must be yellow. (C). 6. or (C). determine which lights can‟t be more than two different colors. then (B) there's no reason to think that the beaches would be less well maintained if . light 7 must be yellow.2. However. If light 6 is yellow. The first thing to notice is that there is no way to have more than three lights of any single color without violating Rules 1 or 2. 7. So lights 2. Since lights 4 and 7 are in the same column as light 1. or (C). Light 7 can be either blue or yellow. can be any color except green. then light 4 can be yellow. . 3. and light 5 is green. so that leaves lights 7 and 8. determine what the maximum number of red lights can be. and 7 (as we saw in the previous question) can‟t be red. light 7 can‟t be red or green. 5. As we saw in Question 2. blue. so (E) can be eliminated. Also. so (D) is correct. and then subtract that number from the total of nine lights. Light 1 is red. light 7 must be blue. That leaves lights 1. 7. So the maximum number of colors any light can be is three. so (A) and (C) are incomplete. Light 6. leaving six lights that aren‟t red. they can‟t be red either (Rule 2). Since we can‟t have more than three lights per color. light 8 must be red. 8. The assumption against nationalizing beaches is that they won't be wellmaintained if the government is responsible for their upkeep. Light 1 is red and light 5 is green. and eliminate them as choices. 2. three of another and two of a third color. If light 2 is yellow and light 3 is blue. and 8. leaving eight lights to be red. That eliminates (A). That‟s only two blue lights. and 9. Light 5 is green. 3. Because light 1 is red. You know that light 1 is red. if light 6 is yellow. or yellow. Light 2 isn‟t among the choices. There‟s only one green light. There‟s only one green light. lights 3 and 9 can‟t be yellow because of Rule 2. both private and public. (D). 3. and 7 can each only be either blue or yellow.
Therefore. Y. That deduction is tempered by the next rule. Four guards. (A)(C)Strengthen the argument. cause beriberi and pellagra. we can deduce that if W is in gallery 1 or gallery 3 it can stay in that specific gallery for two consecutive days. (B)A high-speed copier could be more expensive than a regular copier as long as it's less expensive than the secretary's time. (E)Addresses the maintenance issue. (A)Anyone who used a high-speed copier would save time. 9. because it limits the possible orders from day to day.they were made public than if they remained private. Rule 3 says that W can only remain in the same gallery for two consecutive days. if the 100 hours a secretary spends making copies will be cut in half by a new copier. 2. and thus save money. since no one who was given a diet deficient in only one B vitamin contracted either of these diseases. Therefore. (E) that copier must cost less to buy and maintain than it would cost to pay a secretary for 50 hours. either W or Z can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. X. (D)Complaints from owners aren't cited as a reason why beaches shouldn't be nationalized. (D)Distorts inFORMation stated in the passage. (A)A vitamin supplement might not cure a disease that a vitamin deficiency caused. Rule 4 says Z . and Z. and 4. Rule 5 says that W can only remain in the same gallery if it‟s either gallery 1 or 3. This is the key rule to this game. are assigned to guard the Cloudcroft Museum‟s galleries. (E)The experiment only tested deficiencies of niacin and B1. From all that inFORMation about W. For a company to save money by purchasing time-saving equipment. based on the rules provided. Beriberi and pellagra could also be caused by a deficiency of a combination of other B vitamins. not of all the B vitamins. it doesn't matter if it's easier to use than a regular machine. if the public already has sufficient access to beaches. Questions 10-13 Your task in this game is to assign guards to galleries based on the previous day‟s assignments. The hypothesis that pellagra and beriberi are both caused by deficiencies of single B vitamins was disproved. W. there would be no reason to nationalize the beaches. (C)As long as the machine is faster. All the other rules work off Rule 1: Rule 2 says neither X nor Y can remain in the same gallery from one day to the next. numbered 1. (C)Too specific. The conclusion is (B) that combinations of B vitamin deficiencies. but its use of "some" instead of "all" makes itless effective than (B). 3. (D)Money will be saved no matter what secretaries' salaries are. Rule 1 states that exactly one guard must remain at the same gallery from one day to the next while the other three change. not single deficiencies. 8. Each day the guards are assigned to different galleries. the time saved must be more valuable than the equipment bought. which is the time she'd save with the new machine.
W was assigned to gallery 1. this acceptability question is the best way to make sure you have a command of the rules. Rule 4 says that Z can remain in the same gallery no more than three consecutive days. but need not be true. You are told that Z is assigned for three consecutive days to gallery 3. 11. You are told that X moves from gallery 1 to gallery 3. 13. so (B) must be true. 12. The ferris wheel consists of exactly five cars. Y. so one car is always empty. Therefore. so (E) must be correct. Questions 14-16 In this game. guard can remain in the same gallery. W. use the inFORMation in the question plus your knowledge of the rules to determine what must happen. and one choice violates none of them. For Wednesday‟s roster. However. In lieu of a master sketch. you must determine the order of four children taking rides on a ferris wheel. the rules aren‟t easily incorporated into your sketch. then W can‟t be in gallery 1 on both days. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. W is listed first. 10. or are false outright. Notice that Rule 5 mentions those galleries: If X moves from one to the other. W must be in either gallery 1 or 3. (B) is the only choice that doesn‟t place X or Y in gallery 1. Z moves (Rule 4) and W remains. Here. It‟s better to use for the individual questions. when the next day is assigned. Rule 3 states that Car 5 is never . the four incorrect choices either need not be true. That eliminates (B) and (C). or in gallery 3 on both days. According to Rule 5. so for Thursday‟s roster. W must be in gallery 1 on the third day so that W can remain in gallery 1 the next day. Before looking at the answer choices. For your master sketch. and only one. leaving (C). you can simply use five dashes. Looking at the choices. W must be the guard that remains in the same gallery. throwing out violators: (D) and (E) both violate Rule 1-one. There is one child per car. four choices violate one or more rules. X. You can use some of the work you did on Question 12 to answer this question. The rules all have to do with the empty car. numbered clockwise in order from 1 to 5. Since this question asks which must be true. (A) and (D) can be true. numbered 1 to 5. Since Z is in gallery 3 for three consecutive days. must be true. You are told that Wednesday‟s roster. If W changes assignments. therefore only W or Z can be the guard that remains from one day to the next. (A). Compare each rule to the choices. then Z stays in the same gallery (inferred from Rule 2). when W remains in the same gallery. Since we‟ve already determined that Z must move for Thursday. Z must move. so for Thursday W is again assigned to gallery 1. Rule 2 says that neither X nor Y can be the guard that remains.can remain in the same gallery for three consecutive days. (A) and (B) both violate Rule 2-X can‟t remain in the same gallery. Z is the third consecutive day that Z is in gallery 4.
Rob. That means. for a week. for the third ride. from Sunday to Saturday. __ . H) take turns cooking each day. as (D) correctly says. Car 3 remains empty for the second ride. or (A). Pip. throwing out violators: (A) and (B) both violate Rule 3 since Betty cooks on Tuesday. starting with the most concrete: Rule 4 says Betty cooks on Tuesday. respectively. Pip is seated in Car 1. Create a master sketch. according to Rule 1. Therefore. 14. Pip. Remember. Questions 17-22 In this game. Tuesday comes before Wednesday. Car 2 is empty. 4. Stated more positively. Start with what you are given: Rob. Rule 3 says no one cooks on consecutive days. four choices violate one or more rules. Sal. since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Rule 1 states that Betty and Jim cook exactly twice during the week and Rule 2 says Horace cooks exactly three times. and Betty cooks on Tuesday. __ . Now Car 3 is empty. If. Quint. Then. 2. three family members (abbreviated B. 15. Car 5 is always occupied (Rule 3).empty. According to Rule 1. Quint. Knowing that tells you which rules to apply. 16. Rule 4 says there are no other movements of children from ride to ride. and 5. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. so apply Rule 2 for the order of the second ride to get: Rob. You can deduce that since no one cooks on consecutive days. So place a B in Tuesday‟s space. Rule 1 says if Car 1 or 3 is empty for a particular ride. For this acceptability question. for the second ride Pip and Rob change places. for the first ride. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. and one choice violates none of them. You are given that Quint is in Car 1 for the first ride. then Rob and Pip change places for the next ride. then for the next ride Rob and Pip switch cars. following Rule 1: Pip. J. The third ride. Since Horace cooks three times (Rule 2). (E) must be correct. So. and Quint are in Cars 1. Compare each choice to the rules. Rule 2 states if Car 2 or 4 is the empty car. the children are in the same cars from ride to ride. Sal. using dashes to represent the seven days of the week. Your sketch may look something like this: 17. The order of the first ride: Rob. Sal. Start by figuring out which car was empty for the first ride. if Car 3 is empty. __ . only Horace or Jim can cook on Monday and Wednesday. Furthermore. So that‟s two cars that are occupied. H must cook after . Sal. you‟ll know all that must be true. Apply the rules to determine the order for the second ride. So Rob is now in Car 4 and Pip is now in Car 1. then during the first ride Car 3 must be empty. Pip. Since no other movements of the children are allowed (Rule 4). therefore. That means that Car 3 is the empty car. unless moved by Rules 1 or 2. Incorporate the rules. the child in Car 3 takes the empty car for the next ride. so (C) can be eliminated. Rule 4 is always in effect. Quint. Betty can‟t cook on Monday or Wednesday.
so (A) and (B) can. Tuesday. the four incorrect choices can be true. it's very probable that any hodgit found in Egypt was built there. So. 18. Thursday. leaving the other to cook twice after Monday. and the other cooks Sunday or Monday. . 21. (B). through Sat. (D) remains. and then B must cook on Sunday.Tuesday. Horace must cook somewhere between the four days. So. then Horace can‟t cook on Thursday or Saturday (because of Rule 3). either one can cook. There are three available days. Wednesday. (A). but not both. That eliminates (A) and (B). so (E) is wrong. Sunday. Either Betty or Jim can cook Friday. the best way to solve this question is to figure out when he can‟t cook. Betty cooks on Tuesday. Horace. and is possible since Jim only cooks twice during the week (Rule 1). Horace needs to cook two more times. so (C) must be true. and Saturday can be definitely determined. Thursday. Therefore. Since Horace must cook three days. Saturday. However. Start with what you are given: Horace cooks on three consecutive days. Jim must cook on Monday (Rule 3). Horace must cook Thursday and Friday and either Wednesday or Saturday. Jim cooks on Thursday and either Sunday or Monday. If Jim cooks on Wednesday and Betty cooks on Tuesday (Rule 4). The only false choice is (E). (E). but need not. 23. As we deduced in the game overview. Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday since Horace cooks three times but can‟t cook on consecutive days. so Horace can‟t cook Sunday or Monday (Horace needs three available days that are consecutive). then Horace must cook on Thursday. That leaves (C). and we‟ ve determined two of them (Friday and Sunday or Monday). either Betty or Jim must cook the other of those two days. In order to be consecutive. but need not. and we‟ve previously deduced that Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. Horace must cook on either Sunday or Monday. so (D) and (E) can be eliminated. If Horace cooks on Friday. Now. You know Betty cooks on Tuesday and you are given that she also cooks on Saturday. 19. (A)His hodgit could be one of the older ones that was built in another country. and (C) can. That‟s (C). Since Horace cooks three times during the week. be true. 20. So Tuesday. Horace must cook on Wednesday. and Friday. 22. Thursday. Wednesday. Since the question asks which must be FALSE. that the hodgit was made in Egypt. Wednesday. Only (C). Jim cooks on Wednesday. Wed. and either Sunday or Monday. If in fact (D) Egypt has never imported hodgits. and since Horace can‟t cook on consecutive days. Since Horace must cook either Sunday or Monday. must cook before Tuesday. Monday. Therefore. four days. and Friday can be definitely determined. The author assumes that because he bought a hodgit in Egypt. (D) must be true. In order for Horace to cook three times and satisfy Rule 3. Since Horace must cook three days. deduce as much as you can from the question‟s inFORMation and the rules of the game. Horace must cook on Wednesday and Friday. That takes care of Betty for the week. be true.
Despite the fact that average and below average students spent less time per week on schoolwork. it must be that (C) the above average students spent more time per week on schoolwork.(B)The reeds could have been imported by another country that then built the hodgit from them. 24. 25. (E)Another country could build hodgits imitating the traditional Egyptian style. (C)The author's hodgit could be one of the few that was built elsewhere. Therefore. (B)The author speaks about cathedral windows in general. (A)Students could be spending more time doing the same amount of work. without giving any examples. (C)(D)There is no evidence that the author is giving an opinion instead of relating a fact. (D)(E)The number of students is irrelevant to the number of hours the groups as a whole spend on schoolwork. (B)We can't draw this kind of general conclusion from evidence about two years. (E)The author isn't implying that because the windows were perceived as a FORM of communication that they weren't viewed as art as well. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:43 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ . the author compares them to modern magazines. To make the concept of how twelfth century cathedral windows were perceived clearer to her readers. time spent by students overall increased. with whose functions the reader is familiar (A).
who is seated on the immediate right of T. (E) M is seated three places to K‟s left. 2. (E) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s left. all of the following MUST be true EXCEPT (A) the seat on Q‟s immediate right is empty. (B) P sits in the chair on L‟s immediate left. a playwright. (D) L is seated four places to K‟s left.来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A4(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:34pm ========= A4= Questions 1-3 [zt] voodoo7 taisha.000. 4. All grant proposals must be received by May 31 to be considered by the Selection Committee. All of the following statements are false EXCEPT: (A) P cannot sit in the chair on Q‟s immediate right. No critic may be seated to the immediate right or left of a playwright. and M—are theater critics. L. 1. which of the following is NOT possible? (A) L is seated two places to M‟s left. K is seated two places to Q‟s left. (B) L is seated on K‟s immediate left. (D) P sits in the chair that is five places to Q‟s right. S. (D) T is seated four places to K‟s right. The Selection Committee never considers grant proposals for amounts greater than $50. (E) the seat to Q‟s immediate left is empty. 3. If S is seated three places to Q‟s right. (C) Two of the empty seats are adjacent to each other. R. Three of the people—K. joins the others at the table. P. If the statements above are true.org Seven people are seated around a circular table with ten chairs. which of the following must also be true? . the other four—Q. (C) the seat to R‟s immediate right is empty. (B) M is seated on K‟s immediate left. R is seated on the immediate right of S. (C) P sits in the chair that is four places to Q‟s right. If S is seated two places to Q‟s right. and T—are playwrights.
A recent survey of American households casts doubt on the generally accepted medical doctrine that psoriasis is transmitted genetically rather than through interpersonal contact.” failure to consider family relationships among household members. (B) The Selection Committee considers all grant proposals for amounts less than $50. (E) A grant proposal for more than $50. World War II had a profound effect on the growth of nascent businesses.000 than for amounts less than $40. K. unnecessary contact with psoriasis sufferers should be avoided. J. (C) Any grant proposal for less than $50. certain patients will infect other patients. H. (E) The vagueness of the phrase “significantly more frequent. A person with Disease H will infect a person with Disease L. 5.000. Questions 7-9 A clinic for communicative diseases accepts only patients with one of seven rare diseases—Diseases F. A logical critique of the passage above would most likely emphasize which of the following? (A) The (B) The (C) The (D) The others. (D) The rate of growth of Acme Packaging Company is representative of that of other nascent companies. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Rapid growth in business is desirable. (B) An annual profit of $10. (E) The rate of growth of nascent companies is different from that of older. psychological impact on the psoriasis victim of being avoided by failure to specify a plan for further study. (D) All grant proposals received by the Selection Committee after May 31 will be considered for the following year. more established companies. and where interpersonal contact is common. Pending further study. by 1948 it was earning almost ten times that figure. and L. The Acme Packaging Company netted only $10. (C) Wars generally stimulate a nation‟s economy. I. multiple cases of psoriasis were significantly more frequent than the disease‟s overall incidence would predict.(A) The Selection Committee approves fewer grant proposals for amounts greater than$40.000 is not especially high.000 in the year before the war. If put in the same room. 6.000 that the Selection Committee receives by May 31 will be considered.000 that is received by the May 31 deadline will not be considered by the Selection Committee. G. In households including more than one person. actual frequency of psoriasis in the American population. A person with Disease K will infect a person with either Disease F or Disease .000.
together they will infect either a male with Disease K or a person with Disease F. A room is occupied by three people. and one with Disease G. a male with Disease K. If after listening to only the first three programs of the day Johnson knows for certain the order of program-types for the rest of the day. 10. A person with Disease L will infect a person with either Disease K. Another room is occupied by a person with Disease I. 7. which programs are the news programs for that day? . If a person with Disease H and a person with Disease I are in the same room. and two educational programs. and a male with Disease K. the order in which they are broadcast changes each day. Though the same nine programs are broadcast each day. A room is occupied by a person with Disease H. two jazz programs. The two educational programs are never broadcast consecutively. one with Disease F. All of the above inFORMation is known to listener Johnson. The introduction into the room of which the following would result in more than one infection? (A) a patient with Disease L (B) a patient with Disease I (C) a patient with Disease G (D) a patient with Disease F (E) none of the above Questions 10-13 Radio Station WSHK broadcasts nine programs each day—five news programs. Which of the following pairs of patients could switch rooms without creating a risk of infection in either of the two rooms? (A) I and G (B) H and J (C) K and G (D) J and G (E) H and I 9. and one with Disease J. one with Disease F. These are the only possible causes of infection at the clinic. Which of the following could be added to the room without risk of infection? (A) a person with Disease L (B) a person with Disease H (C) a person with Disease G (D) a person with Disease K (E) a male with Disease H 8. and a person with Disease J. One room is occupied by a person with Disease H.G. or Disease F. or Disease G. The seventh program of the day is invariably an educational program. one with Disease I. one with Disease J.
and R—are riding the ferris wheel at Fantasyland shortly before closing time. (B) M gets off at the seventh stop. and ninth If the fifth and ninth programs of the day are both jazz programs. The first program is an educational program. if N gets off at the third stop. fifth. N. eighth. eighth. Two members of the family must get off at the ninth stop: Only one may get off at the other stops. and sixth third. how many different arrangements of program-types are possible on Tuesday? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 14-18 Seven members of a family—L. (C) O gets off at the ninth stop. Q. all of the following must be true EXCEPT (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. eighth. The eighth program cannot be a news program. who must get off before O. On Monday the first five programs are news programs. sixth. On Monday only two news programs are broadcast consecutively. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. 14. O. Q must get off at either the fourth or the fifth stop. The ferris wheel will stop a total of nine times. eighth. P. fourth. fifth. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would allow Johnson to predict exact order of program-types for Monday? On Monday four of the last five programs are news programs. second. 13. second. third. and ninth second. and by the ninth stop all members of the family will have to have gotten off. and if L gets off at the fifth stop. sixth. and ninth fourth. N must get off before M. fifth. . On Monday the two educational programs are separated by only one program. sixth. and ninth first. If on Tuesday each jazz program must be immediately preceded and immediately followed by a news program. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the the the the the first.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. M. On Monday the four non-news programs are broadcast consecutively. R must get off before Q. The first educational program precedes both jazz programs. third. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. The seventh program is a news program. Two consecutive stops do not go by without someone from the family getting off. which of following MUST be true? Three news programs are broadcast consecutively.
If no one gets off at the stops immediately before and after the stop at which L gets off. (D) L gets off at the second stop. if no one gets off at the first and sixth stops. Perishable products must be transported in either the third or the fourth car. X. which of the following MUST be true? (A) P gets off at the eighth stop. 19. Y. which of the following MUST be true? (A) L gets off at the ninth stop. If no one gets off at the eighth stop. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop. (C) No one gets off at the eighth stop. (C) L and P get off together. (E) Q gets off after M. which of the following MUST be true? . If Q does not get off at the stop immediately after the stop at which R gets off. (D) M gets off at the sixth stop.(D) Q gets off at the fourth stop. Questions 19-22 A freight train with six boxcars transports six products—U. and if the car containing W is adjacent to the car containing U. 18. (C) O gets off at the seventh stop. (B) N gets off at the second stop. and Z— every day. (B) No one gets off at the fourth stop. which of the following statements must be true? (A) P gets off at the ninth stop. (C) N gets off at the second stop. (E) R gets off at the second stop. and if R gets off at the fourth stop. which of the following MUST be true? (A) R gets off at the third stop. (D) N gets off at the first stop. 17. and if O gets off at the seventh stop. V. (E) L gets off at the ninth stop. (D) R gets off at the fourth stop. 16. (B) No one gets off at the sixth stop. W. and if N gets off after Q. There must be at least one car between the car containing U and the car containing X. 15. If X is perishable. If R gets off at the fourth stop. if M gets off at the third stop. (B) P gets off at the eighth stop. Only one product may be transported in any single boxcar. The second car must always contain U. and if P must get off alone. (E) M gets off at the seventh stop.
(B) If a psychiatrist has a patient who is apparently contemplating murder. The “community protection” law requires that anyone with good reason believe that a murder or other violent act is likely to be committed inFORM the police. (E) The third car contains Y. If W and V are perishable. (D) The sixth car contains W. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The fifth car contains X. and if Y and Z are perishable. If Y and Z are perishable. (E) The car containing Z is adjacent to the car containing U. (D) The car containing W is adjacent to the car containing X. 22. the psychiatrist cannot satisfy the requirements of both the law and his profession. (B) The sixth car contains X. . (C) Judges in actual court trials should automatically exempt a psychiatrist from having to abide by the “community protection” law. 21. even if the patient shows signs of to murder someone. (D) Since the two guidelines of conduct are in conflict. 20. (C) The fifth car contains V. (C) The car containing Z precedes the car containing V. which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The third car contains Z. car containing W precedes the car containing Y. not reveal wanting to must Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the inFORMation above? (A) The medical profession should rewrite its code to conFORM with the “community protection” law. If X and W cannot be transported in adjacent cars. (B) The car containing W precedes the car containing Y. sixth car contains Z. The ethics of the medical profession require that a psychiatrist his patient‟s problems to anyone. and if the car containing V precedes the car containing W. car containing X precedes the car containing Z.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The The The The The fourth car contains X. and if the car containing X precedes the car containing Y. a legal precedent must be established by court trial. fifth car contains V. how many different arrangements of products are possible? (A) three (B) four (C) five (D) six (E) seven 23.
Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the statements above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Children who misbehave should be ignored. Punishment is sometimes a poor solution to a discipline problem. Because of this finding. Studies have shown that. Parents should treat badly behaved children with extra love and affection. if true. M) and four playwrights (Q. (D) It is undesirable to reduce anxiety and tension when in an emergency situation. Parents should be wary of simple solutions to discipline problems. (B) The cost of repainting existing fire trucks would exceed the budgets of most fire departments (C) The reaction to the color red comes not from an association of the color with fire trucks. The age of the shiny red fire truck may soon be over. They see punishment as one way of capturing the attention of the parents. Parents should not punish children who misbehave. Rule 1 states that a critic can‟t be seated immediately next to a playwright. attention that might not be given to them were they always well-behaved. T) around a circular table with ten chairs. L. more muted colors like beige and light yellow. Parents should pay attention to their children at all times. ========= A4= Questions 1-3 This sequence game asks you to place three theater critics (K. (E) People will have trouble identifying fire trucks if they are not painted red. because of its brightness and intensity. the color we call “fire engine red” is especially likely to induce anxiety and tension in many people. would most seriously weaken the rationale of the fire departments that plan to repaint their trucks? (A) Beige and light yellow paints cannot effectively cover a darker red paint. R. 25. but rather from some property of the color itself. many fire departments are planning to repaint their red trucks with cooler. Which of the following. 24. That implies the opposite: A . S. But many children actually seek out actions that will cause them to be punished.(E) A psychiatrist must always warn his patients not to say anything that will force the psychiatrist to inFORM the police. Create a master sketch (this placement of numbers is one possibility-your sketch might be different): Incorporate the rules into your sketch. It may seem that a child who has knowingly misbehaved should be punished.
Rule 1 keeps Seats 5 and 10 empty. specific example (the Acme Packaging Company) is used to make a large generalization (all nascent businesses benefited from WWII).000. 5. then S is in Seat 3. and 10 empty-in this case a critic can‟t sit in any of them. T is in Seat 2. so (A). (A)(B)Which grants are actually approved is not addressed. As for the others: P can sit on Q‟s immediate right (Seat 2). 7. so eliminate (A). Using the sketch in the game overview. To make this connection. S. so (D) is impossible. who is immediately right of T. 6. (C). Rule 1 keeps Seats 2.000. From Rule 1 we see that Seat 10 must always be empty: 1. so somewhere there‟s the grouping T. 2.000 doesn't mean that it considers all proposals for less than $50. eliminating (A). can‟t sit immediately next to L. and R is in Seat 5. so (B) need not be true. P can‟t sit five spaces to Q‟ s right. S. (D)We don't know what happens to proposals received after May 31. and R is in Seat 4. For our sketch. a critic. in either order. P. and (E) all can be true. Rule 2 says that K is two seats to Q‟s left. (B). L and M can be in Seats 6. T is in Seat 3. if S is three places to Q‟s right. and T is in Seat 3. and (E). 4. or in Seat 5. you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. Since the question is worded all of the following MUST be true except. but that violates Rule 1-a critic is immediately next to P. Seat 5 is four spaces to the left of K. . you may see that there are at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) you can arrive at given the question‟s inFORMation and your knowledge of the game‟s rules. so (C) can be true. or 8. If the Committee won't consider any proposal for more than $50. Rule 3 says that R is immediately right of S. That seats all the playwrights. so (B) is out. since both are playwrights. then (E) a proposal for more than $50. R. 3. then S is in Seat 4. place Q in Seat 1 since Rule 2 provides concrete inFORMation about Q and K‟s relationship. so (D) is impossible and therefore correct. K is in Seat 9. even if it's received before the May 31 deadline. or in Seat 6: R. If S is two places to Q‟s right. The fastest way to solve this question is to use previous work. a playwright. a playwright can sit four spaces to Q‟s right. meaning they are 4 places apart. (A)The author needn't assume anything about the desirability of growth. (C)Just because the Committee doesn't consider proposals for more than $50. a playwright. As we saw in Question 1. so (E) is also false. L and M can only sit in Seats 7 and 8. A single. in any order. leaving only Seats 7 and 8 for L and M. and T must sit somewhere between Seats 2-5. (C).playwright cannot be seated immediately next to a critic. (E) describes the same chair as (D). the author must assume that (D) Acme's growth rate is representative of other nascent companies after WWII. only from Q‟s left.000 won't be considered. ruling out (D) and leaving (B)-Either L or M is seated on K‟s immediate left. Since the question is worded which of the following is NOT possible.
not in one particular phrase. it makes no difference what the overall incidence of the disease is. it's the change over the course of the war that is. H. Another room contains patients with I. the study doesn't indicate that the disease is transmitted interpersonally as it claims. If (A). Notice that patients with F are infected by more diseases than any other patients. K and G switch. more . but shorthanding the rules might help. You are told that one room contains patients with H. Rule 4 says an H and I together infect either a male K or an F: H + I male K. L G. Switch J and G. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a master sketch. If L is added to the room with F. a patient with Disease L. The most straightforward way to solve this question is to try each choice. then K infects F. and a male with K. In multiple-person households where more than one person has the disease. I. 9. (C)Too broad. eliminating (B). J. G. male K. (A)The flaw is in the assumption underlying the whole argument. H and I together infect F (Rule 4). L F. and G. If (C). so (A) is wrong. K G. one by one. The author hasn't considered family relationships among household members (B). certain patients with these diseases will infect other patients. there are patients with one of seven communicative diseases (F. (E)The direction of future study is beyond the scope. K. The author is concerned only with nascent businesses. it's possible that these people are related to each other. then L infects F (Rule 3). The study isn't clear on this point. Rule 1 says a patient with H infects a patient with L. K infects F (Rule 2). then the disease could have been transmitted genetically. If this is the case. Rule 2 states that a K patient infects F or G patients: K F. G. enters a room with H. not established ones. H + I F. (E)The passage only addresses nascent companies. If H is added to the same room. and violate Rule 2: K infects G. (E) can also be eliminated-there is no distinction for male patients with Disease H. F. (B). Rule 3 says L infects K. and H and I infect the male K (Rule 4). and J. and J. (D)Ignores the issue of how psoriasis is transmitted and how it can be contained. L). If put in the same room. The fastest way to solve this question is to try the choices. eliminating (D) and leaving (C)-G can be added without infecting any other patient. I and G switch. Specifically. 7. or F: L K. Questions 7-9 In this game. Switch H and J. I. 6. logical criticism of the argument must emphasize the weakness of the evidence: the interpretation of the study itself. so (A) is out. (D). If (A). 8. and J.(B)The annual profit isn't important. one by one. (C)Until more is known about multiple-person households. So jot down H L. then male K infects G. If K is added. This leaves (E): H and I can be switched without any new infections.
so place an E in slot 7. since a certain selection of programs for the first three slots spells out the remaining six slots. . and third. two jazz programs. then the five remaining slots must all be the five news programs. two jazz. one program per slot. then news programs must be both sixth and eighth (Rule 2). The other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. This question provides a lot of inFORMation. One educational program is seventh. (E). and E for educational. Rule 1 states that one educational program is seventh. Rule 2 says the two educational programs can‟ t be consecutive. it‟s (D): the first educational program precedes both jazz programs. and ninth. Rule 3 establishes the identity of the listener as Johnson. Notice that there are five unknown slots between 4 and 9 (you know that slot 7 is educational). but for the sake of completeness: (E) can be eliminated. Stated positively. Your sketch should look something like this: 10. If the first five programs are all news programs. Incorporate the rules in your sketch. Start with what you know about the game‟s limitations: One educational program is seventh. eighth. If the two jazz programs are fifth and ninth. So (A) is correct. Among the choices. (D): only one-K infects F. sixth. second. and there are five news programs total. and since only one must be true. (B) and (C) are patently false. only news or jazz programs can be sixth or eighth. (C): only one-K infects G. must be first through fourth in whatever order. but needn‟t be. Create a master sketch that consists of nine dashes laid out from left to right and numbered 1 to 9. So (C) is correct. (B): only one infection-H and I infect male K. Questions 10-13 In this sequence game. If the two jazz programs and the other educational program are first. You‟re left with one educational program. arrange nine radio programs (five news. so only a jazz program or a news program can be sixth and eighth. and five news programs to fill into eight remaining slots. As for the others. and you know that one educational program is seventh. (A) and (E) can be true. From this we can deduce that an educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. scan the choices. both stated and easily deduced. Once you have the correct answer you don‟t need to go on. and the other educational program can‟t be sixth or eighth. (C). The four remaining programs. There must be some way to further restrict what can be fourth through ninth. and one educational program to place. three news and one educational. 12. There are five news programs.than one infection results: H infects L (Rule 1) and L infects K. and two educational) into order. Start with what you know. then the other educational program must be ninth and the two jazz programs must then be sixth and eighth to obey Rule 2. Abbreviate the programs as N for news. in whatever order. two jazz programs. From here. fifth. J for jazz. look for the piece of inFORMation that assigns the most number of programs to slots. is correct. fourth. 11.
and (E) can be true. it‟s easier to draw nine dashes numbered 1 to 9 to represent the nine stops. That‟s because there‟s only two slots after seventh (namely eighth and ninth).13. but needn‟t be. Since no one gets off eighth. Since no one gets off eighth. (A). although the three empty slots can‟t be consecutive (according to Rule 1). Combining Rule 3 and Rule 4. and you can‟t fit the three program combinations into those two slots. 15. but E can also be first: E. you can deduce from Rule 2 that three of the nine slots will be empty. E. If you must have each of the two jazz programs “sandwiched” between two news programs each. N. J. then Q gets off fifth. E or N. N. so (D). seven members of a family (L. so (E) is the answer. J. N. That makes four. but for every other stop only one member can get off. O. M. J. N. N. While it‟s tempting to use a circle in your master sketch. M. there are four possible orders (in shorthanded FORM): N. Looking at the master sketch. Therefore (A). N. R must get off either first or second. however. J. (C). R) are getting off a Ferris wheel which stops nine times. N. (B). Only L. Rule 2 says that exactly two family members get off ninth. P. who gets off before O. N. If you stopped now and looked at the answers. E. J. J. 16. someone must get off seventh and two people get off ninth (Rule 2). Under this question‟s conditions. you know that R must get off sometime between first and fourth. starting with the more concrete: Rule 3 says Q gets off either fourth or fifth. eliminating (D). In order to satisfy Rule 4. then Q must get off fourth (Rule 3). and P remain. Rule 4 states that R gets off before Q. N. J. If R gets off fourth. N. Your sketch might look something like this: 14. (C). Incorporate the rules. E. N. must be true: No one can get off sixth. with O and P getting off together ninth. (B). N. N. leaving (E): It can be true but need not be true-R can also get off at 1. seventh. Start with the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem: If no one gets off first or sixth. someone must get off seventh (Rule 1). so they get off at 7 and 9. N. Rule 1 says that the Ferris wheel can‟t stop twice without a family member getting off. you‟d see that (E) can be true. If N gets off third and L gets off fifth. E. Deduce as much as you can using the question‟s inFORMation and the rules. E. N. and N gets off after Q. N. in any order (as long as two of them get off ninth). or news-jazz-news. If M gets off third. so M gets off either sixth or seventh. E or N. then N must get off either first or second (Rule 5). so M must be seventh. Q. That‟s three. and one of the educational programs is seventh. and ninth. M gets off before O (Rule 5). then you know R gets off before Q (Rule 4) who gets off before N who gets off before M who gets off . and P must get off sixth. N. but need not be true. Rule 5 tells us that N gets off before M. and (D) must be true. O. Questions 14-18 For this game. O. then the news-jazz-news combination can be only between the first and sixth slots. J. N. But in what order? Rule 2 says that two people get off ninth.
That doesn‟t help you find the choice that must be true. (C). 17. X is in Car 4 so (A) is correct. If R gets off fourth. Start with what you are given: Q doesn‟t get off immediately after R. L and P must get off together. Your sketch should look something like this: 19. 9-OP. or 3. W. (C).. in either order. This might get you thinking. (B). There are a few possibilities: If Q gets off at 4. 7-N. (B). 2.Y. who can be ninth? Since both N and M get off before O (Rule 5). Incorporate the rules. So put a U in slot 2. 20. shorthand it U. and since only Car 1 and Car 5 or Car 6 are open. X can‟t be in Car 3 (Rule 3 says X can‟t be adjacent to U. the best way to solve this question is to make all the deductions you can. Start with what you‟re given. (C). neither N nor M can get off ninth. and then add what you know. and (E) can be true. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). Y can‟t immediately follow W. You only need the first piece of inFORMation in the question to get the answer. namely first. X can‟t be in 1 (Rule 3). then Q gets off fifth. (D) is impossible-W is either in Car 1 or Car 3. V . Rule 2 says two people must get off ninth. using six dashes to represent the boxcars. leaving only O and L. So X is in Car 5 or Car 6. one product per car. (A) can‟t be true. but need not be true. leaving (D): L must get off at the second stop. (D) can‟t be true: If R gets off at 4. (B). If X is perishable. or sixth. 3-X. then R can only get off at 1 or 2. second. V must precede W. 2-L. Rule 3 says that U and X must be separated by at least one car. (B). Since you are looking for the choice that MUST be true. P can‟t get off ninth. then this is the only possible order (X indicates that no one gets off): 1-X. then N and M must get off before seventh. and Rule 2 places U in Car 2). numbered 1 to 6 from left to right. With U in Car 2 and X in Car 4. and look for one of them as an answer choice. Questions 19-22 In this game. starting with the most concrete: Rule 2 places U in Car 2. 4-R. and (E) are all possible. at the ninth stop. then R can only get off at 1. Z) onto six boxcars. V. OR If Q gets off at 5. X . Since U is in Car 2. Create a master sketch.before O (Rule 5).X. Therefore. 5-Q. Q gets off at 5-violating the question‟s rule. 18. but none have to be true. (A). 8-M. You are also told that P can‟t get off with anyone. so O must get off ninth and (A). If O gets off seventh.. (C). Therefore. and (E) are all possible. If Y and Z are perishable. In other words. third. so move onto the second piece of inFORMation in the question stem. you must distribute six products (U. 6-X. either. but none are definite. Q and R can‟t get off ninth. Since we already know that U is in Car 2. However. Now add the first piece of inFORMation: If no one gets off immediately before or after L. and (E) can‟t be true. L must get off at the ninth stop. Rule 3 also means X can‟t be in Cars 1 or 3. then X is in either Car 3 or 4 (Rule 1). Rule 1 states that perishable products must be in Cars 3 or 4. (D).
U. then X is in Car 5 and Y is in Car 6 . in order: W. in either order. Therefore. Y. How many different arrangements can be made? You can only switch Car 3 with Car 4. there was some reason that . presented with the dilemma of which authority to obey. in either order. 23. U is in 2. 22. V. and X and V are in Cars 5 and 6. U. The author claims that if children don't receive attention from their parents when well-behaved. not necessarily at all times. he is required both to maintain the confidentiality of his patient and to warn the police of a potential murder. Thus. U. If Y and Z are perishable. Because these two courses of action contradict each other. 25. X. (C)No evidence is given to show that psychiatrists should be exempt from either obligation. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4 (Rule 1). X. (A)No evidence is given to show that the community protection law should take precedence over the medical code of ethics. Medical ethics and the community protection law are both equally binding for a psychiatrist. but (C) CANNOT be true. (B) is correct. is in Car 5 and Car 6. or W. (A)Continuing to ignore children when they misbehave is likely to cause them to act worse in an effort to get attention. (B)The author only implies that parents should pay attention to children when they are well-behaved. the psychiatrist cannot fulfill both requirements (B). and you‟re given that W can‟t be next to X. not all. a psychiatrist would choose the community law. Z. Y. situations. punishment can be a poor solution for misbehavior (C). (B). If. in either order. and (E) are possible. W is in Car 1. V. (D). for which choice no evidence is given. (D)The author doesn't propose any resolution for the contradiction. so (D) need not be true. U. Also. if a psychiatrist has a patient who is contemplating murder. they may purposely misbehave to get the attention that punishment brings. We know from the previous questions that X can‟t be in Car 1. (D) can be true. Y. and (E) must all be true. (A). (E)If the children misbehaved because they wanted attention. X. or W. or W. V. but W can be in either Car 3 or Car 4. 24. and Car 5 with Car 6. X. Thus the author implies that because it can actually encourage misbehavior by providing some children with the attention they want. (A). this would only encourage them to continue misbehaving. Z. then they‟re in Cars 3 and 4. (C). along with X. Fire departments want to repaint their trucks because "fire engine red" causes anxiety and tension in many people. and you‟re also given that X precedes Y. leaving Z in Car 1. U is in Car 2. There are four possibilities. (E)Assumes that. If W and V are perishable. in either order. however. (D)The author only implies that punishment is inappropriate in some. a precedent may already have been set. (B). The assumption is that anxiety and tension are bad and should be avoided. V. Z. Therefore. Z. Since X can‟ t be in Car 1. Y.must be in Car 1 and W. 21.
(E)The issue isn't easier identification of fire trucks. it doesn't affect the rationale. Best. The eight members of the club include four seniors—Fox. Kundala. The . Carter. and Lamming—and four juniors.org A college rowing club must choose three of its members to attend a national convention.in an emergency anxiety and tension are beneficial (D). Hiro. regardless of the reason. (B)There's no evidence that money is a consideration. then the fire departments' rationale is flawed. it's the stressinducing qualities of red. Adams. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:48 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A5(带解释) [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:35pm ========= A5= Questions 1-3 voodoo7 taisha. (C)The color would still have the same negative effects. (A)This is a logistical problem. and Delgado.
Which of the following. Nobody who wanted to buy tickets to the benefit concert had ever heard the blues guitarist perFORM. Hiro. If Hiro is chosen to attend. (E) Dr. and style. (D) Dr. Kundala (E) Hiro. Best 2. symbolism. Because of high demand. If Fox is chosen to attend. If Kundala is chosen for the convention but Lamming is not. If Carter is chosen for the convention. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Hiro (B) Adams (C) Lamming (D) Best (E) Delgado 4. only people who had never heard the blues guitarist perFORM were able to buy tickets for the benefit concert. A comparison of Anderman‟s preincarceration novels with the short stories she published in the three years following her release shows a continuity of themes. 5. Lamming. most weakens the conclusion drawn above? (A) Dr. Hiro. So everyone who wanted to buy a ticket to the concert was able to. 1. (C) The short stories were written prior to Dr. conflict. Carter (B) Kundala. Dr. which of the following must also be chosen? (A) Fox (B) Hiro (C) Adams (D) Carter (E) Delgado 3. if true. (B) The comparison was made between two different literary FORMs. Delgado (C) Hiro. Anderman‟s writing concentrates primarily on themes of personal. Lamming must also be chosen. Anderman‟s imprisonment. Kundala cannot be chosen. Anderman was very opposed to any stylistic analysis of her writings. Kundala. rather than societal. If Best is chosen to attend.choice of members for the convention is subject to the following restrictions: No fewer than two of the members chosen must be seniors. Carter cannot be chosen. Anderman wrote nothing during her imprisonment. Anderman‟s years in a prisoner-of-war camp had little influence on her writing. Adams. Best (D) Fox. . Which of the following would be an acceptable group of three members chosen for the convention? (A) Fox.
(E) everyone who was unable to buy a ticket did not want to buy one. is examined second. Q. The pets will be examined one by one. Questions 7-10 Four pets—P. Q. R. P (D) S. and S—must be examined by a veterinarian. Q. 7. (C) everyone who wanted to buy a ticket believed in the cause for which the benefit concert was held. Q. P (C) R. areas are now affected. non-urban. non-urban areas have passed strict pollution control measures.In order for this argument to be logically correct. (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among the least common causes of death to urban dwellers. . (B) The nation has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of people moving out of its cities. Which of the following would be an acceptable ordering of the four pets' examinations? (A) P. would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) The nation‟s cities have seen a marked decrease in their levels of air pollution. (D) Many illnesses previously thought unrelated to air pollution are now considered to be caused by it. P. The ordering of the four examinations must conFORM to the following conditions: R must be examined either second or third. if true. which of the following must be true? is examined first is examined second. 6. (E) As a result of the problems in urban areas. S. (B) the concert was held in a hall large enough to accommodate the demand. R. the recent increase in the number of persons suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude that other. If (A) Q (B) S (C) Q Q is examined before R is examined. S (B) S. and each pet will be examined just once. Q. S must be examined before P is examined. Which of the following. S 8. R (E) Q. (D) there was no limit to the number of tickets available. Although air pollution was previously thought to exist almost exclusively in our nation‟s cities. it must also be true that (A) the people planning the concert wanted to give the blues guitarist exposure to a new audience. P. R. R.
and G—appear on his two weekend shows. Only A. C. If CANNOT (A) A. E. If A is the only comedian to appear on Friday's show. would make only one ordering of examinations possible? (A) Q must be examined second. which of the following must appear on Saturday's show? (A) E (B) B (C) D (D) F (E) G 12. (D) A. if true. B. F and D used to be married and therefore cannot appear on the same show. (E) C. 9. Questions 11-16 A talk-show host wants to have seven guests—A. (B) C. E are comedians. which of the following groups of three fill out Saturday's guest list? C.(D) R is examined third. Three of the guests will appear on Friday night and the remaining four will appear on Saturday night. how many different orderings of examinations are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 10. Which of the following. B appears on Saturday's show. (C) E. D E. (E) P must be examined fourth. C. D. G D. At least one comedian must appear on each show. (B) Q must be examined before S is examined. (C) P must be examined before Q is examined. (E) P is examined fourth. (D) S must be examined first. G 13. F F. If A and C appear on Saturday's show. 11. If R is examined third. F. how many different guest lists are possible for Friday's show? (A) two (B) three (C) four . G E.
