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**Celestial Navigation in a Teacup
**

Formerly “The Armchair Celestial Navigator”

Concepts, Math, History, the Works, but Different Teacup Navigation Rodger E. Farley

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Contents

Preface Variable and Acronym List Early Related History Review of Fundamentals Celestial Navigation Concepts Calculations for Lines of Position Measuring Altitude with the Sextant Corrections to Measurements Reading the Nautical Almanac Sight Reduction Putting it Together and Navigating Star Identification Special Topics Lunars Coastal Navigation using the sextant Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet Making your very own Octant On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

6th Edition Copyright 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011 Rodger E. Farley Teacup Navigation Publishing. All rights reserved. My web site: http://mysite.verizon.net/milkyway99/index.html I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning, user beware! This is for educational purposes only.

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My intention is for this to be used as a self-teaching tool for those who have a desire to learn celestial from the intuitive. Rodger Farley 2002 4 . the traditional methods of using sight-reduction tables with pre-computed solutions will hardly be mentioned here. With the prevalence of hand electronic calculators.O. to teach the concepts. and practical points of view. To those readers familiar with ‘celestial’. 229.Preface Growing up I had always been fascinated by the thought of navigating by the stars. You will need a scientific calculator. Like most educational endeavors one may sometimes plunge too deeply in seeking arcane knowledge and risk losing the interest and attention of the reader. I am referring to the typical Hydrographic Office methods H. they will notice that I have departed the usual norms found in celestial navigation texts. I use a consistent sign convention which allows me to discard same-name and opposite-name rules. This book should also interest experienced navigators who are tired of simply ‘turning the crank’ with tables and would like a better behind-the-scenes knowledge. the techniques. and computational methods using the simple pocket scientific calculator (or better yet make your own navigation software). Programmable graphing calculators such as the TI-86 and TI-89 are excellent for the methods described in the book. I don’t know other than celestial navigation has always had a shroud of mystery surrounding it (no doubt to keep the hands from mutiny). However. This book represents my efforts at teaching myself ‘celestial’. it instinctively seemed to me an art beyond my total understanding. and thus I began a journey of discovery. Rather.O. the essential background and equations to the solutions will be presented such that the reader can calculate the answers precisely with a hand calculator and understand the why. With that in mind this book is dedicated simply to removing the cloak of mystery. 249 and H. And yes. those having trigonometric functions and their inverse functions. some interesting history. Some time in my 40s I began to discard my preconceived notions regarding things that required ‘natural’ talent. Why. also how to build your own navigational tools. academic. although it is not comprehensive of all my studies in this field.

parallax. arcmin per hour Eye height above the water. meters Correction for dip of the horizon due to eye height Correction to the tabular GHA for the variance v Correction to the tabular declination using rate d Correction to the tabular GHA for the minutes and seconds Correction to the sextant altitude for refraction. or dead-reckoning latitude Estimated longitude. or dead-reckoning longitude Line of position Local apparent noon Local mean time 5 . and semidiameter Correction for atmospheric refraction Offset distance using the intercept method. or true altitude angle Calculated altitude angle Index correction Angular semi-diameter of sun or moon Upper limb of sun or moon Lower limb of sun or moon Greenwich hour angle Greenwich hour angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Declination angle Declination angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Sidereal hour angle Local hour angle Uncorrected azimuth angle Azimuth angle from true north Hourly variance from the nominal GHA rate. arcmin per hour Hourly declination rate. nautical miles Latitude Longitude Assumed latitude Assumed longitude Estimated latitude.Variable and Acronym List Hs Ha Ho Hc IC SD UL LL GHA GHAhour DEC DEChour SHA LHA Zo Zn v d heye CorrDIP Corrv Corrd CorrGHA CorrALT R Doffset LAT LON LATA LONA LATDR LONDR LOP LAN LMT Altitude angle as reported on the sextant scale Apparent altitude angle Observed.

once per year ccw. that the constellation had turned ccw about ¼ of a circle.2 degrees). which is quite a coincidence with the Babylonian base 60 number system which established the angle of an equilateral triangle as 60º. The ancient Greeks had hypothesized that the earth was round. The Egyptians had divided the day into 24 hours. one could see the sun’s reflection at the bottom of deep wells (on tropic of Cancer). An arcminute of a great circle on the surface of our planet defined the unit of distance. He hired a man to pace out the distance between Alexandria and Syene. or ~ 90 days.Chapter One Early Related History Why 360 degrees in a circle? If you were an early astronomer you would have noticed that the stars rotate counterclockwise (ccw) about Polaris at the rate of seemingly once per day. considering he was less than 1% off. since the angle was further divided into 60 arcminutes per degree. who reported it was 500 miles. or 50 • 500 = 25000 miles. a stick would cast a measurable shadow. Simple tools and an enlightened mind can produce extraordinary results. and the Mesopotamians further divided the hour into 60 minutes. 6 . and 60 arcseconds per arcminute. Size of the Earth In the Near East during the 3rd century BC lived an astronomerphilosopher by the name of Eratosthenes. But how big was it? On June 21 he measured the angle cast by the stick and saw that it was approximately 1/50th of a full circle (7. You would have noticed that after ¼ of a year had passed. mile comes from the Latin milia for 1000 double paces of a Roman soldier. It would have seemed that the angle of rotation per day was 1/90 of a quarter circle. then the Earth’s circumference would be 50 times longer. And that as the year moved on the constellation’s position would slowly crank around as well. which = 1. In one of the scroll books he read that on the summer solstice June 21 in Syene (south of Alexandria). only going thru certain constellations named the zodiac (in the ecliptic plane). He wondered that on the same day in Alexandria. who was the director of the Egyptian Great Library of Alexandria. If 500 miles was the arc length for 1/50 of a huge circle. a nautical mile.15 statute miles. It is easy to see the analogy between angle and clock time. The planets were mysterious and thought to be gods as they roamed around the night sky. 60 seconds per minute. By the way. and this observation by Eratosthenes confirmed the curvature of the Earth. A degree could be thought of as a heavenly angular unit.

Early Navigation The easiest form of navigating was to never leave sight of the coast. Unfortunately. Why venture out into the deep blue water? Because of coastal pirates. 11 minutes and 14 seconds shorter than 365 ¼ days. So long as your last stage of sailing was due east or west. Julius Caesar abolished the lunar year. the kamal. used instead the position of the sun and fixed the true year at 365 ¼ days.2 years. as well as the composition of the bottom. If you knew the altitude angle of Polaris for your destination. In the Pacific. This produced a 12-month year with only 354 days. so in 1582 the Gregorian calendar was instituted in which 10 days that particular October were dropped to resynchronize the calendar with the seasons. and the color and temperature of the water gave clues. This difference adds a day every 128. Their astronomy was not accurate enough to know that a tropical year is 365. One could follow flights of birds to cross the Atlantic. then ‘run down the latitude’ until you arrive at the destination (interestingly Polaris was not always the Pole Star). the bottom became rich black. When one neared the entrance to the Nile on the Mediterranean.Calendar Very early calendars were based on the lunar month. One in particular. Polaris. two of which are illustrated on the next page. Latitude hooks. And then there are the stars. from Europe to Iceland to Greenland to Newfoundland. and the astrolabe are ancient tools that allowed one to measure the altitude of the Pole Star. the north pole star. determine in which direction land would lie due to the interference in the wave patterns produced by a land mass. you could get back home if Polaris was at the same altitude angle as when you left. you could sail north or south to pick up the correct Polaris altitude.2424 days long. and storms that pitch your boat onto a rocky coast. indicating that you should turn south. Presumably also to take a shorter route. and 3 leap year days would not be counted every 400 years to maintain synchronicity. Determining longitude would remain a mystery for many ages until accurate clocks could be made. and decreed a leap day every 4 years to make up for the ¼ day loss per Julian year of 365 days. Polynesian navigators could also read the swells and waves. For any given port city. Polaris would always be more or less at a constant altitude angle above the horizon all year at any hour. Techniques used in surveying were adopted for use in navigation. 7 . 29 ½ days. one could follow birds and know that a stationary cloud on the horizon meant an island under it. this would ‘drift’ the seasons backwards 11 ¼ days every year according to the old lunar calendars. Species of fish and birds.

changing latitude where safe to pick up trade winds Surveying techniques with absolute angles and relative angles 8 .‘Running down the latitude’ from home to destination.

