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**Celestial Navigation in a Teacup
**

Formerly “The Armchair Celestial Navigator”

Concepts, Math, History, the Works, but Different Teacup Navigation Rodger E. Farley

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Contents

Preface Variable and Acronym List Early Related History Review of Fundamentals Celestial Navigation Concepts Calculations for Lines of Position Measuring Altitude with the Sextant Corrections to Measurements Reading the Nautical Almanac Sight Reduction Putting it Together and Navigating Star Identification Special Topics Lunars Coastal Navigation using the sextant Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet Making your very own Octant On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

6th Edition Copyright 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011 Rodger E. Farley Teacup Navigation Publishing. All rights reserved. My web site: http://mysite.verizon.net/milkyway99/index.html I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning, user beware! This is for educational purposes only.

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This book should also interest experienced navigators who are tired of simply ‘turning the crank’ with tables and would like a better behind-the-scenes knowledge. Rather. I am referring to the typical Hydrographic Office methods H. and computational methods using the simple pocket scientific calculator (or better yet make your own navigation software). and thus I began a journey of discovery. they will notice that I have departed the usual norms found in celestial navigation texts.Preface Growing up I had always been fascinated by the thought of navigating by the stars.O. 229. the essential background and equations to the solutions will be presented such that the reader can calculate the answers precisely with a hand calculator and understand the why. it instinctively seemed to me an art beyond my total understanding. some interesting history. Rodger Farley 2002 4 . Programmable graphing calculators such as the TI-86 and TI-89 are excellent for the methods described in the book. To those readers familiar with ‘celestial’.O. those having trigonometric functions and their inverse functions. This book represents my efforts at teaching myself ‘celestial’. I use a consistent sign convention which allows me to discard same-name and opposite-name rules. With the prevalence of hand electronic calculators. You will need a scientific calculator. Why. However. and practical points of view. 249 and H. And yes. the traditional methods of using sight-reduction tables with pre-computed solutions will hardly be mentioned here. I don’t know other than celestial navigation has always had a shroud of mystery surrounding it (no doubt to keep the hands from mutiny). With that in mind this book is dedicated simply to removing the cloak of mystery. academic. the techniques. also how to build your own navigational tools. My intention is for this to be used as a self-teaching tool for those who have a desire to learn celestial from the intuitive. Like most educational endeavors one may sometimes plunge too deeply in seeking arcane knowledge and risk losing the interest and attention of the reader. to teach the concepts. Some time in my 40s I began to discard my preconceived notions regarding things that required ‘natural’ talent. although it is not comprehensive of all my studies in this field.

nautical miles Latitude Longitude Assumed latitude Assumed longitude Estimated latitude. or true altitude angle Calculated altitude angle Index correction Angular semi-diameter of sun or moon Upper limb of sun or moon Lower limb of sun or moon Greenwich hour angle Greenwich hour angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Declination angle Declination angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Sidereal hour angle Local hour angle Uncorrected azimuth angle Azimuth angle from true north Hourly variance from the nominal GHA rate. meters Correction for dip of the horizon due to eye height Correction to the tabular GHA for the variance v Correction to the tabular declination using rate d Correction to the tabular GHA for the minutes and seconds Correction to the sextant altitude for refraction. or dead-reckoning longitude Line of position Local apparent noon Local mean time 5 . arcmin per hour Eye height above the water. parallax. and semidiameter Correction for atmospheric refraction Offset distance using the intercept method. or dead-reckoning latitude Estimated longitude.Variable and Acronym List Hs Ha Ho Hc IC SD UL LL GHA GHAhour DEC DEChour SHA LHA Zo Zn v d heye CorrDIP Corrv Corrd CorrGHA CorrALT R Doffset LAT LON LATA LONA LATDR LONDR LOP LAN LMT Altitude angle as reported on the sextant scale Apparent altitude angle Observed. arcmin per hour Hourly declination rate.

And that as the year moved on the constellation’s position would slowly crank around as well. who was the director of the Egyptian Great Library of Alexandria. You would have noticed that after ¼ of a year had passed. which is quite a coincidence with the Babylonian base 60 number system which established the angle of an equilateral triangle as 60º. and the Mesopotamians further divided the hour into 60 minutes. then the Earth’s circumference would be 50 times longer. It would have seemed that the angle of rotation per day was 1/90 of a quarter circle. If 500 miles was the arc length for 1/50 of a huge circle. since the angle was further divided into 60 arcminutes per degree. It is easy to see the analogy between angle and clock time. A degree could be thought of as a heavenly angular unit. that the constellation had turned ccw about ¼ of a circle.2 degrees). a nautical mile. a stick would cast a measurable shadow. who reported it was 500 miles. The planets were mysterious and thought to be gods as they roamed around the night sky. and this observation by Eratosthenes confirmed the curvature of the Earth. The ancient Greeks had hypothesized that the earth was round. which = 1. In one of the scroll books he read that on the summer solstice June 21 in Syene (south of Alexandria). 60 seconds per minute.Chapter One Early Related History Why 360 degrees in a circle? If you were an early astronomer you would have noticed that the stars rotate counterclockwise (ccw) about Polaris at the rate of seemingly once per day. He hired a man to pace out the distance between Alexandria and Syene. once per year ccw. or 50 • 500 = 25000 miles. and 60 arcseconds per arcminute. By the way. An arcminute of a great circle on the surface of our planet defined the unit of distance. Simple tools and an enlightened mind can produce extraordinary results. or ~ 90 days. one could see the sun’s reflection at the bottom of deep wells (on tropic of Cancer). mile comes from the Latin milia for 1000 double paces of a Roman soldier.15 statute miles. only going thru certain constellations named the zodiac (in the ecliptic plane). considering he was less than 1% off. But how big was it? On June 21 he measured the angle cast by the stick and saw that it was approximately 1/50th of a full circle (7. 6 . The Egyptians had divided the day into 24 hours. He wondered that on the same day in Alexandria. Size of the Earth In the Near East during the 3rd century BC lived an astronomerphilosopher by the name of Eratosthenes.

and storms that pitch your boat onto a rocky coast. 11 minutes and 14 seconds shorter than 365 ¼ days. and the astrolabe are ancient tools that allowed one to measure the altitude of the Pole Star. Techniques used in surveying were adopted for use in navigation. Why venture out into the deep blue water? Because of coastal pirates. Their astronomy was not accurate enough to know that a tropical year is 365. Polaris. And then there are the stars. determine in which direction land would lie due to the interference in the wave patterns produced by a land mass.Calendar Very early calendars were based on the lunar month. When one neared the entrance to the Nile on the Mediterranean. Polaris would always be more or less at a constant altitude angle above the horizon all year at any hour. Determining longitude would remain a mystery for many ages until accurate clocks could be made. Latitude hooks. indicating that you should turn south. you could sail north or south to pick up the correct Polaris altitude. and the color and temperature of the water gave clues. Species of fish and birds. and 3 leap year days would not be counted every 400 years to maintain synchronicity.2 years. If you knew the altitude angle of Polaris for your destination. Presumably also to take a shorter route. used instead the position of the sun and fixed the true year at 365 ¼ days. In the Pacific. from Europe to Iceland to Greenland to Newfoundland. one could follow birds and know that a stationary cloud on the horizon meant an island under it. the bottom became rich black. and decreed a leap day every 4 years to make up for the ¼ day loss per Julian year of 365 days. Early Navigation The easiest form of navigating was to never leave sight of the coast. For any given port city. two of which are illustrated on the next page. so in 1582 the Gregorian calendar was instituted in which 10 days that particular October were dropped to resynchronize the calendar with the seasons.2424 days long. One could follow flights of birds to cross the Atlantic. 7 . One in particular. 29 ½ days. Unfortunately. So long as your last stage of sailing was due east or west. then ‘run down the latitude’ until you arrive at the destination (interestingly Polaris was not always the Pole Star). the kamal. this would ‘drift’ the seasons backwards 11 ¼ days every year according to the old lunar calendars. Polynesian navigators could also read the swells and waves. This difference adds a day every 128. Julius Caesar abolished the lunar year. as well as the composition of the bottom. This produced a 12-month year with only 354 days. the north pole star. you could get back home if Polaris was at the same altitude angle as when you left.

changing latitude where safe to pick up trade winds Surveying techniques with absolute angles and relative angles 8 .‘Running down the latitude’ from home to destination.

For several months at a time. This time difference between the mean Sun and true Sun is known as the Equation of Time. This means that the Earth is sometimes a little closer and sometimes a little farther away from the Sun than 1 AU. When it’s farther away. km).870. This brings us to the next topic… Mean Sun The mean Sun is a fictional Sun.Chapter Two Review of Fundamentals Orbits The Earth’s orbit about the Sun is a slightly elliptical one. This leads to the situation where the true Sun is up to 16 minutes too fast or 14 minutes too slow from clock reckoning. with a mean distance from the Sun equal to 1 AU (AU = Astronomical Unit = 149. If the Earth’s orbit were perfectly circular. or Jupiter). and so the mean Sun is another way of saying the yearaveraged 24 hour clock time. The Equation of Time at local noon is noted in the Nautical Almanac for each day. it is like going downhill where the Earth travels a little faster thru its orbital path. We base our clocks on the mean Sun. 9 . and was not perturbed by any other body (such as the Moon. local noon of the true Sun will be faster or slower than clock noon due to the combined effects of Earth’s orbital eccentricity and orbital velocity. The definition and significance of solar declination will be explained in a later section. it is like going uphill where the Earth travels a little slower. When we graph the Equation of Time in combination with the Sun’s declination angle. the position of the Sun in the sky if the Earth’s axis was not tilted and its orbit were truly circular. in which case the orbital velocity would be unvarying and it could act like a perfect clock. Mars.597. When it’s closer. we produce a shape known as the analemma. Venus.

UTC is the time that you will use for celestial navigation using the nautical almanac. Initial calibration errors when the atomic second was being defined in the late 1950’s.10. as the Earth was our best clock. Thus we keep fiddling with the definition of time to fit our observations of the heavens. along with the gradual slowing of the Earth’s rotation. a simple clock could always be reset daily.Time With a sundial to tell us local noon.5. UT is noted on a 24-hour scale. nor is the direction of the Earth’s spin axis. A leap second is added usually in the last minute of December or June to be within the 0. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) This is the basis of short wave radio broadcasts from WWV in Fort Collins Colorado and WWVH in Hawaii (2. (also known as Greenwich Mean Time GMT).9 seconds of UT. even though strictly speaking UT is the proper input to the tables. and 0. more later) from when the guide star first crossed the hairline. After 23. but it is relative to Earth’s orbital speed. But orbital calculations for planets and lunar positions (ephemeris) must be based on an unvarying absolute time scale. A small problem with this reasonable approach is that the Earth’s spin rate is not completely steady. but how to measure it? If we use the Earth as a clock. It is synchronized with International Atomic Time. the star will pass again which indicates that the earth has made a complete revolution in inertial space. The data in the nautical almanac is based on UT.15. The radio time ticks are more accessible. This time scale that astronomers use is called Ephemeris Time. 20 MHz). the prime meridian. It is also on a 24-hour scale.93 hours (a sidereal day.9 seconds is well within reasonable error. until atomic clocks showed that the Earth’s rate of rotation is gradually slowing down due mainly to tidal friction. 10 . we could set up a fixed telescope pointing at the sky due south with a vertical hair line in the eyepiece and pick a guide star that will pass across the hairline. GMT) This standard keeps and resets time according to the mean motion of the Sun across the sky over Greenwich England. we find ourselves with one more second of atomic time per year than a current solar year.9 seconds different from UT. We think we know what we mean when we speak of time. which is a means of momentum transference between the Moon and Earth. Einstein of course disagrees with an absolute time scale. solar mean time. but can be an integral number of seconds off in order to be coordinated with UT such that it is no more than 0. It was hard to measure. Mechanical clocks could be reset daily according to observations of these guide stars. Time Standards for Celestial Navigation Universal Time (UT. like military time. and the equation of time to tell us the difference between solar and mean noon. 5.

that’s approximately 1 degree of orbital motion per day (360 degrees/365. which is right ascension (RA). a sidereal day. Solar Year.Sidereal Year. the Earth’s orbital period with respect to an inertially fixed reference axis (fixed in the ‘ether’ of space. That is our common solar (synodic) day of 24 hours. our solar year (also referred to as tropical year) catches up faster at 365. the fixed stars as a guide clock. That is a sidereal day.242 days). The position of the stars can be measured as elapsed time from when the celestial prime meridian passed. With 360 degrees in a complete circle. this system of sidereal hour angle SHA is the negative of what an astronomer uses. Sidereal Day. But due to the backward clockwise precession drift of the equinox (the Earth orbits counterclockwise as viewed above the North Pole). 23. The difference between a Sidereal day and a Solar day 11 . coincidentally (or not). the true inertial period of rotation is the time it takes the Earth to spin in 360 degrees using say. As a side note. We base the calendar on this number as it is tied into the seasons. That means inertially the Earth really turns about 361 degrees every 24 hours in order to catch up with the Sun due to orbital motion. Solar Day There are 365. or in actuality with respect to very distant stars). and that number reduced to degrees of celestial longitude (SHA) due to the known rotational period of the Earth. However.93447 hours (~ 24 x 360/361).242 solar days.256 solar days in a sidereal year.

**Latitude and Longitude
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I will not say much on this, other than bringing your attention to the illustration, which show longitude lines individually, latitude lines individually, and the combination of the two. This gives us a grid pattern by which unique locations can be associated to the spherical map using a longitude coordinate and a latitude coordinate. The prime N-S longitude meridian (the zero longitude) has been designated as passing thru the old royal observatory in Greenwich England (established 1884). East of Greenwich is positive longitude, and west of Greenwich is negative longitude. North latitude coordinates are positive numbers, south latitude coordinates are negative.

**Maps and Charts
**

The most common chart type is the modern Mercator projection, which is a mathematically modified version of the original cylindrical projection. On this type of chart, for small areas only in the map’s origin, true shapes are preserved, a property known as conformality. Straight line courses plotted on a Mercator map have the property of maintaining the same bearing from true north all along the line, and is known as a rumb line. This is a great aid to navigators, as the course can be a fixed bearing between waypoints. If you look at a globe and stretch a string from point A to point B, the path on the globe is a great circle and it constitutes the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. The unfortunate characteristic of a great circle path is that the bearing relative to north changes along the length of the path, most annoying. On a Mercator map, a great circle course will have the appearance of an arc, and not look like the shortest distance. In fact, a rumb line course mapped onto a sphere will eventually spiral around like a clock spring until it terminates at either the N or S pole, known mathematically as a loxodrome. 12

Chapter Three

Celestial Navigation Concepts

There are three common elements to celestial navigation, whether one is floating in space, or floating on the ocean. They are; 1) knowledge of the positions of heavenly bodies with respect to time, 2) measurement of the time of observation, and 3) angular measurements (altitudes) between heavenly objects and a known reference. The reference can be another heavenly object, or in the case of marine navigation, the horizon. If one only has part of the required 3 elements, then only a partial navigational solution will result. In 3 dimensions, one will need 3 independent measurements to establish a 3-D position fix. Conveniently, the Earth is more or less a sphere, which allows an ingeniously simple technique to be employed. The Earth, being a sphere, means we already know one surface that we must be on. That being the case, all we need are 2 measurements to acquire our fixed position on the surface. Here listed is the Generalized Celestial Navigation Procedure: Estimate the current position Measure altitude angles of identified heavenly bodies Measure time at observation with a chronometer Make corrections to measurements Look up tabulated ephemeris data in the nautical almanac Employ error-reduction techniques Employ a calculation algorithm Map the results, determine the positional fix The 4 basic tools used are the sextant, chronometer, nautical almanac, and calculator (in lieu of pre-calculated tabulated solutions). In this book and in most celestial navigation texts, altitudes (elevation angle above the horizon) of the observed heavenly object s are designated with these variables: Hs = the raw angle measurement reported by the sextant’s scale. Ha = the apparent altitude, when instrument errors and horizon errors are accounted for. Ho = the true observed altitude, correcting Ha for atmospheric refraction and geometric viewing errors (parallax) associated with the heavenly object.

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THE FOUR BASIC CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TOOLS

Sextant, Chronometer (time piece), Nautical Almanac, and a Calculator

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This spotlight. At a given moment anybody anywhere on a particular circle will observe the exact same altitude for the object in question.Geographical Position (GP) The geographical position of a heavenly object is the spot on the Earth’s surface where an observer would see the object directly over head. cast concentric circles on the Earth’s surface about the GP. the GP is always changing. These are also known as circles of constant altitude. in turn. The Sun is sufficiently far away that light from any point on the Sun’s disk will be more or less parallel across the face of the Earth. Since the Earth is spinning on its axis. 15 . For the most part. Not so for the Moon. stars are so far away that their light across the solar system is parallel. You can think of it as where a line connecting the center of the Earth and the center of the heavenly object intersects the Earth’s surface. the zenith point. even for Polaris since it is not exactly on the axis (it is close…) Circles of Position (COP) Every heavenly object seen from the Earth can be thought of as shining a spotlight on the Earth’s surface.

Instead of a spotlight of parallel light. The particular parallax angle correction corresponding to the particular altitude is known as parallax-in-altitude PA. It is a constant number for anyone on a particular circle of constant altitude. it should be apparent that the parallax is a function of the altitude measurement. The particular cone angle is not tabulated. and needs to be accounted for. The maximum parallax possible is when the altitude is equal to zero (moonrise. the center-to-center line direction from the Earth to the heavenly object is what is tabulated. are guilty of. 16 . The reason why parallax matters to us is because in the nautical almanac. and needs to be calculated and added to the observed altitude to make an apples-to-apples comparison to the information in the almanac. From the illustration.Parallax This is a geometrical error that near-by heavenly objects. moonset) and is designated as the horizontal parallax HP. The parallax can be calculated easily. a near-by object casts more of a conical floodlight. if we know how far away the heavenly object is (which we do). namely the Moon. The Moon’s parallax can be almost 1 degree.

This line is necessarily perpendicular to the azimuth direction of the heavenly object. the arc looks like a line.Line of Position (LOP) Circles of Position can have radii thousands of miles across. and in the small vicinity of our estimated location on the map. and so we draw it as a line tangent to the circle of constant altitude. One could be anywhere (within reason) on that line and measure the same altitude to the heavenly object. 17 .

to obtain a reliable fix. The two measurements of time and altitude contain random errors and systematic errors. The random errors in measurement are minimized by taking multiple ‘shots’ of the same object (~3) at approximately one minute intervals. If you are underway and moving between observations. This will produce two different circles of constant altitude. a unique latitude and longitude location. but measurement errors still need to be minimized. which will be discussed later. Stars or planets can be mistakenly identified. This will require a ‘personal correction’. and afternoon. not to mention that you can simply read the wrong numbers from the almanac. he/she may find themselves in the middle of New Jersey instead of the middle of the Atlantic. we will need two heavenly objects to observe. In fact. your consistent mistaken technique. 18 . and is called the error box. It is improbable that the navigator will misidentify the Sun or Moon (one would hope…). We could of course measure the same heavenly object twice. This is assuming you are stationary for both observations. and where they intersect is the fix. Reducing the measurements to 2 LOPs. One can also have calculation errors and misidentification errors. noon. the one true location becomes obvious. Another source of systematic error is your own ‘personal error’. or you are always 1 second slow in the clock reading. the navigational fix. the spot where it crosses the 1st line of position is our pin-point location on the map.Navigational Fix To obtain a ‘fix’. Perhaps you are always reading a smaller angle. then the first observation will require a ‘running fix’ correction. If you’re not. More often than not. Since we know the azimuth directions of the observations. Measurement errors of angle and time put a box of uncertainty around that pinpoint location. and the only way to be on both circles in the same place is to be on one of the two intersections. this is how navigating with the Sun is done while underway with observations in the morning. clocks that have drifted off the true time. but at different times of the day to achieve the same end. providing you stay put. See the illustration of the navigational fix to see the two possibilities with overlapping circles of constant altitude. correction errors. The circles intersect in two places. and averaging the results in the hope that the random errors will have averaged out to zero. Systematic errors (constant value errors that are there all the time) such as a misaligned sextant. the navigator will be using 6 or more heavenly objects in order to minimize errors. or atmospheric optical effects different from ‘normal’ viewing conditions all need to be minimized with proper technique and attention to details. then running fix corrections can be applied here as well. and if the navigator only has 2 heavenly objects and one is a mistake.

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one of which will be collinear with one of the 1st pair. Notice that if the football shape enlarges to infinity. Now. The football shape is merely the circular arc method revolved about an axis to create a 3-D surface. you would create another pair of intersection lines. You need to have a nearby object for the final fix. which intersects the first one along two lines. This is what star cones 1&2 actually are. you could measure the angle between the Sun and a known star. This third SOP intersects one of the two lines at one point. If you used a third star instead of a planet. the only way to be on both cones at the same time is to be on either of those 2 intersection lines. 20 . There will exist a conical surface with the apex in the Sun’s center with the axis of the cone pointing in the star’s direction whereby any observer on that conical surface will measure the exact same angle. with the ends of the football centered on the Sun and the planet (see pg 7). and you will create a football shaped Surface of Position. Make another measurement to a second star. where this one measurement tells you only that you are somewhere on the surface of this imaginary cone. It will not get you a point.Surfaces of Position (SOP) If you were floating in space. That is your position in 3-D. and you get a second cone. Make a third measurement between the Sun and a planet. This is a Surface of Position. the end points locally resemble cones.