Pork Szechuan . from first course to fourth course. who else must also appear on Saturday's show? (A) G (B) E (C) D (D) C (E) F 16. Lobster Mombasa. they cannot be served consecutively. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Dijon. Fish Teriyaki. Beef Enchilada. chosen from a group of eight. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. the (A) (B) (C) (D) Which of the following is a menu. Chicken Vindaloo Fish Teriyaki. in ascending order of popularity. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) All of the following pairs can appear together on Friday's show EXCEPT: D and E B and G C and D B and A F and G 15. Pork Szechuan. Chicken Kiev.(D) five (E) six 14. that restaurant can choose for its celebration? Beef Wellington. The menu will consist of four entrees. The two seafood entrees can both be selected for the menu. If only one comedian can appear on Saturday's show. and if B appears on Saturday's show. The menu cannot include two or more entrees based around the same main ingredient. Beef Enchilada. Beef Enchilada. but if both are selected. The eight eligible entrees are. The choice of menu must conFORM to the following restrictions: The four entrees will be served one after the other. Fish Teriyaki. and Chicken Vindaloo. Chicken Vindaloo Chicken Dijon. how many different guest lists are possible for Saturday's show? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Questions 17-22 The International Buffet Restaurant is planning a special menu for its tenth anniversary celebration. Chicken Dijon. each of which is based around the main ingredient cited in its name. Beef Enchilada. Lobster Mombasa Beef Wellington. 17. Chicken Kiev. Lobster Mombasa. If D refuses to appear on the same show with C or E.
which of the following CANNOT be true? (A) The first course is based around beef. how many different menus are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 21. which of the following must be chosen as the fourth course? (A) Beef Enchilada (B) Lobster Mombasa (C) Fish Teriyaki (D) Pork Szechuan (E) Chicken Vindaloo 19. (B) The menu does not include the Teriyaki entree. (D) The menu does not include the Szechuan entree. If the menu has Lobster Mombasa as its second course. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight and very little moisture. 23. A menu whose first course is based around fish and whose fourth course is based around chicken must have a second course based around which of the following? (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 22. and next to no moisture. The third course in a menu can be based around any of the following main ingredients EXCEPT: (A) chicken (B) beef (C) lobster (D) pork (E) fish 20. Desert X is an environment with constant. it does not exist naturally in the desert. (C) The menu does not include Chicken Kiev. (E) The fourth course is based around chicken. . Lobster Mombasa. powerful sunlight. Although Plant Y thrives in the areas surrounding Desert X.(E) Beef Enchilada. Pork Szechuan 18. If the restaurant decides that the first course must be based around chicken. nor does it survive long when introduced there. If Chicken Kiev is chosen as the second course. Fish Teriyaki.
(B) For one week in the fall. (B) Traditional criticism produces more than one interpretation of literary works. others hold that these differences are a reflection of biological determinants. Which of the following states an assumption made in the argument above? (A) There can only be one correct interpretation of a literary work. (C) Approaches and methods that prove useful in one discipline should not be applied to others. Desert X gets consistent rainfall. (C) The environment around Desert X is ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. Desert X can support almost no plant life. The problem. the psychoanalytic reading makes of it a coherent and meaningful whole. Where a work seems too disjointed or elusive for more traditional approaches. (D) A style of criticism that is powerful is bound to fail in getting at the meaning of a work. In the hands of a Freudian critic. (B) Human behavior is the specific result of the child‟s individuality. (D) The greater part of human behavior is directly caused by sexual stereotyping during childhood. (E) Human behavior finds its specific causes in parental expectations during childhood and adolescence. 25. In fact. Which of the following best expresses the author‟s main point? (A) Human behavior is a result of both socialization and genetic factors. While it possesses the power to interpret all of a work. What cannot yet be determined is the relative importance of each factor in determining behavioral differences. it lacks the rigor and discipline to interpret only the work. we can ignore neither women‟ s unique ability to bear children nor the different treatment accorded to boys and girls from the moment they are assigned a pink or blue blanket. 24. Freudian criticism fails in its attempt to get to the underlying significance of a literary work precisely because of its tremendous power. (C) The primary determinant of an individual‟s behavior is the peer pressure exerted on the child. (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as high as those normally found in Desert X.Which of the following would be most useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy above? (A) Desert X‟s climate is far too harsh for the animals that normally feed on Plant Y. Some scholars claim that virtually all behavioral differences between men and women are a result of socialization. the literary work loses its specificity. . (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture. however. lies in its ability to produce too many interpretations for the same work.
Using the contrapositive of Rule 4. You are told Kundala is chosen but Lamming isn‟t. there must be at least two seniors. Lamming must be chosen. Rule 3 says if Best is chosen. Since only one of those two seniors can be taken. One is Kundala. Rule 4 states that if Fox is chosen. That means Hiro can‟t be chosen (the contrapositive of Rule 2). 4. being juniors. but it is helpful to shorthand the rules using abbreviations for the rowers: F. Hiro. That eliminates (A). then L. Lamming must also be chosen. The contrapositive of Rule 2 is also true: If Carter is chosen. As for the others: If Hiro is chosen. you can only choose one or the other. Lamming) and four juniors (Adams. then Kundala isn‟ t: If F. then Fox isn‟t (if K. but not both. In concluding that Anderman's incarceration had no effect on her writing. 3. or (C). throwing out violators: (B) breaks Rule 1-there‟s only one senior. This game doesn‟t lend itself to a sketch. and Kundala. four choices violate one or more rules. Kundala. then no F). 1. and one choice violates none of them. a junior. aren‟t required. then Hiro isn‟t (if c. c. b. or (B). Rule 4 states if Fox is chosen. K. Rule 2 says if Hiro is chosen. . Apply the rules to determine who must and who can‟t join Kundala. then no K. is chosen. For this acceptability question. The same goes for Rule 4: If Kundala is chosen. if Kundala is chosen. (C) and (E). Fox. You are given that Carter. but with Lamming and Fox unavailable. L for the four seniors. then no c.(E) Psychoanalytic criticism is most useful in dealing with works of a disturbed psychological nature. the author assumes that because the stories were published after her release. d for the four juniors. Compare each rule to the choices. then Carter can‟t be chosen (Rule 2). (A) violates Rule 2-can‟t choose both Hiro and Carter. Carter. As Rule 1 says. then Fox can‟t be chosen. then Carter isn‟t: If H. H. The club is composed of four seniors (Fox. (D) has both Fox and Kundala. Delgado). Since the question asks who must be chosen. The other two rowers chosen must be seniors (according to Rule 1). That leaves (C). 2. or can‟t be chosen at all. then no H). and a. Notice that you can choose Lamming without also choosing Best. ========= A5= Questions 1-3 Your job in this game is to select three out of eight members of a rowing club to go to a convention. Kundala isn‟t. violating Rule 4. the four incorrect choices are members who either can but don‟t need to be chosen. Best. Hiro must be chosen. (E) breaks Rule 3-if Best is chosen. Rule 1 states that at least two seniors must be chosen. The three available seniors are Lamming. In other words. eliminating (D). then Lamming is also chosen: If b.
Incorporate the rules into your sketch. (D)That ticket sales had to be limited to those who hadn't seen the guitarist before indicates that there must have been a finite number of tickets available. (C)The number of deaths is beyond the scope. (B)The link is between those suffering air-pollution-related illnesses and the movement of air pollution to non-urban areas. Create a master sketch of four dashes. (D) many more illnesses are now considered to be caused by air pollution. (A)No reason besides high demand is given for why only people who had never heard the guitarist were allowed to buy tickets. then B (they'd never heard the guitarist). There could still be lots of pollution in non-urban areas. if A. The author's conclusion that non-urban areas are now affected by air pollution is based on evidence that there has been an increase in the number of persons suffering from air pollution-related illnesses. place four pets (P. then not A (they didn't want them). Symbolically: if A (people wanted tickets). (B)We have no reason to think that the comparison between Anderman's novels and her short stories is invalid. 5. If. Each pet is examined by the veterinarian only once. This if/then statement condenses several conditional statements. this has no effect. Since the contrapositive of an if/then statement is true.they were written after her release. there's nothing on which to base the assertion that her writing was unaffected by the POW camp. (B)If the hall had been large enough to accommodate the demand. R. only now more of them have been identified. there would have been no need to limit ticket sales. If. S) in an order to be examined. 6. then C (they were able to buy tickets). if B. (A)Writing done after her release would also show any effect of her experience. we're only concerned with the number of illnesses. (D)Anderman's opposition to analysis doesn't affect the analysis itself. (C)All we know about people who wanted to buy tickets is that they had never heard the guitarist perFORM. Questions 7-10 In this sequencing game. (C) the stories were written before her imprisonment but published after her release. however. (E)The author doesn't specify what theme is present in Anderman's works. Thus. (E) if not C (they weren't able to buy tickets). Rule 1 states that R is second or . Q. The fact that fewer people are leaving the cities is irrelevant. then C. (E)Whether or not anti-pollution measures have been passed is irrelevant. however. so this won't weaken the conclusion. nothing need have changed. it could be the same pollution and the same victims. (A)That pollution is decreasing in cities won't weaken an argument that air pollution is rising elsewhere.
The question asks for a statement that makes only one order possible. Compare each rule to the choices. So (B) and (C) can be eliminated. but so can S if Q is first and R is second. then F and D are . The other choices don‟t determine R‟s location in the order. if A. you can deduce that S can‟t be fourth and P can‟t be first. None of the choices include both F and D. are comedians. Q or S. B. E. 12. distribute seven guests for a talk show (A. From that. So (A) isn‟t necessarily true. E and G are chosen with B. You are told B is on Saturday. so you need three more guests for Saturday. must appear on Saturday. G) into a group of three for Friday night and a group of four for Saturday night. We know R can be third. C. and P can be second or fourth. R. We‟ve already seen that Q and R can each be second. Q. and E. R must be third. Q goes in whatever spot is not filled: S.third. using circles or columns to connote Friday night and Saturday night. P. That rules out (D) and leaves (E): P must be examined fourth. then C and E. S before P. and one choice violates none of them. but so can S. Rule 3 says that F and D can‟t appear on the same night. If A is the only comedian on Friday. either S or Q can be first. Since S must be seen before P. If R is third. There is no way for P to be examined before any of the other pets. (A) and (E) both violate Rule 2-S must be examined before P. there are (C) three different orders possible. Q is either first or second. P or Q. R. R. If we know which pet (other than R) is either second or third. Rule 1 states that only A. so S can be first or second. For this acceptability question. so S must be first and P must be fourth. four choices violate one or more rules. You are given that Q is examined before R. but (D) does the opposite: Neither F nor D is included. 10. without violating the rules. Therefore E. Therefore. Create a master sketch. Rule 2 kicks in. 11. Rule 1 says R is either second or third. (A) fits the bill: If Q is second. then two of the four slots are filled. if Q is first and R is third. Your sketch should look something like this: 7. P. Rule 2 says at least one comedian must appear on each night. S. D. throwing out violators: (C) and (D) both break Rule 1-R can only be second or third. (A). Rule 2 says that S must be examined before P. Therefore. the other comedians. F. are on Saturday. leaving (B). You need to have S before P. Who can and who can‟t appear? Rule 3 says F and D can‟t appear together. 8. Questions 11-16 In this game. Then. C. The first thing to notice is Rule 1: R is limited to either second or third. 9.
then the other two comedians are on Friday. E. in ascending order of popularity: Beef Wellington. B or G and Saturday is C. so (C) and (E) are both possible. so they can be eliminated. F. However. So either night can be C. That‟s one possible list. and G. The four entrees are selected according to the rules. and Beef Wellington is the least popular entree. and the other guests on Saturday are two from the pool of F. (B). E. and F. D. If Friday is C. Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree. G must be on Saturday. violating Rule 3. D. must be on Friday. Since each night has at least one comedian. In other words. B or E. either one can be with E. 16. Beef Enchilada. B and/or G. as long as the third guest chosen is not F or D.together on Friday. leaving B and G‟s respective locations unknown. F. Friday has at least one comedian. Therefore there are four possible lists for Friday‟s guests: E. the third comedian (A) is on the other night. from among F. F. If Saturday includes C. Lobster Mombasa. As in Question 12. You‟re looking for the other two guests on Friday. So five of the seven guests are definitely grouped. 14. Chicken Dijon. and there‟s your exception. D. Therefore. 13. B. violating Rule 3. E. G. you can further deduce that C. E. B. then Friday is A. Chicken Vindaloo. C. 15. The entrees. D. (C) is correct. E. and two of the comedians (C and E) are together. but need not be true-as long as either is the only comedian on Saturday. (A) and (C) each includes one comedian and either F or D. B or E. Since F and D can‟t be together (Rule 3). That leaves one spot open for either B or G. (B) is impossible-neither B nor G is a comedian. Although F can‟t be with D. and (E) can each join B on Saturday. Pork Szechuan. and G. If B and only one comedian are on Saturday. That means the third comedian. (E) is also possible since a comedian still needs to be chosen. or E. D. F and B or G. You can then deduce that C and E are together. In fact. in either order. The groups in (A). (Rule 2). D. for two more possible lists. but not definite. You are told that D can‟t be with C or E. (C). As for the others: Either F or D can be on Saturday (but not both). From that you can deduce that Beef . so (A) is correct. and B or G. so the third guest on Friday has to be either A. or A. Try each choice in turn. Chicken Kiev. and F are together. Questions 17-22 For this game. or (C). Rule 1 states that the four entrees selected must retain the ascending order of popularity. F. select four entrees out of eight to appear on a menu. Place B and G on either night. (B) and (D) are similarly possible. That means F and D are both on Saturday. Fish Teriyaki. As for the others: (D) is possible if the third guest chosen is either F or D. D. A must therefore be with D. and G. You are given that A and C are on Saturday. there‟s a total of three possible guest lists for Saturday. Since Rule 3 says F and D can‟t be together. G or E. then Saturday is A. E. find some way where F and D aren‟t separated.
must be removed. Chicken Kiev. Rule 3 says Fish Teriyaki and Lobster Mombasa can both be selected. Beef) can‟t both be selected.Wellington is always first if it appears on a menu. and Chicken Vindaloo is always last if it appears on a menu. This question says the first entree is based around fish. (A). Before looking at the choices. but can‟t be consecutive. but neither can be chicken. in that order. For this acceptability question. (D) is also impossible: If Pork Szechuan is second. So Chicken Dijon is first. and one choice violates none of them. the latest that Chicken Kiev can be placed in a menu is third. 19. So (D) is correct. 18. since those two entrees occupy the first two spots in the order. Chicken Vindaloo can‟t be first on any menu. Chicken Kiev is separated from Fish Teriyaki by two entrees. the question says a chicken entree is fourth. Lobster Mombasa.e. Incorporating Rules 1 and 2. Here‟s the reason: If Chicken Kiev is first. 21. leaving only (C) as a possible menu. This means Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan must be third and fourth. In the order. (B) and (D) both violate Rule 2. then Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. There are no other possible menus without violating Rules 1 or 2. you can also deduce that Chicken Vindaloo can only be fourth in any possible menu. it follows that neither Beef Wellington nor Fish Teriyaki can ever be third. By the way. Eliminate (A) and (E) right awaythey violate Rule 2. throwing out violators: (A) and (E) both break Rule 1. Referring to the list of entrees in ascending popularity. Next. so (A). (E) is the exception. Pork Szechuan. Since Chicken Vindaloo is the most popular entree and the most popular entree is always served last. violating Rule 2. you can narrow the possibilities for second and third in the order. On the overall list. but since one of those entrees is also chicken. is correct. Kiev and Vindaloo. there is only one chicken entree that can be first: Chicken Dijon. That leaves Beef Enchilada. so Chicken Dijon can only be second. Well. On the overall list. in that order. by switching Lobster Mombasa and Pork Szechuan and (E). Therefore. by placing Fish Teriyaki third instead of first. Fish Teriyaki. Compare each rule to the choices. 20. According to Rule 2. there‟s only one fish entree. Therefore. so the other Chicken entrees. you can‟t have more than one entree based around the same ingredient. 17. one. use logic to determine which entrees can‟t possibly be third on a menu. four choices violate one or more rules. Fish Teriyaki is followed immediately in the order by Chicken Dijon. and Pork Szechuan. since it‟s the most popular of the eight entrees. Lobster Mombasa. (C) violates Rule 3-Lobster can‟t be served consecutively after Fish. then only . You are told that Chicken Kiev is second. Chicken Dijon is followed by Beef Enchilada. the third and fourth entrees must be more popular than Chicken Kiev. It‟s best to determine which chicken entree is fourth. Rule 2 says that any two entrees with the same basic ingredient (i. When the restaurant decides that a chicken dish must be first. and Chicken Vindaloo. That way.
but we're not told anything about its temperature preferences. so (D) CANNOT be true and is. The author cites both sides of the nature vs nurture argument and states her view that neither biology nor socialization can be discounted in the FORMation of men and women. there would be no reason to attack Freudian criticism for producing multiple interpretations. If there were multiple correct interpretations. determine all that can or must be true. 23. it's that it's too powerful. (B)There's no indication of whether "individuality" is related to biology or socialization-it could be neither. (B)One week of rain doesn't explain why Plant Y isn't in Desert X at other times. so it's dry. (C)(D)(E)Supports upbringing over biology by asserting that behavior is a result of a child's environment. So it's probable that (E) it can't handle the high temperatures of Desert X. (C)The environment around Desert X is irrelevant to the question of why Plant Y doesn't grow in Desert X. yet it doesn't. then Pork Szechuan must be third and Chicken Vindaloo must be fourth. although she says she doesn't know which is more important. (D)The problem isn't that Freudian criticism is powerful. . beef. (C) and (E) are true. We're told enough to expect that Plant Y would thrive in Desert X. Since the question asks what CANNOT be true. (A)A plant doesn't need animals to feed on it in order to survive. 24. 25. (C)Too general. sunny and hot. The assumption is (A) that a work has only one correct interpretation. The author says that Freudian criticism can't get to the underlying significance of a work because its tremendous power produces several different interpretations of the same work. (D)The inability of other plants to grow in Desert X doesn't affect Plant Y's ability to grow there. If Lobster Mombasa is second. correct. and then either Lobster Mombasa or Pork Szechuan is third. The author is concerned only with applying psychoanalysis to literary criticism. (A) and (B) must also be truethe first entree can‟t be chicken nor can it be Fish Teriyaki (because of Rule 3). (E)The author never implies that Freudian criticism is useful for "disturbed" works. 22. She must therefore believe that (A) they both affect a person's development. therefore. As for the others: Since the fourth entree must be Chicken Vindaloo.Chicken Vindaloo can follow even though two entrees are needed. Pork Szechuan must be third. (B)Traditional criticism is beyond the scope-the issue is Freudian criticism. X is a desert. That leaves (B). Beef Enchilada must be second. Y likes dry and sunny regions.
O. F. L finished immediately ahead of H. and M finished ahead of J. O. H. Exactly two runners finished between H and O. K finished ahead of M. L. H. following could possibly be the finishing order of the eight H. O. L. The following is known about the final results of the race: All eight runners finished the race. F. G. O. K. or behind. (D) K. K. J F J G M [ZT] voodoo7 taisha. H. J.--------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:50 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A6(带解释) 2002/06/17 11:36pm ========= A6= Questions 1-4 Eight runners—F. F finished ahead of both G and L. M. (C) K. G. L. M.org 2. H. although it is not known whether H finished ahead of. F. M. J. M. (E) O. L. H. Which of the runners? (A) F. K. and O—competed in a 1500-meter race. (B) G. G. O. K. M. J. L. There were no ties for any finishing position. Which of the following could possibly have finished eighth? . J. 1. L. G.
rather than mask. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was one of the first to suggest a correlation between the internal political structure of a nation and the degree of its belligerence toward other nations. either immediately ahead of or immediately behind F. its function as a supporting structure. ahead of K. first. Today. ahead of G. Which of the following pieces of inFORMation would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the above claim? (A) The frequency with which republics declare war on their neighbors (B) Which specific nations Kant used as examples . which of the following must be finished finished finished finished finished either immediately ahead of or immediately behind O. But ornament is not necessarily ___________ clarity. Some architecture critics have used the “FORM follows function” theorem to argue that the design of a building should clearly reflect its structure.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) F K L M O 3. Which of the following. Kant‟s belief in the pacific nature of republics is proven by the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war on their neighbors. M must have finished in which of the following positions? (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) sixth (E) seventh 4. If true? (A) G (B) K (C) K (D) O (E) K L finished fifth and M finished seventh. and therefore should be devoid of extraneous decoration. 5. would most reasonably accord with the sense of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unlike impeded by irrelevant to akin to irreconcilable with 6. if filled into the above blank. A carefully designed decoration on a lintel or crossbeam can illustrate. If F finished fourth.