We base our clocks on the mean Sun. in which case the orbital velocity would be unvarying and it could act like a perfect clock. local noon of the true Sun will be faster or slower than clock noon due to the combined effects of Earth’s orbital eccentricity and orbital velocity. or Jupiter). km). When it’s closer. and was not perturbed by any other body (such as the Moon. The definition and significance of solar declination will be explained in a later section. it is like going downhill where the Earth travels a little faster thru its orbital path. with a mean distance from the Sun equal to 1 AU (AU = Astronomical Unit = 149. 9 . When we graph the Equation of Time in combination with the Sun’s declination angle. For several months at a time.Chapter Two Review of Fundamentals Orbits The Earth’s orbit about the Sun is a slightly elliptical one. This time difference between the mean Sun and true Sun is known as the Equation of Time. we produce a shape known as the analemma. This brings us to the next topic… Mean Sun The mean Sun is a fictional Sun. Venus.597. and so the mean Sun is another way of saying the yearaveraged 24 hour clock time. When it’s farther away. Mars. The Equation of Time at local noon is noted in the Nautical Almanac for each day. it is like going uphill where the Earth travels a little slower. This leads to the situation where the true Sun is up to 16 minutes too fast or 14 minutes too slow from clock reckoning. the position of the Sun in the sky if the Earth’s axis was not tilted and its orbit were truly circular. This means that the Earth is sometimes a little closer and sometimes a little farther away from the Sun than 1 AU. If the Earth’s orbit were perfectly circular.870.

nor is the direction of the Earth’s spin axis. Time Standards for Celestial Navigation Universal Time (UT. We think we know what we mean when we speak of time. and the equation of time to tell us the difference between solar and mean noon. UTC is the time that you will use for celestial navigation using the nautical almanac. the prime meridian. GMT) This standard keeps and resets time according to the mean motion of the Sun across the sky over Greenwich England. which is a means of momentum transference between the Moon and Earth. but can be an integral number of seconds off in order to be coordinated with UT such that it is no more than 0.9 seconds is well within reasonable error. but it is relative to Earth’s orbital speed. and 0. The radio time ticks are more accessible. until atomic clocks showed that the Earth’s rate of rotation is gradually slowing down due mainly to tidal friction. It is also on a 24-hour scale.10.9 seconds of UT. Mechanical clocks could be reset daily according to observations of these guide stars. The data in the nautical almanac is based on UT. 10 . Einstein of course disagrees with an absolute time scale. a simple clock could always be reset daily. Thus we keep fiddling with the definition of time to fit our observations of the heavens. we could set up a fixed telescope pointing at the sky due south with a vertical hair line in the eyepiece and pick a guide star that will pass across the hairline. but how to measure it? If we use the Earth as a clock. the star will pass again which indicates that the earth has made a complete revolution in inertial space. more later) from when the guide star first crossed the hairline. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) This is the basis of short wave radio broadcasts from WWV in Fort Collins Colorado and WWVH in Hawaii (2.9 seconds different from UT. like military time.15. (also known as Greenwich Mean Time GMT).5. we find ourselves with one more second of atomic time per year than a current solar year.Time With a sundial to tell us local noon. 20 MHz). A leap second is added usually in the last minute of December or June to be within the 0. UT is noted on a 24-hour scale. solar mean time. It was hard to measure. A small problem with this reasonable approach is that the Earth’s spin rate is not completely steady. 5. After 23. It is synchronized with International Atomic Time.93 hours (a sidereal day. Initial calibration errors when the atomic second was being defined in the late 1950’s. along with the gradual slowing of the Earth’s rotation. This time scale that astronomers use is called Ephemeris Time. as the Earth was our best clock. even though strictly speaking UT is the proper input to the tables. But orbital calculations for planets and lunar positions (ephemeris) must be based on an unvarying absolute time scale.

The difference between a Sidereal day and a Solar day 11 . Solar Year. a sidereal day. That is a sidereal day. and that number reduced to degrees of celestial longitude (SHA) due to the known rotational period of the Earth. But due to the backward clockwise precession drift of the equinox (the Earth orbits counterclockwise as viewed above the North Pole).242 solar days. the fixed stars as a guide clock. As a side note. The position of the stars can be measured as elapsed time from when the celestial prime meridian passed. 23. That means inertially the Earth really turns about 361 degrees every 24 hours in order to catch up with the Sun due to orbital motion. Solar Day There are 365. our solar year (also referred to as tropical year) catches up faster at 365.Sidereal Year. That is our common solar (synodic) day of 24 hours.93447 hours (~ 24 x 360/361). this system of sidereal hour angle SHA is the negative of what an astronomer uses. or in actuality with respect to very distant stars). which is right ascension (RA). We base the calendar on this number as it is tied into the seasons. the true inertial period of rotation is the time it takes the Earth to spin in 360 degrees using say.256 solar days in a sidereal year. Sidereal Day. However. the Earth’s orbital period with respect to an inertially fixed reference axis (fixed in the ‘ether’ of space. With 360 degrees in a complete circle. that’s approximately 1 degree of orbital motion per day (360 degrees/365.242 days). coincidentally (or not).

**Latitude and Longitude
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I will not say much on this, other than bringing your attention to the illustration, which show longitude lines individually, latitude lines individually, and the combination of the two. This gives us a grid pattern by which unique locations can be associated to the spherical map using a longitude coordinate and a latitude coordinate. The prime N-S longitude meridian (the zero longitude) has been designated as passing thru the old royal observatory in Greenwich England (established 1884). East of Greenwich is positive longitude, and west of Greenwich is negative longitude. North latitude coordinates are positive numbers, south latitude coordinates are negative.

**Maps and Charts
**

The most common chart type is the modern Mercator projection, which is a mathematically modified version of the original cylindrical projection. On this type of chart, for small areas only in the map’s origin, true shapes are preserved, a property known as conformality. Straight line courses plotted on a Mercator map have the property of maintaining the same bearing from true north all along the line, and is known as a rumb line. This is a great aid to navigators, as the course can be a fixed bearing between waypoints. If you look at a globe and stretch a string from point A to point B, the path on the globe is a great circle and it constitutes the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. The unfortunate characteristic of a great circle path is that the bearing relative to north changes along the length of the path, most annoying. On a Mercator map, a great circle course will have the appearance of an arc, and not look like the shortest distance. In fact, a rumb line course mapped onto a sphere will eventually spiral around like a clock spring until it terminates at either the N or S pole, known mathematically as a loxodrome. 12

Chapter Three

Celestial Navigation Concepts

There are three common elements to celestial navigation, whether one is floating in space, or floating on the ocean. They are; 1) knowledge of the positions of heavenly bodies with respect to time, 2) measurement of the time of observation, and 3) angular measurements (altitudes) between heavenly objects and a known reference. The reference can be another heavenly object, or in the case of marine navigation, the horizon. If one only has part of the required 3 elements, then only a partial navigational solution will result. In 3 dimensions, one will need 3 independent measurements to establish a 3-D position fix. Conveniently, the Earth is more or less a sphere, which allows an ingeniously simple technique to be employed. The Earth, being a sphere, means we already know one surface that we must be on. That being the case, all we need are 2 measurements to acquire our fixed position on the surface. Here listed is the Generalized Celestial Navigation Procedure: Estimate the current position Measure altitude angles of identified heavenly bodies Measure time at observation with a chronometer Make corrections to measurements Look up tabulated ephemeris data in the nautical almanac Employ error-reduction techniques Employ a calculation algorithm Map the results, determine the positional fix The 4 basic tools used are the sextant, chronometer, nautical almanac, and calculator (in lieu of pre-calculated tabulated solutions). In this book and in most celestial navigation texts, altitudes (elevation angle above the horizon) of the observed heavenly object s are designated with these variables: Hs = the raw angle measurement reported by the sextant’s scale. Ha = the apparent altitude, when instrument errors and horizon errors are accounted for. Ho = the true observed altitude, correcting Ha for atmospheric refraction and geometric viewing errors (parallax) associated with the heavenly object.

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THE FOUR BASIC CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TOOLS

Sextant, Chronometer (time piece), Nautical Almanac, and a Calculator

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stars are so far away that their light across the solar system is parallel. 15 . The Sun is sufficiently far away that light from any point on the Sun’s disk will be more or less parallel across the face of the Earth. the GP is always changing. cast concentric circles on the Earth’s surface about the GP. Since the Earth is spinning on its axis. the zenith point.Geographical Position (GP) The geographical position of a heavenly object is the spot on the Earth’s surface where an observer would see the object directly over head. Not so for the Moon. At a given moment anybody anywhere on a particular circle will observe the exact same altitude for the object in question. in turn. These are also known as circles of constant altitude. You can think of it as where a line connecting the center of the Earth and the center of the heavenly object intersects the Earth’s surface. This spotlight. For the most part. even for Polaris since it is not exactly on the axis (it is close…) Circles of Position (COP) Every heavenly object seen from the Earth can be thought of as shining a spotlight on the Earth’s surface.