5000 years ago it pointed at Thuban and was used by the ancient Egyptians as the Pole Star! The Earth wobbles (precesses) in a cone-like shape just like a spinning top. It is not a physical sphere like the Earth’s surface. the speed of light. The Earth is traveling at a mean orbital velocity of 29. and the two equatorial planes are virtually the same. In our lifetimes. painting the stars. The same effect is true of light.Celestial Sphere The celestial sphere is our star map. For stars. We usually think of the North Pole axis always pointing at Polaris. It is fixed in space while the Earth rotates inside it. It is a construction of convenience. as well as annual aberration. we define the celestial poles to be an extension of Earth’s poles. with the least effect from stars near the ecliptic plane. It just does not spin. However. When you run in the rain. Their very slow movement is called proper motion. We are on the inside of the bubble looking out. the North Star (it’s currently 41’ off from the pole). The celestial sphere has an equatorial plane and poles just like the Earth. This effect can be as great as 20. The stars do have a 3dimensional location in space.77 kilometers/s. Aberration is the optical tilting of a star’s apparent position due to the relative velocity of the earth vs. The ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane at a given reference date. Sun and our solar system planets on the inside of this sphere like a planetarium. their distance is so great that their dim light across the solar system is more or less parallel.5 arcseconds (3600 x arcTan(29. but for the purposes of navigation we mostly need to know only their direction in the sky.792 kilometers/s. cycling once every 25800 years. we can construct a transparent sphere which is like a giant bubble centered over the Earth’s center where the fixed stars are mapped. the direction of the rain seems to tilt forward. and the most effect from stars with the highest elevation from the ecliptic plane. Think of light as a stream of particles like rain (photons) speeding along at 299. the stars are more or less fixed in inertial space. We know the cone angle to be the same as the 23.44 degree tilt angle of the Earth’s axis. but in 10000 years it will point and wiggle about Deneb. With that thought.61 years due to the Moon’s precessing (wobbling) orbital plane tugging on the earth. It wiggles (nutates) around it now. However. or epoch) mapped onto the celestial sphere is where you will also see the constellations of 21 . the Earth’s spin axis does not constantly point in the same direction. the quickest equal to ½ year due to the Sun’s influence. and the slowest (but largest) lasting 18.15 arcminutes.77/299792)). In fact. but even that tilt angle wiggles (nutates) up and down about 0. That is. There are two periods of nutation. the apparent location of a star changes slightly on the star map due to precession and nutation of the Earth’s axis.

Due to precession of the Earth’s axis. Fortunately. a zero point where its celestial prime meridian and celestial equator intersect. that point is now in the zodiacal constellation of Pisces. a reference mean location for the equatorial plane is used. all of these slight variations are accounted for in the tables of the nautical and astronomical almanacs. and therefore got special attention from the ancients. it is referred to as Sidereal Hour Angle (SHA) and declination (DEC) respectively. It is the point of intersection between the mean equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane.the zodiac mapped. That point just happens to be where the Sun is located on the celestial sphere during the spring (vernal) equinox. That point will travel westward to the right towards Aquarius thru the zodiac an average of 50. But this map needs a reference. The prime vertical circle runs from east to zenith to west. and is known as the Point of Aries. Instead of describing the location of a star on the celestial sphere map with longitude and latitude. The local meridian circle runs from north to zenith to south. but we say Aries for nostalgia. Zenith is straight up.3 arcseconds per year due to the 25800 year precession cycle. and declination is a celestial version of latitude. nadir is straight down. These are the constellations that we see planets traverse across in the night sky. Sidereal Hour Angle is a celestial version of west longitude. Since the Earth’s axis wiggles and wobbles. Local Celestial Sphere This is the celestial sphere as referenced by a local observer at the center with the true horizon as the equator. Local celestial sphere for a ground observer 22 .

23 .

SHA and declination relate the position of a star in the star map. The relationship for a star is thus: GHA = GHAAries + SHA = the Greenwich hour angle of a star. and GHAAries relates the star map to the Earth map. and planets move across this map continuously during the year. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole Greenwich Hour Angle of Aries GHAAries (or GHAγ ) The point of Aries is essentially the zero longitude and latitude of the celestial sphere where the stars are mapped. relative to Greenwich zero longitude. the point of Aries. which varies continuously with time because of Earth’s rotation. is the west longitude of that object at a given instant in time relative to the Earth’s prime meridian. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole 24 . but due to the slight eccentricity of Earth’s orbit (mean vs. The declination (celestial latitude) of the star needs no ‘translation’ as it remains the same in the Earth map as in the star map. GHA can refer to any heavenly object that you are using for navigation. true sun) it can vary up to 4 degrees. GHAAries is the position of the zero longitude of the star map. The Sun’s GHA is nominally zero at noon over Greenwich. moon. including the position of the celestial prime meridian.Greenwich Hour Angle GHA The Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) of a heavenly object. The sun.

The Sun’s declination follows nearly a perfect sine wave where over the course of 365. A post-meridian passage (positive LHA.44 degrees.Local Hour Angle LHA The Local Hour Angle (LHA) is the west longitude direction angle of a heavenly object relative to a local observer’s longitude (not Greenwich). or 0<LHA<180) means that it is literally after noon. or LHA = GHA . then LHA = LHACALCULATED . This is a crucial piece of information for the determination of latitude using the Sun. The stars do not. At exact local noon.44 degrees. the declination of an object is the celestial version of latitude measured on the celestial sphere star-map. the sun and planets change their declinations on the celestial sphere continuously during the year.44 degrees and southwards –23.West Longitude Observer If the calculated value of LHA > 360.360 Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole When we are speaking of the Sun.24 days it varies northwards 23. 25 . LHA = 0 Declination DEC As stated earlier. Due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of 23. a premeridian passage (negative LHA or 180<LHA < 360) means that it is still morning. This leads to the relationship: LHA = GHA + East Longitude Observer.

Solar declination as seen by an observer on the ground varying seasonally Sign Convention We should digress momentarily to establish the proper signs for numbers. or 180 <LHA < 360 For observed altitude. During the equinoxes. and the spring and fall equinox (“equal night”) having equal day and night times corresponding to zero solar declination. and negative eastwards (pre meridian passage) -180 <LHA < 0. in an equation A·B means A multiplied by B. there are 6 more hours of daylight in the summer as compared to the winter. above the horizon is positive (+) Also if you are not aware. 26 . maximum declination occurs with the summer solstice which has the longest hours of daily sun. it is a positive number between 0 and 360 degrees westward For LHA.As one can see. the minimum declination with the winter solstice having the shortest hours of sun. Ho. it is positive westwards (post meridian passage) 0 <LHA < 180. which make the mathematics consistent and unambiguous. For Declination: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Latitude: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Longitude: East is positive (+) West is negative (-) For GHA. the sun will rise directly from the east and set directly in the west. At 40 degrees latitude.

the latitude on the equator is zero. 27 . For a star that passes right overhead at the zenith. Such a star can be the Sun. it would have an altitude of approximately 90 degrees of angle. To see why this is not really a coincidence. Now Polaris is not exactly on the north celestial pole. That makes for good emergency navigation. The Latitude is then 90 + DEC . The altitude relative to the horizon would be approximately zero. the North Star. We can generalize the matter by taking into account the declination of any particular star. we can wait until the Sun is at its meridian passage (local apparent noon LAN) to make an altitude measurement Ho. Relative to the horizon. and if we know the declination for every hour of the year. at the zenith point. Our latitude at the North Pole coincidentally is also 90 degrees. as shown in the illustration. If we were sitting on Earth’s north pole (avoiding polar bears). the star’s declination is equal to your latitude. see the illustration to understand the geometry involved. Also note that the declination of Polaris in the celestial sphere is about 90 degrees. Coincidentally.Concepts in Latitude The simplest example to illustrate how latitude is determined is to consider Polaris. If now instead we were sweating somewhere on the equator on a hill in Ecuador at night.Ho. we would see Polaris just on the northern horizon. we would observe that Polaris would be directly overhead. We could say generally that the observed altitude of Polaris is equal to the latitude of the observer (actually small corrections need to be made since Polaris is slightly off center from the pole). but close enough for our intuition to work here.

It is a little off due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. local noon). or 180 degrees(0. It rotates once in 24 hours with respect to the position of the mean Sun in the sky. One nautical mile is equal to 1. To determine distance. The difference in angle between the observer and Greenwich. UT is based on the time in Greenwich. say ¼ revolutions per minute (RPM). one minute of arc (1/60 degree) corresponds to one nautical mile (n mi) of distance. In mid latitudes. that’s 3 hours past noon in Greenwich. and observes the time to be 15:00 UT. is 15 deg/hour x 3 hours = 45 degrees of longitude in the westward direction. zero longitude. Pendulum clocks were not suitable for the motion of ships.15 statute miles. The Earth’s circumference is then equal to 21600 n mi (1nm per arcmin x 60 arcmin per deg x 360 deg per full circle). with its ‘grasshopper’ escapement and twin balance-arm oscillator.Concepts in Longitude If we think of a car traveling at 60 mph. If a person on the Earth observes the Sun passing across the local N-S meridian line (in other words. so the observer can determine the difference in angle (longitude) with respect to the prime meridian (zero longitude). in 2 minutes it should have rotated ½ revolution(0. and a clock. It is no coincidence that along a great arc on the Earth (such as the equator). The upshot of all this explanation is that to know longitude. That’s 360 degrees in 24 hours. 28 . You get the general picture. it is the same. What a contraption! But. The maximum surface speed of rotation for Sun observations will occur along the equator at 15 n mi per minute of time (21600 n mi per day/(24hr per day x 60 min per hr)). This is also equivalent to ¼ n mi per second of time. a time error of 60 seconds will put the longitude off by 10 n mi. If we know the rotational speed. You will recall. This is why the chronometer needs to be synchronized with Greenwich time.25 · 2 · 360 degrees per rev). all we needed was knowledge of the speed. in 2 hours it will have traveled 120 miles (60 · 2). This idea was noted as early as 1530 by the Flemish professor Gemma Frisius. it was the start of marine chronometers that could take the rocking and rolling of a ship and not lose a beat. For a rotating object. It is easy to see now how a time error (either the clock is off or the time is read wrong) can put the longitude determination way off. Now let’s think of the Earth. and it was John Harrison in 1735 that made the first semi portable clock.25 · 2). but actually the true position of the Sun does not correspond with clock time as we have already described earlier. one then needs to have a clock set to the time in Greenwich England. or 15 degrees per hour (360/24). and we have a stopwatch.

The technique is to predict approximate local apparent noon (LAN) for your estimated longitude from dead reckoning navigation. If you don’t know which pole you’re on then you should have stayed home. and it will all come out fine. determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . by introducing a new variable Signnoon. the local hour angle LHA is zero. Remember the sign convention and apply it. In keeping with the consistent sign convention. and so. and with a sighting every minute. and plot this information as true altitude versus time. whether the sun peaked in the south or in the north. From the plot you can smooth the curve and determine the highest point (Honoon) and estimate the time of LAN to within several minutes or better of Universal Time (~10-20 n miles of longitude error). then subtract 180 from it. obtain the GHA and declination of the Sun (DEC) at the time of LAN. as the azimuth is unambiguously known as either due south or due north. Just follow the sign convention. If Signnoon · Honoon + DEC is equal to zero. the trigonometry disappears and reduces down to mere arithmetic. in or out of the tropics. Using the nautical almanac. The method has certain steps to maintain accuracy. the value of Signnoon is +1. It will be off considerably anyway due to the plotting estimates.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 Remember. latitudes. Thus: Latitude = Signnoon · Honoon + DEC + 90 If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. We will now make a distinction regarding the direction of meridian passage. 29 . when the meridian passage is northwards such as commonly occurs in S. Take sightings with your sextant several minutes before LAN. the value of Signnoon is -1. This equation works whether you are in the northern or southern hemispheres. You make corrections to obtain the true altitudes. latitudes. capture the highest point in the sky that the Sun traveled plus some sightings after meridian passage. if your chronometer is inaccurate then the longitude will be off considerably since you are in essence comparing the local time with time in Greenwich.Traditional Noon Sighting The noon sighting is an old way of determining latitude and (with misgivings) longitude. Here. When the meridian passage is southwards such as commonly occurs in N. For longitude. then you are exactly on either the north or south pole.

Time of LAN = (Time #1 + Time #2) *0. record this as your measurement #2. and observe the sun. then the difference between them is 21 min and 12 sec. The moment the altitude matches the pre-positioned setting. 15 minutes before LAN. record the time (UTC).GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 If for example T#1 = 19:27:31. Signnoon = +1. so add that to T#1 and you get 19:37:67 which is 19:38:07 as LAN (67 seconds = 1 min+7 sec). 30 . Noon will be at the average between time measurements #1 and #3. Half that is 0:10:36 difference.3-Measurement Noon Sighting: Double Altitudes There is an antiquated technique to determine latitude and longitude with a noon sighting using 3 measurements. and a northerly passage = -1. determine the sun’s declination DEC. the local hour angle LHA is zero. For southwards meridian passage. Record this as your measurement #1. Then keep track of the sun with the sextant and when it reaches the maximum altitude.5 For longitude. you can shoot the sun for a reference point of altitude and time. Finally. and T#3 = 19:48:43. and so determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . Latitude = Signnoon · Ho#2 + DEC + 90 (remember the sign for DEC) If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. set the sextant to the altitude setting that you had in measurement #1. From the almanac. then subtract 180 from it. The latitude will be derived from measurement #2.

with the law of sines and the law of cosines (spherical trigonometry) being the most relevant to navigation. ArcSin or arcCos is the inverse function.Plane Trigonometry The simplest notion of ‘trig’ is the relationship of the sides and angles in a triangle. The angles between the intersecting planes are the same as the surface angles on the surface of the sphere. Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C) Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles by using the useful identies: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A) 31 . b. All you have to know are these three basic relationships: sine (α) = Lo / R shorthand is sin(α) cosine (α) = La / R shorthand is cos(α) tangent (α) = Lo / La shorthand is tan(α) The values of these trigonometric functions can be expressed as an infinite series. or InvSIN. and three surface angles A. B. On your calculator it might be ASIN. Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚. c. Every intersecting pair of Great Circles is the same as having two intersecting planes. Relationships between the corner angles and surface angles have been worked out over the centuries. which your calculator will approximate by truncating the series after evaluating only a few terms.α) Spherical Trigonometry Three Great Circles on a sphere will intersect to form three inner corner angles a. C.α) cos(α) = sin(90˚.

so 90-(90-H) = H .The Navigational Triangle The navigational triangle applies spherical trigonometry. As can be seen in the drawing the “coangles” are 90˚ – the inner corner angle: Co-altitude = 90˚ – H Co-declination = 90˚ – DEC Co-latitude = 90˚ . 32 . and the surface angles are related to azimuth and LHA angles. we need only concern ourselves with the one picture. The inner corner angles corresponding to the arc sides are modifications of the altitude. If you substitute a co-altitude (like 90-H) into the co-altitude formula (90-a). a = 90-H.LAT Most authorities will examine 4 cases concerning North or South declination and latitude. in that the inner corner angles a. The modified law of cosines formula for co-altitudes becomes: sin(H) = sin(Lat) · sin(DEC) + cos(Lat) · cos(DEC) · cos(LHA). c are related to altitude. latitude and declinations. latitude. But if a consistent sign convention is used. b. and declination angles.

how fast you were going. The math becomes direct and unambiguous when done in this manner. then Z = 180 – Zo True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. latitudes. You must be talking about the same instant in time for a correct comparison. DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. 33 . or INVSIN. the law of cosines gives us this relationship for the calculated altitude Hc: Hc = arcSin[ Sin(LatA) · Sin(DEC) + Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] Where LatA is the assumed latitude. or 180<LHA < 360). ACOS. You will eventually compare this calculated altitude to a measured altitude. latitudes. INVCOS.Chapter Four Calculations for Line of Position The calculated altitude is a way of predicting the altitude of a heavenly object by first assuming a latitude and longitude for a hypothetical observer and working out the problem backwards. then subtract 360 from the calculated LHA. Zn = 360 – Zo Post meridian check can also be established if: Sin(LHA) > 0 Remember. arcSin or arcCos on your calculator could also be designated as ASIN. LonA is the assumed longitude and the calculated local hour angle LHA = GHA + LonA If LHA is greater than 360. This is important to extract the proper values of GHA and declination from the nautical almanac. The uncorrected azimuth angle Zo of a heavenly object can also be calculated as thus: Zo = arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(LatA) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(Hc)}] Corrected azimuth angle Z (not used in any of the equations here) If N. Dead reckoning is the method of advancing from a last known position by knowing the direction you headed in. Remembering to use the sign convention. and so the calculated altitude must correspond to the same time as the measured altitude. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180). then Z = Zo If S. The obvious choice of assumed latitude and longitude is the estimated position by dead reckoning. and how long you went.

The true line of position will be offset from this line either towards the sun or away from it after comparing it to the actual observed altitude Ho (the raw sextant measurement is Hs. you have created one circle of constant altitude about the geographical position. S-N) rules do not apply here. we only have two cases to examine to obtain the true azimuth angle. knowing that the actual circle of constant altitude is concentric to the calculated one. This is your assumed line of position. you may want to assume a different longitude and latitude to minimize errors. Line of Position by the Marcq Saint-Hilaire Intercept Method This clever technique determines the true line of position from an assumed line of position and is the basis of modern sight reduction. From an assumed position of latitude and longitude. you are further away. altitudes Ho and Hc in decimal degrees. You look up the GHA and declination of the Sun in the nautical almanac corresponding to the time of your altitude measurement. Classical same name (N-N.Hc). 34 . or DOFFSET = (Ho . On your map. then parallel offset your assumed line of position in the azimuth direction towards the heavenly object. you calculate the altitude and azimuth of the Sun according to the preceding section and arrive at Hc and Zn. The offset distance DOFFSET to determine the true line of position is equal to: DOFFSET = 60 · (Ho . The difference in observed altitude and calculated altitude informs you how much smaller or larger the actual circle is. By calculating an altitude. Let’s say you measured the altitude of the Sun at a given moment in time. You could also simply remember that a higher observed altitude means you are closer to the geographical position GP. angled perpendicular to the azimuth angle. altitudes in minutes of arc.By using the sign convention.Hc). All texts on celestial that I know of will list 4 cases due to the inconsistently applied signs on declination and latitude. you draw a line thru the pin-point assumed latitude and longitude. Offsetting along the radial azimuth line. then draw it away from the heavenly object. If negative. DOFFSET is in nautical miles for both cases. the true circle will cross the azimuth line at the intercept point. If DOFFSET is positive. and needs all the appropriate corrections applied to make it an ‘observed altitude’). If not. If the offset is greater than 25 nautical miles. S-S) or opposite name (N-S.

35 .

1 and – 0. This method turns into an E-W LOP when near the meridian passage. which will give us longitude.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): LonC = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . there is a circle surrounding the geographical position of the heavenly object where all observed altitudes have the same value Ho. we draw a small arc in the vicinity of our dead reckoning position. Now input a slightly different latitude. the GHA and declination for the time of observation. Mark longitude and latitude on the map.1 degree. In the arcCos function. The procedure is to input an assumed latitude. connect the dots and you have a Sumner Line. just like a noon shot. just two calculations with the same equation having slightly differing latitude arguments. The two values for assumed latitude could be the dead reckoning latitude LatDR + 0. We could practically draw the entire circle on the map. Check both just to make sure. the answer can be the angle A or the angle -A. since at the map scale that interest us.Line of Position by the Sumner Line Method If we measure the altitude of a heavenly object and make all the proper corrections. the fact that only the assumed latitude is required means no estimated position of the longitude is needed at all. All we need do is to rearrange the equation of calculated altitude. this reduces to the observed altitude Ho. Also. to make it the observed altitude instead and to solve the equation for LHA. a straight line will do just fine. LonC is the calculated longitude DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. an east and west solution. there are 2 solutions for longitude. There is no azimuth calculation. but why bother? What if instead. As we should know by now. The advantage to this method is that the LOP comes out directly without offsets. Mark the map. 36 . In fact. These are two points on the circle in the vicinity of your dead reckoning position. and out pops a longitude. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): LonC = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . why an arc at all.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Where LatA is the assumed latitude. Or were they? Was the answer for longitude unreasonably off? Notice that for every latitude line that crosses the circle. and out pops a slightly different longitude.

37 .