R. exactly two power players will be chosen. will each be chosen if the other is chosen. doubles partners. until. This percentage steadily declined. who are power players. If Q is chosen for the team. S. and V. There must be an unequal number of finesse and power players chosen for the team. If the statements above are true. In 1960 Arbicans who moved from urban areas to suburban areas made up 11% of the population. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) Q is chosen for the team. and T. He will determine his team based on the following conditions: There must be at least two finesse players and at least one power player on the team. 8. it reached 3%. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. (B) The Arbican population increased. If T is chosen for the team. (D) The Arbican population decreased. Q. all of the following statements concerning Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas between 1960 and 1980 could also be true EXCEPT: (A) The number of Arbicans moving from suburban areas to urban areas also decreased. (E) The Arbican population increased. P. who are finesse players.(C) The internal political structure of the country in which Kant lived (D) Which contemporary nations are republics and which are democratic (E) Which contemporary nations are hostile and which are pacific 7. and so did the number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas. in 1980. Questions 8-11 A high school tennis coach must choose a group of players to play in the County Championship Tennis Tournament. (B) V is not chosen for the team. . If T is chosen for the team. and N. He can choose from among eight players—M. but N is not. (C) The Arbican population decreased. N and V. which of the following pairs of tennis players CANNOT be chosen for the team? (A) M and P (B) T and V (C) N and V (D) R and T (E) P and S 9. M and T cannot both be chosen for the team.
(C) S is chosen for the team. (D) Exactly two finesse players are chosen for the team (E) Exactly two power players are chosen for the team. 10. If the coach decides to select exactly twice as many power players as finesse players, how many different acceptable combinations of players can he choose from to make up the team? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 11. If neither Q nor V is chosen for the team, which of the following must be true? (A) M is chosen for the team. (B) N is chosen for the team. (C) R is not chosen for the team. (D) S is chosen for the team. (E) T is not chosen for the team. Questions 12-17 According to the bylaws of State University, each graduating senior in the history department must attend a single half-hour meeting to discuss his or her final grades. All meetings must begin on the hour or on the half-hour. Attending each meeting will be the individual senior and no fewer than two members of the history faculty. There are exactly six members of the history faculty—Professors Ax, Bulos, Chow, Dohee, Egger, and Franz. Their availability for meetings is listed below: Ax: from 9:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Bulos: from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. only. Chow: from 10:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. only. Dohee: from 9:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. only. Egger: from 10:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. only. Franz: from 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. only. 12. During which of the following half-hour time slots is the largest number of history professors available for meetings? (A) 9:00 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. (B) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (C) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (D) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (E) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. 13. Which of the following pairs of history professors could NOT attend the same half-hour meeting? (A) Ax and Bulos (B) Bulos and Egger
(C) Chow and Dohee (D) Dohee and Franz (E) Egger and Franz 14. A meeting attended by Professors Dohee and Egger must take place during which of the following time slots? (A) 9:30 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. (B) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (C) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (D) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (E) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. 15. Which of the following would be the latest possible time-slot for a meeting attended by Professors Ax, Chow, and Franz? (A) 10:00 A.M. to 10:30 A.M. (B) 10:30 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. (C) 11:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. (D) 11:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. (E) 12:00 P.M. to 12:30 P.M. 16. how (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A meeting attended by Professor Bulos can also be attended by a maximum of many other history professors? one two three four five
17. A graduating senior discovers that the availability of the two history professors with whom she must meet makes only one time-slot possible for their meeting. Which of the following could be the two history professors? (A) Ax and Chow (B) Bulos and Dohee (C) Bulos and Franz (D) Chow and Dohee (E) Dohee and Franz Questions 18-22 The six principals of the high schools in a particular township are organizing themselves into two different committees—the Curriculum Committee and the Ethics Committee. The six principals are L, M, N, O, P, and Q. Exactly one of the principals will serve on both committees. The other five principals will each serve on one of the two committees. Committee membership must also conFORM to the following restrictions: The Curriculum Committee must consist of exactly four of the six principals. The Ethics Committee must consist of exactly three of the six principals. If L serves on a committee, then Q must serve on the same committee. M cannot serve on the Ethics Committee.
P and Q cannot serve on the same committee. 18. Which of the following principals can be the one who serves on both committees? (A) L (B) M (C) O (D) P (E) Q 19. If L serves on the Curriculum Committee, which of the following groups of three must be the principals serving on the Ethics Committee? (A) M, N, O (B) M, N, Q (C) N, O, P (D) N, O, Q (E) O, P, Q 20. If M and Q cannot serve on the same committee, which of the following must serve on the Ethics Committee? (A) L (B) M (C) N (D) O (E) P 21. If N serves on both committees, which of the following is a pair of principals who must serve on the same committee? (A) L and M (B) L and O (C) M and P (D) O and P (E) O and Q 22. Which of serve on the (A) N serves (B) L serves (C) Q serves (D) N serves (E) O serves the following statements, if true, would make it necessary that P Curriculum Committee? on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee only. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee. on the Curriculum Committee.
23. Scholars have usually considered the wheel, known to have been in use approximately 5000 years ago, to be the first significant innovation in human land transport. But recent findings by archaeologists clearly show that the use of the horse probably pre-dates the invention of the wheel. Which of the following provides the best evidence for the author‟s conclusion?
Laws are not rules to be followed only when and where they are convenient. (D) CuneiFORM texts show that the first use of the wheel was in ox-drawn carts. (E) The horse could have been utilized in the spread of Indo-European. (D) Questions of criminal extradition should be decided on the basis of a country‟s national laws and policies. which took place about 6000 years ago. Which of the following pieces of additional evidence would most seriously weaken the archaeologists‟ conclusion? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained clear until a second volcanic eruption 1000 years after the first. (B) Law by definition must be enforceable. (E) A supernational body must be FORMed to ensure that all treaties are kept.C. 25. (B) Two archaeologists discovered scratches on the teeth of a horse buried in the Ukraine. (C) Clay figurines of horseback riders from Mesopotamia provide evidence that horseback riding was prevalent there 3500 years ago. (C) Alternative methods of dating place the time of the volcanic eruption somewhat earlier. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C bronze weapons were in wide use in areas of present day India as early as 2500 BC. How can it exist. (E) The paintings were very faded when the archaeologists found them. the mother tongue of nearly all European languages. Which of the following assumptions is essential to the argument above? (A) A sovereign supernational body could effectively enforce international law. making identification of the depicted weapons difficult.(A) Analysis of the wear made by bridle bits on an ancient horse‟s troth indicates that horses were first ridden no later than 4000 B. Questions of criminal extradition cannot be decided on the basis of international law for the simple reason that international law does not exist. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze weapons. these archaeologists have concluded that Type C bronze weapons were already widely used in this area by 2500 BC. (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze weapons were not in use anywhere in present-day China until 2000 BC. Archaeologists have discovered various paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic eruption in the 25th century BC and only recently cleared by an earthquake. far earlier than was previously believed. when there exists no sovereign supernational body of any kind to enforce it? What we call international law is simply the sum total of the treaties and unofficial agreements between nations—agreements that can be violated or simply ignored at will by the parties involved. 24. after all. (C) Most countries willingly violate treaties when it is in their interest to do so. at a site thought to be 6000 years old. at around 3000 BC. .
H can‟t be higher than sixth or lower than eighth in the order. the only runners who can finish eighth are G. So M must be second. the only runners who can finish first are F. J and O. (B) breaks Rule 6 by placing L before F. The question is telling you that the knowledge of F‟s placement determines M‟s exact placement. O. in that order (according to Rule 5). so L can‟t be last. Create a master sketch that consists of eight dashes in a row. Explore the three possibilities for H: If H is sixth. try the other possibilities for H. That leaves G to go either seventh or eighth. and (C) is out. (C) violates Rule 4: there‟s only one runner between O and H. Just to be sure. From another combination of deductions. or vice versa. and K. K can‟t be last. From that you can deduce that L can‟t finish last and H can‟t finish first. 3. Since L must finish before H. and see if M shows up in a spot other than second. That eliminates (B) and (D). M. and one choice violates none of them. If F is fourth. and M finished before J. If H is seventh. So start with F in the fourth slot. and see what you can deduce. J. G. then G and L (from Rule 6). Rules 1 and 2 tell you that everyone finished the race and there were no ties. That leaves (A) as possible. Compare each rule to the choices. you must determine the order of finish for eight runners in a race. so that the lowest that F can finish is fifth. H.========= A6= Questions 1-4 In this sequence game. Rule 4 says exactly two runners are between O and H. throwing out violators: (D) breaks Rule 3 by placing a runner in-between L and H. and M can‟t be either first or last. we see that the only runners who can finish last are G. (E) violates Rule 5: M finishes before J. M. Combining all of the deductions. Your sketch should look something like this: 1. and J to go first. K. numbered 1 to 8 from left to right. Rule 3 states L finished immediately before H. and H (from Rule 3) are somewhere after fourth in the order. O. four choices violate one or more rules. O is exactly two spaces in front of H. O is fourth. or vice versa. That leaves (E). so F can‟t finish eighth. L is immediately before H (according to Rule 3). L must be fifth (immediately in front of H). so neither K nor M can finish last. O is third. From that you can deduce that J can‟t be first. second. Rule 5 says K finished before M. which can finish eighth. the following runners can‟t finish first: H. Rule 6 states that F finished before both G and L. H. eliminating (A). 2. For this acceptability question. Notice also that you don‟t know whether G finished before L. and M finished before J. Rule 5 states that K finished before M. and neither G nor L can finish first. From that you can deduce that F can‟t finish last. As we deduced in the game overview. and therefore correct. But that‟s impossible since you know . Stated positively. J. Notice that the rule doesn‟t say whether O finished before H. L. and seventh or eighth. and O. You can also deduce that F finished before H. Here‟s the reason: Rule 6 says that F finished before L and G.
The author then argues against this assertion by providing an example of how decoration can enhance clarity. it would be helpful to know (A) how frequently republics declare war. By saying that a building shouldn't have extraneous decoration because it should clearly reflect its structure. If L is fifth. In 1960. The author affirms Kant's assertion that republics are peaceful based on the frequency at which authoritarian regimes wage war. To conclude something about the nature of a government using Kant's theory. then H must be sixth (via Rule 3). the author presents the argument that decoration detracts from the clarity of a building's structure. O is third (from Rule 4). (D) (E)Outside the scope. (B) is the answer. since if belligerence is related to a country's political structure. so (B). G must be next to O. This percentage is a ratio between the actual number of Arbicans and the actual number of Arbicans who moved from urban to suburban areas. it's necessary to know how belligerent it is towards other nations. not whether they are similar or dissimilar. and this percentage fell until it was down to 3% in 1980. second. 11% of Arbicans moved from urban to suburban areas. G. not definite. the use of the word "devoid" in the argument suggests that the relationship should be described in stronger terms. if H is eighth then O is fifth. or fourth. K can finish in first. G can‟t be first. so that it can be compared to the frequency with which authoritarian regimes declare war. 6. 5. not how clarity affects ornament. in that order. so inFORMation about specific countries wouldn't change anything. an authoritarian regime must be the opposite. The conclusion is thus in the second sentence. Since G can‟t finish before F. To conclude this. since Kant is discussing a general political theory. That leaves K." (A)(D)The issue is whether ornamentation detracts from clarity of structure. So the order. Finally. 7. M is second. and then G is sixth. In either case.that F is fourth. the two must also have opposite warlike tendencies. then according to Kant. (C)Irrelevant. or belligerent. So G can finish second or fourth. and J to be placed. (C). From that it follows that if H is sixth. To evaluate this claim. Therefore. the author must assume that authoritarian countries declare war more frequently than republics do. The nations in question could be contemporary or ancient. (B)Kant's theory applies to republics in general. so (A) is correct. and K to be placed. 4. J must be eighth (according to Rule 5). and J is third. and (E) are possible. (B)The issue is how ornament affects clarity. L must be seventh (immediately in front of H). which says that "ornament is not necessarily (E) irreconcilable with clarity. If a republic is pacific. so far: That leaves F. If M is seventh. While the percentage tells us the relation . So K is first. and a republic is the political opposite of an authoritarian regime. as in (E). (C)While ornament isn't irrelevant to clarity. (D). M.
So there‟s at least three players selected out of the eight. there‟s at least four deductions (the four incorrect choices) that can be made from the question‟s conditions. crossing off players who can‟t be selected. and Q are all power players. one by one. there must be an unequal number of finesse and power . or of Arbicans who made this migration. If M and P are chosen with Q. then exactly two power players are chosen for the team. As for the others: (C) is possible: N. it doesn't tell us the actual numbers of Arbicans. Rule 5 states that there is an unequal number of finesse and power players. R. Questions 8-11 In this game. T) and power (N. You know from Rule 1 that there at least two finesse players are also chosen. (E)If the number migrating is the same. finesse (M. N. Since the rules don‟t lend themselves to incorporation into a master sketch. 8. with columns or circles for the available pool of Finesse and Power players. Check each choice. P. (D) has two power players and one finesse-add at least one more finesse player and then another player (finesse or power). use your drawing on a question to question basis. If the total number of Arbicans decreased. as it says in Rule 2. so no more than three finesse players can be chosen. then exactly two power players are chosen. S. V). since we don't know anything about migration from suburban to urban areas. M and T are both finesse players. then it must be that the total number of Arbicans has risen. (A)It's possible. just add a finesse player and you‟re all set. V. both numbers could increase. the number migrating would have to decrease. That also means N and V can‟t be chosen separately. and Q are all power players. Rule 4 says that M and T can‟t be chosen together. Q. so (A) is out. If T is chosen. so there‟s too many power players. then N must also be chosen (from Rule 3). then you have two finesse players and one power player. (B) can‟t work: If V is chosen. a power player. V. select from two groups of tennis players. That‟s fine. You are given that Q. (E) has two finesse players and one power player-no other players are needed. 9. only (D) is impossible. to play in a tournament. Since the question says that all the choices must be true EXCEPT. then the number who migrate would also have to decrease because the percentage decreases. while the percentage decreases. However. The rules determine the team‟s composition: Rule 1 says that there is at least one power player and two finesse players on the team. (C)If the total number of Arbicans decreased and the percentage migrating decreased. exactly two power players are chosen (Rule 2). it all depends on which particular players are chosen. Beyond that. but when T is chosen. but the percentage migrating has fallen. Rule 3 tells us that N and V must be chosen together. (B)As long as the number of total Arbicans increased more than the number of migrating Arbicans. Keep it simple. Notice that the game doesn‟t specify an exact number of players. That eliminates (E). Given this inFORMation. is chosen. Rule 2 says that if T is chosen.between the two. However. according to Rule 5. looking for the pair that CANNOT be chosen with Q.
(A) and (B) are true and can be eliminated. Since Rule 2 states if T is chosen only then exactly two power players are chosen. and since there are already two power players. 10. are acceptable combinations. V. 11:30 am. and PS. 11. Therefore (D) can‟t be true. Blanks mean the professor is unavailable: Incorporate the rules into your sketch. every professor except B is available. Since the question asks which must be true. and S? Three: MP. Do the same for the other five professors‟ schedules. and S. a sketch is essential. Each professor can only meet within certain time frames. Q. with columns for each time (in halfhour increments) and rows for each professor. T can‟t be one of the two finesse players chosen here. That leaves Q and R who must be chosen since you need exactly two power players. so if they‟re not chosen. combined with the four power players. and 12:00 pm. If V isn‟t chosen. In other words. P. P. There must be at least two finesse players (Rule 1). If T is chosen. Therefore. eliminating (C). Any of those pairs. . searching for the one in which the most professors are available. For this game. so (C) is correct. there are only three available finesse player: T. as defined by the rules. so S must be chosen. Questions 12-17 This game asks you to determine when at least two of six professors can meet with a senior. That means Ax is available for halfhour meetings that start at 9:30 am. is left). is the answer. any number EXCEPT two finesse players are also chosen. since all the questions have to do with a fixed set of times for each professor. (E).players chosen. M can‟t be chosen (according to Rule 4). T is not chosen for the team. there must be at least three finesse players (Rule 5). That makes three possible combinations. (D). There are at least two finesse players (Rule 1). the correct choice can be deduced. and N are all power players. The meetings are one-half hour in length. 10:30 am. Between 10:30 and 11:00. then N isn‟t chosen either. MS. T can‟t be chosen (Rule 2-T must be chosen with exactly two power players but only one. note that in your sketch with a check or some marker (here it‟s the first letter of the Professor‟s name). 10:00 am. Your sketch should look something like this: 12. so all four power players must be chosen to satisfy this question‟s conditions. Use a grid. That leaves M. P. How many pairs can be made from M. if exactly two power players are chosen. 11:00 am. Rule 1 says that Professor Ax is available from 9:30 am to 12:30 pm only. Note this in your sketch. Refer to your sketch. and S to pair up. You are told that Q and V aren‟t chosen. With M excluded. R. Look at each column. If a professor is available at a given time. then V can‟t be chosen either (implied by Rule 3). Create a master sketch that depicts the schedule of each professor. As for the others: If N is not chosen.
using columns or circles to represent the two committees. can meet three times. (D). that P can‟t serve on the same committee as L. can only meet at 10:30. Some principals. using your sketch as the reference. the “swing” principal. Chow and Franz can meet. Questions 18-22 You must distribute six principals (L. (C). Ax and Bulos. is the latest possible times slot for a meeting attended by Ax. Those times are at 10:30. Remember. so the time slot 10:30 to 11:00. 10:00. 16. two. Bulos and Dohee. and 11:30. Exactly one principal serves on both committees-the “swing” principal. Looking at your sketch. can‟t meet. As we saw in the previous question. You can deduce that since P and Q can‟t serve together. (A). N. can meet twice: 9:00 and 9:30. since they can‟t serve with certain principals. so 11:30 to 12:00. That means only N or O can serve on both committees at the same time. P. (E). can both meet at 9:30. are therefore ineligible to be the “swing” principal. Create a master sketch. first find all the possible times that Ax. Chow. so (B). is correct. is the maximum number of professors who can attend the same meeting as Bulos. Dohee and Egger can only meet at 10:30. Professor Bulos can only meet at 9:00 or 9:30. at 9:30. one of the principals on each committee is the same. Your sketch should look . and 10:30. P. check each choice in turn. Q. 17. or can only serve on one committee. Dohee and Franz.13. can both meet at 10:30. and Q) into one of two committees (Curriculum or Ethics). At 9:00. Ax and Dohee are both available. but L and Q must serve together. Dohee is the only other professor available. always look for opportunities to use previous work. M. the “swing” principal. Bulos and Egger can‟t meet at the same time: Bulos is only available until 10:00 am and Egger isn‟t available until 10:30. Remember. and L can‟t serve on both committees at the same time. Check each choice one by one. You are looking for two professors who can meet in only one time slot. Rule 5 says that P and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. For this question. making as many deductions as you can. (A). 14. Rule 3 says if L serves on a committee. Dohee and Egger. (E) can both meet at 10:30 or at 11:00. (B). Rule 1 states that the Curriculum Committee consists of four principals and Rule 2 says the Ethics committee consists of three. (D). Rule 4 states that M can‟t serve on Ethics. therefore M serves on Curriculum. but at 9:30. (B). and Franz. 11:00. 15. then Q serves on the same committee. However. Bulos and Franz. can meet twice: 10:00 and 10:30. Go through the rules. As for the others: Chow and Dohee. (D). (C). Chow and Dohee can meet only once: At 10:30. However. So (B) is the answer. O. (C). Egger and Franz. Ax and Chow. So M.
then both committees need another pair of principals each in order to satisfy Rules 1 and 2. four members since we also know that M serves on the Curriculum Committee). meaning two more principals are needed on the Ethics Committee from the pool of P. You can eliminate (A) and (B) right away since they place M on the Ethics Committee. As for the others: (E) is falseP is on the Curriculum Committee since Q serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). O. Otherwise. If M (Rule 4) and N are on the Curriculum Committee. so (C) is correct. since either N or O can serve on Ethics. Neither (D) nor (E) are specific enough to preclude either N or O to be the principal who serves on both committees. or (A). so (A) is wrong. you can find the answer by checking each choice in turn: Since L must serve with Q (Rule 3). (D) and (E) both place Q on the Ethics Committee even though we‟ve just deduced that Q is on the Curriculum Committee. (B) violates Rule 4-M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. That leaves (C). the answer can be deduced from knowledge of the rules. if L serves on the Curriculum Committee. Determine who must be on which committee. This question becomes much easier after spending a few seconds making deductions. to serve on the Ethics Committee. and (E) each define the role of either N or O. as the other pair. If M and Q can‟t serve on the same committee. we‟ll know three of the seven members of the two committees (actually. (D) and (E) violate Rule 5: P and Q can‟t be on the same committee. and then check the choices. (C) and (D) are both possible. 19. 22. Choices (A). If Q is on the Ethics Committee. Let‟s see what happens when N is limited to Curriculum only. so eliminate (D) and (E). only N or O can serve on the same committee. Rule 3 dictates that L and Q stay together.some thing like this: 18. If P serves on the Curriculum Committee. O and P must serve on the Curriculum Committee. then Q also serves on the Curriculum Committee (Rule 3) and P serves on the Ethics Committee (Rule 5). leaving (C). contradicting (B) and . and M can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee. 21. (B). O and P. Q and L must serve together (Rule 3). or (A): M and N are on the Curriculum Committee. if we know which one is on both committees. leaving (D). to serve on both committees. which is a violation of Rule 4. then L is also on the Ethics Committee. As we‟ve already seen. and N is also on the Ethics Committee. L can‟t be on both committees. so Q and L serve with O on the Ethics Committee and M. and P. As for the others: (A) and (C) are possible. 20. Therefore. Q. O. Now. then Q must serve on the Ethics Committee. then Q (Rule 5) and therefore L (Rule 3) must serve on the Ethics Committee. We know that only N or O can serve on both committees. (D). O must serve on both committees (as we saw in Question 18). and L. can‟t serve on the Ethics Committee (Rule 4). N. So (A) is the answer. M. so neither can be on both committees. N. and which one is on one committee only. depending on which pair (Q and L or O and P) is on which committee. Since the question asks for the principal who must serve on the Ethics Committee. (B) and (E) are impossible-L and Q must be together.
but there's no proof that it was. (C)The author says countries can violate treaties. then use of horses would predate use of the wheel by at least 1000 years. Archaeologists came to a conclusion about Type C bronze weapons by using evidence based on the assumption that since an eruption sealed the cave in 2500 BC. as would the conclusion about Type C bronze weapons. then the dating of the paintings would be in doubt. (C)That horses were ridden 3500 years ago doesn't mean they were ridden 5000 years ago. 23. The author argues that international law doesn't exist because laws (B) must by definition be enforceable. it must have been in existence more than 5000 years ago. (D)The issue is when horses. not that it would necessarily be effective if it did. not oxen. so India is beyond the scope. 24. international treaties are violated at will and there's no agency to enforce them.(C). were used. the issue is the definition of international law. so their opinion can't be applied here. but he needn't assume that most do violate them. so that it's likely that the paintings were done even earlier. (D)We don't have evidence to explain why the experts disagree. --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 . (B)These scratches were not necessarily caused by a bridle or anything connected to humans. If the use of the horse as a FORM of transport predates the wheel. (C)Strengthens the argument by pushing that date of the eruption back. (E)The author doesn't give an opinion about whether a supernational body should exist. 25. (B)The conclusion concerns weapons in China. he merely says that it doesn't. (A)The author says that no such body exists. (E)That the task was tough doesn't establish that its outcome is questionable. If there was another way that people could get into the cave after 2500 BC (A). or before approximately 3000 BC.. and as it is. (D)Criminal extradition is beyond the scope. paintings found in the cave were done before that eruption. Thus if (A) signs of a bridle could be found on a horse before 4000 BC. (E)The horse could have been used.
org Kaplan A1-A2 答案 ================================== A1 BDCEDBDCADDCCDCBDBCADAACE A2 BCEDDADCACEBCBBAADEDBEDBE A3 BDCDCCBEBCEABEDADCCECEDAC A4 BDCEDBCEAEDCDEBDACACDBBCD A5 CBCCEDBECAADCBACCDEABDEAA A6 AEBAEADBDCEDBCDBDCCADAABA --------------------------------------渐行渐远~~之假面人生 __________________ Fight，给自己一个交代 2002-06-17 11:57 PM .2002-06-17 11:53 PM callasun 麦田守望者 注册日期: Jan 1970 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 823 会员积分:5 Kaplan的逻辑题库-A1-A6答案 [ZT] 2002/06/17 11:37pm voodoo7 taisha.