It is a constant number for anyone on a particular circle of constant altitude.Parallax This is a geometrical error that near-by heavenly objects. it should be apparent that the parallax is a function of the altitude measurement. and needs to be calculated and added to the observed altitude to make an apples-to-apples comparison to the information in the almanac. a near-by object casts more of a conical floodlight. the center-to-center line direction from the Earth to the heavenly object is what is tabulated. From the illustration. The reason why parallax matters to us is because in the nautical almanac. Instead of a spotlight of parallel light. 16 . The particular parallax angle correction corresponding to the particular altitude is known as parallax-in-altitude PA. The Moon’s parallax can be almost 1 degree. moonset) and is designated as the horizontal parallax HP. if we know how far away the heavenly object is (which we do). namely the Moon. The particular cone angle is not tabulated. and needs to be accounted for. The maximum parallax possible is when the altitude is equal to zero (moonrise. are guilty of. The parallax can be calculated easily.

and so we draw it as a line tangent to the circle of constant altitude. the arc looks like a line. This line is necessarily perpendicular to the azimuth direction of the heavenly object. One could be anywhere (within reason) on that line and measure the same altitude to the heavenly object.Line of Position (LOP) Circles of Position can have radii thousands of miles across. 17 . and in the small vicinity of our estimated location on the map.

18 . to obtain a reliable fix. Stars or planets can be mistakenly identified. Systematic errors (constant value errors that are there all the time) such as a misaligned sextant. See the illustration of the navigational fix to see the two possibilities with overlapping circles of constant altitude. he/she may find themselves in the middle of New Jersey instead of the middle of the Atlantic. This is assuming you are stationary for both observations. The circles intersect in two places. not to mention that you can simply read the wrong numbers from the almanac. Perhaps you are always reading a smaller angle. We could of course measure the same heavenly object twice. the navigator will be using 6 or more heavenly objects in order to minimize errors. and where they intersect is the fix. and afternoon. providing you stay put. This will require a ‘personal correction’. and if the navigator only has 2 heavenly objects and one is a mistake. If you’re not. noon. your consistent mistaken technique. Reducing the measurements to 2 LOPs. and is called the error box. or you are always 1 second slow in the clock reading. or atmospheric optical effects different from ‘normal’ viewing conditions all need to be minimized with proper technique and attention to details. and averaging the results in the hope that the random errors will have averaged out to zero. then the first observation will require a ‘running fix’ correction. More often than not. One can also have calculation errors and misidentification errors. In fact. If you are underway and moving between observations. the navigational fix. but measurement errors still need to be minimized. we will need two heavenly objects to observe. correction errors. It is improbable that the navigator will misidentify the Sun or Moon (one would hope…). but at different times of the day to achieve the same end. the one true location becomes obvious. Measurement errors of angle and time put a box of uncertainty around that pinpoint location. clocks that have drifted off the true time. Since we know the azimuth directions of the observations. a unique latitude and longitude location. this is how navigating with the Sun is done while underway with observations in the morning. the spot where it crosses the 1st line of position is our pin-point location on the map. The random errors in measurement are minimized by taking multiple ‘shots’ of the same object (~3) at approximately one minute intervals.Navigational Fix To obtain a ‘fix’. and the only way to be on both circles in the same place is to be on one of the two intersections. This will produce two different circles of constant altitude. which will be discussed later. Another source of systematic error is your own ‘personal error’. The two measurements of time and altitude contain random errors and systematic errors. then running fix corrections can be applied here as well.

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Make another measurement to a second star. the only way to be on both cones at the same time is to be on either of those 2 intersection lines. where this one measurement tells you only that you are somewhere on the surface of this imaginary cone. with the ends of the football centered on the Sun and the planet (see pg 7). If you used a third star instead of a planet. 20 . which intersects the first one along two lines.Surfaces of Position (SOP) If you were floating in space. one of which will be collinear with one of the 1st pair. That is your position in 3-D. There will exist a conical surface with the apex in the Sun’s center with the axis of the cone pointing in the star’s direction whereby any observer on that conical surface will measure the exact same angle. The football shape is merely the circular arc method revolved about an axis to create a 3-D surface. you could measure the angle between the Sun and a known star. It will not get you a point. the end points locally resemble cones. Make a third measurement between the Sun and a planet. and you will create a football shaped Surface of Position. you would create another pair of intersection lines. This is what star cones 1&2 actually are. This third SOP intersects one of the two lines at one point. and you get a second cone. This is a Surface of Position. You need to have a nearby object for the final fix. Notice that if the football shape enlarges to infinity. Now.

Their very slow movement is called proper motion. with the least effect from stars near the ecliptic plane. It is a construction of convenience. It wiggles (nutates) around it now. the speed of light. and the two equatorial planes are virtually the same.61 years due to the Moon’s precessing (wobbling) orbital plane tugging on the earth. but in 10000 years it will point and wiggle about Deneb. The celestial sphere has an equatorial plane and poles just like the Earth. That is. It is fixed in space while the Earth rotates inside it. we define the celestial poles to be an extension of Earth’s poles. as well as annual aberration. the Earth’s spin axis does not constantly point in the same direction. 5000 years ago it pointed at Thuban and was used by the ancient Egyptians as the Pole Star! The Earth wobbles (precesses) in a cone-like shape just like a spinning top. cycling once every 25800 years. but even that tilt angle wiggles (nutates) up and down about 0. We usually think of the North Pole axis always pointing at Polaris. we can construct a transparent sphere which is like a giant bubble centered over the Earth’s center where the fixed stars are mapped. Sun and our solar system planets on the inside of this sphere like a planetarium. However. The stars do have a 3dimensional location in space. It just does not spin.77/299792)). but for the purposes of navigation we mostly need to know only their direction in the sky.15 arcminutes. We are on the inside of the bubble looking out. the quickest equal to ½ year due to the Sun’s influence. the apparent location of a star changes slightly on the star map due to precession and nutation of the Earth’s axis. the direction of the rain seems to tilt forward. In fact. There are two periods of nutation. Think of light as a stream of particles like rain (photons) speeding along at 299. and the most effect from stars with the highest elevation from the ecliptic plane. or epoch) mapped onto the celestial sphere is where you will also see the constellations of 21 .44 degree tilt angle of the Earth’s axis. Aberration is the optical tilting of a star’s apparent position due to the relative velocity of the earth vs. The same effect is true of light. It is not a physical sphere like the Earth’s surface.77 kilometers/s.792 kilometers/s. With that thought. their distance is so great that their dim light across the solar system is more or less parallel. painting the stars. and the slowest (but largest) lasting 18. When you run in the rain.5 arcseconds (3600 x arcTan(29. In our lifetimes.Celestial Sphere The celestial sphere is our star map. However. For stars. the North Star (it’s currently 41’ off from the pole). The ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane at a given reference date. We know the cone angle to be the same as the 23. the stars are more or less fixed in inertial space. The Earth is traveling at a mean orbital velocity of 29. This effect can be as great as 20.

all of these slight variations are accounted for in the tables of the nautical and astronomical almanacs. a zero point where its celestial prime meridian and celestial equator intersect. Since the Earth’s axis wiggles and wobbles. The local meridian circle runs from north to zenith to south. It is the point of intersection between the mean equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane. Local celestial sphere for a ground observer 22 . That point will travel westward to the right towards Aquarius thru the zodiac an average of 50. and is known as the Point of Aries. a reference mean location for the equatorial plane is used. that point is now in the zodiacal constellation of Pisces. it is referred to as Sidereal Hour Angle (SHA) and declination (DEC) respectively.3 arcseconds per year due to the 25800 year precession cycle. Local Celestial Sphere This is the celestial sphere as referenced by a local observer at the center with the true horizon as the equator. Instead of describing the location of a star on the celestial sphere map with longitude and latitude. Zenith is straight up.the zodiac mapped. and declination is a celestial version of latitude. Sidereal Hour Angle is a celestial version of west longitude. The prime vertical circle runs from east to zenith to west. That point just happens to be where the Sun is located on the celestial sphere during the spring (vernal) equinox. and therefore got special attention from the ancients. These are the constellations that we see planets traverse across in the night sky. Due to precession of the Earth’s axis. Fortunately. nadir is straight down. but we say Aries for nostalgia. But this map needs a reference.

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including the position of the celestial prime meridian. The Sun’s GHA is nominally zero at noon over Greenwich. the point of Aries. is the west longitude of that object at a given instant in time relative to the Earth’s prime meridian. which varies continuously with time because of Earth’s rotation. and GHAAries relates the star map to the Earth map.Greenwich Hour Angle GHA The Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) of a heavenly object. The relationship for a star is thus: GHA = GHAAries + SHA = the Greenwich hour angle of a star. but due to the slight eccentricity of Earth’s orbit (mean vs. true sun) it can vary up to 4 degrees. The sun. moon. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole Greenwich Hour Angle of Aries GHAAries (or GHAγ ) The point of Aries is essentially the zero longitude and latitude of the celestial sphere where the stars are mapped. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole 24 . SHA and declination relate the position of a star in the star map. GHAAries is the position of the zero longitude of the star map. and planets move across this map continuously during the year. The declination (celestial latitude) of the star needs no ‘translation’ as it remains the same in the Earth map as in the star map. relative to Greenwich zero longitude. GHA can refer to any heavenly object that you are using for navigation.