Lon1. Capt.C. The longitude was 15’ east of his dead reckoning position. He kept close to the wind tacking back and forth until daylight. Coincidentally his course was on that line as well. and he continued to sail ENE. At that point the wind backed from the south to the south east making the coast a lee shore. he noticed the 2nd position was 27 miles ENE of the 1st position He did this a 3rd time with another 10’ more northerly latitude assumption and calculated a 3rd longitude: Lon3 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . he knew he was somewhere on that line. I recount here his discovery. and was bound for Greenock. and so where he might not know exactly where he was. This line just happened to cross Smalls Light as well. he was unsure of his dead reckoning latitude. Thomas H. 1837. He then assumed a second latitude (Lat2) 10’ north of his dead reckoning towards the coast: Lon2 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . he had no observations due to thick weather until he came close to land. 38 . At about 10 am local time he was able to make a sun shot observation. an American ship-master. he noticed that all three of the points were on a line. but going so long since the last observation. After passing 21 deg west longitude. A longitude (Lon1) with his uncertain latitude (Lat1) was calculated: Lon1 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . Ireland.History of the Sumner Line The Sumner line of position takes its name from Capt. within an hour he saw Smalls Light and made his landfall.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat1)}/{Cos(Lat1) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Declination and GHA of the sun was from the almanac and the time mark from the sun shot. who discovered the technique serendipitously and published it.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat2)}/{Cos(Lat2) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Marking the chart with the location Lat1. Lon2. Sumner rightfully concluded that all three points saw the same observed altitude of the Sun. and then kept on a course of ENE. Sumner sailed from Charleston S. Lon3). Sumner. on November 25th. and then with Lat2. Thus the Sumner Line method was discovered accidently by practice. paraphrased from his book: Capt. He was within 40 miles of the Tuskar lighthouse off the coast of Ireland by dead reckoning with the weather getting worse at around midnight December 17th.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat3)}/{Cos(Lat3) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA After plotting this third point on the chart (Lat3.

This allows for a ‘shake-free’ view. In order to determine the altitude of the Sun. as the horizon and Sun move together in the combined image. The straight-thru view is accomplished with the second mirror (horizon mirror).Chapter 5 Measuring Altitude with the Sextant The sextant is a wonderfully clever precision optical instrument for which we can thank Sir Issac Newton for the design. When it is at its lowest point. The horizon however. With a whole horizon mirror. you will see a whole image of the sun in the pupil that you can move to the right or left by rocking the sextant side to side. This makes the easy shots easier. Now turn the precision index drum (knob) until the lower limb of the Sun just kisses the horizon. you change the angle of the first mirror (index mirror) with the index arm until the Sun is close to the horizon in the pupil image. It does this by partial silvering of the entire horizon mirror like some sunglasses are. In order not to burn your eye out (that would be stupid…). It reflects the image of the Sun (or anything. which is really a half mirror. 39 . really) twice with two flat mirrors in order to combine it with a straight-thru view. curiously. will only be on the left side of the image. both horizon and Sun will be in the entire view. silvered on the right and clear on the left. Even with the traditional mirror. You see the horizon unchanged on the left. you are correctly holding the sextant and can take a reading. allowing you to see the horizon and heavenly object simultaneously in the same pupil image. there are filters (shades) that can be rotated over the image path of the index mirror. and the twice-reflected sun on the right if you use a ‘traditional’ mirror as opposed to a ‘whole horizon’ mirror. Rock it back and forth to make sure you have the lowest reading. there are other filters that cover the horizon mirror to remove the glare and increase the contrast between horizon and sky. The glass surface itself is reflective. reflecting some light and transmitting the rest. but the more difficult shots with poor illumination or star shots more difficult. Likewise.

40 .

Mirror Alignments Even an expensive precision instrument will give you large errors (although consistent systematic error) unless it is adjusted and calibrated. The next alignment is Side Error Alignment of the horizon mirror. but the sextant’s manufacturer may not have necessarily redesigned the mirror-holding mount. The first check is to see if the index mirror is perpendicular to the sextant’s arc. This positions the index mirror reflecting surface 2 to 3 mm or so in front of the pivot axis. This is corrected with adjustments to the set screw that is perpendicularly away from the plane of the arc on the horizon mirror. There are precision-machined cylinders about an inch high that you can place on the arc and view their reflections. Before any round of measurements are taken. Since most mirrors are secondary surface mirrors (the silvering is on the back of the glass). as it only works if the mirrored surface is exactly along the pivot axis of the index arm. Known as Perpendicularity Alignment. The reflected arc in the index mirror should be in line with the actual arc. What you will see is two points of light. The horizontal separation is the side error. at sea in the daytime. 41 . Adjust the drum knob to negate the index error effect until the star and its reflection are vertically line-to-line but still separated horizontally. then turn the set screw behind the index mirror to bring it into perpendicular alignment. First. This can be tricky. You will see the horizon on the left and the reflected horizon on the right. First surface mirrors (the silvering is on the front of the glass) seem to be an upgrade. point the sextant at the horizon. you need to compare the position of the rear of the glass to the pivot axis first to see if this technique will work. The reflections should be parallel to the actual cylinders. Make adjustments to the side-error set screw until the points of light converge to a single image point. In that case. Same procedure as before except that you need not roll the sextant. Second method is to wait until nighttime. Now roll (tilt) the sextant side to side. then side error exists. I mean a star). where a point source that is nearly infinitely far away presents itself (yes. This can be done two ways after setting the arc to the zero angle point such that you see the same object on the left and right in the pupil image. and the vertical separation is the index error. If not. Is the horizon and reflected image still line-to-line? If not. Adjust the index drum until they are in perfect alignment while holding the sextant upright. it is checked in a round-about manner by finding the image of the arc in the index mirror when viewed externally at a low angle. the reflected image of the arc should be slightly below the viewed actual arc. you should get into the habit of calibrating and if necessary adjusting the mirrors to minimize the errors. Set the arc to about 45 degrees.

IE).You could stop here at this point. You will notice that the star image now has two points separated vertically. their contrails. for the Index Error Alignment. set the arc to zero (index arm and drum to the zero angle position). but it slightly affects the horizontal separation as well. In which case. If you have dark enough horizon shades. Now you need to play around with both set screws until you zero-in the two images simultaneously. Maybe… Note: I have also used high altitude jet aircraft. Making a little hand lanyard for the wrench will preserve it. and even cloud edges to adjust the mirrors (low accuracy…). Adjusting the remaining set screw on the horizon mirror (which is near the top of the mirror). reading the drum to determine the index error IE (Note: index correction IC = . A word of caution: the little wrench used to adjust the set screws maybe very difficult to replace if you should drop it overboard. you can eliminate the vertical separation. With a little practice these procedures will be easy and routine. you can even use the sun’s disk to adjust the mirrors. Or you could continue to zero out the index error as well with a last series of adjustments. Unfortunately this last set screw does not only change the vertical separation. 42 .

letting her set Often it is easier to set the sextant ‘ahead’ of where the heavenly object is going. keep the sun on the right hand side of the mirror using the darkest shade over the index mirror. Careful with the sun. Then keeping it in view. Depending on the phase of the moon. the best technique is to first set the index arm to zero degrees and sight the object by pointing straight at it.Sighting Techniques Bringing the object down Finding the horizon is much easier than finding the correct heavenly object in the finder scope. Upper limb. So. That way you can be rocking the sextant to get the true angle without also fiddling with the index drum. Rocking for the lowest position Rocking the sextant from side to side will help you determine when the sextant is being pointed in the right direction and held proper. This leaves a hand free. lower limb With an object such as the Sun or Moon. the lower limb is generally used. ‘lower’ it down to the horizon by increasing the angle on the index arm until the horizon is in sight. This will give the true sextant altitude Hs. the lower limb or upper limb. you just have to glance to the side a little to see the time. Unless the Sun is partially obscured by clouds. and to simply let her rise or set as the case may be to the horizon. either lower limb or upper limb is used. you can choose which limb to use. sort of. 43 . At that point you mark the time. as you don’t want to see it unfiltered thru the horizon glass. as the object will find its lowest point. to hold the chronometer such that at the time of mark. Letting her rise.

A clock could be mechanical. fixed the design of sextants and octants for the next 150 years. By 1780.5 arcminute per minute of time). and rotated a shadow vane on an arc until the shadow edge lined up on the forward peep hole. described in 1342. The navigator would line up the horizon opposite the sun azimuth with a pair of peep holes. In the 1600’s a French soldier-mathematician by the name of Vernier invented the vernier scale. Tables to do this were first published in 1764. He worked on it for 40 years (until he produced the alarm-clock size H4)! The Hadley Octant in 1731 was the first to use the double reflecting principle as described by Isaac Newton a century before. A perpendicular sliding cross piece over a straight frame allowed one to line up two objects and determine the angle. It could measure across 90 degrees of arc. The Davis backstaff in 1594 was an ingenious device where sun shots were taken with your back to the sun. and so was a contemporary of the octant. an expression still used today. and those who practice it are Lunarians. Also one had to look into the blinding sun. The search for determining longitude created bizarre proposals. or astronomical. Undoubtedly if you used this method too often you would have been branded a Lunatic. and shades glasses. vernier scales. Therefore its arc distance to another star could be used as a sort of astronomical clock.Brief History of Marine Navigational Instruments The earliest instrument was the astrolabe. It was a mechanical rotating slide rule with a pointer to determine the altitude of stars against a protractor. whereby one could easily interpolate between degree scales to a 1/10 or 1/20 between the engraved lines on the protractor scale. The calculations and corrections are indeed frightening. but it was recognized that determining the time was the answer. refinements such as tangential screws. This limited one to only sun shots to determine latitude. The first real ancestor to the modern sextant was the cross staff. The Moon is about ½ degree of arc across its face. even though it was only physically 45 degrees arc. and moves across the celestial sphere at the rate of about one lunar diameter every hour (~0. Contemporary was a very simple instrument. and so one needed an accurate clock. 44 . an 1/8 of a circle. and this method of determining time to within several minutes of Greenwich Mean Time is called doing Lunars. having some wood elements and weighing 125 lbs. Fortunately in 1735 John Harrison invented the first marine chronometer. the quadrant. Since a cross staff looked like a crossbow. constructed in the Middle East during the 9th century AD. using the sun’s shadow over a vane to cast a sharp edge (so the navigator wouldn’t go blind!). Of course one had to look at both objects simultaneously by dithering the eyeball back and forth – a bit of a problem. It was a quarter of a circle protractor with a plumb-bob and a pair of peep sights to line up with Polaris. one was said to be ‘shooting the sun’. The sextant with it’s ability to record angles of 120 degrees came about for use in doing lunars.

Kamal 45 . Back Staff. Astrolabes. Quadrant. Cross Staff.VARIOUS ANTIQUE INSTRUMENTS Octants.

46 . The Hs in the figure does not account for the index error. Your zero point on the scale could be off. The other major corrections are parallax. semidiameter.Chapter 6 Corrections to Measurements There are numerous corrections to be made with the as-measured altitude Hs that you read off of the sextant’s arc degree scale and arc minute drum and vernier. refraction. IC = -3. Lunar parallax can be at most a degree. listed from the largest effect to the smallest. semi-diameter ¼ degree. This is known as index error. and the correction is IC. IC. For our example of the bathroom scale. and dip. refraction and dip are on the order of 1/20th degree. the same as the bathroom scale when you notice that it says you weigh 3 lbs even before you get on it.

The corrections vary for different seasons. Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Ha is the altitude without corrections for refraction. These corrections are tabulated on the 1st page of the nautical almanac based on the apparent altitude Ha.1. There are special lunar correction tables at the end of the almanac.The sextant basically has an index correction IC and an instrument correction I. Generally it’s negligible.758 · SquareRoot(heye) Where heye is the eye height above the water. The variable name for all of these combined altitude error corrections. Distance to visible horizon as a function of eye height above the water: Altitude Corrections Let us first define the apparent altitude. solar or otherwise. This is also tabulated in the nautical almanac. Index error is due to the angular misalignment of the index mirror. meters. the angle of the Sun’s visual radius (semi-diameter) must be accounted for. with respect to the zero point on the scale.0. and positive when “off the scale”. The table also lists slight deviations from the nominal for listed planets. semi-diameter. The correction IC is negative when the zero is “on the scale”. is Corr ALT. sometimes called the ‘Main Correction’. and should be listed on a calibration sheet from the manufacturer. dipping below the true horizon due to your eye height above it. The instrument error is due to manufacturing inaccuracies and distortions. lunar. Dip Correction Dip is the angle of the visual horizon. The true observed altitude is a matter of adding up all the corrections: Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 47 . and whether you are using the lower or upper limb of the Sun for your observations. The atmosphere bends (refracts) light in a predictable way. or parallax. parallax and refraction. Corr DIP is always negative. one can see if the zero is on or off the scale. which include the effects of lunar semi-diameter. By adjusting the drum knob as described on pages 39 and 40 to negate the optical index error. An approximate equation for dip correction that incorporates a standard horizon refraction is thus: Corr DIP = .0293 · SquareRoot(heye) Decimal Degrees arc minutes Corr DIP = . Since measurements are made to the edge (limb) and not the center of the Sun.

5' -2' -2.5' 24 +14' -18' -2' 31 +14.5' -18. Altitude correction for sun and stars ALT Corr Sun Sun Ha.5' 17 +13' -19' -3' 20 +13.5' -16.5' -3.9m 3.5' -3' -3. averaged values For simplified corrections.5' -17. deg LL UL Stars 10 +11' -21' -5' 13 +12' -20' -4' 15 +12.1m 6.5' 41 +15' -17' -1' 59 +15. use these tables instead of the Nautical Almanac. for when land is used as horizon 48 .5' -4' -4.9m 5.5' -2.Tables of Altitude and Dip Correction.0m 2.3m 2.5' -0.7m 1.5' -1.5' DIP Graph of Dip Correction.4m Corr -1.5' -19.5' 85 +16' -16' 0 Dip Correction Height 0.

This is a small term. To determine the parallax-in-altitude PA. So is the semi-diameter daily average of the Moon. but this is rarely included as being so small a value.0024 degrees.28 · Pressuremb / (TemperatureDEG C + 273) The final refraction correction R is thus: R = Ro · f This number is always negative. Use the largest number at zero altitude to = HPVenus. This standard refraction correction Ro is thus: Ro = . Start with the apparent altitude Ha: Ha = Hs +IC + Corr DIP (assume instrument correction I ~ 0) The horizontal parallax for the Moon is given in the nautical almanac tables as the variable HP in minutes of arc. Atmospheric refraction is standardized to surface conditions of 10 deg C and 1010mb pressure. and you must convert it to decimal degrees. but you can calculate one based on the hourly value of HP: The semi-diameter of the Moon: SD = 0. and you must convert it to decimal degrees.4)] degrees The correction for non-standard atmospheric conditions is referred to as f: f = 0.5) The terms in the parenthesis are “augmentation”. use this equation: PA = HP · Cos(Ha) · (1 –(Sin2(Lat))/298. and refinements can be employed for non-standard conditions.Refinements Corrections for observations can be calculated instead of using tables.2724 · HP · (1 + Sin(Ha)/60.31/(Ha+4.0. meaning the observer is a very little closer to the moon with greater altitude angle. HP for the Sun = 0. If the lower limb were observed. then signlimb = +1 If the upper limb were observed.0167 / Tan[Ha + 7. For Venus.25) includes earth oblateness The semi-diameter of the Sun SD is given at the bottom of the page of the tables in the nautical almanac in minutes of arc. then signlimb = -1 Observed altitude with refinements: Ho = Ha + R + PA + SD · signlimb Here we see that the altitude correction Corr ALT = R + PA + SD · signlimb Note: Convert arcminutes to decimal degrees for consistent calculations 49 . listed as ‘Additional Corrn ’. the HP is hidden in the altitude correction tables.

then add the refraction correction: Ha = (Hs + IC)/2 Ho = Ha + R no dip correction no semi-diameter correction The wind is very bothersome. Protective wind guards around the pan work somewhat. as it will ripple the water’s surface and therefore the reflected image. With the micrometer drum bring both images together (no semi-diameter corrections either) and take your reading. you can let the sun touch limb-to-limb. measure the time. and ADD a semidiameter (LL): Ho = Ha + R + SD 50 . The ripples dampen out almost immediately. Move the index arm until you bring the real Sun into the pupil image with the index mirror.SD If post meridian (afternoon).Artificial horizon A fun way of practicing sighting the Sun while on land is to use an artificial horizon. Correct the reading by taking the apparent altitude Ha and divide by two. This is simply a pan of water or old motor oil that you place down on the ground in view of the Sun. In essence you point the sextant to the pan of liquid where you see the reflection of the Sun. and SUBTRACT a semidiameter (UL): Ho = Ha + R . measure the time. What works best is mineral oil in a protected pan set up on a tripod so that you can get right up to it. If pre meridian (morning) then let the bottom image rise onto the reflected image. To be very accurate. let the top image set onto the reflected image. but generally you may have to wait minutes for a perfect calm. This gives a reading nearly twice the real altitude. Undoubtedly you will need to position extra filters over the horizon mirror to darken the Sun’s image. it can be used as a reflecting plane. Since the liquid will be perfectly parallel with the true horizon (no dip corrections here). as normally you would be looking at a horizon.

The interpolation tables (‘increments and corrections’) are based on nominal rates of change of GHA for the motions of the Sun and planets. then the sign is positive. Interpolation tables. GHA. This way. Every left hand page in the almanac is similar to all other left hand pages. Take the hourly data in the tables. Moon. you can express the event time in UT with the following equation: EventTimeLOCAL = LMT – Longitude/15. East +. If the tabulated hourly data for declination is advancing northwards (less southwards). the value of d (with our sign convention) may be positive or negative. Our sign convention imposes that a south declination is negative. Venus. sunset. These are hourly variances. West -. and a north declination is positive. The v and d correction is interpolated only for every minute. so d is the direct hourly rate of change of declination. Similarly for declination. For GHA. with variances to the rates compensated with the v and d values. Hours UT at your longitude. Remember the sign convention. and the same for all right hand pages. and finally add the interpolated v correction. The v number refers to variances in the nominal GHA rate. The data is tabulated for each hour on the dot for every day of the year. For your particular locality. the interpolation tables will tabulate increments (Corr GHA) down to the second of each minute. and you must interpolate for the minutes and seconds between hours. Jupiter. v and d corrections Probably the most confusing part of the tables is interpolation for times between hourly-tabulated data. but have a positive d if declination is becoming less southwards. We could have a negative declination (south).Chapter 7 Reading the Nautical Almanac The nautical almanac has detailed explanations in the back regarding how to read the tabular data and how to use the interpolation tables (increments and corrections). and Aries. we could have a positive declination (north) but a negative d if the declination is 51 . and their applicable fraction (the correction Corr V and Corr d) is given in the interpolation tables for the minute of the hour. take the tabulated hourly value Dec and add the interpolated d correction. A word of caution. add the interpolated increment for the minutes and seconds. It also provides the Local Mean Time (LMT) for the events of sunrise. There is no nominal rate for changes in declination. and how to properly apply the mysterious v and d corrections. and moonset at the prime meridian. Saturn and 57 selected stars. The left page contains tabular data of GHA and declination for Aries (declination = 0). Along the same line. Mars. moonrise. Three days of data are presented for every left and right hand page pairs. The right page has similar data for the Sun and Moon. only one set of interpolation tables is required.

instead of using the ‘increments and corrections’ table (it’s actually very easy) we can interpolate for ourselves in the following manner. convert the angles to decimal degrees and make sure the sign convention was applied consistently to the declination value.tecepe. Note the hourly variance v and declination rate d in arcminutes per hour. Since we like to use our calculators. We convert it to decimal degrees and call it GHAhour. the correct interpolated value for our specific time of observation is thus: GHA = GHAhour + {Rate + (v/60)} · ∆t decimal degrees Where Rate = 15. M minutes.04107 (degrees/hour) for Aries In a similar line. Note: In the nautical almanac. Unfortunately the almanac has no sign for d so you must devine the correct sign by looking at the progression of DEC. declination is interpolated thus: DEC = DEC hour + (d/60) · ∆t (DEC hour and d with the proper sign) Note. The n is actually a variable name for any of the parameters that require ‘correction’. liberal use is made of the correction factor Corrn.heading south (less northwards). Corr ALT. We do the same for the declination and call it DEC hour. It seems to appear everywhere and applied to everything. Lets say we shot an observation at Universal Time H hours. Visit an on-line Nautical Almanac at: http://www. Corr V. and S seconds (H:M:S). Notably.isa 52 . v/60 and d/60 converts arcminutes per hour to degrees per hour.00000 (degrees/hour) for Sun or planets Rate = 14. and second are thus: GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEC hour + Corr d Where GHAhour and DEC hour are the table values in the almanac for the hour.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.com. which are the minutes and seconds in decimal form: ∆t = (M/60) + (S/3600). Carry out all calculations to 4 decimal places. cut once).31667 (degrees/hour) for Moon Rate = 15. minute. Now. and make sure the sign convention was applied correctly (carpenter’s rule: measure twice. We can also define the hour fraction. and Corr d. The final values at the particular hour. The nautical almanac tables for the particular day gave us a GHA in degrees and arcminutes at the UT hour. Corr GHA. Corr DIP. ∆t. After all the interpolations and corrections are performed.

53 .

54 .