. R must (A) F and (B) M and (C) K and (D) P and (E) F and perform between which of the following pairs of bands? G H L Q H 3. second. The fourth and fifth bands to perform must be rock bands. and R are country bands. and each band must perform once and only once. Bands P. G. 1. K must perform either first. Bands F. K. H.voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库DIG-A1（带解释） 我刚才在www. or third. how many different orders of bands are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three . The nine bands must perform one after the other. If P performs first. R must perform eighth. =========================================== =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 A music director must schedule the nine bands that will appear at an annual music marathon. L must immediately precede M in the order. L. Q. H must perform sixth. M must perform (A) first (B) second (C) third (D) fourth (E) fifth 2.taisha. and M are rock bands. The order in which they perform must conform to the following rules: No two country bands can perform consecutively.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.
in order to ensure that the blind maintain a normal sleeping pattern. Recently. (D) P must perform immediately before K. Which (A) If P (B) If F (C) If G (D) If P (E) If G of the following must be true? performs first. but also to a sense of loyalty among “family” members. and are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. (B) K must perform immediately before Q. then P performs first. but also provides necessary regulation of the body‟s internal clock so that a normal circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is maintained. Because of this. Which of the following statements. then F performs seventh. performs seventh. organized crime in this city will be drastically reduced within the next ten years. The government has been largely unsuccessful in reducing organized crime‟s influence on city life because it has been unable to find witnesses willing to testify against the heads of the organized crime “families. performs third. performs ninth. 6. 7. which of the following must be true? (A) P and L must perform consecutively. performs ninth.” This reluctance was due not only to fear of reprisal. This study has further demonstrated that eyes retain this regulatory ability even in people who are totally blind. if true. A recent study has shown that the human eye not only allows vision. organized crime has controlled many of this city‟s unions. (D) The witnesses themselves took part in many of the most violent of their bosses‟ illegal activities.(D) four (E) five 4. (C) H and F must perform consecutively. then G performs seventh. For several decades. If F must perform later in the marathon than G performs. however. doctors should discontinue the common practice of removing the eyes of totally blind people and replacing them with . In light of these findings. 5. extorting payments that result in high costs for basic services such as garbage collection and street repair. then M performs sixth. several members of organized crime have testified against their bosses in return for immunity for their own crimes. (E) Organized crime families cannot function without the detailed knowledge possessed by the heads of the families. but today‟s younger members find it old-fashioned. (C) Loyalty among organized crime family members was highly valued twenty years ago. then Q performs fifth. (B) Most of those willing to testify are relatively low in the organized crime hierarchy. (E) H and G must perform consecutively. would most seriously weaken the conclusion above? (A) Organized crime in many cities across the nation is on the rise.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A normal circadian rhythm consists of eight hours of sleep and sixteen hours of wakefulness. (C) Approximately 40 percent of totally blind people receive artificial eye implants. and vice versa. (B) If the body‟s internal clock is not regulated. In light of these disturbing revelations. however. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above? (A) Occurrences of bacteria-transmitted diseases among city residents can be attributed to drinking contaminated water. .more cosmetically pleasing artificial eyes. The teacher may choose any collection of these lecturers that conforms to the following restrictions: If If If If P is R is both R is chosen. (B) The city‟s water is no longer safe for people with weakened immune systems to drink. a person will suffer from a debilitating condition similar to permanent jet lag. Just last week. chosen. and R. Q. and the sociologists P. Questions 9-13 A teacher must choose a group of guest lecturers to speak before her class. not be chosen. city health officials were right to instruct city residents to boil their water before drinking it. (E) City health officials believe it possible that disease-causing bacteria are present in the public water supply. also be chosen. N. and O. (C) The Water Safety Department cut back on tests because of recent budget cuts. they do not need to maintain the same circadian rhythms as do people who can see. (E) Because totally blind people cannot distinguish between light and darkness. L and M chosen. (D) City health officials believe that current water quality testing procedures are not stringent enough. M. then M must also be chosen. The only available lecturers are the historians L. Workers were instructed not to sample water from locations that showed signs of contamination and to eliminate the more stringent tests that can detect diseasecausing bacteria. officials of the Water Safety Department admitted that water quality tests have been purposefully skewed. City officials have always told residents that their water was safe to drink. 8. then Q must not be chosen. then N must then O must are chosen. (D) The eye is the primary mechanism for maintaining normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness in the human body.
G. Q. L always move F and Q to tears and sometimes move T to laughter. P. R. N sometimes move S to tears and always move H to laughter. and T to tears and sometimes move F to . N. What is the maximum number of lecturers that can be chosen? three four five six seven Which P. R. M. If all of the sociologists are chosen. If the condition that O and M must be chosen together or not at all is added to the original rules. M. O. P is not chosen. Z. (C) If M is chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) If Q is chosen. U has prepared only works by poets K. L is not chosen. 10. O is not chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12. and to laughter. N is not chosen. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If R and Q are chosen. L. N. L. Questions 14-16 Host U is sponsoring a literary soiree for eight friends—literati F. Works by these poets produce only the following reactions: Works by Poet always move T Works by Poet Works by Poet Works by Poet K always move G to tears. Q is not chosen. (B) R must never be chosen. Q. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. P sometimes move W. which of the following CANNOT be true? N is chosen. (E) L must never be chosen. W. (D) M is not chosen. (C) Exactly four lecturers are chosen. H. (D) If O is chosen. T. sometimes move Q and S to tears. (B) O is chosen. Exactly three lecturers are chosen.9. of the following groups of three may never be chosen together? Q L L Q N 13. S. (E) N is not chosen. which of the following must be true? (A) L is not chosen. and Z. and P for presentation at the soiree. Exactly four lecturers are chosen.
and P only Questions 17-22 An interior designer is hired to decorate the bedroom. If a literato is not moved to laughter or to tears as prescribed above. sofa. vase. Which of the following combinations of works could NOT possibly move Literato T both to tears and to laughter? (A) works by K and N only (B) works by P and K only (C) works by L and P only (D) works by P. The sofa is placed in the living room. 14. The mirror and the wardrobe are placed in the same room. then he or she is bored. den. table. rug. The painting and the vase are placed in different rooms. table lamp. P. painting. painting. rug.laughter. The designer has exactly eight items with which to work: a lamp. mirror. rug. wardrobe. N. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is an acceptable placement of the items in the den? painting. A different number of items is placed in each of the three rooms. mirror. rug. lamp. Which of the following literati could possibly be bored by works of all four poets? (A) F (B) H (C) Q (D) S (E) T 15. Each item is placed in one of the three rooms. N. and L only (E) works by K. rug. vase . table. table. 17. and L only (E) works by K. in accordance with the following conditions: At least one item is placed in each room. and living room of a client‟s house. table lamp. and wardrobe. and L only (D) works by N. K. vase vase mirror. and L only 16. sofa. P. he could have presented any of the following combinations EXCEPT: (A) works by L and P only (B) works by P and N only (C) works by P. If the works presented by U moved exactly four people to tears and one person to laughter.
table (B) rug. and if the wardrobe. (D) The rug is placed in the bedroom. Exactly four items are placed in one of the rooms. rug (D) painting. (D) Exactly five items are placed in the living room. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The lamp is placed in the living room. Exactly five items are placed in one of the rooms. A special police force was set up to encourage strict compliance with the new law. and any businesses caught serving or selling alcohol to underage drinkers were permanently shut down. Exactly three items are placed in one of the rooms. the painting. table (E) table. rug. In an effort to reduce the number of alcohol-related automobile accidents among young people. then which one of the following could be the complete contents of the den? (A) lamp. If the wardrobe is placed in the living room. and if the same number of items are placed in the bedroom and the living room. (E) The vase is placed in the den. the newly elected governor of a small northeastern state raised the legal drinking age from 18 to 21. 20. and the mirror are each placed in a different room. Assume that it is not necessary that the three rooms contain an unequal number of items. then which one of the following is impossible? (A) The vase is placed in the bedroom. (C) The table is placed in the den. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which one of the following must be true? Exactly one item is placed in one of the rooms. (C) The rug is placed in the same room as the table. table. then all of the following pairs of items could be placed in the same room EXCEPT: (A) the mirror and the rug (B) the mirror and the table (C) the rug and the table (D) the sofa and the mirror (E) the painting and the rug 22. Yet . If the mirror and the wardrobe are the only items placed in the bedroom. vase 23. the lamp. and if more items are placed in the den than in the living room. 21. Exactly two items are placed in one of the rooms.18. If the lamp. (B) The painting is placed in the bedroom. (E) The vase is placed in the den. If the mirror is placed in the same room as the sofa. and the sofa are each placed in a different room. vase (C) lamp. 19. (B) Exactly one item is placed in the den.
anyone who wants to lower the level of cholesterol in his blood should eat more eggs. Because of concern for blood cholesterol levels. many young people from the state in question began driving across the border to the state next door. as well as cholesterol that is ingested. Research has shown. 24. where the legal drinking age was still 18. (B) Once a person‟s cholesterol reaches a dangerous level. (E) Thanks to a public service campaign to encourage the use of safety belts. (D) The body will compensate for cholesterol in the blood. would best resolve the apparently discrepant facts recounted above? (A) After the drinking age was raised. egg consumption in the United States has fallen by almost 50 percent over the last forty years.paradoxically. the first year after the new legal drinking age went into effect. which can be fatal. (B) Due to the emphasis being placed on the problem of young people driving while intoxicated. (E) Eggs are a primary source of dietary cholesterol. (C) In the majority of towns in the state in question. Which of the statements below. most severely weakens the conclusion in the argument above? (A) When eggs are eaten raw or undercooked. the number of fatalities resulting from drunk-driving accidents involving young people declined dramatically. Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following passage: One egg contains a whopping 213 milligrams of cholesterol. drunk-driving accidents involving young people typically injure more people than do such accidents involving adults. that the body compensates for increased cholesterol intake by reducing cholesterol production in the liver. Therefore. (C) Eating more eggs is the only way to lower blood cholesterol levels. police were far less vigilant in preventing drinking and driving among adults. there were almost no businesses that served or sold alcohol located within walking distance of people‟s homes. they can transmit the bacteria Salmonella. if true. however. Which one of the following. if true. (B) A low blood cholesterol level is desirable. his liver loses the . 25. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Eating a large number of eggs does not have any undesirable effects on the body. excretion of cholesterol in bile acids increases as more cholesterol is eaten. Furthermore. it was discovered that the number of drunk-driving accidents involving young people had increased. (D) Because young people often drink in large groups.
H is sixth. G. R is eighth (Rule 3). There are only two . so neither L nor M can be seventh ninth. and R is eighth. incorporate the rules. respectively. What else can we deduce? L and M must be together. is a country band. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. Rule 5 says L performs immediately before M. to separate the two country bands. Since K is first. in either order. six rock bands (F. are F 3. L is fourth. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth and G. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. (Rule 1). is a country band. H. so whoever is seventh and ninth is the correct As in Question 1. do not trigger the liver‟s compensatory ability. M) and three country bands (P. Q. Combine Rules 1 and 3. prove or band. Rule 1 says no two country bands can perform consecutively. L. they are first and third. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth R. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. Since we can‟t have two consecutive country bands and the eighth band. M is fifth. That leaves two country bands. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. or third. such as shrimp. (E): L and M must be together. in either order. Since P and Q can‟t be consecutive. =========DIG A1= Questions 1-5 In this sequencing game. second. 2. in either order. pair. P and Q. (C) Other foods that are high in cholesterol. is a country band. so neither L nor M can be seventh or ninth. in either order. If P is first. to go in two of the first three slots. the deductions you make before starting the questions invaluable: L and M must be together. (D) A common genetic mutation prevents dietary cholesterol from affecting blood cholesterol levels in many people. and we can deduce that neither P nor Q can be seventh or ninth. Since K is first. K. as we deduced in the game overview. M is fifth. Rule 4 states that K is first. R. R) must be placed. K is second. and rock bands must be fourth and fifth. in either order. Place an H in slot 6 and an R in slot 8. or third. As we‟ve already deduced in the game . respectively. using nine dashes to represent the nine times slots in the marathon: Now. second.ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake. or third. R. then Q must be third. in order to appear at a music marathon. one at a time. Therefore (A) is correct. (E) The body‟s control over cholesterol levels becomes more efficient as the amount of cholesterol consumed increases. the only bands that can perform seventh and ninth are F and G. Create a master sketch. That leaves F and G for seventh and ninth. Start with the most concrete: Rule 3 says H is sixth. then L and M must be fourth and fifth. second. only. That means K must be second. Rule 2 tells us that rock bands go fourth and fifth. 1. and R is eighth.
respectively. in either order. (E)If anything. Notice that the answer here is the same as the answer to Question 2. . The conclusion that organized crime in this city will be greatly reduced within ten years is based on the evidence that some members of organized crime will testify against other members. If. (B)The argument addresses the necessity of regulating a body‟s internal clock— we needn‟t assume anything about the results of a failure to regulate it. the author argues that no blind person should receive implants. Why? Because even in totally blind people the eyes perform a necessary function—regulation of the body‟s internal clock. (B) the witnesses are lowly members who are unaware of many of their bosses‟ activities. and (D) Q—they can be true. (E)Contradicts the author‟s statement that regulation of the body‟s internal clock is necessary. Since the question is worded. The author is arguing that doctors shouldn‟t replace the eyes of totally blind people with artificial eyes. so (B). 6. The assumption must be that (D) the eye is the primary thing that performs this function. (E) must be true: H is 5. organized crime will collapse because of the lack of leadership. If the testimony of these members is to cause the downfall of organized crime. So we know every in either order. (C) is impossible—H is sixth and F sixth and G is seventh. for P and Q all depend on knowing the positions of P and be true. (C)Witnesses‟ motivation for testifying is irrelevant to the result of their testimony. so (A) and (E) are possible but not definite. and P and Q.. we‟re only concerned with this city. eliminate any choice that can be false. 7. (A). (B) and (D) violate Rules 3 and 2. it decreases the chance that they‟ll know enough to get a conviction. those witnesses must have enough knowledge of their bosses‟ illegal activities to get them convicted. then G is seventh position except first and third. (C)The number of blind people receiving implants is unimportant. We can‟t know the exact locations of pairs G and F. If another organ played as great a role in the regulation of the body‟s internal clock. the regulatory abilities of eyes wouldn‟t be a reason to not remove them. (D)This is all the more reason for them to testify truthfully so they can gain immunity for these crimes. but need not is ninth. If G performs before F. (A)Organized crime in “many” cities is beyond the scope. however. (A)The author gives no evidence about what the normal rhythm is.possibilities. and F is ninth. (C) must be true—F and G can only be either seventh or ninth. (B). which of the following must be true. 4. this strengthens the argument by implying that if the witnesses provide evidence that helps to convict the leaders. Always look for opportunities to use previous work.
so this wouldn‟t affect the decision to tell people to boil water. or M and Q. Rule 1 says if P is chosen. In other words. Create a master sketch. then M 9.8. M. and if N is chosen. listing the available speakers. Questions 9-13 This game asks you to select a group of historians (L. then Q is not chosen. without violating Rule 3. some of the diseases may have other causes. shorthanded: P + N together If R. So (A) is correct. Since the question is worded. P and N together. then N is chosen. Rule 2 says if R is chosen. Start with what you are given. since R is chosen. (D)Officials might think the procedures are stringent enough. (C)There‟s no evidence as to why the Water Safety Department cut back on tests. Q. it can be inferred that (E) health officials thought that there was at least a possibility that there were harmful bacteria in the city‟s water supply. (B). then M is chosen. then R can‟t be chosen. N. R) to lecture before a class. Rule 2 says that O can‟t be chosen. which of the following CANNOT be true. R Incorporate the rules. Notice that there is no minimum or maximum number of either historians or sociologists that can be chosen. Rule 3 states if L and M are both chosen. and R) are chosen. then N (Rule 1) and M (Rule 4) are also chosen. O Sociologists: P. Also L can‟t be chosen (or Rule 3 is violated—if L and M. Therefore. M. And why did health officials tell people to boil water? Because boiling water kills bacteria. then O isn‟t chosen. and the Water Safety Department had just admitted that tests for disease-causing bacteria in the city‟s water supply were not being performed. Rule 4 says if R is chosen. and (E) are all false. (D). but they‟re not being followed. (C). 10. (A)There‟s not enough evidence to infer this. (B)Just because the Water Safety Department failed to test for contaminated water doesn‟t mean that the water is contaminated. If R and Q . then not Q If R. The author concludes that health officials were right to tell people to boil their water. and who can‟t be chosen together: Historians: L. Notice that you can take L and Q. N. using shorthand to distinguish relationships. The rules. Q. O) and sociologists (P. Q. the four incorrect choices can but don‟t necessarily need to be true. and then add what you know: If the sociologists (P. and noting who can be chosen together. then not R If L + M. then not O If O. then P is chosen. then not Q). That also implies the contrapositive: If O is chosen.
then R can‟t be chosen (because of the contrapositive of Rule 2—If O is chosen. Therefore. R and M are each mentioned in more than one rule: Both are mentioned in Rule 4—If R. H and T are always . We‟re left with P and N—we can take both without violating any rules. or five. T. M looks like the lecturer we‟re looking for. M. then M (Rule 4) is chosen. and R. but needn‟ t be true. So (A) and (E) can be eliminated. we can only take a maximum of two from M. Based on Rules 2 and 4. we can only take two of the three. So. eliminating (C). Scan the choices for L. Q. P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. This question is a good example of using previous work. G. we can only eliminate all literati are always moved to tears or laughter. Use shorthand to represent the responses: t for tears. so take R (via Rule 4). Since the question says possibly. 12. M must be chosen). It‟s impossible for exactly four lecturers to be chosen. then not Q. then M can‟t be chosen. (A) and (D) can be true. If O and M are chosen together. l for laughter. S. As we‟ve seen in the previous two questions. Questions 14-16 The eight literati (F. Therefore. because (B) says that R can never be chosen. F and Q are always moved to tears by poet L. L. and L and O can‟t chosen. and we‟ve just proved that. That eliminates (C). for completeness. P. so (D) is the answer. and P. W.” The best way to attack this selecting game is by creating a master sketch. then not O. So (B) is only possible. At this point you can stop. Q. (E) is false. That leaves (B) as correct. 13. So take L and M. then M can‟t chosen because of Rule 3 but M must be chosen because of Rule 4. H. the number of lecturers chosen is either three or five. However. Since R. then R can‟t be chosen). Notice that the literati can be moved to t or l sometimes. N. of L. not definite. Q. and O. But if L and Q are chosen. Q. If O and M aren‟t chosen. in this case a grid: 14. 11. The thing to notice here is that we‟re looking for something that must be true whether or not O and M are chosen. only one can be chosen if M is chosen (abiding by Rule 3). M must be chosen. Z) have various emotional responses to the poems of poets K. M can‟t be chosen. or “some. so it‟s correct. search for a lecturer that may be included by one rule of and excluded by another rule. and not just sometimes. the “impossible” group of three lecturers will trigger two rules that can‟t both be enforced. R is also part of Rule 2— if R. That‟s L. M is also part of Rule 3—if M and L. R. N. and R. The correct choice here will probably be a contradiction—that is. and R are chosen. then M. choosing (D) will violate either Rule 3 or Rule 4. if L and Q are chosen. and you find them in (D): If L. but not O (Rule 2) and not L (as in Question 6). P and N can but needn‟t be chosen. As we learned in Question 6. M. so (A) and (C) can be eliminated. if R is chosen. b for bored.are chosen. We already took M. so (C). R still can‟t be chosen (because of Rule 4—if R is chosen. and P and N can be chosen. the full deduction: Of Q or L. and M must be chosen. and Q.