Due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of 23. the sun and planets change their declinations on the celestial sphere continuously during the year.24 days it varies northwards 23. At exact local noon.44 degrees. the declination of an object is the celestial version of latitude measured on the celestial sphere star-map.West Longitude Observer If the calculated value of LHA > 360. 25 .44 degrees and southwards –23.44 degrees. LHA = 0 Declination DEC As stated earlier.Local Hour Angle LHA The Local Hour Angle (LHA) is the west longitude direction angle of a heavenly object relative to a local observer’s longitude (not Greenwich). a premeridian passage (negative LHA or 180<LHA < 360) means that it is still morning. or LHA = GHA . This leads to the relationship: LHA = GHA + East Longitude Observer. or 0<LHA<180) means that it is literally after noon. The Sun’s declination follows nearly a perfect sine wave where over the course of 365. A post-meridian passage (positive LHA. This is a crucial piece of information for the determination of latitude using the Sun. The stars do not.360 Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole When we are speaking of the Sun. then LHA = LHACALCULATED .

it is positive westwards (post meridian passage) 0 <LHA < 180. During the equinoxes. 26 . Ho. At 40 degrees latitude. Solar declination as seen by an observer on the ground varying seasonally Sign Convention We should digress momentarily to establish the proper signs for numbers. maximum declination occurs with the summer solstice which has the longest hours of daily sun. there are 6 more hours of daylight in the summer as compared to the winter. and the spring and fall equinox (“equal night”) having equal day and night times corresponding to zero solar declination. or 180 <LHA < 360 For observed altitude. the sun will rise directly from the east and set directly in the west. it is a positive number between 0 and 360 degrees westward For LHA. above the horizon is positive (+) Also if you are not aware. the minimum declination with the winter solstice having the shortest hours of sun. which make the mathematics consistent and unambiguous.As one can see. in an equation A·B means A multiplied by B. and negative eastwards (pre meridian passage) -180 <LHA < 0. For Declination: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Latitude: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Longitude: East is positive (+) West is negative (-) For GHA.

Relative to the horizon. the North Star. For a star that passes right overhead at the zenith. the star’s declination is equal to your latitude. The altitude relative to the horizon would be approximately zero. If now instead we were sweating somewhere on the equator on a hill in Ecuador at night. Coincidentally. it would have an altitude of approximately 90 degrees of angle. 27 . we would observe that Polaris would be directly overhead. Our latitude at the North Pole coincidentally is also 90 degrees. To see why this is not really a coincidence. as shown in the illustration. Now Polaris is not exactly on the north celestial pole. we would see Polaris just on the northern horizon. at the zenith point. we can wait until the Sun is at its meridian passage (local apparent noon LAN) to make an altitude measurement Ho. Also note that the declination of Polaris in the celestial sphere is about 90 degrees. and if we know the declination for every hour of the year. the latitude on the equator is zero. We can generalize the matter by taking into account the declination of any particular star. If we were sitting on Earth’s north pole (avoiding polar bears). We could say generally that the observed altitude of Polaris is equal to the latitude of the observer (actually small corrections need to be made since Polaris is slightly off center from the pole).Ho. see the illustration to understand the geometry involved. Such a star can be the Sun. That makes for good emergency navigation.Concepts in Latitude The simplest example to illustrate how latitude is determined is to consider Polaris. The Latitude is then 90 + DEC . but close enough for our intuition to work here.

that’s 3 hours past noon in Greenwich. In mid latitudes. It is a little off due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. zero longitude. If a person on the Earth observes the Sun passing across the local N-S meridian line (in other words. It is no coincidence that along a great arc on the Earth (such as the equator). It rotates once in 24 hours with respect to the position of the mean Sun in the sky.25 · 2). That’s 360 degrees in 24 hours. it is the same. 28 . The upshot of all this explanation is that to know longitude. in 2 minutes it should have rotated ½ revolution(0. UT is based on the time in Greenwich. one then needs to have a clock set to the time in Greenwich England. with its ‘grasshopper’ escapement and twin balance-arm oscillator. and observes the time to be 15:00 UT. it was the start of marine chronometers that could take the rocking and rolling of a ship and not lose a beat. This is also equivalent to ¼ n mi per second of time. One nautical mile is equal to 1. For a rotating object. and a clock. a time error of 60 seconds will put the longitude off by 10 n mi. The difference in angle between the observer and Greenwich. This idea was noted as early as 1530 by the Flemish professor Gemma Frisius. one minute of arc (1/60 degree) corresponds to one nautical mile (n mi) of distance. say ¼ revolutions per minute (RPM). To determine distance. This is why the chronometer needs to be synchronized with Greenwich time. and it was John Harrison in 1735 that made the first semi portable clock. The maximum surface speed of rotation for Sun observations will occur along the equator at 15 n mi per minute of time (21600 n mi per day/(24hr per day x 60 min per hr)). so the observer can determine the difference in angle (longitude) with respect to the prime meridian (zero longitude). all we needed was knowledge of the speed. or 180 degrees(0. in 2 hours it will have traveled 120 miles (60 · 2).25 · 2 · 360 degrees per rev). Pendulum clocks were not suitable for the motion of ships.15 statute miles. Now let’s think of the Earth. but actually the true position of the Sun does not correspond with clock time as we have already described earlier. and we have a stopwatch. local noon). If we know the rotational speed. It is easy to see now how a time error (either the clock is off or the time is read wrong) can put the longitude determination way off.Concepts in Longitude If we think of a car traveling at 60 mph. What a contraption! But. You get the general picture. The Earth’s circumference is then equal to 21600 n mi (1nm per arcmin x 60 arcmin per deg x 360 deg per full circle). You will recall. or 15 degrees per hour (360/24). is 15 deg/hour x 3 hours = 45 degrees of longitude in the westward direction.

It will be off considerably anyway due to the plotting estimates. the trigonometry disappears and reduces down to mere arithmetic. latitudes. This equation works whether you are in the northern or southern hemispheres.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 Remember. as the azimuth is unambiguously known as either due south or due north. The method has certain steps to maintain accuracy. Using the nautical almanac.Traditional Noon Sighting The noon sighting is an old way of determining latitude and (with misgivings) longitude. the value of Signnoon is +1. Remember the sign convention and apply it. latitudes. Just follow the sign convention. If you don’t know which pole you’re on then you should have stayed home. When the meridian passage is southwards such as commonly occurs in N. The technique is to predict approximate local apparent noon (LAN) for your estimated longitude from dead reckoning navigation. Take sightings with your sextant several minutes before LAN. We will now make a distinction regarding the direction of meridian passage. If Signnoon · Honoon + DEC is equal to zero. For longitude. when the meridian passage is northwards such as commonly occurs in S. by introducing a new variable Signnoon. the local hour angle LHA is zero. Thus: Latitude = Signnoon · Honoon + DEC + 90 If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. whether the sun peaked in the south or in the north. From the plot you can smooth the curve and determine the highest point (Honoon) and estimate the time of LAN to within several minutes or better of Universal Time (~10-20 n miles of longitude error). obtain the GHA and declination of the Sun (DEC) at the time of LAN. Here. the value of Signnoon is -1. in or out of the tropics. then subtract 180 from it. 29 . and with a sighting every minute. You make corrections to obtain the true altitudes. capture the highest point in the sky that the Sun traveled plus some sightings after meridian passage. and it will all come out fine. then you are exactly on either the north or south pole. and plot this information as true altitude versus time. and so. determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . if your chronometer is inaccurate then the longitude will be off considerably since you are in essence comparing the local time with time in Greenwich. In keeping with the consistent sign convention.

and observe the sun. the local hour angle LHA is zero.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 If for example T#1 = 19:27:31. Record this as your measurement #1. For southwards meridian passage. record the time (UTC). Noon will be at the average between time measurements #1 and #3. Signnoon = +1. Time of LAN = (Time #1 + Time #2) *0. Latitude = Signnoon · Ho#2 + DEC + 90 (remember the sign for DEC) If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. then subtract 180 from it. 15 minutes before LAN. and so determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . you can shoot the sun for a reference point of altitude and time. set the sextant to the altitude setting that you had in measurement #1. The latitude will be derived from measurement #2.3-Measurement Noon Sighting: Double Altitudes There is an antiquated technique to determine latitude and longitude with a noon sighting using 3 measurements. so add that to T#1 and you get 19:37:67 which is 19:38:07 as LAN (67 seconds = 1 min+7 sec). The moment the altitude matches the pre-positioned setting. 30 . then the difference between them is 21 min and 12 sec. Half that is 0:10:36 difference. Then keep track of the sun with the sextant and when it reaches the maximum altitude. record this as your measurement #2. and a northerly passage = -1. Finally.5 For longitude. determine the sun’s declination DEC. From the almanac. and T#3 = 19:48:43.

b. Relationships between the corner angles and surface angles have been worked out over the centuries. B. Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚. All you have to know are these three basic relationships: sine (α) = Lo / R shorthand is sin(α) cosine (α) = La / R shorthand is cos(α) tangent (α) = Lo / La shorthand is tan(α) The values of these trigonometric functions can be expressed as an infinite series.α) Spherical Trigonometry Three Great Circles on a sphere will intersect to form three inner corner angles a. ArcSin or arcCos is the inverse function. Every intersecting pair of Great Circles is the same as having two intersecting planes. and three surface angles A. or InvSIN.α) cos(α) = sin(90˚.Plane Trigonometry The simplest notion of ‘trig’ is the relationship of the sides and angles in a triangle. c. C. which your calculator will approximate by truncating the series after evaluating only a few terms. Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C) Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles by using the useful identies: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A) 31 . On your calculator it might be ASIN. with the law of sines and the law of cosines (spherical trigonometry) being the most relevant to navigation. The angles between the intersecting planes are the same as the surface angles on the surface of the sphere.