The following page is an example of a sight-reduction form using the “calculator method” instead of the typical HO 229. Dreisonstok's Hydrographic Office method H. This is the basis of the slide rule (does anybody remember those??). History Trigonometric tables were first published by Regiomontanus in the mid 1400's.Chapter 8 Sight Reduction The process of taking the raw observational data and turning the information into a Line Of Position (LOP) is called sight reduction. 211 (1931).O. No whole number assumptions are required. Sight reduction was greatly simplified early in the 1900’s by the coming of the various short-method tables . The altitude-difference method of determining a line of position introduced the age of improved navigation. Even though the equations and methods have been described all throughout the book. and haversine ( ½ [1-cos] ). H. But the Sumner line method may be considered equally easy. 249 were published.O.O. This ‘Marcq Saint-Hilaire’ method remains the basis of almost all celestial navigation used today. and 2 for the Sumner line method. H. 2 computations for the Saint-Hilaire method. Almost all calculations were eliminated when the inspection tables. 229 and H. 249 tabular methods. 249 developed in the mid 1940’s and early 1950’s remain the principle tabular method used today. which allowed multiplication to be treated as addition problems. 214 (1936). 229. and natural haversine tables.O. described in 1875 by Commander Adolphe-LaurentAnatole Marcq de Blonde de Saint-Hilaire.O. 208 (1928). and the tables are a bit of a maze (takes practice). The last two methods. The English almanacs were published later in the 1700’s. and H. You must do some minor addition. what is needed here most is organization to minimize the calculation random errors. though. 55 . French almanacs were published in the late 1600’s where the original zero longitude ‘rose line’ ran thru Paris.O. H. which are only 9 pages long. and the answers are the same as a navigational calculator. and Ageton's H. Computed altitude and azimuth angle have been calculated by means of the log sine.such as the Weems Line of Position Book. cosine.O. The simplest tabular method of all is to use a shorthand version of Ageton’s tables known as the S-tables. followed by the early logarithm tables of Edmund Gunter in the late 1600’s. of the French Navy. which tabulated zillions of pre-computed solutions to the navigational triangle for all combinations where LHA and latitude are whole numbers.

INTERCEPT METHOD Sun / Moon / Planet / Star LL / UL UT Date _____m _____d______yr Time of observation UTC = _____h _____m _____s (1) Lat = ____________ Lon = _____________ DR position Eye height Heye ______meters Index correction IC = ______ arcmin Sextant measured altitude Hs = __________deg _________arcmin Dip correction from the corrections table: Apparent altitude Ha = Hs + IC + CorrDIP Altitude correction from the corrections table: True altitude Ho = Ha + CorrALT CorrDIP = ___________ Ha = ____________ CorrALT = ___________ Ho = ____________ From the almanac tabular data. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180). Zn = 360 – Zo Zn = __________ Notes: (1) (2) North is+. West is GHA table = SHA + GHA Aries for a star 56 .SIGHT REDUCTION BY CALCULATOR. East is +. South is -. or 180<LHA < 360).miles arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(Lat) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(Hc)}] = Zo ______________ True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. at the h hour on the UT date: GHA table = ____________ v = ___________ DEC table = ____________ (1) d = ___________ (careful of the sign) SHA = _____________ if star Increment of GHA for the m minutes and s seconds CorrGHA = ___________ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = ___________ (2) GHA = GHA table + CorrGHA + Corrv GHA = ___________ Increment of DEC for m minutes due to rate d is Corrd = ___________ DEC = ___________ DEC = DEC table + Corrd _____________________________________________________________ Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon (repeat Ho here to subtract Hc from) arcSin[ Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat) + Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] LHA = ___________ Ho _______________ = Hc _ ______________ Ho – Hc = _______________ · 60 = Offset Distance = Doffset n.

4533˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 32.0767˚) = +3.453˚) – Sin(44.3’ = 32˚ 24.6’ + 3˚ 54.35.415˚ + . Zn = Zo = 116˚ 57 .5’ CorrALT = +15.025˚) + Cos(44.453˚) · Cos(.025˚ N.0.5’ +15.6’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (53. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 28˚ 30.9’ = 32.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.2’ = 21.3’ + 3.6’ DEC table = +21˚ 27. Lon = -67. Calculated Azimuth direction of sun Zo = arcCos[{Sin(21.0767˚)}] Zo = 116˚.4’ -2.3’ = 53˚ 8.67.4’ moving less northerly Increment of GHA for the 15 minutes and 37 seconds CorrGHA = 3˚ 54.4150˚ Increment of DEC for 15 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = .3’ (interpolate in your head) Observed true altitude Ho = 52˚ 52.3’ .025˚) · Sin(53.435˚) ] Hc = 53.1’ = 21˚ 27.025˚) · Cos(21.025˚) · Cos(53. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).0767˚ = 53˚ 4.1416˚ – 53.453˚) · Sin(44.1416˚ From the almanac tabular data.435˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(21.850˚ = .35.0767˚)}/{Cos(44.3’ GHA = 28˚ 30.1’ DEC = +21˚ 27.0.3’ Lower Limb Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.3’ N d = -0.9 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards the Sun azimuth.Sun Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.5’ = 53.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 15m 37s Sextant measured altitude of the sun Hs = 52˚ 52.

025˚) · Cos(12.8’ DEC = +12˚ 9.470˚) ] Hc = 44.1’ True altitude Ho = 44˚ 22.368˚ – 44. Calculated Azimuth direction of moon Zo = arcCos[{Sin(12.1’ + 3.1’ = 44.5’ CorrALT = +50.Moon Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.817˚ = 44˚ 49.817˚)}] Zo = 123˚.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.025˚) + Cos(44.3200˚ Increment of DEC for 20 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = +3.2’ = 105.1’ Upper Limb (UL) Altitude corrections from almanac moon correction tables.025˚) · Cos(44.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 20m 21s Sextant measured altitude of the moon Hs = 44˚ 22.7850˚ From the almanac tabular data.817˚) = -2.32˚ + .22 ˚) – Sin(44.7’ v = +12.2’ DEC table = +12˚ 9.8’ Increment of GHA for the 20 minutes and 21 seconds CorrGHA = 4˚ 51.2200˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 105.1’ = 44˚ 47.3’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 4.Zo = 237˚ 58 .850˚ = 37.2’ –30.2’ HP = 56.22˚) · Cos( 37.817˚)}/{Cos(44.22˚) · Sin(44.0’ (the –30’ is for using the UL) = 24. Zn = 360 .2’ GHA = 100˚ 23.4’ + 3.8’ = 12˚ 13.2’ = 105˚ 19.025˚) · Sin(44. and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).4’ N d = +11. in two parts: CorrDIP = -2.67.2’ = 12.9’ + 3.4’ -2.7’ + 4˚ 51.5’ +24.3’ + 4.470˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(12. Lon = -67.025˚ N. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 100˚ 23.0’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (44.0 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the moon’s azimuth.

4’ –2.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3. and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).2850˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 110. Calculated Azimuth direction of star Zo = arcCos[{Sin(45.4’ Time of observation UTC = 8h 31m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Deneb.735˚ + – 67.4’ GHAAries table = 53˚ 14. Lon = -67.830˚ = 59˚ 49.1’ N No v or d corrections for stars Increment of GHA for the 31 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 7˚ 52.025˚ N.Star Shot Example You took a shot of Deneb in the constellation of Cygnus.5’ True altitude Ho = 59˚ 47.8033˚ From the almanac tabular data. Hs = 59˚ 47.4’ + 7˚ 52.830˚) = –1.025˚) + Cos(44.5’ – 0.6 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the star’s azimuth.83˚)}/{Cos(44.8’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.8’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (59.8’ +3. at the 8th hour July 15 2001: SHADENEB = 49˚ 37.885˚) ] Hc = 59.83˚)}] Zo = 72˚.3’ GHA = 53˚ 14.025˚) · Cos(59.850˚ = 42.285˚) · Cos( 42.4’ DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.3’ + 49˚ 37.735˚ DEC = DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.885˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(45. Zn = 360 .1’ N = +45.5’ = 59˚ 48.285˚) · Sin(44.025˚) · Sin(59.5’ CorrALT = -0.2850˚) – Sin(44.Zo = 288˚ 59 .1’ = 110.4’ = 110˚ 44.8033˚ –59. morning twilight: DR position Lat = 44.025˚) · Cos(45.2’ = 59.

6’ + 2˚ 51. at the 1st hour July 16 2001: GHAMARS table = 55˚ 30.5’ GHA = 55˚ 30.4’ –2.482˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(-26. Zn = Zo = 171˚ 60 .850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/16/2001 Index correction IC = +3. Hs = 18˚ 40.368˚ DEC = DECMARS = –26˚ 50.842˚) – Sin(44.025˚) · Cos(-26.5’ CorrALT = -3.0’ +3.850˚ = – 9.368˚ + – 67.482˚) ] Hc = 18.5’ = 58˚ 22.0’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 0. Lon = -67.6’ DECMARS table = –26˚ 50.5’ – 3.8 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards Mars’s azimuth. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).602˚)}/{Cos(44.025˚) + Cos(44.0’ True altitude Ho = 18˚ 40. but the next day in GMT: DR position Lat = 44.602˚ = 18˚ 36.0’ = 18˚ 37.9’ = 18.0’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2. Calculated Azimuth direction of Mars Zo = arcCos[{Sin(-26.5’ S v = +2.025˚ N.025˚) · Sin(18.602˚)}] Zo = 171˚.025˚) · Cos(18.842˚) · Sin(44.632˚ – 18.0’ + 0.6’ and d =0 Increment of GHA for the 11 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 2˚ 51.632˚ From the almanac tabular data.1’ = 58. same local day.5’ = –26.602˚) = +1.Planet Shot Example Mars in the evening.4’ Time of observation UTC = 01h 11m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Mars.842˚) · Cos( -9.842˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 58.1’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (18.

from early morning twilight to mid morning to evening twilight.Plots of the Lines Of Position (LOP) from the previous 4 examples The observer was stationary during all of the observations. 61 . These observations are over the course of a day. The arrows indicate the azimuth direction (bearing from true north) of the heavenly objects. The ellipse represents the 95% probability area of the position fix using all 4 LOPs.

you would sooner or later regret it. GHA. you could wander across all 360 longitude lines in just a few short steps! Plane Sailing Shorthand True course from true north TC Speed of vessel. the longitude lines start to crowd in on each other as they reach the poles. In the case of GPS. an important element was the estimated position. an estimated position is essential for our simple methods. and DEC. Undoubtedly. Plane Sailing and Dead Reckoning (DR) With the celestial methods described so far. Just think. say using your car. These approximation methods are known as plane sailing. Dead reckoning is simple to understand on a flat earth. orbiting spacecraft have geographical positions and circles of constant altitude. Strictly speaking. A simple programmable calculator mechanizing the simple steps in the calculations will go a long way in reducing the silly arithmetic errors. knots Time interval from last fix. if you didn’t reckon correctly.Chapter 9 Putting it Together and Navigating I encourage you the navigator to program your simple calculators to provide the calculated altitude Hc and calculated uncorrected azimuth Zo from inputs of latitude. also known as the dead reckoning (DR) position. But on a spherical surface. It’s too easy to make mistakes punching in numbers and doing the trig. Three spacecraft. three circles and you are pinpointed. hours D = Speed · Time distance traveled nmile DEW = D sin(TC) east-west distance DNS = D cos(TC) north-south distance ∆Lat = DNS arcmin latitude change ∆Lon = DEW /cos(Lat) arcmin longitude change 62 . an estimated position is not needed. just as it is not needed with the Global Positioning System. In our day-to-day wanderings. and you drove for 2 hours. but electronically it is circles of constant timing. The ‘crowding in’ at the current latitude can be thought of as being more or less fixed for short distances. on the north or south pole. If you head northwest at 60 mph. But since intersecting straight LOPs is a lot easier than solving simultaneous equations for intersecting circles. flat-Earth approximations are close enough to advance the estimated position from a previously known fix. you should be 120 miles to the northwest of your last position. longitude.

Plane Sailing Work Sheet Last Known Latitude. corrected for current. WLonO = Speed of vessel. decimal degrees LatDR = LatO + ∆Lat/60 Change in longitude. knots (kts) V= Time interval between the present desired fix and the last fix. decimal hours ∆Time = ∆ True course made good (heading. decimal degrees from true north TC = Estimate of distance. arcminutes ∆Lat = D · Cos(TC) New estimated latitude. decimal degrees LonDR = LonO + ∆Lon/60 63 . decimal degrees N+. compensated for leeway and current). nautical miles (nm) D = V · ∆Time Change in latitude. decimal degrees E+. arcminutes ∆Lon = D · Sin(TC)/Cos(LatO + ∆Lat/120) New estimated longitude. SLatO = Last Known Longitude.

it is used to advance an old LOP to get a fix with a new LOP while the ship is under way. if you produced a ‘good’ LOP earlier. Essentially. the old LOP is parallel-advanced in the direction of the true course-made-good (TC) to the DR distance between the last LOP and the new one. the reader should discern the mechanics involved. and it gets dragged in the same course direction as the vessel.Running Fix The running fix is a method by which two or more line of positions (LOPs) taken at different times on a moving vessel can be coalesced together to represent a navigational fix at any single arbitrary time between the observations. Most frequently. With a quick study of the figure. you can ‘drag it’ along with your moving vessel as if it were pinned to the stern using the simple distance = rate x time for the distance to drag. 64 . Quite simply.

Daily Observation Schedule During your typical navigating in-the-blue sort of day. When the moon is a young moon. 5) Twilight observation of planets and stars. advancing the noon LOP for a running fix. their estimated altitudes and azimuth angles. 65 . 2) Mid-morning Sun observation. advancing a dawn LOP for a running fix. it will be in the sky east of the sun in the late afternoon. That’s not a whole lot of time for off-the-cuff navigation. you would follow a procedure similar to this: 1) Pre-dawn sighting of planets and stars. Double check with the compass. advancing the mid-morning LOP for a running fix. A Sun-Moon fix is nice when available. so that you are sure of what you are looking at. providing a definite fix. 3) Noonish sighting. When it is an old moon. Note: Morning and evening twilight observations need to be carefully planned. Plan the objects. providing a definite fix. 4) Mid-afternoon Sun observation. It is a time when both night objects and the horizon are visible simultaneously. it will share the sky west of the sun during the morning hours.

Let us say that we have the true course TC. and designate it Roffset1. This is very convenient. measure along the true course line in the forward direction (if Roffset is +. the times of the observation t1 . 5) Then from that mark. 66 . The procedure seems complicated.Plotting Multiple Lines of Position (LOP) with Running Fixes Plotting the LOPs is best done on a universal plotting sheet. draw the line in the opposite direction (180 degrees different). Doffset2. Ha3. LONa. Ho2. Here are the detailed steps: 1) The very center of the compass rose on the plotting sheet is designated as the assumed position LATa. Roffset3. (n. the observed altitudes Ho1. 2) Draw a line thru the center in the direction of the true course TC going both ways.miles) Notice that for observation times after the time of fix. 3) Generally there are two scales you can use.miles for those close encounters. and an assumed position LATa.m. t3 (decimal hrs). The plotting sheet has a built-in scale of 60 n. Basically you draw the Roffset vector from the center of the compass rose along the direction of the true course. draw a line in the azimuth direction Zn. Ha2. then draw the Doffset vector from the head of the Roffset vector.miles which could just as easily be 6 n. etc. Roffset2. but with an arrow showing the forward direction. etc. tfix. Doffset3 and the calculated azimuths Zn1. Roffset2 = V · (tfix – t2 ). From sight reduction. 4) For the first observation. the mechanics will seem obvious. scale makes corresponding latitude and longitude measurements possible without calculations. then draw the LOP from that point. We calculate the running fix distance corrections that each observation will require. the length being the distance Doffset. Zn2. t2 . Zn3. even though that time does not correspond exactly to any of the observation times. requiring in addition a drafting triangle and a scaled ruler. the speed V (kts). All else is relative to this location. This selected time for the fix is called the time of fix. LONa. the offset is negative. Since the vessel is continuously underway. as you can do everything necessary to plot a LOP. we define an arbitrary time that we want the newest fix to apply to. the intercept distances Doffset1. backwards if Roffset is -) the distance Roffset and mark it with a dot. but after trying it once. Mark the spot. which is a sheet of paper with a graduated compass rose in the center... We were at such-andsuch location at such-and-such time. If Doffset is negative. The corrections are calculated thus: Roffset1 = V · (tfix – t1 ). we also have the calculated altitudes Ha1. Staying in either the 60 or 6 n. Ho3.

67 . 7) Repeat for all the other LOPs. This is the LOP compensated for intercept and running to an arbitrary time. passing thru the last mark.6) Draw a line perpendicular to the Zn.

68 .

Once all the LOPs are plotted. and the east-west distance as DLON in nautical miles. if northwards or eastwards. Measure the distance with the linear scale you are using for the plot from the center. from the universal plotting sheet. the number is -. Following the sign conventions. The north-south distance we will designate as DLAT. the number is +. you draw the custom longitude line for that position. 69 . Remember. If southwards or westwards. 1 nautical mile N-S is equivalent to 1 arcminute of latitude. as it is really set up for this. The corrective change ∆ in latitude and longitude from the assumed position LATa. The compass rose lets you set up your own custom longitude scale for your latitude. LONa is thus: LAT∆ = (DLAT / 60) decimal degrees LON∆ = (DLON/ 60)/ Cos(LATa + LAT∆/2) decimal degrees The position of the new fix is thus: LATFIX = LATa + LAT∆ LONFIX = LONa + LON∆ The corrective change can also be deduced graphically. Where the latitude angle intersects the circle. you can mark what appears to be the best solution of the fix.

CALCULATING A FIX FROM MULTIPLE LOPs FROM A FIXED ASSUMED POSITION WHILE RUNNING Form the quantities A,B,C,D,E,G from these summations: N A = n=1 Cos AZMn

2

N = total number of LOPs participating in the fix

N B = n= 1 Cos AZMn . Sin AZMn

N C = n=1 Sin AZMn

2

N D = n= 1 Cos AZMn . p1 n p2 n

G = A .C

B

2

N E = n= 1 Doffsetn 60 Roffsetn 60 Sin AZMn . p1 n p2 n

Where

p1 n

=

and

p2 n

=

. Cos AZM n

TC

Doffset n is the nth intercept offset distance, n.miles Roffsetn is the nth running-fix offset distance, n.miles AZM n is the nth azimuth direction of the nth heavenly body TC is the true course angle from true north

LON I = LON A

( A . E B .D ) G . Cos LAT A ( C .D G B .E)

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

LAT I = LAT A

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

dist = 60 .

LON I

2 2 LON A . cos LAT A

LAT I

LAT A

2

Distance from assumed fix to calculated fix, nm. Should be < 20 nm. If not, use the improved fix as the new assumed position and start all over again

70

**Good Practice and Error Reduction Techniques
**

There are many sources of error, not the least misidentification of the heavenly object. Slim chance of that happening with the Sun or Moon. With objects that you are sure of, a set of 3 or 4 shots of each known object can reduce random measurement errors. With stars at twilight, perhaps it is better to take single shots but have many targets to reduce the effects of misidentification. This type of error has the distinction of putting you hundreds of miles off, and so are easy to catch, allowing you to disregard the specific data.

Handling measurement random errors graphically Random Errors The effect of multiple shots of the same object are such that the random errors, some +, some -, will average to zero. Random measurement errors of plus or minus several miles are handled several basic ways for a set of shots of the same object: 1) Calculate all the LOPs in a set and average them graphically on the map. 2) Arithmetically average the times and altitudes for a set of shots, and calculate one LOP using the averaged value of time and altitude. 3) Graph the set of shots with time on the horizontal and altitude on the vertical. Draw a line representing the average and from that pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. This is the easiest. 4) Graph the shots as in 3), but calculate a slope and fit it to the data. The slope is determined by calculating Hc for two different times in the range of the data set with your estimated position. With these two new points, draw a line between them. Parallel offset this new line until it fits best in the data points already drawn. Then, as in 3), pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. 71

Using technique 4) should result in the most accurate LOP, however there are more calculations making it the same trouble as 1). On the other hand, practical navigation is not usually concerned with establishing a position to within ¼ mile, so unless you are particular, graphing your measurements as in technique 3) may be the easiest to implement with a good payoff for reducing random errors. Arithmetically averaging instead of graphically averaging is a good way to introduce unwanted calculation mistakes, so I would steer away from technique 2) for manual calculations. Systematic Errors This species of error, where a constant error is in all of the measurements, can come from such things as an instrument error, a misread index error, your personal technique and bias, strange atmospheric effects, and clock error. All but clock error can be handled with the following technique. If you have many objects to choose from, choose 4 stars that are ~90 degrees apart from each other in azimuth, or with 3 stars make sure they are ~120 degrees apart. This creates a set of LOPs where the effect of optical systematic errors cancels.

72

make a tight spaced grouping of 3 shots per object. 5) Advance the LOPs with a running fix technique to time coincide with the time of your last shots. 4) Apply averaging techniques for random error reduction. 2) Pick objects that are spaced in azimuth 90 to 120 degrees apart for systematic error reduction. pick 3 or more clearly identified heavenly objects. 73 . 3) If you can.The steps for good practice 1) For a good fix.

then you can look it up in the star chart data to match it with the closest numbers. SHA and DEC. then LHA is –. then look in the almanac to match up SHA and DEC with any planets listed. you could use the equations for calculated altitude and azimuth. such as Sirius (the brightest star) has a magnitude of -1. If the azimuth is less than 180˚. Star magnitudes refer to their brightness. The brightest stars actually have negative magnitudes. the dimmer the star. However. then LHA is +. as data for their position on the celestial sphere (star globe) is given. If the numbers still don’t match any stars. The sidereal hour angle (‘longitude’ on the star globe) is then: SHA = LHA – GHAAries – Lon Where GHA aries is the Greenwich hour angle of aries (zero ‘longitude’ on the star globe) at the time of this observation from the almanac. rearranged. or have constellation charts handy. the 2102-D and Celestaire star chart come to mind. Rearrange the calculated altitude equation to get local hour angle LHA: LHA = (+/-) arcCos[{sin(H) . the larger the number. Rearranging the azimuth equation. 74 . Lat is the assumed latitude. we get the declination DEC: DEC = arcSin[cos(AZM) · cos(Lat) · cos(H) + sin(Lat) · sin(H)] If the declination is +.Chapter 10 Star Identification There are various star finding charts. It’s actually best to this by software. Numerically. AZM is the approximate azimuth angle (magnetic compass + magnetic variation). Once you have the essential information. and H is the altitude angle (don’t bother with dip and refraction corrections). and Lon is the assumed longitude position.sin(DEC) · sin(Lat)} / {cos(Lat) · cos(DEC)}] If the azimuth is greater than 180˚. Now this only applies to the bright 58 ‘navigational stars’. it is North. if – then it is South.6. to help you identify stars.