P. Depending on how you look at it. poets L and P. R. living room). T. but N moves T to boredom. (D). and P is the exception. and two literati are sometimes moved to laughter. F and T sometimes moved to laughter. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). four literati are sometimes moved to tears. and sometimes move a literati to laughter. That leaves (E): two literati are always moved to laughter. den. and T. M. and L: three literati are always moved to tears. (A) breaks Rule 3 by placing P and V together in the den. leaving (A). in any order. P. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. The key here is the one literati moved to laughter. H by poet N and T by poet K. Questions 17 . Therefore. So it‟s possible to have four literati moved to tears and one moved to laughter with (A). five literati are sometimes moved to tears. (C). so MW. Rule 2 states that M must be with W.moved to laughter. a violation of Rule 4. so (D) is possible. one literati is always moved to laughter. and L: two literati are always moved to tears. S is only sometimes moved to tears by poets K or N. W. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). 3. If there is a combination of poets that always more than one literati to laughter. 2. four choices violate one or more rules. N. so (B) and (E) are wrong. T is always moved to laughter by poet K. (D). and locate T. S. N. If (A). Poet K moves T to laughter. Compare each rule to the choices. So (C) is out. in any order. Rule 2 is violated by (E) — M and W must be together. so the combination of poets K. but otherwise is bored. sometimes move four literati to tears. S. or 1. Rule 4 places S in the living room. and 4. V. always move one literati to laughter. and 5. throwing out violators. sometimes moved to laughter by poet L. and two literati is sometimes moved to laughter. and Z sometimes moved to tears. then that‟ s our answer. with circles or columns representing the different rooms. either Rule 1 or Rule 5 is violated by (C) — since there are six items listed for the . W) in three rooms (bedroom. (B). and work your way towards the abstract ones. Rules 1 and 5 define how many items can be in each room. For this acceptability question. and one choice violates none of them. any combination of poets that move T to tears and laughter can be eliminated: Cross out (B). Put an S in the living room. K.22 You are asked to place eight items (hereafter shorthanded L. You can place the items in the rooms. and (E). P. (D) places the sofa in the den. 16. The others: P and N. so (B) is out. and sometimes moved to tears by poet P. (C). Rule 3 tells us that P can‟t be with V. and there are eight items total. Your sketch should look something like this: 17. bored by poet N. one literati is always moved to laughter. That leaves (D). Create a master sketch. 15. Refer to your sketch. then F and Q are always moved to tears. so no PV. Start with the rules that are most concrete.
There‟s at least 3 items in the living room. violating Rule 1. Since the living room has W. S. in any order. so P is in the living room with S. or 5 items in any given room. or 1. and S. and 5. the den has either P or V (Rule 3) as one of it‟s two items. (A). the den. If every room has at least one item (Rule 1). If M is with S. then the third room. 20. The den‟s 4 items must be: R. which claim that the den has 3 items. according to Rule 2. then the living room contains W. Here‟s where using a sketch comes in handy. but if there are 4 items in both rooms. (C). 2. but not “always” 2. That eliminates (B) and (D). in any order. but you must have at least one item in each room. (D). eliminating (C). but doesn‟t have to be since P can be in the den instead. Since Rule 5 is suspended. So the bedroom and the living room each have 3 items. then. and (E) are wrong. (B). in either order. Either L or W is in the bedroom or the den. You can‟t have the same number of items in two rooms.den. and T must therefore be in the living room. We are also given that the den has more items then the living room. 19. Exactly one item is always placed in one of the rooms. T is in the den. we must throw out all our deductions involving Rule 5. 21. As we learned in Question 20. leaving only (E) as possible. so it‟s the answer. That means the living room has more than one item. Rules 1 and 5 address this subject. From Rule 2 you know that M is with W. that leaves only two items. you are given that the bedroom and the living room have the same number of items. M. If W is in the living room. . 3. so the den in this case has 4 (if the living room has 3). You know that P can‟t be with V. V can be in the den. so either P or V is in the den. as (A) states. and 4. and the den has 2 items. Only (B) follows the rules. L. 3. T. 22. one room must have exactly 1 item. then the only possible combinations of the number of items that are in the rooms are either 1. R. L. As for the others: R and T can be in any of the three rooms. and the bedroom has 1 item: either P or V. and none of the rooms have the same number (Rule 5). and (E) can be eliminated. is empty. so (A). and W are in the living room. with the other joining S in the living room. and (E) are all possible because P and V can be in either the bedroom or the den as long as they‟re not together. M. Notice that all the choices have to do with the number of items placed in the rooms. and there are eight items total. Start with the second piece of information in the question. At this point you can stop work and see if you have enough for an answer. then S and M (always with W) can‟t either. (B). Next. 4. 3. then the den and the living room must have 1 and 5 items each. for the other two rooms. Scan the choices and all must be true except (E). 4. so the den can only contain one item. keeping in mind that we can now have an equal number of items in more than one room. The first thing to notice is that if MW are the only items in the bedroom. Since we can have 2. L is in another room. or 5. and P or V (abiding by Rule 3). (B). the sofa and the vase. Start with S in the living room. So (D) is impossible and therefore correct. and S. M. You do: if S and W can‟t be in the same room. (A) and (C) are missing P and V. (C). and R can‟t be in the bedroom meaning (D) is impossible and therefore correct. 18.
(B)We‟re interested in the increase in drunk-driving accidents among young people. but he doesn‟t say that doing so is desirable. (E)The author says that eggs have a lot of cholesterol. If. People in the United States are eating fewer eggs in an attempt to reduce the amount of cholesterol they consume. dietary or medical. then a person with very high cholesterol levels who eats more eggs won‟t decrease those levels. this isn‟t affected by the rate among adults.23. (E)Tells us fatalities went down. then it seems even more drunk driving is going on than before. The assumption must be that what the body does (D) also affects cholesterol that‟s already in the blood. (C)We needn‟t assume that there isn‟t another way. however. Even though eggs are high in cholesterol. The evidence is that the more cholesterol a person consumes. but we needn‟t assume that no other food has more. We seek a reason why drunk-driving accidents among kids went up. but presumably this was true before the drinking age went up. even though eggs are high in cholesterol. Otherwise. the body compensates for the cholesterol people consume by reducing the level of cholesterol it produces. (A)Just because eggs lower cholesterol levels we needn‟t assume that eating lots of them won‟t harm the body in any way. Why? The more cholesterol a person consumes. especially given the efforts made to prevent people from getting around the law? (D)This choice tries to trick you into thinking that the discrepancy is about the number of people involved in drunk-driving accidents. The author of the passage concludes that increasing the number of eggs one consumes would lower one‟s blood cholesterol level. 24. 25. The conclusion is that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. (B)The author describes how cholesterol levels are lowered by egg consumption. but still doesn‟t explain why accidents went up. hence the increase in accidents. According to research. the author claims that eating eggs will lower blood cholesterol levels. despite the governor‟s noble efforts to the contrary. the more efficiently the body rids itself of cholesterol. Well. if the result of the new age limit is that 18-to-21-year-olds start piling into their roadsters and heading for taverns across the border where they can drink legally. (A)A warning not to eat undercooked eggs doesn‟t weaken the argument that properly prepared eggs are beneficial. (C)Suggests that people in the state couldn‟t get alcohol without driving. the blood cholesterol level wouldn‟t go down—it would stay the same as it was before the person began eating more eggs. (B) a person‟s liver loses the ability to compensate for further cholesterol intake when a dangerous level of cholesterol is present in the blood. . but it‟s the number of accidents that went up. to lower blood cholesterol levels. so why the increase in drunk driving. the more efficiently his body eliminates cholesterol from the blood.
(C)Other foods are beyond the scope; we‟re only concerned with eggs here. (D)Suggests that not everyone will benefit from eating more eggs, but doing so could help some people, so it‟s not a good weakener. (E)Strengthens the argument by suggesting that the more eggs one eats the more efficient the body becomes at controlling cholesterol levels.
2002-06-18 12:03 AM
voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin a1（带解释) 我刚才在www.taisha.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800.. =========================================== ===fin==1==== Questions 1?3 A spice farmer must harvest the five spices grown on her farm. The spices must be harvested consecutively, the harvest of one being completed before the harvest of the next begins. The five spices to be harvested are allspice, cloves, nutmeg, sage, and thyme. Nutmeg must be harvested before thyme. Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice. Sage must not be harvested first. 1. Which of the following is an acceptable order for the harvesting of the five spices? (A)nutmeg, sage, allspice, cloves, thyme (B) sage, nutmeg, thyme, allspice, cloves (C) allspice, sage, thyme, cloves, nutmeg
(D) cloves, nutmeg, allspice, sage, thyme (E) allspice, cloves, thyme, sage, nutmeg 2. If nutmeg is the fourth spice harvested, which of the following must be false? (A)Allspice is the first spice harvested. (B) Sage is harvested immediately after cloves. (C) Exactly one crop is harvested between sage and thyme. (D) Nutmeg is harvested immediately after cloves. (E) Thyme is the last spice harvested. 3. If sage is the second spice harvested, allspice must be which of the following? (A) the first or the third spice harvested (B) the first or the fourth spice harvested (C) the third or the fourth spice harvested (D) the third or the fifth spice harvested (E) the fourth or the fifth spice harvested 4. If a judge is appointed for life, she will make courtroom decisions that reflect the accumulated wisdom inherent in this country‟s judicial history, relying upon the law and reason rather than upon trends in political thinking. If, on the other hand, the judge is appointed or elected for short terms in office, her decisions will be heavily influenced by the prevailing political climate. In sum, the outcome of many court cases will be determined by the method by which the presiding judge has been installed in her post. Which one of the following, if true, does NOT support the argument in the passage above? (A) Surveys indicate that judges enjoy their work and want to remain in office as long as possible. (B) Judges appointed for life are just as informed about political matters as are judges who are elected or appointed for short terms. (C) The rulings of judges who must run for re-election are generally approved of by the voters who live in their elective districts. (D) Most judges appointed for life hand down identical rulings on similar cases throughout their long careers. (E) Only judges who are elected or appointed for short terms of office employ pollsters to read the mood of the electorate. 5. There are those who claim that weapons reductions would result in a socalled “climate of peace,” thereby diminishing the likelihood of conflicts leading to war. The facts show otherwise. These self-proclaimed pacifists are either the victims or the propagators of a false logic. In the past ten years, during which time we have seen increased spending for such defense requirements as state-of-the-art weapons systems and augmented combat personnel, there have been fewer military actions involving our forces than in any previous decade in the twentieth century. Our own installations have not been attacked and our allies have rarely found it necessary to ask for our armed support. Defense
readiness is, in the real world, the most efficient peacemaking tool. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion of the passage above? (A) Military actions involving our forces can be instigated by any number of different factors. (B) Our build-up of weapons systems and combat personnel has prevented our adversaries from increasing their own spending on defense. (C) The increased defense spending of the past ten years has lessened the need for significant military expenditure in future decades. (D) At the present time, state-of-the-art weapons systems and the augmentation of combat personnel are equally important to a nation‟s defense. (E) In the past decade, the number of military actions involving our forces would have been greater if we had not increased our defense spending. 6. Should present trends continue, within five years it will be cheaper for audio enthusiasts to build their stereo systems around sets of separate, high quality tuners and amplifiers, rather than around integrated tuners and amplifiers, known as receivers. While receivers have been considered the necessary compromise for those with budget restrictions, recent trends in retail pricing seem destined to change that perception. The average retail price of a high quality tuner has declined at a rate of 20 percent each of the last two years, and the average retail price of a high quality amplifier has declined at the rate of 35 percent for each of those years. At the same time, the average retail price of integrated receivers has declined only 12 percent. In evaluating the claim made in the passage above, information about which of the following would be most useful? (A) The average life expectancy of stereo tuners as compared to the average life expectancy of stereo amplifiers (B) The number of integrated receivers sold each year and the number of sets of separate tuners and amplifiers sold each year (C) The average retail price of an integrated receiver and the average retail price of a tuner and amplifier set (D) The number of separate tuner and amplifier sets expected to be purchased over the next five years and the number of integrated receivers expected to be purchased over the next five years (E) The percentage of audio enthusiasts who prefer separate tuner and amplifier sets to integrated receivers Questions 7?10 An editor must choose five articles to be published in the upcoming issue of an arts review. The only articles available for publication are theater articles F, G, H, and J, and dance articles K, L, M, and O. At least three of the five published articles must be dance articles. If J is chosen, then M cannot be
(D) All four of the dance articles are chosen. Command Z requires the dogs in Rooms 3 and 1 to change places. (B) Exactly three dance articles are chosen. each of which they will execute as soon as the command is given. Command Y requires the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 to change places. 7. three trainers (Luis. Mugs. Questions 11-14 An obedience school is experimenting with a new training system. Command A requires each of the dogs to go to the room containing the trainer it was matched with in the initial assignment. The initial assignment is as follows: Room 1: Luis and Lassie Room 2: Molly and Mugs Room 3: Oprah and Onyx The participants have learned five different commands. which of the following must be chosen? (A) F (B) G (C) H (D) J (E) K 8. then J must also be chosen. and the trainer in Room 3 to move to Room 1. (E) F is not chosen. the trainer in Room 2 to move to Room 3. Molly. which of the following must be true? (A)J is not chosen. If M is not chosen for the issue. If G is chosen for the issue. How many acceptable groupings of articles include J? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 9. The choice of which article makes only one group of articles acceptable? (A) F (B) G (C) J (D) L (E) M 10. one trainer and one dog per room. Command W requires the trainer in Room 1 to move to Room 2. To test the system.If F is chosen. . and Oprah) and three dogs (Lassie. Command X requires the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 to change places. (C) H is not chosen. and Onyx) are assigned to three different rooms.
Y. A. The top floor is called Level A. W (C) Z. between two other apartments on the same level. to T‟s apartment on the same level. Oprah and Mugs are in Room 2. W. R. T. Command W. (B) Molly will be in Room 3. S. (C) Molly and Lassie will be in the same room. to the empty apartment on the same level. Exactly seven people—P. 12. A (D) X. and W—live in the building. such that the apartments on Level A are directly above the apartments with the same numbers on Level B. and Luis and Lassie are in Room 3? (A) Z. Which of the following sequences of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Oprah and Lassie are in Room 2? (A) X. W. X 14. V. If the participants in the initial assignment are given exactly one command. Y. Which of the following sequences of commands could result in a final arrangement in which Molly and Onyx are in Room 1. W.11. W Questions 15-18 There are eight apartments in a two-story building. X (E) X. Y. . X (B) W. Which of the following commands or series of commands will yield a final arrangement in which Onyx is in Room 2? (A) One call of W (B) Two calls of X (C) Two calls of W followed by one call of A (D) Two calls of W followed by one call of Z (E) Two calls of X followed by one call of Z 13. W. the bottom floor is Level B. W (D) W. Q. four on each floor. W. which of the following will be true in the resulting arrangement? (A) Oprah and Mugs will be in the same room. Z (C) W. Y. Z. W. W (B) X. Z. A. W‟s apartment is directly S and Q live on different P‟s apartment is adjacent T‟s apartment is directly W‟s apartment is adjacent above S‟s apartment. The rooms on each level are numbered 1 through 4 in order from one end of the building to the other. levels. W. W (E) Z. (E) Luis and Onyx will be in the same room. One of the apartments is empty. one to an apartment. (D) Luis will be in Room 3.
which of the following must be true? V lives in Apartment 1 on Level B. P . If Q lives in Apartment 2 on Level A. R (B) G. K. R‟s apartment is on Level A. and two—P and R—are club applicants. and three will play dominoes. If R lives in Apartment 3 on Level A. H. directly above P‟s apartment. 19. directly above T‟s apartment. two—K and M—are junior club members. Three of those present—F. in which apartment must V live? (A) Apartment 1 on Level A (B) Apartment 4 on Level A (C) Apartment 1 on Level B (D) Apartment 2 on Level B (E) Apartment 4 on Level B 18.15. There must be a senior club member playing each game. chess. and dominoes. M cannot play dominoes. The empty apartment is Apartment 3 on Level A. 17. T lives in Apartment 3 on Level B. They decide that two of those present will play backgammon. G. two will play chess. F. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. Which of the following is an acceptable grouping of people playing backgammon. P. R. P lives in Apartment 4 on Level A. M. which of the following could possibly be Apartment 1 on Level A? (A) P‟s apartment (B) S‟s apartment (C) V‟s apartment (D) W‟s apartment (E) the empty apartment Questions 19-22 Exactly seven people are present in the game room of a club. H and P must play the same game. and H—are senior club members. respectively? (A) G. Each person present can play only one of the three games. H. G cannot play the same game that R plays. F. M. K. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following must be on Level B? P‟s apartment Q‟s apartment R‟s apartment V‟s apartment the empty apartment If W lives in Apartment 2 on Level A.
” We must take a few steps backward and accept some inconvenience if we want to secure the health and well-being of our planet. R. European nations are starting to decrease the percentage of their foreign aid that is “tied”?that is. G. European nations hope to avoid the ethical criticism that has been recently leveled at some foreign aid donors. K. given only on the condition that it be spent to obtain goods and materials produced by the country from which the aid originates. how many different groupings of people and games are possible? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) six 22. K. G. notably Japan. 21. (E) Non-European nations are unwilling to offer foreign aid that is not “tied” to the purchase of their own manufactures. which of the following must be true? H plays dominoes. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage? (A) Many non-European nations give foreign aid solely for the purpose of benefiting their domestic economies. F. 24. R (E) F. G plays backgammon. F plays dominoes. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which H and K and F and G and P and of the following pairs CANNOT play the same game? R M M M R 23. M plays backgammon. By doing so. P. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If K and R play the same game. H. (B) Only ethical considerations. H. M. If R plays backgammon. K. G. should be considered when foreign aid decisions are made. M (D) H. (C) Many of the problems faced by underdeveloped countries could be eliminated if a smaller percentage of the foreign aid they obtain were “tied” to specific purchases and uses. This is not merely a matter of using . P plays chess.(C) F. M. P. C8Our environment can stand only so much more “progress. P. (D) Much of Japan‟s foreign aid returns to Japan in the form of purchase orders for Japanese products and equipment. R 20. and not those of self-interest.
It is a workday and the commissary isserving fish. you may be able to meet the actors. (B) It is a workday. 25.1 percent of total ozone that is contributed by vehicles and fuel. or the commissary is serving fish. so the first spice is either N or A. (C) People can continue to use power lawn mowers and have barbecues as long as industry cuts down on its use of fuel. what needs to be done must be done. pollution would be drastically reduced. (D) People must accept drastic and costly measures if they are necessary to save the environment. or both. so it‟s out. 1=========FIN A1= Let‟s take Rule 3 first and try to throw out choices. or the commissary is serving fish. (B) has sage first. so they‟re out. . (D) It is not a workday and the commissaryis serving fish. ========ZT(1-3)=FIN A1= D5Game I: Questions 1-3 The Action: 5 spices to arrange: A. 3)S can‟t be first.manual mowers instead of power mowers. 2)Cloves must be harvested immediately after allspice — no other spice can come between them. (E) Lack of concern for the environment leads people to continue their overuse of the automobile. from Rule 2 we know C isn‟t first and from Rule 3 that S isn‟t first. Rule 2 gives us our AC unit—(C) has A first and C fourth. S and T. (B) If people would be willing to drive their cars less. and (E) has N coming after T. If all the statements above are true. or both. N. and (D) has C before A. If you stop in the movie studio‟s commissary during lunch time. Such concerns are irrelevant here. The author of the passage above makes which of the following arguments? (A) People will have to go back to living as theydid a century ago if they want to save the environment. We know from Rule 1 that T isn‟t first. Something must be done about the 51. or foregoing a few outdoor barbecues. The percentage must be cut regardless of the cost or inconvenience. which of the following must also be true? (A) It is not a workday. The Rules: 1)N must be harvested before T. Although the actors always eat elsewhere on workdays when the commissary does not serve fish. they always eat there on workdays when the commissary does serve fish. Rule 1 gives us our answer—N is before T. C. (C) It is not a workday and the commissaryis not serving fish. and it is true that the actors are eating in the commissary.