LAT Most authorities will examine 4 cases concerning North or South declination and latitude. latitude and declinations. But if a consistent sign convention is used. 32 . c are related to altitude. As can be seen in the drawing the “coangles” are 90˚ – the inner corner angle: Co-altitude = 90˚ – H Co-declination = 90˚ – DEC Co-latitude = 90˚ . a = 90-H. and declination angles. b. so 90-(90-H) = H . in that the inner corner angles a. The inner corner angles corresponding to the arc sides are modifications of the altitude. we need only concern ourselves with the one picture. If you substitute a co-altitude (like 90-H) into the co-altitude formula (90-a). The modified law of cosines formula for co-altitudes becomes: sin(H) = sin(Lat) · sin(DEC) + cos(Lat) · cos(DEC) · cos(LHA).The Navigational Triangle The navigational triangle applies spherical trigonometry. latitude. and the surface angles are related to azimuth and LHA angles.

Chapter Four Calculations for Line of Position The calculated altitude is a way of predicting the altitude of a heavenly object by first assuming a latitude and longitude for a hypothetical observer and working out the problem backwards. and so the calculated altitude must correspond to the same time as the measured altitude. The uncorrected azimuth angle Zo of a heavenly object can also be calculated as thus: Zo = arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(LatA) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(Hc)}] Corrected azimuth angle Z (not used in any of the equations here) If N. LonA is the assumed longitude and the calculated local hour angle LHA = GHA + LonA If LHA is greater than 360. Zn = 360 – Zo Post meridian check can also be established if: Sin(LHA) > 0 Remember. You must be talking about the same instant in time for a correct comparison. and how long you went. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180). DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. INVCOS. the law of cosines gives us this relationship for the calculated altitude Hc: Hc = arcSin[ Sin(LatA) · Sin(DEC) + Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] Where LatA is the assumed latitude. The math becomes direct and unambiguous when done in this manner. then Z = 180 – Zo True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. then subtract 360 from the calculated LHA. You will eventually compare this calculated altitude to a measured altitude. Remembering to use the sign convention. arcSin or arcCos on your calculator could also be designated as ASIN. 33 . how fast you were going. latitudes. latitudes. or 180<LHA < 360). then Z = Zo If S. The obvious choice of assumed latitude and longitude is the estimated position by dead reckoning. or INVSIN. ACOS. Dead reckoning is the method of advancing from a last known position by knowing the direction you headed in. This is important to extract the proper values of GHA and declination from the nautical almanac.

From an assumed position of latitude and longitude.Hc). If negative. Classical same name (N-N. 34 .By using the sign convention. then parallel offset your assumed line of position in the azimuth direction towards the heavenly object. you have created one circle of constant altitude about the geographical position. On your map. Let’s say you measured the altitude of the Sun at a given moment in time. If DOFFSET is positive.Hc). Offsetting along the radial azimuth line. the true circle will cross the azimuth line at the intercept point. we only have two cases to examine to obtain the true azimuth angle. knowing that the actual circle of constant altitude is concentric to the calculated one. The offset distance DOFFSET to determine the true line of position is equal to: DOFFSET = 60 · (Ho . DOFFSET is in nautical miles for both cases. The difference in observed altitude and calculated altitude informs you how much smaller or larger the actual circle is. You look up the GHA and declination of the Sun in the nautical almanac corresponding to the time of your altitude measurement. then draw it away from the heavenly object. you calculate the altitude and azimuth of the Sun according to the preceding section and arrive at Hc and Zn. This is your assumed line of position. S-N) rules do not apply here. All texts on celestial that I know of will list 4 cases due to the inconsistently applied signs on declination and latitude. You could also simply remember that a higher observed altitude means you are closer to the geographical position GP. If not. S-S) or opposite name (N-S. angled perpendicular to the azimuth angle. Line of Position by the Marcq Saint-Hilaire Intercept Method This clever technique determines the true line of position from an assumed line of position and is the basis of modern sight reduction. If the offset is greater than 25 nautical miles. you may want to assume a different longitude and latitude to minimize errors. and needs all the appropriate corrections applied to make it an ‘observed altitude’). The true line of position will be offset from this line either towards the sun or away from it after comparing it to the actual observed altitude Ho (the raw sextant measurement is Hs. or DOFFSET = (Ho . By calculating an altitude. you draw a line thru the pin-point assumed latitude and longitude. altitudes in minutes of arc. you are further away. altitudes Ho and Hc in decimal degrees.

35 .

The procedure is to input an assumed latitude. Mark the map.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Where LatA is the assumed latitude. In fact. connect the dots and you have a Sumner Line. These are two points on the circle in the vicinity of your dead reckoning position. the answer can be the angle A or the angle -A. a straight line will do just fine. the GHA and declination for the time of observation.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): LonC = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . but why bother? What if instead. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): LonC = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . to make it the observed altitude instead and to solve the equation for LHA. As we should know by now. just two calculations with the same equation having slightly differing latitude arguments. In the arcCos function. since at the map scale that interest us. we draw a small arc in the vicinity of our dead reckoning position. which will give us longitude. We could practically draw the entire circle on the map. the fact that only the assumed latitude is required means no estimated position of the longitude is needed at all. and out pops a longitude. and out pops a slightly different longitude. why an arc at all. Now input a slightly different latitude. this reduces to the observed altitude Ho. there is a circle surrounding the geographical position of the heavenly object where all observed altitudes have the same value Ho. Or were they? Was the answer for longitude unreasonably off? Notice that for every latitude line that crosses the circle. There is no azimuth calculation. just like a noon shot. Check both just to make sure.1 degree. there are 2 solutions for longitude. The advantage to this method is that the LOP comes out directly without offsets. 36 . This method turns into an E-W LOP when near the meridian passage.1 and – 0. Mark longitude and latitude on the map. Also. LonC is the calculated longitude DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object.Line of Position by the Sumner Line Method If we measure the altitude of a heavenly object and make all the proper corrections. an east and west solution. All we need do is to rearrange the equation of calculated altitude. The two values for assumed latitude could be the dead reckoning latitude LatDR + 0.

37 .

Sumner rightfully concluded that all three points saw the same observed altitude of the Sun. At about 10 am local time he was able to make a sun shot observation. 1837. Sumner sailed from Charleston S. Lon3). but going so long since the last observation. He then assumed a second latitude (Lat2) 10’ north of his dead reckoning towards the coast: Lon2 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .C. he was unsure of his dead reckoning latitude. The longitude was 15’ east of his dead reckoning position. Lon1. He kept close to the wind tacking back and forth until daylight. he noticed the 2nd position was 27 miles ENE of the 1st position He did this a 3rd time with another 10’ more northerly latitude assumption and calculated a 3rd longitude: Lon3 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . He was within 40 miles of the Tuskar lighthouse off the coast of Ireland by dead reckoning with the weather getting worse at around midnight December 17th. After passing 21 deg west longitude. Coincidentally his course was on that line as well. who discovered the technique serendipitously and published it. Capt. and was bound for Greenock. This line just happened to cross Smalls Light as well. and then kept on a course of ENE. an American ship-master. Thus the Sumner Line method was discovered accidently by practice.History of the Sumner Line The Sumner line of position takes its name from Capt. he knew he was somewhere on that line. he had no observations due to thick weather until he came close to land. 38 . A longitude (Lon1) with his uncertain latitude (Lat1) was calculated: Lon1 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . Thomas H. I recount here his discovery. and then with Lat2. and so where he might not know exactly where he was.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat2)}/{Cos(Lat2) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Marking the chart with the location Lat1. Lon2. Sumner.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat1)}/{Cos(Lat1) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Declination and GHA of the sun was from the almanac and the time mark from the sun shot. within an hour he saw Smalls Light and made his landfall. and he continued to sail ENE. paraphrased from his book: Capt. on November 25th. Ireland. At that point the wind backed from the south to the south east making the coast a lee shore. he noticed that all three of the points were on a line.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat3)}/{Cos(Lat3) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA After plotting this third point on the chart (Lat3.