5 1.9 -1.6 0.2 2.2 1.2 1.4 2. Cross S.1 2.6 2.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 1.2 1.0 2.5 2.2 1.8 1.9 0.2 0.8 1.1 3.6 1.2 1. Cross Big Dipper Virgo Big Dipper Centarus Orange Orange Blue Yellow Red White White Yellow Blue 75 .7 2.The 58 Navigational Stars Listing SHA 358 354 350 349 336 328 324 315 315 309 291 281 281 279 279 276 271 264 259 255 245 244 234 223 222 218 208 194 183 176 173 172 167 159 153 149 DEC +29 -42 +57 -18 -57 +23 +89 -40 +4 +50 +16 -8 +46 +6 +29 -1 +7 -53 -17 -29 +5 +28 -59 -43 -70 -9 +12 +62 +15 -18 -63 -57 +56 -11 +49 -60 Star Alpheratz Ankaa Schedar Diphda Achernar Hamal Polaris Acamar Menkar Mirfak Aldebaran Rigel Capella Bellatrix Elnath Alnilam Betelgeuse Canopus Sirius Adhara Procyon Pollux Avior Suhail Miaplacidus Alphard Regulus Dubhe Denebola Gienah Acrux Gacrux Alioth Spica Alkaid Hadar magnitude 2.2 2.9 color Orange Orange constellation Great Square Phoenix Cassiopeia Cetus Eridanus Aries Little Dipper Eridanus Cetus Perseus Taurus Orion Auriga Orion Taurus Orion Orion Carina Canis Major Canis Major Canis Minor Gemini Carnia Vela Carnia Hydra Leo Big Dipper Leo Cygnus S.2 2.7 1.8 1.3 0.1 0.8 1.9 1.3 2.0 -0.

3 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.6 color constellation Centarus Orange Bootes Centarus White Libra Orange Little Dipper Corona Borea.3 1.1 0. Triangle Ophiuchus Scorpio Ophiuchus Draco Sagittarius White Lyra Sagittarius Aquila Pavo Cygnus Orange Pegasus Grus Piscis Austrin.9 2.7 2.0 0.6 1.SHA 148 146 140 137 137 126 113 108 103 097 096 091 084 081 076 062 054 050 034 028 016 014 DEC -36 +19 -61 -16 +74 +27 -26 -69 -16 -37 +13 +51 -34 +39 -26 +9 -57 +45 +10 -47 -30 +15 Star Menkent Arcturus Rigil Kent Zuben’ubi Kochab Alphecca Antares Atria Sabik Shaula Raselhague Eltanin Kaus Australis Vega Nunki Altair Peacock Deneb Enif Al Na’ir Fomalhaut Markab magnitude 2. Red Scorpio S.2 1.1 2.2 1.9 2. Kochab is just slightly lower than Polaris.1 1.9 2.1 2.2 0.3 2.4 2. 76 . Great Square If one waits until the Little Dipper is in this orientation.3 0. then the 41’ that Polaris is off from the celestial pole won’t matter and then the observed altitude will equal the latitude.

THE CELESTAIRE STAR CHART 77 .

SOME STAR CHARTS AND THEIR CONSTELLATIONS 78 .

79 .

The “summer triangle” 80 .

81 .

Start the timing and end the timing when the sun’s lower limb is about ½ diameter above the horizon.Chapter 11 Special Topics Determining Longitude and Latitude Individually Some simplified methods can be used at specific times of the day to calculate latitude and longitude individually. Lat = arcTan[ -cos(7. Convert the time into decimal hours. Latitude Determination. the only limitations now are ones of visibility of the heavenly object. minutes. These techniques are probably not used so much anymore. you can calculate your latitude. A scenario like this presents itself: take the height of Polaris at dawn twilight for a latitude fix. Use the running fix technique to ‘drag’ along the latitude LOP to time coincide with the longitude LOP. where Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT ao is a function of local hour angle LHA a1 is a function of estimated latitude a2 is a function of what month it is By the length of time of day If you measure the time of day from sunup to sunset in hours. and name it ElapsedTime. The nautical almanac has tables where: Latitude = Ho -1˚ + ao + a1 + a2. not mathematical.5 · ElapsedTime) / tan(DEC)] You may be off by 10 arcminutes latitude depending on your timing technique. corrections for this slight offset and annual aberration must be accounted for. 82 . but the sun is the favorite. then with the timing of sunrise or just after with the prime vertical sight determine longitude. then combining them with running fix techniques. and seconds. One could do it for any heavenly body. In other words. a purely East-West LOP By meridian transit This has already been covered in the discussion of the noon sighting for the sun. since with tabular methods and calculators the complexity of the navigational triangle is not so daunting. By the height of Polaris Since Polaris is not exactly on the celestial north pole.

Latitude = 41. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =345. and DEC = 10. so we need to do a little iteration. a purely North-South LOP By the timing of sunrise or sunset The equations simplify when the true altitude Ho is zero. Refraction correction is a function of Ha. when the sun’s limb kisses the horizon. observe the time UTC. the CorrALT = – 43’ UL In short. look up the GHA and declination.GHA. the CorrALT = – 15. adding the increments for the minutes and seconds.39˚ = .1’) – (-0. the sextant altitude needs to be preset at a low but specific angle to catch the sun at true horizon sunrise or sunset.1’.5’) = + 0˚ 18. we can figure the refraction correction for when Ho = 0.5’) – (. so here are the results: Using the sun’s lower limb (LL). but in this equation the double negative will make this number a positive.15. for Ho = 0: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT It should be apparent that: Ha = – CorrALT = –R – SDLL or = –R + SDUL Since the average sun semi-diameter is 16’.664˚ Add 360 to it. With the sextant preset to this angle. If: Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT then Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT So.664˚ West Longitude 83 .84.75˚ With the sun’s LL CorrALT = . Fortunately I’ve done it for you.444. semi-diameter and index error.15.0.664˚ = . refraction. (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2. Same with the altitude corrections in this case.235˚ N So: Lon = – arcos[-Tan(41.5’ (LL) or Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 43.75˚) · Tan(10.1’ When the sun is at this altitude. In the almanac.5’ LL Using the sun upper limb (UL).345. But due to dip.0’ (UL) The dip correction is always negative. Lon = 360˚ – 444.Longitude Determination.235˚)] . so CorrDIP = . set the sextant to: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 15. the time was 11h 30m 10s. preset the sextant angle to Hs = -(-2.5’. Longitude is then: Lon = {(+ / -) arcos[-Tan(Lat) · Tan(DEC)]} .390˚.5’ So. h = 2 meters.

In these circumstances. it is pre meridian. h = 2 meters.664˚ West By the time sight This uses the Sumner line equation.GHA (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2.By the prime vertical sight If you will recall the illustration on page 21.515˚ When the sun is at this altitude. then look up in the almanac GHA for the sun.84. Then: Lon = (+ / -) arcsin[Cos(Ho) / Cos(DEC)] . Easily done with the sextant. Be careful of the (+/-) sign. so CorrDIP = . if the object continues to rise. a little error in latitude will translate into a large longitude error from the calculation. The closer to meridian transit the less accurate the answer since at meridian transit the LOP is East-West.365˚ = . from the almanac DEC = 10.5’.1’. This simplifies the equations such that: Ho = arcsin[Sin(DEC) / Sin(Lat)] Work out the sextant angle by: Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT Determine the UTC time when this condition occurs by waiting for the object to attain Hs. Latitude = 41.75˚)] = 15.260˚)] – 6. the prime vertical circle goes from due east to the zenith to due west.365˚. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =6. and DEC = 10.260˚ N Ho = arcsin[Sin(10.0.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): Lon = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .260˚) / Sin(41. used only once by imputing your best estimate for latitude. not North-South.515˚) / Cos(10. the sun will rise a bit to the north of east (northern hemisphere) and it may be some time after sunrise that the sun crosses this imaginary line. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): Lon = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .260˚ N Lon = .Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA 84 . the azimuth is exactly 90˚. When it does. In the summer months.5’ For the approximated time. the time was 12h 54m 3s. determine if the object is pre or post meridian.75˚ If Ha ~ 15˚ then CorrALT = +12.arcsin[Cos(15.

The almanac many years ago contained these functions.miles per minute of time error. since the altitude measurements are for refraction and parallax corrections. Whew! It helps to have two friends in the same boat with sextants. It is possible that the errors will be small if you take three consecutive measurements within a few minutes. In order to do that. it just means you’ll have to make allowances in your longitude estimate to the tune of 15 · Cos(Lat) n. a sort of ‘running fix’ correction on altitude. This is a method whereby you can reset your untrustworthy chronometer if you are in the middle of the ocean (or anywhere) without friends or a short-wave radio. the observer must nearly simultaneously obtain the altitudes of both the moon and star (or planet) as well as the actual measured arc distance between the two. Since the moon appears to orbit about the Earth once every 29 ½ days (27 1/3 days in inertial space). so you’ll just have to assume something like 2 minutes of time. is about 0. It must be done by calculation or by special lunar tables. between messy observations and even messier calculations. But if the measurements are taken with the objects near the meridian line. lunars are for the hardcore celestial zealot. and so the observer will have to correct for it. and so the arc distance between the two objects can be worked out as a function of time. but stopped in 1907. The nautical almanac contains predictions for both objects. Since the arc distance is changing with time relatively fast (~0.5 arcminute per minute of time. one can infer a particular time in UT to a particular arc distance. you may have quite a bit of time to make measurements sequentially. I mean the time estimate may be off by several minutes per degree of altitude change. from our earthly point of view. this means you won’t get any closer to the real time by a minute or so. Still. 85 . In fact.Chapter 12 Lunars These days. Or perhaps you just want to feel challenged. But you won’t know the error.508 deg per hour). By small. that’s not bad. which won’t change fast. A degree of altitude change at it’s worst will take 4 minutes (at the equator). with quartz watches and radio time-ticks. the angular closing speed between the moon and a planet or star near the ecliptic plane. The tabular data in the almanac does not consider refraction or parallax. one can measure sequentially and correct the altitude measurements to time coincide with the arc distance measurement. Practically speaking. Essentially the arc-distance between the moon’s limb and a heavenly object close to the ecliptic plane (such as a planet) is measured.

The case presented is for when you don’t know the exact time and you have made the three necessary measurements as though you were doing it for real. That final arc distance is designated as Dcleared and the entire procedure is known as clearing the lunar distance. The equation for Dcleared presented here was first published in 1856 by J. it is referred to the apparent arc distance Da. 86 . δTmoon. rather the time difference is what should be accurate. as far as sequencing the observations to minimize errors if you don’t feel like making the ‘running fix’ corrections. Well. the resulting number is the arc distance as seen from an observer at the Earth’s center.R. quickly 3) measure the altitude of the southern/northern most object last The objects farthest away from meridian passage change altitude the quickest and should be measured soonest after the arc distance measurement.If the time difference between the arc measurement and altitude measurement is δT minutes of time. sort of. Oh. This entire task is simplified if you have a computer and use MathCad software to write and evaluate the equations. Besides. and Ho is the observed altitude for the object (Hs + SD is close enough). There is a second method using one measurement and an assumed position. DEC is the declination of the observed object. Here the method assumes that the latitude assumed is very accurate. and semi-diameter. and δHmoon increment based on time increments δTstar. there will be a δHstar. By the way. good luck. the parallax and refraction corrections will be identical had you done simultaneous measurements. Young. When final corrections are made for parallax. This way. it’s fun. refraction. The absolute time is not important. When the measured arc distance Ds is corrected for index error. then add this increment to the altitude measurement: δT δH = 15 · [-Cos(LAT) · Cos(DEC) · Sin(LHA)/Cos(Ho)] · δ arcminutes where δT = Tarc – Taltitude in minutes of time. LAT is your latitude. although I derived the exact same equation independently when approaching the problem. Employed best by computer. do this: 1) measure the arc distance first 2) measure the altitude of the most east/west next. LHA is your best guess at the local hour angle for the object. Tarc refers to the time you took the arc distance measurement. Since there are 2 altitude measurements. and Taltitude is the time you took the altitude measurement. but the longitude is as far off as the chronometer.

87 .

HP Lunar semi-diameter. from the nautical almanac.Clearing the distance from a lunar observation --------------------------------------IC h eye Hs star Hs moon Ds Index Error Correction. degrees From this table. deg Measured arc distance from Lunar limb to star or planet center with Sextant Scale. determine the refraction correction for the star and the moon Record values for: R star Convert the dip and refraction corrections to decimal degrees !! R moon 88 . upper limb is -1 When measuring arc distance. deg Your imperfect clock time noted at the observation of Ds. deg Measured Altitude of the Moon with Sextant Scale. degrees 0. meters Change all angle data into decimal degrees Measured Altitude of star or planet with Sextant Scale. lower limb is +1. near limb is +1. convert to decimal hours UT s sgn limbH sgn limbD When measuring altitude. degrees Eye Height above seal level. far limb is -1 HP SD moon = Horizontal Parallax HP.--------------------------------.2724 .

89

The 2nd method with one measurement (the arc distance) will calculate the altitudes based on the assumed position and imperfect chronometer reading. With the new corrected time, you can also correct the assumed longitude, and iterate once or twice more with the better time and longitude results. The basic assumption is that the latitude is more accurate.

90

Derivation of the equations used in clearing the lunar distance Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C)

Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) (these laws are for spherical trigonometry; there are similar ones for plane trig) Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚- α) cos(α) = sin(90˚- α) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A)

91

the picture is drawn in the positive direction to establish a consistent sign convention. the equation with s. m can be related to S.s = Hastar S = Hostar m = Hamoon M = Homoon cos( d ) = sin( s ) ⋅ sin( m) + cos( s ) ⋅ cos( m) ⋅ cos(δ ) cos( D ) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos(δ ) Rearrange cos(d): cos(δ ) = cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Now substitute into cos(D): cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Rearrange: cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + ( cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) ) ⋅ cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) But using the trig identity: sin( a ) ⋅ sin(b) = − cos( a + b) And substituting this definition: cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) Cratio = cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) cos( D) = ( cos(d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) D = arcCos ( cos( d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) The key to the problem is to realize that the parallax and refraction corrections only change the altitudes. and using the law of cosines. Even though refraction corrections are negative. When the corrections are applied. not the ‘wedge angle’ δ. M with the common angle δ. 92 .

This is the 3 body fix technique. A wonderful property of a simple circular arc with 2 end points is that a line drawn from one end point to anywhere on the arc back to the other end point. Then the observer measures an angle ‘b’ between points B and C (or A and C). there will exist one unique circle of position where anyone on that arc will measure the same angle between the two known coastal objects.Chapter 13 Coastal Navigation Using the Sextant Early in this book a surveyor’s technique was mentioned. and will be described in detail. Include another observation for a third coastal object and make a second angle measurement. Take for example points A and B on the map (maybe they are water towers or prominent points). For any arc. The navigator then constructs the two arcs on the map. and where they cross is the position fix. An observer measures the relative angle ‘a’ between them using the sextant held sideways. then the circle’s radius R: R = 0. If you are an observer measuring the relative angle between two known objects on the map. and it is useful in costal navigation where the relative angle between the observer and 3 identified costal objects are measured. if D is the distance between A and B. is the same angle as any other line similarly drawn to another point on the arc.25 · D · [tan(a/2) + 1 / tan(a/2)] 93 .

using point Y as the center. It represents the center point of the circle of position. use the bow compass to draw an arc by setting the radius to include either points A. Finally. Call this point ‘Y’.Constructing the arcs by graphical means The first step is to draw the baseline between points A and B. After the bisector is constructed. B. Voila! 94 . do so for the baseline. Then draw another perpendicular to split the line A-X. Where it intersects the bisector. Repeat steps for drawing the circle of position for points B and C with included angle ‘b’. carrying this line until it intersects the first bisector. Recalling how to draw perpendicular bisectors from middle school geometry using a bow compass. This is the circle of position. use a protractor and measure an angle away from the baseline of (90-a/2) from point ‘A’. call this point ‘X’. or X. if the measured angle with the sextant was ‘a’ degrees.

Appendix 1 Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet 95 .

96 .

only then is it glued to the index arm.Appendix 2 Making Your Very Own Octant Frames for octants can be made from just about any clear wood. The Vernier scale should not go edge to edge with the degree scale. The Vernier scale is moved radially in and out until it lines up perfectly with the degree scale. This means that you do not need to sand the wood edge perfectly arc-shaped. it was made from ¾ inch thick clear maple. The mirrors are indexed to their position using 3 brads. Brass shim stock cut into rectangles and formed over a round pencil produced the U-shaped mirror retaining springs. One-inch long #4-40 screws and nuts are used to make a 3point adjustable platform for mirror alignment The arc degree scale and Vernier scale were drawn in a 2-D computer aided design program and printed out at 1:1 scale. and epoxied to form the fine-boned frame shown here. and the third brad along the side to index side-to-side motion. The laser and bubble jet printers of today are amazingly accurately. In the case of the author’s octant. 2 along the bottom forming a horizontal line. so only the degree scale needs to be placed with accuracy. but rather overlap it on a tapered ramp. 97 .

Buy the plates in a 2 by 4. and 10. 2”x2” for about 25¢ each. and more than one filter will distort the Sun’s image slightly). and is best accomplished with a fixture to hold the mirror and a guide for the tool. a 10. available at welding supply houses for about $1.Mirrors Surprisingly good mirrors can be found in craft stores. that is a #5 shade plus a #6 shade is equivalent to a #11 shade. This will require practice… 98 . The problem of contrast arises. and so the mirror can be oriented on the sextant to minimize altitude distortions. Use a 5. a green sun disk on a green horizon. Shades can be additive. The next best is to order a second surface mirror (50mm square) from an optics house such as Edmunds Scientifics for about $4. Under no circumstances should you use a scotch-brite pad to remove the silvering. you can order first surface mirrors for maybe $20. Shades Shades for the sky and horizon filters can be made from welder’s mask replacement filter plates. Shades equivalent to a commercial sextant (by unscientific methods) is approximately 14. The silvering can best be removed with a metal polisher such as Brasso.9% of harmful UV and infrared heat as well as act as neutral density filters to reduce the over-all amount of visible light. I use a very well sharpened/honed 1” wide wood chisel. The edges should be slightly rounded so as not to dig in.25 inch size. no sense of increasing chances of cataracts due to ultraviolet overexposure. as it will scratch glass. They cut out 99. 10.65. Removing the aluminized surface for the horizon mirror requires patience. and a 14. you stand a much better chance of a successful cut. A 4 and 6 for the horizon will give 4. using a soft cloth. Most of these welder’s shades will turn the Sun green. 4 for the horizon filters. In their specialty house. Ripples (slope errors) will be quite evident at these high reflection angles. Replacement shade filter plates typically can be found for 4 thru 14. The second surface mirrors are good enough for a homemade (and professional) sextant. Terrible mirrors can be had at the dollar store out of compacts. while a #5 allows around 5%. 1 being the lightest and 16 the darkest. A #4 shade allows about 13% visible transmission. which would seem to cover all viewing situations without having to double-up on filters (the glass is not perfect. and cut them in half to make 2 squares. For a tool. Now glass cutting these thick plates is no laughing matter. The back has a protective coating that must be removed to get to the reflective material. The welding shades are numbered 1 thru 16. The quality can be surmised by tilting the mirror until you are seeing a small glancing reflection of something. 6. But safety of your eyes is paramount. I have found that if you score lines with a handheld glass cutter on the front and back (and edges too) so that the lines are right over each other. The ripples may be just in one direction. 4 for the sky filters and 8.

The convex lens has a positive focal length (FL1). and wrapped around a pencil to get a ‘U’ shape. These baffles effectively trap the unwanted light. 99 . The image will be upright. The spacing ‘S’ between the lenses should be FL1+FL2. which then reflect into the eyepiece. if the objective lens has a focal length of 300mm and the eyepiece lens has a focal length of -150mm. The tubes can be made with a square cross section using basswood or thin hobby plywood. then: Spacing S = FL1 + FL2 = 300 + (-150) = 150mm Magnification M = . and the magnification need not be greater than 3. For example. and a concave lens for the eyepiece. the more baffles.015”) music wire around larger diameter music wire or brad nails. The baffles are used to keep stray light from glaring up the insides of the tube.(FL1/FL2) = -(300 / (-150)) = 2 Edmunds Scientifics sells 38mm diameter lenses for about $3 to $4 each. Leaf type springs can be cut out from 0. the better the image contrast. Paint the insides of the tube flat black.010” brass sheet stock or tin can lids. Sighting telescope A simple Galilean telescope can be made with a convex lens for the objective lens. Generally speaking. while the concave lens has a negative focal length (FL2). and the magnification ‘M’ is -FL1/FL2.Springs Torsion springs to hold the mirrors in place can be easily made by wrapping thin (0.