S. S can‟t be first. (B)The author doesn‟t tell us how and why more defense spending has prevented military actions. 3=========FIN A1= First. so eliminate (A) and (B). 6=========FIN A1= E9BWithin five years it will be cheaper to buy tuners and amps separately instead of buying an integrated receiver. T. a receiver was cheaper than the two purchased separately. The author must assume that had defense spending not gone up. they‟re likely to be swayed by voters. He sees a causal connection between defense readiness maintained by greater spending and the lower number of attacks. C. so the wrong choices will likely be strengthening evidence. leaving (C). while the price of receivers has declined only 12%. and it can‟t be second either. and supports this claim by pointing to the number of attacks on us and our allies. so scratch (D) and (E). while receivers used to cost only $100 apiece. (D)Appointed judges show consistency. A is joined with C. (D)The author never discusses the relative importance of weapons and personnel. (E) is the assumption. (A) . (C) and (E) lend credence to the allegations about the political sensitivity of short term judges. If they don‟ t. There‟s no supporting evidence. implying that those judges turn a blind eye to politics. (C)There‟s no claim about the future of peace or of military spending. put S in the second slot. the number of attacks would have increased. Try plugging in numbers. 5=========FIN A1= DThe author believes that a climate of peace has been created by spending on weapons systems and personnel. (E)Only short term judges use pollsters. since we can‟ t separate A and C. Our sequence is A. (B)—if long termers act on their political knowledge. they‟re as fickle as short termers. (A) If judges want to keep their jobs. it‟s simply irrelevant. (B) doesn‟t support the argument. Previously. C. A can‟t be first since C can‟t be second. If tuners and amps each used to cost $1. 4=========FIN A1= We need a statement that weakens or has no effect on the logic. N. What has changed? The prices of tuners and amps have declined 20 and 35% respectively. We don‟t have to go through the others— only sequence A. (D) must be false. since C can‟t be immediately followed by N. The conclusion is that the way a judge came into his job often determines the result of a case—short termers think in light of political influences. (A) How military action can be instigated is beyond the scope. S.000 apiece. while lifers rely on a tradition of judicial wisdom. Now we have AC and S. which limits our options. A can‟t be last since C comes after A. then the 20% . N and T will work.2=========FIN A1= If we put N fourth. T must be fifth since nutmeg must be before thyme. (C)Shows that short termers rule in ways that the voters approve of.
m can‟t be. If you have J. so (C) is correct. we need 3 lower case and k. So if 1 dance isn‟t chosen. or 4 dance and 1 theater. Put theater in caps and dance in lower case: F. you have to cross out J and F . In five years a receiver will probably still be the better bargain. you see that if you cross out m. our answer. not what type of sets consumers prefer. If you circle m. (D)Sales projections tell you nothing about the actual cost of the equipment. (E)The issue is the cost of separate sets versus the cost of integrated sets. you must choose J. l and o— those are your five articles. ========ZT(7-10)=FIN A1= EGame II : Questions 7-10 The Action: 8 articles—5 must be selected. but the rest is wide open. J. you can circle the other 3. choice (A) . Let‟s jump to (C). The Rules: 1)We need at least 3 dance (lower case). and if you choose m. l and o. so we can eliminate (C). 7=========FIN A1= Bm isn‟t chosen. We don‟t know how much the price gap has closed or the rate at which it will close in the next five years. Which must be chosen? (E) suggests k. and circle k. choosing J yields three possible groups. If you circle F. m. Tuners would cost $800 and amps $650 while a 12% decline in the price of a receiver would bring its price to under $90. making them easy to eliminate. Note: This doesn‟t mean that if you have J you have F. l. As we saw in Question 8. If you circle G . G. then Rule 2 says you have to cross out m. Any of the rest can be fifth—F. H. k. l and o and you need go no further. so there are three possibilities and (C). circle k. (B) and (D) aren‟t mentioned in the rules. 2)If J is chosen. so we either have 3 dance and 2 theater (caps). you know you can circle k. and since m is dance. We have J. (A) The life expectancy of stereo equipment is outside the scope. l and o fit the bill since we can‟t have m . 9=========FIN A1= B1Let‟s start with the entities that we know the most about. (B)Doesn‟t tell you anything about which component costs less. o. l. o. and if we cross out m we circle k. you have to cross out J. l and o. 10=========FIN A1= C0Try the choices. three. Cross out m. 3)If you choose F. m is not. Rule 3 says you have to circle J. you must have J. k. so we can eliminate (E). J. you can‟t have m and to have F. l and o. 8=========FIN A1= Rule 2 tells us that if J is chosen. With Rule 1. is correct. G or H. if G and J are circled. You can combine Rules 2 and 3. so (A) is correct. (A) .decline in the tuner and the 35% decline in the amp over the past two years wouldn‟t bring them near the cost of a receiver. F. so you can‟t have F and m in the same group. you have to choose the other three dance articles. k.
l. So l returns to L. she‟s there with o. not 1. H. k. 12=========FIN A1= We need to get o to Room 2 from Room 3. The same for (E)—it puts Onyx in 1 because the two X calls cancel out and the Z switches Lassie and Onyx—we‟re trying to get Onyx into 2. and (E) is out because L is with m. and L moves to Room 2. If we circle F and G. and the dog in Room 3 stays put. H. But we need five. then moving them around according to different commands. We have three trainers.and H. and Oo in Room 3. (D) is out since L is in Room 2. Mm in Room 2 and Oo in Room 3. m. The first W moves O to 1. J is chosen. (B) has two Ws and one X and it‟s . (C). the dogs in Rooms 1 and 3 switch places. the trainer in Room 2 moves to Room 3. A second W puts M in 1. 13=========FIN A1= B1Think it through—see where O and l are. 5)With command A. k. 2 and 3. (A) is out because O is with l. you could have G. We have rooms 1. 2)With command X. m or G. The two calls of X in (B) leave o where she started in Room 3. We also want to get l from 1 to 2. J. then one A? The W command puts O in 1. so it‟s correct. (D) suggests two Ws and one Z—the two Ws give us Ml in 1. the dogs in Rooms 1 and 2 switch places. So we have in Room 1. ========ZT(11-14)=FIN A1= DGame III: Questions 11-14 The Action: This game involves matching up dogs and trainers. Then a call of A puts all the dogs with their original trainers—m with M in 1. k. o or G. We can‟t disprove (E). not in 2. 4)With command Z. We start with a room assignment for each trainer and each dog: Ll in Room 1. l. Om in 2 and Lo in3 and Z switches the dogs in 1 and 3. the dogs in Rooms 2 and 3 switch places. l. not with m. The Rules: 1)With command W the trainer in Room 1 moves to Room 2. and the trainer in Room 3 moves to Room 1. two Ws. the only one that moves trainers. o with O in 2 and l with L in 3—so o is in 2—that‟s what we‟re looking for. putting Onyx in 1. 3)With command Y. and to do that we need one X. we circle J. L in 2. since if F is chosen. but that moves trainers. Looking at the wrong choices. Which choice is true of that? (B). and M in 3. m. Yes. O in 2 and L in 3. l. The only single command is the call of W in (A) . o. (C) is out because M is with o. Mm in Room 2. k. l. m to M and o to O. and o. o shows that (D) needn‟t be true and G. M is in Room 3. o shows that (B) needn‟t be true. M and O and three dogs with the same initials—l. For the record. To get O from 3 to 2 you need W. M moves to Room 3 and O moves to Room 1. W is called. and we have three capitals—there‟s no way to get three lower case. G. the dogs return to their original trainers. L. and the second W moves her to 2. Let‟s jump to (E). etc. Ol . in Room 2 Lm and in Room 3 Mo. 11=========FIN A1= BDQuestion 11 is basic—Ll in Room 1. not with o. then see what commands move them to Room 2. H. m. not dogs.
(C). W. so since B-2 is occupied by S. Q and (E). Ll in 2 and Mm in 3. since T can‟t be on the end. S on B. And with (A) and (C). Call A between the two Ws? The first W gives O in 1. 2)S and Q are on different levels. W and empty. (C)‟s suggestion of Z. So T is in 2 or 3. W is on A. and as for (C) and (D). 15=========FIN A1= Who must be on B? The only definite on B among the choices is (A) . o to o. S. 2 and 3—call it again and get M. (E) puts O in 2 but l in 3. 5)W is next to empty. 1 or 4. As for (D). and M in 3 with the dogs in their original positions. L. P is next to T. one‟s on A. So W and S have to be in A- . m. not A-4. R. Call W once. 3)P and T are adjacent. so Q is on A. so W is on A and S is on B. L. But if you call A. ========ZT(15-18)=FIN A1= DEGame IV: Questions 15-18 The Action: 7 people. so either TP or PT . how to go from l. To get from L. R and V. it has to be next to P in B-2. 4)T is not in one of the ends. S. V and R are left—one will be on A. T is in B-3 and P is in B-4. O. As for (B). L. and T can‟t be on an end. Q. Take your people. so add empty to A. 17=========FIN A1= A2R is in A-3. so we‟ve got our answer. call W twice. M. L in 2. (B). Y. Next to A-4 is A-3 and that‟s occupied by R. the dogs seek out their trainers. As for the others. so we know that P and T are on B. O and m in 2 and L and l in 3. We have W.correct. m. we know empty could be 1 or 3 on A. 8 apartments—1 is empty. W and A puts O again in 1. The Rules: 1)W is directly above S. the other on B but we don‟t know which is which. are both on A. Our second W gets the trainers in the proper place. 14=========FIN A1= CFWe want M and o in 1. So we put S underneath in B-2. so P is in B-3. P. putting m in 2 and l in 3. Empty is either A-1 or A-3 so that it‟s adjacent to W on the same level. but l in 2. but that isn‟t a choice. Now turn to the W. P is in B-4. T. the other on B. V. l? One call of Z. empty. (A) ‟s sequence of X. and we need a place for V. (D) puts O and l together but in 1. T has to be B-2 or B-3 because it can‟t be the end. P and T are adjacent and they can‟t be on A since there are 3 filled there. P. Y lines up the dogs. so (E) is correct. we have no more light on the R and V issue. M in 1. empty unit. For the dogs. A. you get O. so you have Oo in 1. O. and fill them in the eight slots. But they can‟t be the 4s since empty has to be next to W on the same level. O to M. 16=========FIN A1= FW lives in A-2. Make A level the top and B level the bottom. W . With P in B-3. Y and W puts O in 1 and l in 3. Either W and S could be the two apartment 1s or the two apartment 4s. empty and Q on A.
So only two people could go in A-1. 19=========FIN A1= ABoth (A) and (C) are out. so it can‟t be H. There‟s only one grouping possible. p and r in dominoes. It can‟t be G since G and r can‟t play together. Rule 2 says we need a senior in each game. (or p and someone else). G. With F in backgammon and H in dominoes G must play chess with m and k must play dominoes with H and p. r can‟t play with G . Since W and empty have to be adjacent on A. 5)m doesn‟t play dominoes. P and S are out because they‟re on B. Turn to our W. 7 slots. 22=========FIN A1= CFWhat about H and r? p comes along with H so we have H. Nix (E). Either H and p are chess or two-thirds of domino. F. k and r play dominoes. two seniors playing dominoes and no senior playing chess. That leaves F and m in backgammon and G and k in chess—no problem. so it‟s F. T. m and p.1 and B-1. It‟s between V and R . r—the only distinction that‟s significant is seniors from the rest. chess with two and dominoes with three. which is correct. directly above T in B-2. Q goes in A-4 and only B-4 is left for V. (B). so we‟ll keep an eye on it. 4)H and p must play the same game. ========ZT(19-22)=FIN A1= Game V: Questions 19-22 The Action: 7 people to distribute into 3 groups. so it‟s out and (D) is correct. and juniors and applicants in lower case. since H is with p . since H. k. There are three groups—backgammon with two people. since they have m playing dominoes. 3)G and r don‟t play the same game. 18=========FIN A1= Put Q in A-2. H. 21=========FIN A1= A2BSince r is lower case the other player must be a senior. they must play dominoes. H and p are together. They could play backgammon or chess or they could be two-thirds of the domino group. there‟s only one place for them—in A-3 and 4. It must be F. F. (B) has F and H. Now go to the Hp unit. Let‟s put seniors in caps. and only dominoes has three people. so H and p must play dominoes. 20=========FIN A1= CNeither k nor r is a senior and we need a senior for each. The Rules: 1)7 people. so we have one cap in each group. Rule 3 says G and r can‟t play the same game—(E) has them together. 2)Three senior members. p and r in dominoes is okay. k and m are both lower . and empty goes next to W in A-2. so if H and someone other than p are playing the same game. so (A) is out. R is not a choice but V is— it‟s (C). making (D) correct . G. The question asks about A-1. S. If they play chess. The senior can‟t be H. m and k play dominoes but m can‟t play dominoes. empty unit.
(B)The author never implies that ethical considerations are the only considerations for foreign aid decisions. 23=========FIN A1= When aid is tied. (E)States a causal relationship not implied in the stimulus.) But m can‟t play dominoes. We must do what‟s necessary. That way. or it‟ s not a workday. For the record. that it‟s a non-workday and fish is served. (C)Hindustry affects pollution is beyond the scope. the workday with fish. and since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. 25=========FIN A1= When must the actors eat in the commissary? Well. “notably Japan. Japan. F and m. or both. and (B)‟s correct. 24=========FIN A1= The author argues that we must accept inconvenience to secure the well-being of our world. A gives money to B with the understanding that B will use the money to buy only A‟s products. m plus a cap in dominoes (since there are three of them. to save the environment. ============= FIN-A1 ADCBECECAEBCBCAEECDDBBDDA . no matter how drastic and costly. A makes most of its money back. The author says that European nations are phasing this out to avoid criticism leveled at other donors. (C)(D)Since we don‟t know anything about non-workdays. true on a workday.case. (A) Isn‟t inferable because the passage discusses one non-European nation. so it‟s (A) . but rather that it is necessary. ethical considerations might also be in a country‟s self interest. that the commissary is serving fish. G and k in chess and H. there are two possibilities: either it‟s a workday and fish is served. (A) Is too extreme to describe this argument.” That‟s summarized by (D). we don‟t know whether fish will or will not be served. Besides. (A) gives you three possibilities—that it‟s not a workday. (B)The author doesn‟t say that driving less is sufficient. p and r dominoes. (C). so (D)‟s correct. according to the stimulus. and H. which this doesn‟t mention. fish may or may not be served. (B)It might also be a non-workday. F and k chess. (D):G and m in backgammon. and its aid policy. so it‟s not necessarily an either-or situation.” The inference is that Japan has been criticized for tying its aid. and we need a cap for each. Most pollution is caused by vehicle fuel and it “must be cut regardless of the cost. (C)Hforeign aid affects underdeveloped countries is beyond the scope. so k. (E)Lists only one of the three possibilities. (E)One comment about Japan doesn‟t let you make inferences about non-European nations. is fine: F and m in backgammon. p and r in dominoes. so k and m can‟t be together.
=========================================== Fin===2=== Questions 1-4 A new kind of lock is opened by pushing symbols in sequence on a keyboard. W.. If the third symbol is a letter. (D) C. Which of the (A) E. R. Q. L. 4. Which of the following could possibly be the first symbol in an acceptable sequence? (A) F (B) 7 . M. T. (E) A.org 贴了Kaplan逻辑题库-A1（带解释）--A6（带解释）的帖子，不知 为 何，立马把我的IP给封了，是不是闲我一次发的太多了，剩下的只好在这里发了，希望不要封我 的 IP，我发的绝对是Kplan 题库的题，不信可以去检查。希望大家的逻辑都拿800. The first symbol must be a letter closer to the beginning of the alphabet than any other symbol in the combination. then there must be no F‟s or G‟s in the combination. (C) B. T. then the fifth must be either B or D. X. 6. All acceptable combinations must consist of exactly five symbols — four letters and one single-digit number. Acceptable combinations must also conform to the following rules: The number must be either the second or third symbol in the combination. The sequence is called a combination. 7. 3. (B) F. K.taisha. The fourth and fifth symbols in the combination must not be the same. 2. following sequences of symbols is an acceptable combination? B Y G D P 2.2002-06-18 12:06 AM voodoo7 普通会员 注册日期: Apr 2001 性 别: ？ 来 自: 发贴数量: 33 会员积分:0 Kaplan逻辑题库-fin--A2（带解释） 我刚才在www. If the third symbol is a number. 1. G.
even if the Earth‟s population continues to grow at its present rate. and fifth symbols. (C) Increasing the supply of other sources of protein. Z. would be less expensive than fishing new parts of the oceans. T (C) 9. (B) The technology needed to fish new areas of the oceans is more expensive than that now used in ocean fishing. S 4. such as beef and poultry. If a traveler is to stay for more than 7 days. F can be made acceptable by doing which of the following? (A) Replacing the F with a B (B) Reversing the C and the P (C) Reversing the Q and the 8 (D) Replacing the F with a D (E) Replacing the C with an A 5. (B) Many travelers who stay in the Republic do not need visas. if true. would most weaken the argument above? (A) Some scientists believe that the unfished areas of the ocean support substantially fewer fish per cubic kilometer than do the areas currently fished. Some scientists argue that if fish are as common in unfished areas of the oceans as they are in the areas we now fish. 6. 8. 6. which of the following must also be true? (A) A traveler who is staying in the Republic for 14 days must have a special visa. Thus. 9. we can ensure the availability of protein for even the poorest of countries over the next two decades.(C) Y (D) 3 (E) E 3. A combination whose first symbol is B and whose fourth symbol is G could have which of the following as its second. P. D (B) A. G (E) M. (E) It will take at least thirty years to develop the technology necessary for fishing the unfished areas of the ocean. a special visa is required. however. third. The combination C. Which of the following. Travelers may enter and remain in the Republic for up to 59 days. H. 4. (D) The rate of increase of the Earth‟s population will slowly decline over the next two decades. respectively? (A) J. If the statements above are true. Q. . current estimates of the amount of protein that our planet supports are far too low. X (D) 3.
medium. all of the following must be true EXCEPT: (A) The low bell is rung first. One of the bells produces a low-pitched ring. Despite a steady stream grow and prosper. low. our economy continues to last fifteen years the service sector of our economy year alone. would most seriously undermine the conclusion drawn above? (A) Many Americans who took jobs in the service sector last year were also offered jobs in other sectors of the economy. 7. and the high bell must be rung exactly twice. the medium bell must be rung exactly three times. high.000 Americans found employment in face of evidence such as this. Which of the following is an acceptable eight-ring sequence? (A) medium. low. (C) American society has developed many programs that greatly offset the consequences of a sluggish economy. high. medium (B) low. medium. medium. high 9. one produces a medium-pitched ring. The bell-ringer must decide on a sequence of eight rings to play on special occasions. if true. Over the has greatly expanded. low. (E) Travelers who merely pass through the Republic while en route to other destinations do not need visas. If the high bell is rung fifth in the sequence. low. He decides that. 500. medium (E) low. of pessimistic forecasts. low. high. high. the low bell must be rung exactly three times. In the our economy is wilting. high. . (B) The steady decline of the manufacturing and heavy industry sectors has forced many people to work in the service sector. medium. medium (C) medium. low. low.(C) Some travelers who stay in the Republic for more than 7 days do not have the appropriate visas. high. low. The high bell must be rung twice in succession. low. for the sequence. low. high. low. medium. and one produces a high-pitched ring. low (D) medium. Questions 8-12 There are three bells in a clock tower. (D) Travelers who stay less than 7 days in the Republic do not need visas. Last the service sector. low. medium. one cannot argue that Which of the following. The bell-ringer‟s choice of sequence is further limited by the following rules: The sixth ring must be that of the medium bell. high. The low bell must not be rung twice in succession. (D) Forty years ago the American economy experienced a period of prosperity far greater than that of today. 8. (E) The importance of the service sector in determining the well-being of the overall American economy has decreased somewhat in the past ten years. high. medium. medium. medium.
(B) (C) (D) (E) 10. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
The The The The
medium bell is rung second. low bell is rung third. high bell is rung fourth. low bell is rung seventh.
CF9If the medium bell is rung fourth, the high bell CANNOT be rung first second third fifth eighth
11. Which of the following CANNOT be the order of bells rung third, fourth, and fifth, respectively? (A) high, medium, low (B) low, medium, low (C) high, high, low (D) high, medium, medium (E) high, low, medium 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Which of the following is IMPOSSIBLE? The high bell is rung first. The low bell is rung second. The medium bell is rung third. The high bell is rung fourth. The low bell is rung fifth.
Questions 13-17 A large corporation has branches in the following six cities—Atlanta, Beijing, Caracas, Dakar, Edinburgh, and Fresno. Memos of two types, Priority 1 and Priority 2, are sent from the head office to the branches. Priority 1 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Dakar. Priority 2 memos are sent directly from the head office to either Atlanta or Beijing. Any branch that receives a memo directly from the head office must pass it on to at least one other branch. That other branch can pass it on to yet another branch, though it is not required to do so. The passing of memos from branch to branch must conform to the following rules: Atlanta can send memos of either type to Caracas only. Beijing can send Priority 1 memos to Edinburgh only and Priority 2 memos to Fresno only. Caracas can send memos of either type to either Beijing or Dakar. Dakar can send Priority 1 memos to Caracas only and Priority 2 memos to Edinburgh only. Edinburgh can send memos of either type to either Fresno or Atlanta. Fresno cannot send memos to any other branches.
13. A memo that is sent from the home office to Atlanta must be sent on to which of the following? (A) Beijing (B) Caracas (C) Dakar (D) Edinburgh (E) Fresno 14. A memo that is sent from Edinburgh to Fresno following? (A) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (B) A Priority 1 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (C) A Priority 1 memo that was initially sent to (D) A Priority 2 memo that was sent to Edinburgh (E) A Priority 2 memo that was initially sent to could NOT be which of the Atlanta from Beijing Dakar from Dakar Beijing
15. A Priority 2 memo that was not originally sent to Atlanta could have been seen by a maximum of how many branches? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six 16. A memo that reaches Edinburgh without having passed through Atlanta must have been seen in a minimum of how many branches besides Edinburgh? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five 17. Which of the following cannot be the complete progress of a memo from the head office? (A) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing (B) Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh (C) Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh (D) Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno (E) Dakar to Caracas to Beijing Questions 18-22 An athlete has six trophies to place on an empty three-shelf display case. The six trophies are bowling trophies F, G, and H and tennis trophies J, K, and L. The three shelves of the display case are labeled 1 to 3 from top to bottom. Any of the shelves can remain empty. The athlete‟s placement of trophies must conform to the following conditions: J and L cannot be on the same shelf. F must be on the shelf immediately above the shelf that L is on.