silvered on the right and clear on the left. you will see a whole image of the sun in the pupil that you can move to the right or left by rocking the sextant side to side.Chapter 5 Measuring Altitude with the Sextant The sextant is a wonderfully clever precision optical instrument for which we can thank Sir Issac Newton for the design. reflecting some light and transmitting the rest. It does this by partial silvering of the entire horizon mirror like some sunglasses are. allowing you to see the horizon and heavenly object simultaneously in the same pupil image. It reflects the image of the Sun (or anything. The horizon however. Likewise. You see the horizon unchanged on the left. as the horizon and Sun move together in the combined image. With a whole horizon mirror. you change the angle of the first mirror (index mirror) with the index arm until the Sun is close to the horizon in the pupil image. In order not to burn your eye out (that would be stupid…). which is really a half mirror. Rock it back and forth to make sure you have the lowest reading. there are filters (shades) that can be rotated over the image path of the index mirror. and the twice-reflected sun on the right if you use a ‘traditional’ mirror as opposed to a ‘whole horizon’ mirror. The straight-thru view is accomplished with the second mirror (horizon mirror). In order to determine the altitude of the Sun. you are correctly holding the sextant and can take a reading. will only be on the left side of the image. but the more difficult shots with poor illumination or star shots more difficult. Even with the traditional mirror. both horizon and Sun will be in the entire view. When it is at its lowest point. This makes the easy shots easier. curiously. This allows for a ‘shake-free’ view. there are other filters that cover the horizon mirror to remove the glare and increase the contrast between horizon and sky. 39 . Now turn the precision index drum (knob) until the lower limb of the Sun just kisses the horizon. really) twice with two flat mirrors in order to combine it with a straight-thru view. The glass surface itself is reflective.

40 .

Is the horizon and reflected image still line-to-line? If not. This can be done two ways after setting the arc to the zero angle point such that you see the same object on the left and right in the pupil image. Known as Perpendicularity Alignment. point the sextant at the horizon. The next alignment is Side Error Alignment of the horizon mirror. The reflected arc in the index mirror should be in line with the actual arc. What you will see is two points of light. This can be tricky. you need to compare the position of the rear of the glass to the pivot axis first to see if this technique will work. First surface mirrors (the silvering is on the front of the glass) seem to be an upgrade. If not. In that case. The horizontal separation is the side error. There are precision-machined cylinders about an inch high that you can place on the arc and view their reflections. First. The first check is to see if the index mirror is perpendicular to the sextant’s arc.Mirror Alignments Even an expensive precision instrument will give you large errors (although consistent systematic error) unless it is adjusted and calibrated. 41 . you should get into the habit of calibrating and if necessary adjusting the mirrors to minimize the errors. then side error exists. Make adjustments to the side-error set screw until the points of light converge to a single image point. the reflected image of the arc should be slightly below the viewed actual arc. I mean a star). Same procedure as before except that you need not roll the sextant. and the vertical separation is the index error. Since most mirrors are secondary surface mirrors (the silvering is on the back of the glass). Second method is to wait until nighttime. Adjust the drum knob to negate the index error effect until the star and its reflection are vertically line-to-line but still separated horizontally. where a point source that is nearly infinitely far away presents itself (yes. but the sextant’s manufacturer may not have necessarily redesigned the mirror-holding mount. Now roll (tilt) the sextant side to side. This positions the index mirror reflecting surface 2 to 3 mm or so in front of the pivot axis. at sea in the daytime. Before any round of measurements are taken. Set the arc to about 45 degrees. The reflections should be parallel to the actual cylinders. as it only works if the mirrored surface is exactly along the pivot axis of the index arm. You will see the horizon on the left and the reflected horizon on the right. it is checked in a round-about manner by finding the image of the arc in the index mirror when viewed externally at a low angle. This is corrected with adjustments to the set screw that is perpendicularly away from the plane of the arc on the horizon mirror. Adjust the index drum until they are in perfect alignment while holding the sextant upright. then turn the set screw behind the index mirror to bring it into perpendicular alignment.

reading the drum to determine the index error IE (Note: index correction IC = . A word of caution: the little wrench used to adjust the set screws maybe very difficult to replace if you should drop it overboard. Maybe… Note: I have also used high altitude jet aircraft.You could stop here at this point. you can eliminate the vertical separation. for the Index Error Alignment. Or you could continue to zero out the index error as well with a last series of adjustments.IE). their contrails. set the arc to zero (index arm and drum to the zero angle position). but it slightly affects the horizontal separation as well. Making a little hand lanyard for the wrench will preserve it. 42 . Now you need to play around with both set screws until you zero-in the two images simultaneously. In which case. You will notice that the star image now has two points separated vertically. Unfortunately this last set screw does not only change the vertical separation. Adjusting the remaining set screw on the horizon mirror (which is near the top of the mirror). With a little practice these procedures will be easy and routine. If you have dark enough horizon shades. you can even use the sun’s disk to adjust the mirrors. and even cloud edges to adjust the mirrors (low accuracy…).

you can choose which limb to use. as the object will find its lowest point. Then keeping it in view. the lower limb is generally used. you just have to glance to the side a little to see the time. This leaves a hand free. Rocking for the lowest position Rocking the sextant from side to side will help you determine when the sextant is being pointed in the right direction and held proper. Careful with the sun. and to simply let her rise or set as the case may be to the horizon. Unless the Sun is partially obscured by clouds. letting her set Often it is easier to set the sextant ‘ahead’ of where the heavenly object is going. the best technique is to first set the index arm to zero degrees and sight the object by pointing straight at it. the lower limb or upper limb. Letting her rise. ‘lower’ it down to the horizon by increasing the angle on the index arm until the horizon is in sight. lower limb With an object such as the Sun or Moon. keep the sun on the right hand side of the mirror using the darkest shade over the index mirror. to hold the chronometer such that at the time of mark. So.Sighting Techniques Bringing the object down Finding the horizon is much easier than finding the correct heavenly object in the finder scope. Upper limb. sort of. Depending on the phase of the moon. This will give the true sextant altitude Hs. At that point you mark the time. 43 . either lower limb or upper limb is used. as you don’t want to see it unfiltered thru the horizon glass. That way you can be rocking the sextant to get the true angle without also fiddling with the index drum.

and shades glasses. It could measure across 90 degrees of arc. or astronomical. using the sun’s shadow over a vane to cast a sharp edge (so the navigator wouldn’t go blind!). Contemporary was a very simple instrument.Brief History of Marine Navigational Instruments The earliest instrument was the astrolabe. The calculations and corrections are indeed frightening. Therefore its arc distance to another star could be used as a sort of astronomical clock. By 1780. one was said to be ‘shooting the sun’. and those who practice it are Lunarians.5 arcminute per minute of time). an expression still used today. described in 1342. Of course one had to look at both objects simultaneously by dithering the eyeball back and forth – a bit of a problem. but it was recognized that determining the time was the answer. The first real ancestor to the modern sextant was the cross staff. This limited one to only sun shots to determine latitude. Tables to do this were first published in 1764. and this method of determining time to within several minutes of Greenwich Mean Time is called doing Lunars. and moves across the celestial sphere at the rate of about one lunar diameter every hour (~0. refinements such as tangential screws. A clock could be mechanical. an 1/8 of a circle. vernier scales. and so was a contemporary of the octant. and rotated a shadow vane on an arc until the shadow edge lined up on the forward peep hole. It was a mechanical rotating slide rule with a pointer to determine the altitude of stars against a protractor. Also one had to look into the blinding sun. and so one needed an accurate clock. The Moon is about ½ degree of arc across its face. The search for determining longitude created bizarre proposals. 44 . fixed the design of sextants and octants for the next 150 years. The sextant with it’s ability to record angles of 120 degrees came about for use in doing lunars. He worked on it for 40 years (until he produced the alarm-clock size H4)! The Hadley Octant in 1731 was the first to use the double reflecting principle as described by Isaac Newton a century before. It was a quarter of a circle protractor with a plumb-bob and a pair of peep sights to line up with Polaris. having some wood elements and weighing 125 lbs. the quadrant. whereby one could easily interpolate between degree scales to a 1/10 or 1/20 between the engraved lines on the protractor scale. constructed in the Middle East during the 9th century AD. A perpendicular sliding cross piece over a straight frame allowed one to line up two objects and determine the angle. Fortunately in 1735 John Harrison invented the first marine chronometer. even though it was only physically 45 degrees arc. The navigator would line up the horizon opposite the sun azimuth with a pair of peep holes. Since a cross staff looked like a crossbow. The Davis backstaff in 1594 was an ingenious device where sun shots were taken with your back to the sun. Undoubtedly if you used this method too often you would have been branded a Lunatic. In the 1600’s a French soldier-mathematician by the name of Vernier invented the vernier scale.