Photos of the Octant Making of the telescope Horizon mirror and mount The completed Octant 100 .

net/milkyway99/index.mil/data/docs/celnavtable.html Celestial navigation net.Appendix 3 On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Star Path navigational school http://www.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.gov/timezone.good all around source http://www.com/resources/cellinks.de/home/h.celestialnavigation. with all sorts of spare optical stuff http://www.scientificsonline.sciplus.starpath.com/ Edmund Optics.com/catalog/ On-line nautical almanac http://www.html A short guide to celestial navigation and freeware http://home.edmundoptics.verizon.com/catalog/ American Science and Surplus.tecepe. supplier of mirrors and lenses http://www. gives delta T for Ephemeris Time http://maia.htm Celestaire http://celestaire.mil/ Edmunds Scientifics.navy.com.time. higher grade of optics http://www.usno.navy.umland/index.cgi?UTC/s/0/java International Earth Rotation Service.html 101 .htm Official UTC time http://nist.usno.isa US Naval Observatory http://aa.net/index.t-online.com/ My web site: http://mysite.

Farley 102 .Appendix 4 Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method By Teacup Navigation Rodger E.

html All rights reserved.net/milkyway99/index.Contents Introduction Determining Local Hour Angle Corrections to Altitude Individual Steps Work Sheets Tables Appendix: The Intercept 1st Edition Copyright 2010 Rodger E. 103 . user beware! This is for educational purposes only. I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning.verizon. Farley My web site: http://mysite.

These are the basic Ageton equations: Corrected meridian angle then needs to be converted to true azimuth angle. then multiplied by -100 for ease. a step by step solution to the problem can be implemented using tables and simple addition/subtraction.Introduction Ageton devised a method of dividing the navigational triangle into 2 simpler right-angle triangles to solve. but I have retained the original with sine. Ageton reformulated his equations with secant and co-secant functions. 104 . The tables represent the log (base 10) of sine and cosine of angles. Zn. Using the Ageton equations for calculated altitude and meridian angle. cosine.

if S.Determining Local Hour Angle LHA North Lat is +. Post meridian angles range from zero to 180 degrees ( 0<LHA<180). LHA is divided into two camps: post-meridian passage and premeridian passage. West Lon is - The Nautical Almanac hourly tabular values of Greenwich Hour Angle (GHAhour)is corrected for minutes and seconds increments (Corr GHA) plus any hourly variances v (Corr V for the minutes). GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEChour + Corr d If DEC is N then it is +. then subtract 360. then the sign of d is positive (+) even if the declination is still southern. then DEC is Using the correct sign (+/-) for longitude LON: LHA = GHA + LON If LHA > 360. If the declinations are moving in a northerly direction. and pre meridian angles range from 180 to 360 ( 180<LHA<360). If d is moving in a southerly direction (DEC becoming more southerly in the next hour) then d is negative (-). pre-meridian LHAs need to be converted to a negative angle (-180<LHA<0) by subtracting 360 from a pre-meridian angle(for example 276 is equivalent to . South Lat is East Lon is +.84) . even if the declination is still northern. For a compute program. Beware of using the correct sign [+/-] in rate d. The tables and rules can handle both forms if you are careful! 105 . For stars GHA = SHA + GHAAries Hourly values of declination (DEChour) are corrected for minutes with hourly rate d (Corr d for the minutes).

and – when on the arc.Corrections to Altitude Apparent Altitude: Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Note: index correction IC is + when off the arc. Corrected Observed Altitude Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 106 .

and note the corresponding angle. the arrows with “tables” mean go to the Stables and look at the numbers in the columns. then |LHA| = 12. or a -1 value if the sign of the number is negative. Also note that calculated altitude Hc is always less than 90 deg.LAT x sign(DEC) |.Zo NE: Zn = Zo SW: Zn = Zo + 180 107 . If you have an arrow with “tables/angle”. and the given rules will make it clear which of the two to use. There are 4 choices of angle. In that if it is negative. C2 S3 = S1 + C2. A greater-than sign is > and a less-than sign is < (K>90 means K greater than 90). in tables C5 S6 = C5 + C3. in tables corresponding angle = K K > 90 if LHA between 90 and 270 K’ = |K . unless LAT and DEC same name AND |K| > |LAT|.Individual Steps In the following algorithm.Zo SE: Zn = 180 . in which case choose the angle less than 90. then make it positive. but you will select from the 2 bold numbers. it means determine the sign and assign it a +1 value if it’s positive. in tables find corresponding C3 S4 = S2 . in tables corresponding angle = Zo Choose the bold-faced angle greater than 90. When there is a variable prefixed with sign(variable). If the number sought is an S number. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) With |LHA| in tables S1 With |DEC| in tables S2. If LHA = -12. in tables corresponding angle of S6 = Hc S7 = |S3 – C6|. In each column there are 2 numbers side-by-side. Notes: A variable in straight brackets. then the one in the same column next to it is a C number. means to take the absolute value of LHA. for example |LHA|. Converting Corrected Meridian angle Zo to true azimuth Zn Name of LAT to select N or S prefix.C3. it means locate the given S number. For E or W suffix: If LHA pre-meridian (-180<LHA<0 or 180<LHA<360) then E If LHA post-meridian (0<LHA<180) then W NW: Zn = 360 . in tables C6 Also.

108 .

109 .

110 . Just work it out line by line to see the genesis of the numbers with the corresponding tabular values. The assumed latitude is -40° 12’ S.This is an example where the LHA was already figured from the GHA and assumed longitude.

146 would be the C number.699 is the C number. that means DEC = -(20° 13’).762).160 is the S number and 106. In the tables. and the one next to it in the same column is the C number (2. Go down to minute 13 and look across to the column for the 20 deg. Hc. and C(x) = -100*log(cos(x)). and addition is much easier! If declination DEC is 20° 13’ S. and Zo you have “go backwards” thru the tables (an S value is given and you have to determine the corresponding angle). That heading is on the top of the table which means the arc minutes to use are on the left hand side as indicated by the double arrows. If you are looking up 85° 5’. Follow the calculation steps from top to bottom. and 46. Get it? Using the bottom row of numbers is equally easy. If the number you were looking up was 110° 13’. S(x) and C(x) are the S and C values associated with the angle x. then S(x) = -100*log(sin(x)). P5). For the values of K. then 0.Using the S-Tables In this section I will provide examples of how to navigate the tables. Why go to this trouble? Because logarithms change multiplication into addition. then 2. 111 . That number (46.762 would be the S number.146) is the S number. these are the equations tabulated to the arc minute: If x is the angle. In the tables look up the boldfaced degree 20 (S-Tables. and |DEC| = 20° 13’. The bottom row of numbers means you use the righthand minutes. adding or subtracting where indicated.

104 150.057 121.120 127.061 0.111 0.123 0.022 118.001 0.126 0.487 117.412 120.912 207.030 0.130 0.054 0.038 0.777 200.000 353.004 115.107 0.544 175.150 0.898 109.696 173.121 168.075 0.008 0.390 179.009 0.000 0.916 204.589 107.730 275.024 0.880 127.492 203.069 0.633 131.203 253.525 221.017 0.202 180.087 0.605 140.078 0.000 0.140 0.048 0.945 147.184 158.001 0.129 0.693 158.114 0.870 124.583 228.549 123.184 113.505 167.076 0.110 0.740 109.000 0.233 126.000 0.183 111.299 117.817 120.100 225.330 134.651 139.051 0.010 0.421 283.018 233.600 130.080 0.000 0.013 0.136 0.006 0.135 0.097 0.082 0.718 178° 358° 271° 91° 0.190 146.967 139.614 120.095 124.846 106.505 184.044 0.956 154.208 157.583 109.118 0.425 132.439 107.422 192.998 196.093 129.406 154.029 0.114 130.088 0.109 0.676 171.861 155.728 157.699 113.925 116.018 0.000 0.491 208.892 149.646 144.282 189.122 0.001 0.032 135.411 138.026 0.116 0.046 0.042 0.041 0.403 127.092 0.000 0.106 0.005 111.000 0.571 114.152 0.085 0.058 0.811 178.071 0. P1 180° 0° 1000.015 0.697 126.051 0.121 0.118 263.373 131.634 153.358 145.748 114.690 160.023 0.038 0.148 0.008 0.812 269.056 0.155 0.220 114.890 134.488 245.015 0.005 0.342 129.001 0.095 0.091 0.322 162.066 0.121 0.295 143.003 0.124 0.020 0.013 0.084 0.304 190.026 0.001 0.137 0.065 0.062 0.014 0.025 0.173 134.642 176° 356° 273° 93° 0.068 0.022 0.002 0.005 0.253 140.231 132.696 150.003 0.097 174.233 239.127 0.018 0.766 123.068 0.040 0.012 0.145 0.060 87° 267° 183° 3° 128.007 0.498 108.053 0.105 0.113 201.059 0.419 185.021 120.465 126.004 0.817 146.037 0.002 0.057 109.077 0.120 177° 357° 272° 92° 0.002 0.581 141.117 0.647 124.353 186.115 108.064 0.013 112.338 139.627 323.205 123.250 161.536 110.961 132.012 172.143 0.777 133.970 175° 355° 274° 94° 0.000 0.099 0.012 0.000 0.298 166.218 119.375 110.064 0.166 126.003 0.014 0.480 199.651 108.915 293.739 116.039 0.897 167.160 131.006 0.724 161.045 0.026 88° 268° 182° 2° 145.049 0.125 0.104 0.008 0.739 107.640 121.003 125.011 0.839 111.023 0.425 124.041 0.257 142.515 151.008 0.350 191.010 0.709 242.057 0.609 134.202 152.032 0.745 169.001 0.320 155.205 136.101 0.106 86° 266° 184° 4° 115.066 0.391 173.415 119.633 118.928 140.134 0.362 128.001 0.339 171.216 110.045 113.S-Tables.139 0.067 0.062 0.103 114.096 0.211 120.093 0.221 197.163 0.011 0.985 123.713 148.388 205.010 119.841 129.307 187.909 136.040 0.916 142.783 162.007 89° 269° 181° 1° 175.070 153.024 0.676 117.089 0.004 0.081 0.012 0.077 0.019 0.478 122.037 0.718 138.133 0.774 152.050 0.426 109.010 0.732 182.031 0.455 215.506 112.692 132.131 0.160 0.021 0.042 0.524 305.858 110.216 230.680 159.784 156.048 0.823 115.141 0.020 110.805 108.000 0.016 0.018 0.675 112.034 0.058 0.550 164.052 0.080 0.005 0.903 122.982 164.098 0.153 0.009 0.896 131.187 116.047 0.346 111.009 0.503 133.159 0.052 0.125 165.113 0.003 0.036 0.011 0.911 141.496 149.834 212.003 0.074 0.433 121.055 0.025 0.931 126.872 182.102 0.128 0.004 0.849 128.034 0.002 0.866 117.708 166.804 137.081 145.808 195.931 151.015 236.071 0.000 0.036 0.013 0.001 0.020 0.015 0.042 177.007 0.032 0.094 0.406 106.422 163.566 147.000 0.120 0.641 127.526 113.000 0.605 128.028 0.674 111.001 0.131 210.004 0.005 0.017 0.029 0.007 0.193 108.267 122.872 113.511 154.339 112.096 0.003 0.070 0.002 0.006 0.318 258.019 0.856 130.033 0.158 0.270 109.022 0.440 118.000 0.103 148.546 125.083 0.811 119.132 0.827 118.154 0.060 0.320 125.848 121.327 147.285 139.056 0.072 0.350 151.144 0.946 143.027 0.322 136.395 114.615 136.457 135.164 0.001 0.002 0.248 118.031 0.053 133.697 110.149 0.008 0.718 145.182 159.043 0.138 0.103 0.029 181.063 0.504 137.049 0.345 108.083 0.007 0.292 149.815 179° 359° 270° 90° 0.001 0.021 0.510 111.073 0.448 146.090 0.282 115.019 0.119 0.112 116.156 0.591 129.642 115.699 106.016 0.147 0.993 106.554 116.112 0.333 123.283 188.385 217.023 0.014 0.106 137.027 138.006 0.102 0.033 0.600 143.346 130.086 0.108 0.054 0.844 112.752 223.026 0.226 121.016 0.100 0.001 0.044 0.287 176.960 108.579 142.890 107.060 0.243 141.002 0.023 170.612 119.035 0.117 122.141 106.002 0.290 107.461 115.869 163.146 0.039 0.355 113.010 0.609 183.000 0.074 0.925 114.030 0.005 0.552 106.004 0.166 85° 265° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 112 .162 0.204 160.157 0.006 0.744 135.109 0.021 0.115 0.142 0.815 175.017 0.041 107.000 0.091 0.379 169.627 249.406 219.593 178.650 194.095 128.046 0.003 0.522 193.161 0.027 0.028 0.172 112.690 122.260 106.056 117.087 0.001 144.033 0.079 0.370 116.004 0.774 125.254 156.607 213.045 0.011 0.115 105.

202 0.197 98.292 0.621 0.678 100.617 91.187 0.555 85.542 79.259 0.006 85.183 0.232 0.358 0.205 91.063 93.412 93.096 86.654 0.727 80.737 86.614 94.636 0.239 88.094 89.432 0.397 95.641 0.376 85.143 84.105 76.852 95.393 94.450 0.428 0.294 90.126 97.434 0.847 78.217 0.769 92.497 0.177 0.060 94.248 0.720 91.734 85.296 100.241 0.425 82° 262° 188° 8° 85.337 0.371 0.402 0.218 0.277 0.177 76.394 90.387 0.286 85.388 87.414 0.565 77.591 0.274 0.048 76.593 0.579 0.645 172° 352° 277° 97° 0.459 0.253 0.954 93.466 78.390 78.824 91.360 0.213 0.632 0.309 79.208 0.310 0.447 103.928 91.922 86.530 0.816 88.452 0.205 0.695 78.774 96.423 100.858 87.573 0.526 82.393 0.564 0.220 0.404 84.548 0.311 0.373 0.698 79.524 0.544 0.455 83.522 0.331 0.465 0.133 103.214 0.316 0.242 92.453 81.015 86.884 83.181 0.191 0.341 0.380 0.495 0.401 89.623 0.315 78.254 105.443 0.712 83.284 83.510 0.411 91.317 0.712 101.634 0.595 90.317 84.843 101.826 105.378 0.207 0.280 0.499 0.187 86.720 103.077 174° 354° 275° 95° 0.197 85.287 0.020 84.171 0.663 92.186 0.483 0.193 82.617 0.628 0.532 0.982 92.122 77.461 86.219 0.143 88.405 0.931 84.562 0.383 0.247 0.504 102.276 0.192 0.229 0.S-Tables.994 89.510 95.418 0.491 77.553 86.926 98.321 101.345 0.468 0.204 0.540 0.230 84.571 0.033 170° 350° 279° 99° 0.304 93.185 0.342 0.899 90.284 0.777 79.044 99.512 0.764 87.600 0.966 95.610 76.845 93.170 0.719 88.264 0.656 0.330 0.200 0.795 89.793 99.231 0.714 77.425 0.103 91.169 0.240 0.887 80.829 86.352 0.302 0.481 87.945 82.298 0.249 76.647 80.660 0.091 80.975 76.617 81.283 0.567 171° 351° 278° 98° 0.078 79.465 79.505 0.536 0.698 81.193 0.526 88.738 95.205 89.836 94.491 0.279 0.625 0.891 96.579 84.399 0.771 102.426 96.167 0.419 0.305 0.585 0.454 0.407 0.568 0.538 0.902 76.598 89.669 87.411 173° 353° 276° 96° 0.934 100.109 85.905 102.552 0.344 0.173 94.012 79.210 81.001 78.272 0.190 0.175 103.583 0.476 0.777 82.520 0.196 93.328 0.725 94.343 77.307 0.408 80.233 0.855 79.282 0.056 83.665 80° 260° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 113 .244 0.032 91.602 0.368 0.137 92.615 0.166 0.359 82.193 90.583 103.319 0.461 0.516 0.755 84.172 95.538 81° 261° 189° 9° 80.108 87.598 0.470 0.375 0.667 84.222 0.001 90.430 0.508 0.581 0.243 97.209 0.467 0.285 95.587 0.243 0.347 92.441 0.457 0.249 80.385 0.771 78.452 92.542 78.010 88.357 0.534 0.203 0.756 76.556 0.313 0.392 0.967 80.542 96.172 99.658 0.444 0.696 90.188 0.296 99.487 80.658 96.210 0.283 94.180 0.388 0.173 0.924 78.560 98.238 102.690 104.626 83.480 97.448 0. P2 185° 5° 105.063 100.334 88.420 99.239 84° 264° 186° 6° 98.915 85.294 87.645 86.683 76.350 0.442 82.806 100.273 0.336 0.463 0.412 0.575 0.423 0.276 82.325 83° 263° 187° 7° 91.089 92.355 0.577 0.598 97.604 0.876 92.168 0.291 81.499 89.328 80.113 104.013 77.236 0.323 0.451 101.624 95.645 85.390 0.514 0.155 79.235 0.480 0.638 0.239 0.618 78.918 99.326 0.439 98.239 78.863 77.262 0.843 84.857 103.325 0.465 85.303 89.542 0.382 0.609 82.647 0.861 82.278 86.048 87.198 0.197 0.393 76.129 81.567 80.223 0.184 0.048 80.696 89.293 0.693 82.196 0.797 83.363 0.608 0.106 101.227 0.435 0.232 79.267 0.506 0.322 0.179 0.320 0.863 81.503 0.546 0.030 82.258 0.482 0.970 83.668 99.049 98.372 81.321 76.894 89.957 97.252 0.945 81.581 101.310 96.974 101.544 99.938 77.970 105.619 0.612 0.628 93.501 0.318 98.528 0.308 91.172 0.953 87.353 0.270 0.192 101.027 81.080 95.395 0.347 0.478 0.639 77.400 0.487 0.295 0.304 0.178 0.175 0.472 0.948 94.371 102.514 91.077 97.430 88.411 0.913 88.361 97.830 104.367 0.437 0.349 0.397 105.199 0.554 0.649 0.211 0.245 0.489 0.088 78.164 78.411 104.683 105.362 0.008 96.308 0.566 0.040 102.474 0.550 100.269 77.314 0.804 98.289 0.663 0.249 0.387 79.260 0.652 0.333 0.596 0.311 103.199 83.995 103.404 0.114 83.589 0.225 0.933 79.439 0.290 0.807 80.421 0.492 84.251 0.215 0.682 98.829 76.296 0.558 0.301 0.417 77.370 0.519 93.170 100.560 0.446 0.558 92.493 0.535 81.645 0.237 0.110 82.717 97.736 93.798 90.224 0.376 0.539 105.195 77.465 76.643 0.269 0.228 0.606 0.416 0.409 0.365 0.107 89.610 0.637 102.256 0.195 96.518 0.789 77.176 0.837 97.630 0.170 80.255 0.540 83.550 0.455 0.485 0.494 90.538 76.620 79.426 0.550 104.825 85.266 0.971 104.397 0.526 0.299 0.339 0.263 0.194 0.286 0.201 87.334 0.369 83.623 88.503 94.575 87.370 86.780 81.272 104.