No single shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. K cannot be on Shelf 2. 18. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If G and H are on Shelf 2, which of the following must be true? K is on Shelf 1. L is on Shelf 2. J is on Shelf 3. G and J are on the same shelf. F and K are on the same shelf. CIf no tennis trophies are on Shelf 3, which pair of trophies must be on same shelf? F and G L and H L and G K and J G and H If J is on Shelf 2, which of the following must also be on Shelf 2? K G F L H If Shelf 1 remains empty, which of the following must be FALSE? H and F are on the same shelf. There are exactly three trophies on Shelf 2. G and H are on the same shelf. There are exactly two trophies on Shelf 3. G and K are on the same shelf.
22. If L and G are on the same shelf, and if one of the shelves remains empty, which of the following must be true? (A) If H is on Shelf 3, then J is on Shelf 2. (B) K and L are on the same shelf. (C) If H is on Shelf 2, then J is on Shelf 3. (D) F and K are on the same shelf. (E) If J is on Shelf 2, then H is on Shelf 1. 23. Painting wood furniture requires less time than does finishing the furniture with a stain and polyurethane. On the other hand, a finish of stain and polyurethane lasts much longer than does paint. Yet one further fact in favor of paint is that it costs significantly less than does stain and polyurethane. Therefore, if reducing work time and saving money are more important to people, they will paint their wood furniture rather than finish it with stain and polyurethane. The argument in the passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
(E) Cheating was never a major problem at this school. According to a recent school survey. (C) Fifteen years ago. most significantly weakens the inference above? (A) Most of the students who now attend campus services do so only for social reasons. Young Cowonga lion cubs in the wild often engage in aggressive play with their siblings. never engage in this aggressive play. It must be this increased religiosity at our college that has massively reduced incidences of cheating on exams. and longevity are equally important factors in deciding whether to paint wood furniture or stain and polyurethane it. cost. (B) Most people consider reducing work time and saving money to be more important than the longevity of a finish. (D) Work time. Cowonga lion cubs born in captivity. . (C) Most people prefer to paint or to stain and polyurethane wood furniture. however. Some zoologists have concluded that this particular form of play teaches the young lions the skills needed for successful hunting in the wild. (B) Campus chaplains have time and again spoken about the importance of academic honesty. the college switched from an honor system to facultyproctored exams. (E) Work time. rather than to leave the wood unfinished. (D) Not all students responded to the survey. the number of students who regularly attend religious services on campus has increased fifty percent from the figure ten years ago. This activity is instigated by the cubs‟ mother. 24. The zoologists‟ conclusion would be most strengthened if it could be demonstrated that (A) all Cowonga lion cubs raised in the wild are capable of hunting successfully (B) other predatory animals also engage in aggressive play at a young age (C) no Cowonga lion cub that has been raised in captivity is able to hunt successfully in the wild (D) the skills used in aggressive play are similar to the skills necessary for successful hunting (E) female lions that were raised in captivity will not instigate aggressive play among their offspring 25. and longevity are the only important differences between painting wood furniture and finishing it with stain and polyurethane. cost. if true. Which of the following.(A) It is better to paint wood furniture than it is to stain and polyurethane it. and that such play is not instigated in captivity because the development of hunting skills is unnecessary in such an environment.
B is 1st. 1=========FIN A2= A2Take the rules and check the choices against them. and the 4th and 5th can‟t be the same. 3=========FIN A2= When you see G. In Option 2. . Rule 1 eliminates (E) since it has the number in the 4th position. figure out why the combination isn‟t acceptable. so write under the 5th space in Option 2. so you‟re left with only D for 5th. so it‟s correct. That leaves (A). the 5th symbol must be B or D. the number is 2nd. If you start with F. Option 1 is the situation where the number is second in the sequence. and the 4th place and the 5th place can‟t be the same. (C) goes since you can‟t start with Y. 3)In Option 2. In Option 2.========ZT(1-4)=FIN A2= Game I: Questions 1-4 The Action: A lock has to be opened by pressing a combination. You end with B or D and this ends with F. 2=========FIN A2= AEYou can eliminate (B) and (D)—numbers only appear 2nd or 3rd. (A) replaces F with B but remember Rule 5—the 1st symbol must be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. the 5th must be B or D. you know you‟ll be dealing with Option 2 only because Option 1 can‟t have G‟s. You have a number 3rd so it‟s Option 2. Letter B at the end of (A) violates Rule 5. Only one letter comes after Y . the number is 3rd. 4=========FIN A2= First. G is 4th and 5th is B or D. The number is 3rd. 5)There are different ways to note this—just don‟t forget it! Recap: In Option 1. You‟ve used B first. replace the F with a D. a Rule 2 no-no. you begin with a letter later than B or D. and B doesn‟t. In that combination there can‟t be any F‟s or G‟s. The overall rule is that the 1st letter has to be closest to the beginning of the alphabet. Only (A) gives you that option. and the sequence begins with C . and (E). F. there can‟t be an F or a G . so you‟d have only Z to fill the sequence. so switch that F for a B or a D and make the sequence work. 2)Mark the 4th and 5th space in each option. That leaves correct choice (D). (A) begins with E. B or D only. E. (C) is out because it has G 4th and 5th. In Option 1 you can‟t use F . Option 2 is the situation where the number is third in the sequence. so (A) won‟t work. so all letters must appear later than E. and Rule 2 says that you can‟t have 4th and 5th symbols the same. So F can‟t begin and E. violating Rule 5. and in Option 2 you must end with B or D. (E). Rule 4 applies to (B) and (D) because it has a number 2nd—you can‟t have F‟s or G‟s and (B) violates that with an F 1st. The Rules: 1)This rule limits the game—you have two basic options. is correct. 4)The third symbol is a letter so it‟s option 1. Skim to (D). The only way would be to change the C to an A but you can‟t do that. Each has 4 letters and 1 number. and you don‟t know what‟s 2nd.
But what if declines in other sectors offset the growth in service? If. Evidence that undermines this assumption would weaken the argument and (E) does just that. but the author doesn‟t argue that the world can be fed cheaply.S. . 5=========FIN A2= FABased on the evidence in the first sentence. as (B) says. (C)Doesn‟t affect the conclusion. the sequence ends with a D. He assumes that this growth correlates to growth in the economy. As for the others. If the population increase is slower than projected. As evidence.which works with the rules for Option 2. not that it‟s prospering more than ever. you need a special visa. This jibes perfectly with the if-then statement in the stimulus. (E)Isn‟t inferable. To conclude that we can feed the masses with fish from currently unfished areas. Just because the American economy isn‟t sluggish doesn‟t mean it‟s prospering. If a traveler wants to stay 14 days. giving the impression that the economy isn‟t in bad shape. So (D) is correct. The cost of the technology isn‟t as damning an obstacle as a lack of fish. then growth in service can‟t be a reliable indicator of growth overall. but you can‟t have an F in Option 1. the author concludes that we can provide protein to the whole world even if its population continues to grow at the present rate. (C)All the stimulus tells us is when a special visa is required. With (C) you reverse Q and 8 and you have Option 1 with the number 2nd. So (D) is correct. economy continues to grow and prosper. (B)(D)Imply that some travelers don‟t need visas. Focuses on cost. if you do (B) and reverse the C and P you have Option 2 ending with F—not acceptable. (D)The author claims that the American economy is prospering. (E) replaces the C with an A. Correct choice (A) is simply a statement in which the “if” clause of the original is affirmed and the “then” clause flows from it as it‟ s supposed to. (E) says it will take 30 years before we can fish the areas. this doesn‟t weaken the argument. growth in service can be attributed to a decline in other sectors. and D is later than C so you„re obeying Rule 5. We don‟t know whether any travelers don‟t need visas. Since we‟ve no reason to believe the scientists in this choice more than those cited in the stimulus. so (C) won‟t work. the author cites the expansion of the service sector. if you do so. Nothing precludes the possibility that every person in the Republic needs a visa 7=========FIN A2= FThe conclusion here is that the U. the author must assume that we can get at those fish. it‟s even more likely that the fish currently available will feed everyone. (A)Supports the conclusion—job offers imply health. in which case we can‟t ensure the availability of protein over the next two decades. a special visa is required. We talked about that in (A). 6=========FIN A2= Although it‟s possible to stay for more than 7 days.
========ZT(8-12)=FIN A2= BAGame II: Questions 8-12 The Action: 3 bells. one low third. (D) has a high 3rd. medium. So we‟ll put one low first. 3)The two high bells will stick together. 3rd. high bell is 4th. then fill the space between with a medium. 2)You‟ll have to split the low rings up—they will always be separated by medium and high rings.(E)Even though the importance of the service sector has declined. so (D)‟s correct. and 7th. and it‟s correct. 5th. Rule 3 eliminates (A) by splitting up the high bells. Rule 2 won‟ t let us ring the low bell twice in succession. and mediums 4th and 6th. 8=========FIN A2= Starting with Rule 1. and 5th group bumps up against the medium bell in 6th. and 7th. a medium 4th. the other high 2nd. So all high and medium bells would be unacceptable in 3. 5th. and split up the lows 1st. the other high 2nd. The Rules: 1)The 6th ring is the medium bell—put it in. in 3. The beginning looks like this—low. and 5. That makes it easy to split up the lows— we can put . (A). (C). You ring the low bell 3 times. so (E)‟s correct. yes. medium. so dump (D) and (E). (C) puts a high 3rd. high. the medium bell 3 times. and a medium and a low in 7 and 8. it could still be the most important factor overall. if the highs are together and the lows are split up. (A) has high. (D). and 8 rings. and 5 because you‟d have a solid group of high and medium in the center and no way to split up the lows on the ends. Ring the other high 7th and split up the lows 1st. low bell is rung 7th—it could be 7th or 8th. 11=========FIN A2= The 3rd. 10=========FIN A2= CFSketching it out. and 5. and a medium 5th. and you‟d ring the other 2nd and split up the low bells 3rd. and the high bell 2 times. 4. Where can‟t the high bell be? When we‟re talking about the high bell. That works if we put a low 1st. next to the high in 3. (B) puts the high bell 2nd and you can use the same sequence. we have eight spots for bells to be rung. (B) medium is 2nd. medium. leaving us with (B). 4. low is 3rd. medium. yes. a high. either would be okay. (E). 4. and 5th. low. You can‟t ring a high 5th because there‟s no room for the other. One low and one medium left— does it matter which goes in 7 and which in 8? No. (A) puts the high bell 1st. 9=========FIN A2= DEAWe have to ring the high bell 5th. (C) has a low bell 6th which can‟t be true. a medium. yes. (E) puts the high 8th. low is 1st. 4th. the correct answer. We‟ll have to put two before this set. Now we have to split up the lows. and low. yes. and a low. so we ring the other high bell 4th—the two high bells have to stay together and we have the medium ringing 6th. high. we‟re talking about both highs because they stay together. low in 3. (B) has low. and one after.
========ZT(13-17)=FIN A2= EDGame III: Questions 13-17 The Action: Try a simple tack—break it into two flow charts. (E) has high. in both cases they go next to Caracas. Fresno. low 7th. (C) has the two highs in 3 and 4 and a low in 5. 12=========FIN A2= DEA(A) mentions ringing the high bell 1st. Dakar. (D) is fine. Beijing. and you put one low 1st and the other in 7 or 8 with the other medium to keep them split up. 1 and 2. 15=========FIN A2= . medium 8th. Edinburgh. one following the priority 1 mail and one following the priority 2 mail—it‟s actually much simpler. We put a low 1st and a medium in 2 next to the high in 3. and medium in 3. Having done 9 and 10. and no way to do that. All of the others are “could be trues”—you could send the memo to Beijing. you could send it to Dakar. (C) is fine. 2 types of memos. which makes (B) correct. The other branch can pass it but it doesn‟t have to. You put the high in 2nd so it‟s next to 1st and 3rd. How about (E). If you have a medium 3rd and another 6th. and the idea that they‟re sent from the head office to the branches. put the two highs 3rd and 4th. The second introductory paragraph: any branch that gets a memo from the head office has to pass it to at least one other branch. low. send the memo to Beijing. Edinburgh. and 5. (E). describes a route it could not have followed. 7 and 8. so this is acceptable. a priority 1 memo can be sent to Dakar.the third one in 1st and we still have two spaces at the end to keep the highs together. The real key is the set of rules about which branches can send memos to which other branches. You know that‟s okay from 9. the low bell 5th? In 10 we put the low bell 5th. Check out both flow charts—when memos go to Atlanta. All the others work. medium 6th. Beijing. The last rule says that Fresno can‟t send memos to any other branches. so (C) is correct. That‟s acceptable. a priority 2 memo can go to Atlanta. the dead end. Edinburgh. because both are sent from home to Atlanta. In priority 2. Fresno. 4. Fresno. Caracas. and then what? You can only send it to Fresno. 13=========FIN A2= You have to consider both priority 1 and priority 2. Caracas. You have 6 cities. (A) you can send a priority 1 memo from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. 4 and 5. Caracas. it‟s acceptable so you don‟t need to work out a sequence again. 14=========FIN A2= DEFour choices describe routes the memo could have followed and one. start at the home office. we‟ve discussed this— yes. to Edinburgh. What that means is very simple: Fresno is a dead end. to Fresno but you don‟t have to. (B) you can send a priority 1 memo to Dakar. (B) has the low bell 2nd—put the medium 1st. Let‟s skip to (D)—the high bell is 4th. a priority 2 memo initially sent to Beijing. a low 5th. One has to contain the highs but then you have 3 lows to split up. you have 3 groups of 2 spaces. That leaves 7 and 8 to put the other low and the other medium.
write next to shelf 3 no J. The only place a priority 2 memo can go after Beijing is Fresno. Caracas. Option 2. Dakar. Beijing. (D). Caracas. in priority 1 that‟s where you go from Beijing. and Beijing. the only place it can go is Fresno. we work with Option 1. You have two options. go to Dakar. (D) is correct. 4)K can‟t be on shelf 2 for either option. Only Beijing and Fresno. A priority 1 memo can‟ t go to Beijing from the head office. 18=========FIN A2= G and H are on shelf 2. the only place it can go is to Caracas. After Dakar. go to Beijing. 17=========FIN A2= You‟ll have to try priority 1 and priority 2 memos. go to Caracas. top to bottom. to Caracas. going from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing to Edinburgh. (A). The only way to get priority 1 to Beijing is through Atlanta or Dakar. The question asks how many branches saw this memo besides Edinburgh. That works in priority 1. Option 1. ========ZT(18-22)=FIN A2= DBGame IV: Questions 18-22 The Action: Arrange trophies on 3 shelves. where was it sent? Priority 2. and the answer is (C). and (A) is correct. (E) suggests sending from Dakar to Caracas to Beijing. when something leaves the priority 2 head office and goes to Beijing. so (B) won‟t do it. The Rules: 2)Rule 2 seems most helpful so let‟s look at it first. 3)No shelf can hold all three bowling trophies. then Edinburgh. the dead end. G. As far as priority 2. you‟d break Rule 3. So (D) can‟t be the complete path of a priority 1 memo. and H on shelf 2. put F on shelf 2 and L on shelf 3. and in Option 2. that‟s three. so it went to Beijing. the only places something can go from home are Atlanta and Beijing. Send it to Beijing and the only place it can go is Edinburgh. put F on shelf 1 and L on shelf 2. a dead end. If you put G and H on shelf 2 in Option 2. a dead end. So you‟ll have F on shelf 1. F must be immediately above L . you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing in both priority 1 and priority 2. So concentrate on priority 1 and see how a memo would go from Dakar to Edinburgh. and L. Can you keep going to Edinburgh? Yes. so it won‟t work. where did it go? Priority 1 would go to Dakar and priority 2 would go to Beijing. could have seen the memo. What . and from Caracas you could send it back to Dakar but you want it to move toward Edinburgh. (B). you can start in the home office. write next to shelf 2 no J. 1)In Option 1. In both priority 1 and priority 2 you can go from Atlanta to Caracas to Beijing. and then Beijing. (C). so since three bowling trophies can‟t be on the same shelf. We want it to end up in Edinburgh. A priority 2 memo starting at home going to Beijing goes to Fresno.If it wasn‟t sent to Atlanta. sending a memo from Beijing to Edinburgh to Fresno. 16=========FIN A2= FCBIf the memo didn‟t go through Atlanta. in priority 2 you go from Atlanta to Caracas to Dakar to Edinburgh. So a priority 1 memo goes from home to Dakar.
20=========FIN A2= This question is directing you to Option 2. If H is on shelf three. on either shelf 1 or shelf 2. let‟s look at the situation. and 1 remains empty. because you already know that J isn‟t allowed on shelf two in Option 1. With Option 2 you know that F must appear on shelf two. we can figure out what to do with K and J because they can‟t be on 2 and shelf 3 is empty. So we end up with F and J on shelf 2. The question‟s asking “Which of the following won‟t work?” First. so if you can‟t have a tennis trophy on shelf 3 and you can‟t have these two on shelf 2. can we put H and F on the same shelf? Sure. In both there‟s just one empty shelf—in Option 1 it‟s shelf 3. (D). Neither J nor K can appear on shelf 2 in Option 1. and G on 3. You can put H on shelf three. and in Option 2 it‟s shelf 1. then the only place is shelf 1. 21=========FIN A2= BShelf one can remain empty only in Option 2. To have exactly two trophies on shelf 3. If we split them up. In Option 1. we just did with (A). so (D)‟s correct. We just went through that deduction—you must use Option 1 in which F is on shelf one and L is on shelf two. and shelf 1 is empty. L. we‟d put both G and H somewhere else and we can‟t put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. and G on shelf 3 and shelf 1 empty. and H on 2 and that left us with L. In Option 2 K can‟t be on shelf 2. then J is on shelf two. K and J must be on the same shelf.must be true? Look at (B). so (C) is correct. if shelf 3 is empty. K. L is on shelf 2. K. The only way to put H on shelf three is Option 2. We know that K can‟ t be on 2 and 1 is empty. 22=========FIN A2= The “if” clause doesn‟t narrow it down to one of the two options. (A). can we put exactly three trophies on 2? Sure. J is on shelf two. What to do with G and H ? The only thing we can‟t do is put them on 2 because that would violate Rule 3. can we put exactly two trophies on shelf 3? We have L and K on 3. so the only place for K is shelf 3. “can I put G and K on the same shelf?” Yes. 19=========FIN A2= You can‟t use Option 2 here because Option 2 already has a tennis trophy on shelf 3. In Option 2 J can‟ t go on shelf 3 and shelf 1 is empty. K. J. shelf 1 is empty. and H is a floater. and J and shelf 2 has L and G and only H is left. so you will work with Option 1. it‟s possible to do this and (D)‟s correct. (B) puts K and L on the same . so J is on shelf 2. So (B)‟s correct. (E). We have Option 2 and we have F on 2 and L on 3. So (D)‟s the thing we can‟t do. (C)—can we put G and H on the same shelf? Yes. where shelf three is open. We put F. we can put G on 2 and H on 3 or vice versa. F on the 1st shelf and L on the 2nd shelf. So if we keep them together we have to put them on 3. so shelf 1 has F. we‟ve already said we can. so it‟s on shelf 2. and in Option 2. J and K are tennis trophies. L. J can‟t be on shelf 3 in Option 2. (B). so the only home for K is 3. so (A)‟s correct. as long as they‟re on 3. The answer must be true in both options—and (A) is correct. L and G can be on the same shelf in both.
would it outweigh her desire to reduce work time and costs? We don‟ t know—the author assumes that only work time. shelf two. (B)Strengthens the author‟s argument since it sums up her second assumption. Then she decides that this is what has reduced cheating. cost. We‟ll look for a choice that suggests that either increased attendance at religious services or reduced cheating can be attributed to other factors. (E)All we know is that cheating has been massively reduced. (C) says if H is on on shelf three. cost. (C)We‟re interested in the change over the past 10 years. so (E)‟s our answer. then this majority isn‟t attending because of increased religiosity. (B)Other predatory animals are beyond the scope— we‟re only interested in Cowonga lions.. that‟s true in Option 1 only.shelf. (D)Is irrelevant—just because the play skillsare similar to the hunting skills doesn‟tmean that cubs learn the hunting skillsthrough the play. but J is never on shelf three. It simply repeats the part of the evidence they cite in support of their argument. (A)Doesn‟t strengthen a connection between hunting and aggressive play. (D)A survey just needs a representative sample. (D) has F and shelf. J is K on the same That‟s Option 2. If most students attend services for social reasons. not the past 15 years. and this destroys the author‟s primary assumption. 24=========FIN A2= BWe need evidence that will strengthen the zoologists‟ conclusion. 25=========FIN A2= First the author decides that the survey means that the student body has become more religious. so we want to establish some connection between cubs living in captivity and an inability to hunt in the wild. (C) does the trick. (B)The author needn‟t assume that most people will consider saving time and cost more important than longevity. and longevity are equally important factors. (D)The author doesn‟t assume that work time. We get the former in (A). but it goes on to say that H is on shelf one and in Option 2 empty. (C)The discussion is limited to people who paint or finish—it doesn‟t include people who do neither. but that‟s true only in Option 2. and longevity determine a person‟s decision. demonstrating that Cowonga lion cubs raised in captivity can‟t hunt successfully in the wild. Unless there are other differences. not because it is better than staining. (A)The author concludes that some people might prefer painting because it costs less and it saves work time. (E) has J on shelf two. the aggressive play could very well be the cause of this. . shelf one is 23=========FIN A2= DIf someone prefers the look of finished furniture over the look of painted furniture.
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