Cross Staff. Quadrant. Astrolabes. Back Staff.VARIOUS ANTIQUE INSTRUMENTS Octants. Kamal 45 .

the same as the bathroom scale when you notice that it says you weigh 3 lbs even before you get on it. listed from the largest effect to the smallest. The other major corrections are parallax. and the correction is IC. refraction. 46 . semidiameter. IC. Lunar parallax can be at most a degree. refraction and dip are on the order of 1/20th degree. semi-diameter ¼ degree. IC = -3. and dip.Chapter 6 Corrections to Measurements There are numerous corrections to be made with the as-measured altitude Hs that you read off of the sextant’s arc degree scale and arc minute drum and vernier. For our example of the bathroom scale. Your zero point on the scale could be off. The Hs in the figure does not account for the index error. This is known as index error.

There are special lunar correction tables at the end of the almanac. Generally it’s negligible. Corr DIP is always negative. Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Ha is the altitude without corrections for refraction. The correction IC is negative when the zero is “on the scale”. the angle of the Sun’s visual radius (semi-diameter) must be accounted for. This is also tabulated in the nautical almanac. The true observed altitude is a matter of adding up all the corrections: Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 47 . Since measurements are made to the edge (limb) and not the center of the Sun. The atmosphere bends (refracts) light in a predictable way. lunar. which include the effects of lunar semi-diameter. The corrections vary for different seasons. Dip Correction Dip is the angle of the visual horizon. solar or otherwise. meters. with respect to the zero point on the scale. parallax and refraction. or parallax. is Corr ALT. and whether you are using the lower or upper limb of the Sun for your observations. and positive when “off the scale”. The table also lists slight deviations from the nominal for listed planets. Index error is due to the angular misalignment of the index mirror.758 · SquareRoot(heye) Where heye is the eye height above the water. The instrument error is due to manufacturing inaccuracies and distortions. dipping below the true horizon due to your eye height above it.1. An approximate equation for dip correction that incorporates a standard horizon refraction is thus: Corr DIP = . These corrections are tabulated on the 1st page of the nautical almanac based on the apparent altitude Ha.The sextant basically has an index correction IC and an instrument correction I. and should be listed on a calibration sheet from the manufacturer. The variable name for all of these combined altitude error corrections. Distance to visible horizon as a function of eye height above the water: Altitude Corrections Let us first define the apparent altitude.0.0293 · SquareRoot(heye) Decimal Degrees arc minutes Corr DIP = . sometimes called the ‘Main Correction’. semi-diameter. one can see if the zero is on or off the scale. By adjusting the drum knob as described on pages 39 and 40 to negate the optical index error.

5' -16.5' -4' -4.5' DIP Graph of Dip Correction.9m 5.5' -3.5' -17. averaged values For simplified corrections.5' -1.5' 17 +13' -19' -3' 20 +13. for when land is used as horizon 48 .5' 24 +14' -18' -2' 31 +14. deg LL UL Stars 10 +11' -21' -5' 13 +12' -20' -4' 15 +12.7m 1.5' -2' -2. use these tables instead of the Nautical Almanac.5' 41 +15' -17' -1' 59 +15.3m 2.Tables of Altitude and Dip Correction.1m 6.5' -3' -3.5' -19.4m Corr -1.9m 3.5' 85 +16' -16' 0 Dip Correction Height 0.0m 2.5' -0.5' -2. Altitude correction for sun and stars ALT Corr Sun Sun Ha.5' -18.

the HP is hidden in the altitude correction tables.4)] degrees The correction for non-standard atmospheric conditions is referred to as f: f = 0. listed as ‘Additional Corrn ’.0. but this is rarely included as being so small a value.Refinements Corrections for observations can be calculated instead of using tables.2724 · HP · (1 + Sin(Ha)/60. This standard refraction correction Ro is thus: Ro = . This is a small term. then signlimb = -1 Observed altitude with refinements: Ho = Ha + R + PA + SD · signlimb Here we see that the altitude correction Corr ALT = R + PA + SD · signlimb Note: Convert arcminutes to decimal degrees for consistent calculations 49 . then signlimb = +1 If the upper limb were observed.0167 / Tan[Ha + 7. and refinements can be employed for non-standard conditions.5) The terms in the parenthesis are “augmentation”.0024 degrees. and you must convert it to decimal degrees.31/(Ha+4. Start with the apparent altitude Ha: Ha = Hs +IC + Corr DIP (assume instrument correction I ~ 0) The horizontal parallax for the Moon is given in the nautical almanac tables as the variable HP in minutes of arc. To determine the parallax-in-altitude PA.25) includes earth oblateness The semi-diameter of the Sun SD is given at the bottom of the page of the tables in the nautical almanac in minutes of arc.28 · Pressuremb / (TemperatureDEG C + 273) The final refraction correction R is thus: R = Ro · f This number is always negative. and you must convert it to decimal degrees. If the lower limb were observed. meaning the observer is a very little closer to the moon with greater altitude angle. For Venus. use this equation: PA = HP · Cos(Ha) · (1 –(Sin2(Lat))/298. Use the largest number at zero altitude to = HPVenus. but you can calculate one based on the hourly value of HP: The semi-diameter of the Moon: SD = 0. Atmospheric refraction is standardized to surface conditions of 10 deg C and 1010mb pressure. HP for the Sun = 0. So is the semi-diameter daily average of the Moon.

With the micrometer drum bring both images together (no semi-diameter corrections either) and take your reading. as it will ripple the water’s surface and therefore the reflected image. as normally you would be looking at a horizon. Correct the reading by taking the apparent altitude Ha and divide by two. This is simply a pan of water or old motor oil that you place down on the ground in view of the Sun. The ripples dampen out almost immediately. Since the liquid will be perfectly parallel with the true horizon (no dip corrections here). Protective wind guards around the pan work somewhat. and ADD a semidiameter (LL): Ho = Ha + R + SD 50 . let the top image set onto the reflected image. it can be used as a reflecting plane. then add the refraction correction: Ha = (Hs + IC)/2 Ho = Ha + R no dip correction no semi-diameter correction The wind is very bothersome. What works best is mineral oil in a protected pan set up on a tripod so that you can get right up to it. Move the index arm until you bring the real Sun into the pupil image with the index mirror.SD If post meridian (afternoon). Undoubtedly you will need to position extra filters over the horizon mirror to darken the Sun’s image. and SUBTRACT a semidiameter (UL): Ho = Ha + R . you can let the sun touch limb-to-limb.Artificial horizon A fun way of practicing sighting the Sun while on land is to use an artificial horizon. If pre meridian (morning) then let the bottom image rise onto the reflected image. but generally you may have to wait minutes for a perfect calm. This gives a reading nearly twice the real altitude. measure the time. In essence you point the sextant to the pan of liquid where you see the reflection of the Sun. measure the time. To be very accurate.

and the same for all right hand pages. The v number refers to variances in the nominal GHA rate. Three days of data are presented for every left and right hand page pairs. the value of d (with our sign convention) may be positive or negative. East +. For your particular locality. add the interpolated increment for the minutes and seconds. The left page contains tabular data of GHA and declination for Aries (declination = 0). GHA. Our sign convention imposes that a south declination is negative. and you must interpolate for the minutes and seconds between hours. West -. If the tabulated hourly data for declination is advancing northwards (less southwards). you can express the event time in UT with the following equation: EventTimeLOCAL = LMT – Longitude/15. and a north declination is positive. Similarly for declination. A word of caution. the interpolation tables will tabulate increments (Corr GHA) down to the second of each minute. The v and d correction is interpolated only for every minute. Venus. but have a positive d if declination is becoming less southwards. Moon. Take the hourly data in the tables. Interpolation tables. Saturn and 57 selected stars. The interpolation tables (‘increments and corrections’) are based on nominal rates of change of GHA for the motions of the Sun and planets. we could have a positive declination (north) but a negative d if the declination is 51 . and Aries. with variances to the rates compensated with the v and d values.Chapter 7 Reading the Nautical Almanac The nautical almanac has detailed explanations in the back regarding how to read the tabular data and how to use the interpolation tables (increments and corrections). Remember the sign convention. Every left hand page in the almanac is similar to all other left hand pages. Mars. We could have a negative declination (south). sunset. so d is the direct hourly rate of change of declination. only one set of interpolation tables is required. Hours UT at your longitude. and finally add the interpolated v correction. take the tabulated hourly value Dec and add the interpolated d correction. moonrise. and their applicable fraction (the correction Corr V and Corr d) is given in the interpolation tables for the minute of the hour. There is no nominal rate for changes in declination. Along the same line. These are hourly variances. For GHA. and moonset at the prime meridian. This way. It also provides the Local Mean Time (LMT) for the events of sunrise. The data is tabulated for each hour on the dot for every day of the year. and how to properly apply the mysterious v and d corrections. then the sign is positive. v and d corrections Probably the most confusing part of the tables is interpolation for times between hourly-tabulated data. The right page has similar data for the Sun and Moon. Jupiter.