235 1.070 1.830 60.840 0.791 167° 347° 282° 102° 0.417 74.073 1.763 74.533 60.140 64.079 1.360 1.582 60.300 1.925 0.932 68.836 61.453 65.414 59.175 59.519 64.710 0.116 1.746 71.275 1.354 1.059 1.937 58.699 0.946 0.871 68.210 74.279 61.762 0.937 73.060 72.887 61.359 71.711 63.729 0.093 1.510 59.485 1.751 59.226 1.992 68.731 0.466 66.750 0.883 0.232 1.658 63.423 71.961 75.338 1.014 1.845 0.121 65.451 62.752 0.818 0.231 65.925 63.783 0.064 1.079 59.090 1.818 63.142 62.033 75.013 65.752 66.113 1.110 1.654 59.040 70.353 66.403 1.122 1.104 1.909 0.674 0.605 75.287 65.449 1.815 62.481 61.272 1.813 0.706 0.914 0.220 1.154 1.479 69.340 63.844 65.712 0.151 1.033 1.000 1.740 0.781 0.570 68.979 63.419 1.620 65.529 72.383 1.344 1.260 1.189 60.708 0.805 79° 259° 191° 11° 71.811 68.396 1.793 0.426 1.252 75.229 1.739 67.079 61.945 59.534 70.870 0.107 1.940 169° 349° 280° 100° 0.187 1.131 1.221 70.351 1.725 69.682 64.097 70.254 1.316 1.801 73.738 0.929 60.633 166° 346° 283° 103° 1.605 63.435 1.202 1.736 0.769 0.125 1.989 61.285 1.479 1.681 71.743 0.184 1.257 1.767 0.S-Tables.580 66.994 59.098 67.711 62.780 60.081 1.828 0.922 0.393 1.913 70.212 168° 348° 281° 101° 0.223 1.239 66.973 0.231 71.498 63.136 72.815 0.602 69.017 1.006 1.776 0.832 74.960 78° 258° 192° 12° 68.222 59.166 1.888 0.879 60.855 0.703 59.129 63.747 75.199 1.129 61.972 62.976 0.386 1.857 67.786 0.462 1.505 67.296 66.863 0.502 1.902 74.848 59.987 0.938 61.976 70.032 63.582 61.022 1.178 1.774 0.701 0.503 62.076 63.465 1.786 70.391 68.911 69.717 0.445 1.432 1.737 64.878 0.179 61.217 1.944 0.676 65.238 60.794 72.492 1.982 66.940 71.678 0.464 75.509 65.303 1.053 68.868 0.364 1.142 1.486 74.128 77° 257° 193° 13° 64.422 1.294 1.212 68.565 65.833 0.998 1.469 1.194 64.965 0.681 67.919 62.247 1.139 1.028 1.933 0.846 64.356 64.733 73.796 0.380 61.297 62.087 1.791 0.201 72.659 62.025 1.272 68.672 0.084 1.941 0.523 66.597 73.896 0.182 66.102 1.719 0.430 61.681 0.979 60.661 72.530 73.322 1.346 70.606 59.683 0.229 61.153 68.244 1.310 76° 256° 194° 14° 61.482 1.127 73.938 0.104 71.070 72.695 66.330 61.850 0.541 69.681 60.194 73.416 1.860 72.295 71.434 60.970 0.607 62.917 0.660 70.633 61.925 66. P3 190° 10° 76.897 59.462 73.791 64.745 0.727 72.348 1.850 70.056 1.927 72.957 65.803 0.928 0.869 73.798 67.024 62.099 1.145 1.398 65.471 70.406 1.676 75.066 65.810 71.297 1.005 73.788 0.073 74.035 69.676 0.901 0.412 1.302 64.664 69.936 0.053 1.029 60.325 1.182 63.335 1.272 67.732 65.757 0.798 0.993 72.367 1.452 1.819 75.047 1.291 1.091 60.281 1.341 1.263 1.042 59.563 67.119 1.409 70.042 74.235 69.214 67.552 71.687 0.366 59.981 0.036 1.916 67.270 59.871 63.076 1.039 1.667 0.447 67.113 69.357 1.278 1.534 75.510 68.348 74.630 68.040 61.373 1.954 0.169 1.093 68.126 66.972 69.726 0.992 0.062 1.194 62.463 72.810 0.843 0.751 68.823 0.693 74.031 1.261 73.901 64.393 63.214 1.930 0.462 59.329 1.723 70.279 74.040 66.876 0.128 1.665 73.472 1.328 73.190 1.269 1.835 0.875 71.336 60.779 0.715 0.907 0.395 73.731 60.968 0.800 59.734 61.853 0.127 59.978 0.860 0.800 0.318 59.034 67.331 68.960 0.067 1.690 0.332 1.842 58.248 64.865 0.489 1.159 70.771 0.573 64.011 64.867 66.733 0.455 1.808 0.638 66.310 1.627 64.020 1.330 67.445 63.296 69.616 71.005 71.332 72.488 71.156 67.894 0.399 1.319 1.409 66.348 62.176 65.133 1.238 1.972 74.050 1.700 165° 345° 284° 104° 1.429 1.174 69.764 63.956 64.683 61.196 1.962 0.157 1.685 0.624 74.495 1.464 64.665 0.795 58.692 0.889 58.949 0.398 72.390 1.759 0.091 62.136 1.409 1.595 72.912 0.377 1.957 0.370 1.160 1.234 63.086 64.182 75.820 0.357 69.764 0.694 0.669 0.984 58.724 0.032 58.873 0.069 66.558 59.886 0.989 0.483 60.385 60.848 0.241 1.506 75° 255° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 114 .266 72.867 62.172 1.755 0.175 1.995 0.410 64.245 62.597 70.975 67.266 1.622 67.858 0.952 0.531 61.211 1.042 1.459 1.112 75.380 1.323 75.009 1.451 68.418 69.920 0.140 60.825 0.748 0.142 74.555 62.388 67.881 0.096 1.805 0.703 0.208 1.393 75.552 63.890 75.045 1.313 1.181 1.696 0.830 0.555 74.899 0.984 0.810 66.787 69.763 62.288 1.904 0.632 60.838 0.849 69.442 1.003 1.439 1.287 60.722 0.748 58.205 1.148 1.163 1.690 68.785 61.306 1.287 63.499 1.788 65.891 0.193 1.167 71.250 1.475 1.284 70.342 65.400 62.900 65.011 1.

677 56.354 55.393 51.512 58.540 1.979 1.067 49.364 2.343 2.115 54.506 1.767 56.995 52.237 2.009 54.185 58.983 1.814 57.644 1.879 1.637 2.154 47.694 1.539 57.705 1.197 51.666 1.471 51.265 57.511 51.771 1.038 2.086 2.298 48.716 1.655 1.809 48.381 2.516 1.512 1.902 56.128 57.774 1.634 1.973 47.989 53.658 1.785 1.334 48.885 50.676 57.433 71° 251° 199° 19° 48.572 55.494 2.275 51.837 54.880 54.045 48.752 1.366 47.651 1.747 55.691 1.570 2.346 50.736 48.745 1.782 1.365 56.777 49.914 52.738 53.521 2.769 50.186 52.703 55.544 47.565 2.472 2.443 48.760 1.925 1.709 54.346 52.602 1.738 1.236 51.194 50.407 53.296 2.225 2.543 1.804 46.403 2.353 51.326 54.439 49.175 2.503 2.739 49.052 55.651 2.827 51.325 58.295 47.666 54.473 47.118 53.905 53.734 1.390 2.260 47.427 52.564 1.014 46.266 2.856 1.477 2.550 1.365 49.796 1.118 50.241 2.610 2.157 54.334 2.790 55.552 2.187 56.034 2.407 2.151 2.637 1.411 2.084 47.042 2.441 55.710 52.030 2.461 50.736 161° 341° 288° 108° 2.615 47.722 47.553 1.793 1.278 58.447 57.360 2.324 53.822 53.663 48.371 48.437 47.574 1.538 50.073 54.009 47.624 2.134 2.062 2.780 53.159 53.692 50.547 2.741 1.712 1.553 48.699 48.498 56.585 1.200 53.699 46.722 56.543 56.902 1.966 164° 344° 285° 105° 1.066 52.834 55.232 50.002 50.292 2.326 2.450 2.054 56.748 51.119 47.687 1.819 1.306 52.612 1.651 47.619 1.077 53.287 2.615 55.167 2.401 57.385 50.355 2.508 47.619 2.159 2.219 57.588 1.581 54.192 2.394 2.979 46.830 1.022 2.864 1.630 46.437 2.561 2.571 1.512 2.155 2.387 52.411 54.351 2.674 2.448 53.557 1.987 1.991 1.143 56.906 1.543 2.659 55.216 49.300 2.808 50.595 1.276 56.868 1.398 2.883 48.656 2.898 1.629 52.356 57.279 2.701 1.701 70° 250° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 115 .225 47.853 1.338 2.070 2.026 51.139 58.605 1.966 55.188 2.642 2.589 48.224 55.253 49.944 1.385 2.026 2.477 49.011 2.534 2.920 48.852 49.994 48.963 50.847 50.832 52.626 48.702 49.242 53.481 2.662 1.308 50.250 2.946 51.041 51.183 2.074 2.727 1.589 51.094 2.751 52.719 1.119 51.669 2.284 54.190 47.098 2.526 1.104 49.467 52.046 57.221 2.909 46.609 1.372 2.952 1.773 48.031 53.793 47.429 2.419 58.692 2.614 53.592 2.163 2.365 53.536 1.722 57.567 1.423 50.014 2.321 2.531 53.054 2.465 58.670 52.050 2.514 49.811 1.082 2.999 57.490 2.697 2.966 49.901 47.310 57.004 49.018 2.861 57.233 2.095 55.002 162° 342° 287° 107° 1.815 49.320 56.283 2.749 1.010 55.680 1.572 53.199 54.080 51.556 2.731 50.117 48.957 48.579 47.179 2.538 54.090 2.648 1.975 1.756 1.812 56.500 50.966 54.665 2.606 58.030 48.606 2.042 50.688 2.923 54.529 1.953 57.083 57.829 47.509 1.995 1.933 1.778 1.808 1.664 49.588 2.516 48.266 52.878 55.874 46.865 47.791 52.181 55.036 52.947 53.267 55.424 2.574 2.402 47.841 1.589 49.910 1.700 58.960 1.485 2.627 49.433 2.669 1.080 50.815 1.653 50.838 1.993 56.867 51.708 51.921 1.630 57.668 51.231 56.906 51.794 54.493 57.099 56.499 2.697 53.262 48.559 58.698 1.947 56.550 51.143 2.787 51.709 1.723 1.038 56.058 2.139 2.595 160° 340° 289° 109° 2.402 49.525 2.633 56.317 2.179 72° 252° 198° 18° 51.454 56.548 52.126 2.523 1.716 74° 254° 196° 16° 55.110 2.046 2.049 47.377 2.118 2.986 51.539 2.655 53.913 1.673 1.734 46.928 49.455 2.078 2.142 49.683 2.686 47.258 2.229 2.196 2.530 2.578 1.789 1.940 1.409 56.327 49.597 2.875 1.591 1.576 50.890 1.883 1.623 54.660 2.092 58.489 53.442 2.156 50.138 55.368 54.948 1.516 2.664 46.971 1.232 58.226 52.845 1.894 1.683 1.924 50.999 2.678 2.468 2.834 1.066 2.208 2.907 57.270 50.171 2.212 2.628 2.153 48.584 57.937 47.485 55.653 58.262 2.588 56.290 49.560 1.189 48. P4 195° 15° 58.627 1.246 2.432 51.508 52.368 2.130 2.480 48.823 1.589 52.533 1.283 53.676 1.304 2.416 2.581 1.857 56.615 50.464 2.583 2.398 55.S-Tables.940 73° 253° 197° 17° 53.106 52.007 2.204 2.420 2.453 54.615 2.407 163° 343° 286° 106° 1.275 2.579 2.804 1.081 48.641 1.871 1.633 2.309 2.547 1.839 46.630 1.601 2.623 1.528 55.496 54.922 55.890 49.860 1.758 47.372 58.826 1.800 1.158 51.917 1.647 2.179 49.964 1.955 52.226 48.242 54.944 46.769 46.768 57.313 2.967 1.598 1.767 1.446 2.271 2.114 2.102 2.216 2.254 2.331 47.873 52.763 1.849 1.519 1.937 1.106 2.956 1.347 2.459 2.616 1.146 52.751 54.864 53.929 1.887 1.846 48.147 2.122 2.174 57.314 51.407 48.003 2.508 2.311 55.552 49.330 2.730 1.200 2.629 51.

012 38.228 3.142 3.581 3.925 42.210 43.961 41.841 2.331 42.657 43.029 4.771 45.979 43.362 42.534 45.097 3.716 3.991 40.587 3.089 38.812 157° 337° 292° 112° 3.112 3.142 44.147 3.703 45.046 40.893 3.528 3.444 3.300 42.933 3.955 3.197 3.753 43.705 42.633 44.813 2.612 39.255 4.917 2.941 45.449 3.814 38.043 3.280 40.338 38.061 38.554 39.905 3.970 2.872 40.261 4.222 40.466 45.759 37.937 2.433 3.132 3.181 46.122 3.545 40.475 3.272 44.765 44.734 2.164 45.093 3.871 3.024 3.560 43.486 3.988 39.109 4.608 3.044 44.450 38.642 158° 338° 291° 111° 2.469 44.132 4.899 38.827 2.265 45.898 2.689 43.163 40.112 46.394 38.749 3.874 2.757 2.752 2.248 3.677 37.273 3.319 3.422 38.624 3.733 3.706 2.503 41.083 43.849 3.549 42.785 39.273 43.034 3.S-Tables.720 2.662 3.780 2.814 39.956 2.826 3.711 2.951 37.753 40.241 43.031 44.831 44.182 39.103 4.955 38.913 2.278 3.051 43.269 42.464 43.053 3.821 3.150 4.225 4.214 4.931 44.019 3.946 2.899 3.117 38.127 3.040 39.788 3.618 38.534 41.098 4.272 65° 245° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 116 .758 38.439 39.860 3.727 3.678 3.947 43.350 3.855 2.865 2.893 42.325 39.737 45.207 44.873 45.029 3.496 43.842 40.706 3.730 38.021 40.018 4.975 2.843 3.238 3.693 40.507 3.355 3.310 40.916 3.664 40.144 38.669 45.249 46.172 38.172 3.843 39.366 38.284 46.102 3.882 3.534 38.053 42.901 39.486 40.171 41.534 44.337 44.594 41.131 45.760 3.088 3.040 4.345 3.927 66° 246° 204° 24° 39.832 3.069 156° 336° 293° 113° 3.470 3.851 2.597 67° 247° 203° 23° 40.146 46.641 39.790 2.146 43.727 39.592 3.038 3.988 42.058 4.337 43.927 38.704 37.512 3.115 4.768 42.107 3.304 3.035 4.233 3.808 2.715 2.393 42.965 2.862 42.034 38.077 44.314 3.889 2.673 3.571 3.590 38.155 4.560 3.478 38.932 2.860 2.305 43.592 43.111 41.804 3.386 3.292 41.403 44.997 44.202 4.872 39.964 44.114 43.560 46.105 40.950 3.141 41.877 3.046 4.487 37.239 39.407 3.423 3.253 3.702 38.576 3.405 155° 335° 294° 114° 3.457 40.365 45.322 41.782 3.990 2.352 41.231 4.506 38.747 41.480 3.799 42.902 40.283 3.613 3.921 3.995 2.436 44.353 46.798 44.366 3.017 39.985 69° 249° 201° 21° 44.670 39.020 42.927 2.454 3.924 37.738 3.222 3.238 42.723 40.063 4.864 44.117 3.975 45.179 4.721 43.777 41.842 38.220 4.528 43.882 43.167 4.785 43.401 43.381 3.340 3.879 2.870 2.640 3.227 38.804 2.433 45.468 39.978 3.966 3.959 39.009 45.674 38.711 3.732 37.695 3.597 3.514 37.177 3.456 46.518 42.729 2.630 3.903 2.684 3.604 40.200 38.831 42.167 3.289 3.568 37.376 3.006 37.473 41.144 4.121 4.459 37.428 3.799 2.283 68° 248° 202° 22° 42.369 43.023 4.069 39.655 41.382 39.081 41.812 40.603 3.335 3.201 41.412 3.486 42.766 2.922 2.058 3.567 159° 339° 290° 110° 2.539 3.601 45.980 2.961 40.575 40.207 3.818 43.501 44.992 41.154 39.595 46.985 2.999 3.667 3.516 40.318 46.595 37.465 3.387 46.732 44.898 44.187 3.424 42.837 2.951 2.212 3.908 2.907 45.782 40.815 3.422 46.776 2.370 44.268 39.748 2.716 41.888 3.176 42.635 3.196 4.744 3.162 3.838 41.646 38.646 3.846 2.185 4.000 4.580 42.412 41.517 3.064 45.871 38.984 38.850 43.915 43.869 41.339 40.083 3.298 45.152 3.305 44.491 46.086 4.502 3.296 39.838 3.044 46.243 4.009 3.299 3.787 37.078 46.076 40.583 39.650 37.263 3.092 4.267 4.190 4.097 39.910 3.371 3.961 3.786 38.941 2.841 37.496 3.541 37.793 3.006 4.771 3.893 2.865 3.930 39.012 43.294 3.625 41.137 3.174 44.097 45.623 37.523 3.736 42.084 42.427 40.651 3.157 3.526 46.398 40.619 3.173 4.211 39.075 4.399 45.625 43.927 3.438 3.698 39.500 45.125 39.755 3.657 3.014 3.822 2.785 2.562 38.146 42.814 37.564 41.555 3.192 3.231 41.261 41.217 3.309 3.443 41.432 37.051 41.839 45.215 46.239 44.983 3.332 45.689 3.979 37.972 3.115 42.078 3.938 3.182 3.063 3.832 2.961 2.743 2.202 3.161 4.207 42.701 2.666 44. P5 200° 20° 46.995 4.805 45.722 3.771 2.397 3.900 41.330 3.052 4.283 38.799 3.255 38.411 39.533 3.432 43.818 2.497 39.930 41.956 42.402 3.568 45.611 42.567 44.854 3.794 2.808 41.231 45.766 3.869 37.418 3.931 40.022 41.258 3.686 41.382 41.634 40.896 37.138 4.073 3.724 2.700 3.249 4.012 4.360 3.738 2.251 40.127 4.674 42.884 2.134 40.368 40.544 3.069 4.549 3.243 3.989 3.354 39.324 3.810 3.635 45.237 4.777 3.208 4.311 38.699 44.080 4.944 3.600 44.455 42.642 42.198 45.178 43.048 3.068 3.268 3.459 3.192 40.004 3.109 44.392 3.565 3.756 39.491 3.526 39.762 2.

343 4.980 5.797 5.301 30.764 35.681 36.677 30.115 5.297 32.059 6.353 5.197 33.649 31.770 34.174 6.311 36.697 32.131 6.260 5.088 6.761 36.149 33.421 4.440 5.318 33.673 32.103 150° 330° 299° 119° 5.741 5.677 4.016 6.006 32.752 4.142 5.221 33.201 5.454 5.884 4.948 36.145 6.216 31.487 4.051 5.818 5.286 5.787 36.123 35.695 31.870 34.367 4.233 36.748 5.180 36.064 5.420 34.910 32.671 4.487 33.102 5.672 31.871 4.327 35.839 5.207 5.295 34.594 34.840 4.124 6.945 5.501 5.496 36.S-Tables.518 4.810 31.827 33.353 35.924 5.138 6.013 30.037 6.665 4.345 30.308 4.816 35.455 30.881 5.467 5.754 33.764 4.073 34.153 6.790 35.590 5.776 5.461 32.585 4.313 5.681 33.400 5.018 31.447 5.542 5.280 5.952 5.314 4.024 35.250 32.389 30.406 5.818 61° 241° 209° 29° 31.009 6.469 34.366 5.705 33.842 35.644 34.320 4.251 35.290 4.860 5.221 34.935 4.920 35.373 4.980 4.562 5.355 4.460 5.078 33.444 34.427 4.741 31.284 4.603 31.073 6.397 4.954 4.415 4.665 5.769 5.134 32.225 35.005 5.030 6.579 32.792 32.162 37.391 4.326 4.409 4.900 30.865 4.811 5.035 31.652 4.122 34.306 31.622 4.946 35.477 30.687 35.238 31.101 33.720 5.157 32.227 32.901 33.744 32.532 35.169 30.634 64° 244° 206° 26° 35.910 5.966 5.240 5.346 5.967 4.833 30.273 5.839 32.064 32.203 6.089 5.624 5.485 32.921 34.095 6.610 5.463 4.055 37.171 31.300 5. P6 205° 25° 37.054 33.583 35.243 37.839 152° 332° 297° 117° 5.655 36.602 36.302 35.846 5.528 5.443 151° 331° 298° 118° 5.790 5.576 5.070 5.148 31.102 36.535 5.391 32.110 32.098 35.469 36.193 31.367 30.204 32.895 5.968 30.876 33.420 31.650 32.638 5.921 36.337 4.916 4.320 32.214 5.894 35.686 5.522 36.730 33.295 153° 333° 296° 116° 4.707 5.762 5.135 37.024 33.982 32.644 5.867 36.683 4.646 4.544 30.174 5.469 4.902 5.890 4.390 36.708 4.506 4.181 6.247 5.734 5.608 33.420 5.211 6.272 4.041 32.825 5.181 5.082 37.405 37.172 34.499 30.856 31.474 5.515 5.108 37.245 33.903 4.804 5.755 5.390 33.959 5.669 34.560 4.632 30.923 30.833 4.096 5.788 30.536 4.896 34.841 36.102 6.602 32.077 5.196 6.986 4.269 33.910 4.597 4.116 6.603 5.352 31.853 5.045 6.508 5.734 36.397 31.973 4.342 33.569 5.727 4.999 5.532 32.508 32.961 4.591 4.617 5.261 31.414 32.628 36.635 35.306 5.519 34.445 4.922 4.879 31.988 5.349 4.285 36.022 34.002 6.433 4.332 4.714 4.693 5.718 31.626 32.998 35.366 33.512 4.945 30.259 36.213 30.558 35.168 5.925 33.411 30.975 33.028 37.934 32.783 4.466 31.225 6.200 35.279 30.999 33.433 30.993 4.147 30.733 4.859 4.766 30.018 5.783 5.351 37.274 32.326 5.379 4.738 35.438 33.894 36.125 31.361 4.174 35.233 5.722 30.378 35.270 37.739 4.758 4.125 30.573 4.395 34.218 6.364 36.690 4.821 4.500 4.271 34.493 4.173 33.148 5.815 4.856 30.846 4.721 32.584 33.544 34.030 33.651 5.058 31.929 4.696 4.659 4.634 4.511 33.080 6.719 34.874 5.073 35.125 33.802 4.972 35.207 36.297 37.160 6.583 5.867 5.925 31.489 31.487 5.404 35.878 4.329 31.438 32.323 30.155 5.902 31.771 4.235 30.852 4.367 32.796 4.128 36.481 4.948 31.247 60° 240° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 117 .494 5.524 4.616 4.296 4.811 30.548 4.588 30.777 4.971 31.406 62° 242° 208° 28° 32.109 5.827 4.098 34.481 35.109 6.276 35.878 30.320 5.080 31.494 34.596 5.549 36.549 5.057 5.566 4.557 31.320 34.439 4.555 5.727 5.511 31.971 34.266 5.941 4.294 33.712 35.191 30.626 31.443 31.047 35.566 30.417 36.887 32.012 5.700 5.344 32.632 33.083 5.714 5.655 30.554 4.946 34.457 4.044 5.950 33.370 34.427 5.196 34.455 35.481 5.833 31.246 34.385 4.708 36.443 36.994 31.451 4.373 5.414 33.429 35.232 6.974 36.076 36.542 4.795 34.257 30.375 31.129 5.815 32.187 5.240 6.897 4.803 33.380 5.820 34.787 31.103 31.530 4.340 5.154 36.189 6.672 5.694 34.779 33.167 6.628 4.745 34.227 5.393 5.535 33.610 30.135 5.506 35.609 35.048 34.789 4.559 33.845 34.278 4.746 4.122 5.868 35.216 37.475 4.579 4.360 5.661 35.180 32.333 5.973 5.038 5.702 4.631 5.012 63° 243° 207° 27° 34.958 32.066 6.149 35.768 32.997 34.220 5.917 5.386 5.433 5.302 4.001 36.403 4.948 4.052 6.816 154° 334° 295° 115° 4.345 34.640 4.764 31.463 33.938 5.253 5.575 36.744 30.284 31.147 34.194 5.338 36.995 6.293 5.555 32.521 30.025 5.990 30.814 36.324 37.031 5.863 32.161 5.534 31.699 30.931 5.888 5.679 5.378 37.580 31.413 5.087 32.832 5.852 33.050 36.619 34.808 4.189 37.521 5.569 34.609 4.023 6.603 4.721 4.657 33.658 5.

288 8.565 26.254 8.646 8.314 8.048 29.218 29.375 8.395 24.394 6.863 29.317 27.212 28.357 28.262 6.762 27.773 25.091 29.213 7.143 56° 236° 214° 34° 25.094 25.835 24.527 7.964 25.461 28.357 6.858 28.998 8.779 24.188 25.820 26.711 28.273 26.623 26.682 26.868 25.998 26.764 7.921 28.409 6.269 7.740 7.881 7.423 6.559 24.945 27.421 7.978 6.599 27.118 26.253 28.486 24.942 28.863 27.840 26.640 27.526 25.754 6.389 29.049 8.885 29.899 26.364 6.831 7.619 8.831 6.770 6.041 8.228 8.237 8.663 6.429 7.950 29.849 25.907 29.816 28.195 24.588 6.076 25.249 24.690 29.389 26.854 6.413 25.697 25.253 7.440 28.549 8.001 24.983 24.337 27.724 24.659 25.143 8.693 6.098 27.722 26.856 7.860 26.488 8.325 7.655 8.401 8.462 7.994 29.785 6.378 28.431 24.263 25.166 7.333 7.633 7.274 28.083 8.504 24.890 24.985 28.879 28.305 6.150 7.413 7.923 7.505 8.319 25.190 7.620 27.409 26.378 27.003 25.600 7.357 8.048 7.904 27.007 8.486 7.873 7.539 27.092 8.461 6.789 7.889 7.245 7.219 8.211 8.027 28.625 29.297 8.716 6.015 8.798 24.293 7.592 7.418 27.336 28.154 29.132 25.526 26.349 7.602 8.618 6.357 7.982 7.394 25.304 24.608 7.567 8.823 7.409 8.900 6.926 25.309 7.174 7.945 25.701 27.754 25.103 7.089 28.657 7.244 25.401 6.126 8.946 24.839 6.177 8.282 29.543 7.261 7.616 7.432 25.573 6.776 29.510 7.039 25.811 25.327 6.141 145° 325° 304° 124° 8.561 29.366 8.392 8.229 7.633 6.648 28.741 27.427 8.234 26.872 24.842 29.782 27.877 6.478 7.150 25.117 8.151 8.671 6.565 6.159 24.693 59° 239° 211° 31° 28.280 8.017 7.292 26.481 28.078 27.057 25.702 26.320 6.643 26.964 24.475 29.099 26.879 26.678 6.301 7.962 6.058 8.649 7.584 8.595 24.494 7.261 29.528 6.142 7.773 7.586 28.993 7.575 7.781 26.458 27.916 6.582 29.610 6.113 25.197 7.295 28.814 7.283 6.221 7.518 29.137 26.372 6.079 26.869 6.908 6.823 6.041 26.066 8.176 26.213 24.973 7.603 6.816 24.792 25.286 24.325 29.640 25.802 27.169 25.682 7.798 29.398 28.305 8.669 28.038 27.964 28.300 25.907 25.604 26.237 7.194 8.707 7.071 7.690 7.972 29.237 27.498 6.965 7.496 8. P7 210° 30° 30.579 27.158 7.470 7.342 6.650 24.405 7.678 25.545 26.079 7.375 25.648 6.171 28.177 24.112 29.S-Tables.747 6.966 27.884 27.522 24.059 30.541 24.444 8.040 7.498 27.820 29.182 7.133 29.595 6.551 7.160 8.954 6.365 7.313 6.686 6.947 6.069 29.602 25.798 7.637 8.559 7.311 26.356 25.341 7.800 26.467 24.624 7.931 6.647 29.931 7.432 29.176 29.233 28.853 24.100 8.137 27.087 7.202 8.448 26.927 24.373 7.483 6.830 25.986 6.389 7.723 7.446 6.370 26.488 25.024 8.627 28.531 8.862 6.539 29.762 6.419 28.340 24.257 27.239 29.081 30.303 29.381 7.580 6.291 6.111 7.453 6.885 6.157 26.134 7.383 8.939 6.331 26.523 28.315 28.475 6.438 27.438 6.621 25.506 26.559 27.410 29.753 28.177 27.502 28.037 30.437 7.269 6.839 7.331 8.027 29.919 26.641 57° 237° 213° 33° 26.006 28.453 29.732 28.843 27.298 6.487 26.335 6.742 24.540 8.781 7.253 26.119 7.567 7.663 26.523 8.020 25.478 27.225 25.244 146° 326° 303° 123° 7.735 25.777 6.628 8.346 29.350 26.614 24.940 7.350 6.168 8.535 7.741 26.340 8.733 29.285 7.195 26.761 24.565 28.358 24.513 6.060 26.674 7.755 29.317 7.056 7.660 27.507 25.197 27.496 29.007 27.505 6.231 24.068 28.892 6.205 7.535 6.297 27.550 6.095 7.848 7.215 26.379 6.445 7.468 6.431 6.545 25.502 7.680 27.808 6.716 25.398 27.731 7.774 28.864 7.217 27.579 148° 328° 301° 121° 6.064 7.032 7.948 7.978 26.514 8.130 28.254 6.032 8.823 27.150 28.756 7.607 28.900 28.469 25.632 24.593 8.761 26.583 25.909 24.276 6.520 6.640 6.323 8.731 6.721 27.544 28.793 6.158 58° 238° 212° 32° 27.518 7.577 24.413 24.009 7.451 25.435 8.386 6.698 7.923 6.490 6.048 28.267 24.470 8.669 24.939 26.281 25.454 7.206 25.584 26.748 7.564 25.462 8.376 24.739 6.024 7.185 8.058 27.357 27.956 7.558 6.518 27.109 8.664 55° 235° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 118 .715 7.575 8.338 25.389 147° 327° 302° 122° 7.558 8.701 6.418 8.001 7.397 7.277 7.724 6.075 8.322 24.277 27.611 8.604 29.018 26.022 26.271 8.800 6.134 8.584 7.126 7.016 29.990 7.846 6.118 27.816 149° 329° 300° 120° 6.247 6.192 28.928 29.668 29.806 7.706 24.665 7.453 8.709 6.449 24.416 6.367 29.641 7.103 30.157 27.428 26.837 28.986 27.795 28.898 7.687 24.888 25.467 26.959 26.479 8.914 7.245 8.816 6.983 25.262 8.690 28.109 28.906 7.543 6.656 6.349 8.712 29.970 6.197 29.625 6.925 27.

343 11.548 9.784 22.011 11.160 10.256 22.623 9.729 23.665 20.561 22.727 9.259 11.817 10.858 10.698 22.495 10.218 23.501 11.779 8.633 20.861 9.417 9.903 21.340 23.269 20.040 9.486 10.911 19.601 20.490 20.213 9.832 9.746 9.746 10.957 22.436 10.506 20.767 22.991 22.756 9.009 22.806 8.375 21.301 20.114 11.904 8.907 23.042 11.501 9.138 22.491 9.364 11.021 11.239 22.463 23.051 20.102 10.440 21.456 10.066 20.239 10.813 9.128 20.527 22.726 8.760 20.130 23.390 19.664 22.777 10.183 23.323 22.114 21.254 19.050 21.426 10.919 10.926 19.493 22.017 21.156 11.289 22.776 20.168 9.572 21.347 52° 232° 218° 38° 21.949 8.921 20.395 11.428 23.069 24.191 20.160 20.001 20.985 20.505 10.427 20.961 23.082 20.754 21.887 21.186 9.020 22.958 8.605 23.939 10.278 9.553 11.322 11.179 21.788 8.066 142° 322° 307° 127° 9.163 21.960 10.270 11.905 22.140 9.123 24.177 9.888 22.689 9.427 11.836 23.288 23.261 21.348 20.756 19.635 10.389 9.374 22.043 23.305 23.207 20.718 9.476 10.853 21.868 8.557 9.642 9.063 10.287 9.170 10.474 20.986 8.223 9.094 11.396 10.957 9.576 9.851 8.205 22.239 11.005 10.820 21.715 22.699 9.306 22.315 9.681 22.708 9.073 10.613 22.232 9.537 20.085 9.977 8.658 23.481 19.323 23.269 9.925 23.918 9.063 11.364 20.375 19.510 9.575 50° 230° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 119 .787 19.950 51° 231° 219° 39° 20.112 10.681 8.327 10.405 19.238 20.166 11.792 20.552 23.782 23.031 9.750 22.543 11.625 10.278 10.171 22.734 8.155 22.149 9.803 19.113 141° 321° 308° 128° 10.929 10.316 20.249 11.094 9.726 19.920 21.277 21.358 21.870 9.595 22.113 9.241 9.259 9.671 21.824 20.686 10.854 23.144 20.026 23.104 11.736 10.376 10.208 19.342 21.195 9.175 20.720 21.717 8.196 21.073 11.437 11.922 22.995 9.425 22.204 54° 234° 216° 36° 23.770 21.770 8.728 20.976 9.097 20.457 21.148 23.712 20.710 19.991 11.651 9.670 9.587 23.690 8.877 8.836 22.408 9.235 23.015 10.288 10.529 9.656 10.824 8.511 19.937 21.886 8.819 22.922 8.337 10.408 21.229 10.285 20.833 8.122 9.359 19.082 10.476 22.695 19.699 8.815 8.222 22.131 21.426 9.268 10.199 10.003 21.800 23.131 9.716 10.078 144° 324° 305° 125° 8.775 9.510 22.273 22.585 10.291 11.066 21.834 19.899 10.269 19.765 9.676 23.744 20.238 19.953 20.408 22.997 23.284 19.905 20.555 10.058 9.937 20.646 10.756 10.228 11.324 9.466 19.889 23.188 22.564 11.105 24.375 23.970 21.928 9.353 11.676 10.446 10.538 9.515 10.535 10.087 24.180 10.973 19.054 22.113 20.187 11.772 19.297 10.569 20.942 19.787 21.787 10.004 9.872 23.435 9.458 20.743 8.764 23.640 23.511 11.666 10.190 10.034 10.035 20.605 21.654 21.332 11.473 9.797 8.848 10.037 22.443 20.013 9.542 19.270 23.621 21.704 21.358 23.986 9.314 19.970 10.870 21.838 10.969 20.367 10.044 10.940 8.880 9.076 9.499 23.988 19.672 8.131 10.649 19.522 21.615 10.841 9.950 10.818 23.733 22.374 11.385 11.801 22.416 11.680 19.145 11.737 9.087 22.784 9.141 24.343 9.019 20.151 10.822 9.617 20.176 11.889 20.943 23.253 23.638 21.406 11.557 19.244 21.469 11.765 53° 233° 217° 37° 22.687 21.525 10.622 23.649 20.575 10.895 8.307 10.585 9.312 11.849 19.931 8.737 21.049 9.082 21.254 20.595 10.603 19.995 10.113 23.092 10.410 23.953 21.165 23.459 22.466 10.987 21.222 20.889 9.463 9.878 10.553 20.357 10.851 9.061 23.967 8.398 9.024 10.545 10.808 20.544 22.454 9.761 8.859 8.411 20.618 19. P8 215° 35° 24.522 20.664 19.200 23.445 9.837 21.448 11.585 20.416 10.870 22.696 20.661 9.842 8.326 21.605 10.939 22.473 21.527 19.516 23.034 21.506 21.446 23.595 9.357 22.767 10.147 21.794 9.895 19.352 9.301 11.032 11.280 11.696 10.937 9.532 11.803 9.218 11.588 19.424 21.880 19.386 10.329 19.361 9.096 23.193 140° 320° 309° 129° 10.980 10.647 22.726 10.340 22.406 10.909 9.004 19.807 10.204 9.209 10.391 21.158 9.565 10.827 10.S-Tables.083 11.632 9.490 21.604 9.125 11.856 20.299 19.522 11.706 10.711 23.207 11.913 8.853 22.306 9.888 10.219 10.001 11.250 9.555 21.015 23.258 10.104 9.054 143° 323° 306° 126° 9.803 21.121 22.864 19.520 9.747 23.104 22.708 8.979 23.490 11.053 10.588 21.333 9.442 22.482 9.741 19.344 19.380 9.223 19.098 21.067 9.347 10.135 11.539 21.370 9.966 9.033 24.693 23.840 20.296 9.228 21.395 20.481 23.070 22.141 10.393 23.458 11.293 21.614 9.534 23.569 23.634 19.899 9.797 10.566 9.121 10.197 11.680 9.752 8.391 22.332 20.309 21.957 19.496 19.681 20.872 20.451 19.630 22.578 22.212 21.868 10.818 19.974 22.022 9.052 11.379 20.078 23.572 19.051 24.317 10.248 10.435 19.479 11.420 19.947 9.664 8.909 10.

393 18.922 16.134 12.211 12.197 14.505 13.644 12.730 16.788 14.335 18.939 18.306 18.S-Tables.724 11.434 15.738 14.237 13.432 12.365 12.646 13.838 14.651 14.465 12.091 12.993 12.718 15.146 18.763 14.836 15.433 16.589 15.123 12.984 12.595 16.365 17.777 11.280 15.863 11.392 14.004 16.798 16.353 13.606 11.100 14.225 13.634 13.185 14.103 18.330 13.222 12.225 17.988 17.519 17.599 12.435 17.069 12.666 12.145 12.422 18.499 12.599 13.214 13.166 15.875 14.406 16.248 18.831 17.086 16.379 16.352 16.419 16.505 17.485 15.073 19.326 16.191 13.233 14.867 16.920 13.364 18.239 17.133 19.564 14.191 15.860 13.232 16.156 12.277 12.491 17.408 18.110 13.076 14.663 14.282 14.638 11.610 12.968 13.771 16.734 11.564 13.745 11.376 13.537 15.713 14.101 17.437 18.166 16.799 11.635 16.443 12.156 17.312 16.089 15.941 15.113 16.850 14.041 13.446 16.421 12.602 15.514 16.088 14.198 17.339 16.294 14.820 11.859 12.016 14.064 13.007 13.902 17.628 18.888 17.246 14.552 14.032 17.332 12.998 18.954 15.945 17.775 14.881 12.510 18.517 13.885 11.163 19.255 15.587 13.961 12.618 17.900 14.779 12.990 16.099 16.916 17.694 13.233 12.980 15.588 12.170 17.527 14.528 13.343 12.716 18.813 12.692 15.139 16.343 14.102 15.498 15.270 14.713 11.219 16.690 16.717 13.288 12.380 14.051 45° 225° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 120 .863 14.848 13.678 12.672 18.153 15.219 18. P9 220° 40° 19.928 11.476 12.307 14.622 137° 317° 312° 132° 12.688 14.132 18.852 11.466 14.700 12.658 13.161 14.575 11.705 13.758 16.820 18.527 16.272 13.331 15.988 15.020 16.495 18.395 15.533 17.487 16.299 12.613 18.949 11.705 15.834 18.025 12.295 17.074 18.983 18.421 15.817 17.115 17.670 11.014 15.909 18.291 18.744 16.980 13.103 19.408 15.774 17.192 16.460 16.309 17.932 13.319 14.355 14.229 15.689 17.702 11.977 16.306 15.267 17.161 18.938 12.368 14.906 11.831 11.760 18.453 14.601 14.895 11.587 47° 227° 223° 43° 16.676 14.971 11.583 18.633 12.870 12.222 49° 229° 221° 41° 18.950 12.133 13.995 13.701 18.660 11.515 14.064 14.874 17.576 15.917 11.963 14.156 13.639 14.581 16.087 17.976 14.561 17.451 18.098 13.802 12.026 15.757 12.244 12.825 14.628 11.812 16.813 14.725 14.349 18.884 13.800 14.666 15.689 12.949 16.896 13.622 12.088 19.585 11.926 14.407 17.717 16.569 18.951 14.167 12.732 15.790 18.449 17.472 15.454 12.435 13.626 14.387 12.731 17.030 13.784 15.682 13.013 18.179 16.554 16.681 11.670 13.121 13.785 16.967 15.307 46° 226° 224° 44° 15.382 15.267 15.481 13.043 19.777 13.388 13.173 14.915 15.259 16.490 14.944 13.493 13.028 19.152 16.052 135° 315° 314° 134° 14.771 15.001 15.756 11.758 15.233 18.864 18.913 14.959 17.741 13.894 16.295 13.568 16.662 16.477 17.963 16.500 16.703 16.679 15.928 15.216 15.791 12.449 138° 318° 311° 131° 12.404 14.128 17.543 12.283 13.577 14.711 12.357 15.411 13.112 12.344 15.745 15.178 12.646 17.306 139° 319° 310° 130° 11.127 15.823 136° 316° 313° 133° 13.204 15.410 12.036 12.052 14.212 17.337 17.849 18.190 18.206 16.797 15.080 12.729 13.004 14.323 17.788 17.446 13.354 12.458 13.604 17.576 17.692 11.318 15.075 13.262 18.209 14.031 18.281 17.253 17.800 13.033 16.202 13.753 13.974 17.366 16.577 12.805 18.731 18.956 13.649 16.245 16.540 14.717 17.417 14.266 12.575 13.149 14.293 15.221 14.136 14.836 13.845 17.881 16.118 19.299 16.087 13.470 13.321 12.547 17.142 17.039 15.893 48° 228° 222° 42° 17.077 15.379 17.351 17.059 17.824 13.272 16.836 12.894 18.525 18.189 12.429 14.653 15.849 15.073 17.258 14.532 12.554 18.788 11.503 14.649 11.466 18.481 18.423 13.007 15.888 14.524 15.938 14.064 15.972 12.589 14.563 15.623 13.115 15.399 12.590 17.554 12.058 12.823 15.178 15.862 15.750 14.775 18.510 12.812 13.968 18.676 16.058 19.642 18.954 18.447 15.640 15.260 13.674 17.004 12.393 17.615 15.046 16.017 18.622 16.859 17.874 11.632 17.478 14.810 15.608 16.745 12.441 14.376 12.614 14.379 18.341 13.541 16.617 11.853 16.126 16.539 18.701 14.628 15.178 19.655 12.175 18.179 13.060 16.802 17.915 12.723 12.460 15.550 15.144 13.193 19.060 18.596 11.140 15.902 15.566 12.310 12.904 12.765 13.960 11.393 16.766 11.184 17.879 18.028 14.002 17.473 16.847 12.487 12.200 12.908 13.809 11.277 18.660 17.927 12.168 13.611 13.657 18.255 12.939 11.370 15.073 16.826 16.148 19.745 17.112 14.839 16.994 15.018 17.760 17.102 12.118 18.598 18.285 16.825 12.540 13.888 15.875 15.686 18.331 14.703 17.746 18.463 17.931 17.992 14.734 12.053 13.089 18.047 12.935 16.400 13.018 13.908 16.248 13.124 14.924 18.421 17.014 12.552 13.046 18.204 18.982 11.788 13.365 13.893 12.045 17.768 12.242 15.040 14.511 15.320 18.306 13.842 11.872 13.521 12.318 13.

Appendix The Intercept 121 .

- Navigation
- Celestial Navigation Tutorial
- Celestial Navigation
- Celestial Navigation
- Formulae for the Mariner
- Tom Cunliffe- Manual of Seamanship
- Celestial Navigation
- Marine Meteorology
- Celestial Navigation by H. O. 249 1974 Milligan 0870331914
- A Primer of Celestial Navigation, Favil
- Marine Internet Sources
- General Navigation Formulae
- Celestial Navigator
- Sextant User Guide
- Richard Crooks-Skipper's Practical Handbook (2007).pdf
- How to Read a Nautical Chart- Course Presentation
- Learn Celestial Navigation by H.O.249
- Masters Handbook
- RYA Radar Guide.pdf
- Celestial Navigation in 60 Min
- SOLAS Life Saving Training Manual
- RYA VHF Radio incl GMDSS.pdf
- Celestial Navigation
- Passage Planning
- Celestial Navigation Net 2004
- Navigation
- Plotting chart
- RYA Sea Survival Handbook
- Nautical Knowledge

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