Unfortunately the almanac has no sign for d so you must devine the correct sign by looking at the progression of DEC.00000 (degrees/hour) for Sun or planets Rate = 14.heading south (less northwards).com. It seems to appear everywhere and applied to everything. and make sure the sign convention was applied correctly (carpenter’s rule: measure twice.31667 (degrees/hour) for Moon Rate = 15. and second are thus: GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEC hour + Corr d Where GHAhour and DEC hour are the table values in the almanac for the hour. minute. After all the interpolations and corrections are performed. Corr V. ∆t. Corr GHA. Since we like to use our calculators. We convert it to decimal degrees and call it GHAhour. convert the angles to decimal degrees and make sure the sign convention was applied consistently to the declination value.isa 52 .04107 (degrees/hour) for Aries In a similar line. The nautical almanac tables for the particular day gave us a GHA in degrees and arcminutes at the UT hour. v/60 and d/60 converts arcminutes per hour to degrees per hour. M minutes. declination is interpolated thus: DEC = DEC hour + (d/60) · ∆t (DEC hour and d with the proper sign) Note. Now. and S seconds (H:M:S). liberal use is made of the correction factor Corrn. We do the same for the declination and call it DEC hour. Note the hourly variance v and declination rate d in arcminutes per hour. Note: In the nautical almanac. The final values at the particular hour. Notably. Visit an on-line Nautical Almanac at: http://www.tecepe. which are the minutes and seconds in decimal form: ∆t = (M/60) + (S/3600).br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI. We can also define the hour fraction. cut once). and Corr d. instead of using the ‘increments and corrections’ table (it’s actually very easy) we can interpolate for ourselves in the following manner. Lets say we shot an observation at Universal Time H hours. The n is actually a variable name for any of the parameters that require ‘correction’. the correct interpolated value for our specific time of observation is thus: GHA = GHAhour + {Rate + (v/60)} · ∆t decimal degrees Where Rate = 15. Carry out all calculations to 4 decimal places. Corr ALT. Corr DIP.

53 .

54 .

such as the Weems Line of Position Book.O. and the answers are the same as a navigational calculator. 249 were published.O. Almost all calculations were eliminated when the inspection tables.O. The English almanacs were published later in the 1700’s. 214 (1936). though. No whole number assumptions are required. 208 (1928). and the tables are a bit of a maze (takes practice).O. But the Sumner line method may be considered equally easy. H. and natural haversine tables. which tabulated zillions of pre-computed solutions to the navigational triangle for all combinations where LHA and latitude are whole numbers. cosine. of the French Navy. which allowed multiplication to be treated as addition problems. and Ageton's H.Chapter 8 Sight Reduction The process of taking the raw observational data and turning the information into a Line Of Position (LOP) is called sight reduction. 2 computations for the Saint-Hilaire method. and haversine ( ½ [1-cos] ). H. and H. H. 249 developed in the mid 1940’s and early 1950’s remain the principle tabular method used today. Dreisonstok's Hydrographic Office method H. Sight reduction was greatly simplified early in the 1900’s by the coming of the various short-method tables . 249 tabular methods. described in 1875 by Commander Adolphe-LaurentAnatole Marcq de Blonde de Saint-Hilaire. 211 (1931). 55 . Even though the equations and methods have been described all throughout the book. The altitude-difference method of determining a line of position introduced the age of improved navigation. You must do some minor addition. 229. Computed altitude and azimuth angle have been calculated by means of the log sine. The following page is an example of a sight-reduction form using the “calculator method” instead of the typical HO 229.O. History Trigonometric tables were first published by Regiomontanus in the mid 1400's. This is the basis of the slide rule (does anybody remember those??). The last two methods. and 2 for the Sumner line method. This ‘Marcq Saint-Hilaire’ method remains the basis of almost all celestial navigation used today. French almanacs were published in the late 1600’s where the original zero longitude ‘rose line’ ran thru Paris. followed by the early logarithm tables of Edmund Gunter in the late 1600’s. what is needed here most is organization to minimize the calculation random errors.O. The simplest tabular method of all is to use a shorthand version of Ageton’s tables known as the S-tables. 229 and H.O. which are only 9 pages long.

South is -. Zn = 360 – Zo Zn = __________ Notes: (1) (2) North is+. at the h hour on the UT date: GHA table = ____________ v = ___________ DEC table = ____________ (1) d = ___________ (careful of the sign) SHA = _____________ if star Increment of GHA for the m minutes and s seconds CorrGHA = ___________ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = ___________ (2) GHA = GHA table + CorrGHA + Corrv GHA = ___________ Increment of DEC for m minutes due to rate d is Corrd = ___________ DEC = ___________ DEC = DEC table + Corrd _____________________________________________________________ Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon (repeat Ho here to subtract Hc from) arcSin[ Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat) + Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] LHA = ___________ Ho _______________ = Hc _ ______________ Ho – Hc = _______________ · 60 = Offset Distance = Doffset n. West is GHA table = SHA + GHA Aries for a star 56 . INTERCEPT METHOD Sun / Moon / Planet / Star LL / UL UT Date _____m _____d______yr Time of observation UTC = _____h _____m _____s (1) Lat = ____________ Lon = _____________ DR position Eye height Heye ______meters Index correction IC = ______ arcmin Sextant measured altitude Hs = __________deg _________arcmin Dip correction from the corrections table: Apparent altitude Ha = Hs + IC + CorrDIP Altitude correction from the corrections table: True altitude Ho = Ha + CorrALT CorrDIP = ___________ Ha = ____________ CorrALT = ___________ Ho = ____________ From the almanac tabular data. East is +.SIGHT REDUCTION BY CALCULATOR.miles arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(Lat) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(Hc)}] = Zo ______________ True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. or 180<LHA < 360). Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180).

3’ GHA = 28˚ 30.6’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (53.850˚ = .Sun Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.6’ DEC table = +21˚ 27.1416˚ From the almanac tabular data.5’ +15.025˚) · Sin(53.9’ = 32.3’ (interpolate in your head) Observed true altitude Ho = 52˚ 52.6’ + 3˚ 54.0.1’ = 21˚ 27.4533˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 32.453˚) · Cos(.1416˚ – 53.5’ = 53. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 28˚ 30.67.0767˚)}/{Cos(44.3’ Lower Limb Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.35.025˚ N.3’ .1’ DEC = +21˚ 27.025˚) · Cos(21.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 15m 37s Sextant measured altitude of the sun Hs = 52˚ 52.3’ = 32˚ 24. Zn = Zo = 116˚ 57 . Lon = -67.4’ moving less northerly Increment of GHA for the 15 minutes and 37 seconds CorrGHA = 3˚ 54. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).3’ N d = -0. Calculated Azimuth direction of sun Zo = arcCos[{Sin(21.435˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(21.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.453˚) – Sin(44.435˚) ] Hc = 53.2’ = 21.5’ CorrALT = +15.0767˚) = +3.0767˚ = 53˚ 4.415˚ + .453˚) · Sin(44.0.025˚) + Cos(44.3’ = 53˚ 8.3’ + 3.4150˚ Increment of DEC for 15 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = .9 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards the Sun azimuth.025˚) · Cos(53.0767˚)}] Zo = 116˚.4’ -2.35.

817˚ = 44˚ 49.3’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 4.470˚) ] Hc = 44.2’ DEC table = +12˚ 9.025˚) · Cos(12.4’ -2.1’ True altitude Ho = 44˚ 22.2’ HP = 56.7’ v = +12.817˚)}/{Cos(44.1’ Upper Limb (UL) Altitude corrections from almanac moon correction tables.Moon Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.22˚) · Cos( 37.2’ GHA = 100˚ 23.2’ –30.025˚) · Sin(44.025˚) + Cos(44.368˚ – 44.3’ + 4.22˚) · Sin(44.0’ (the –30’ is for using the UL) = 24.817˚) = -2.0’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (44.8’ = 12˚ 13.850˚ = 37. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 100˚ 23.4’ + 3.1’ = 44.817˚)}] Zo = 123˚.2’ = 12.3200˚ Increment of DEC for 20 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = +3.7850˚ From the almanac tabular data.5’ +24.470˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(12. Calculated Azimuth direction of moon Zo = arcCos[{Sin(12. and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).025˚) · Cos(44.9’ + 3.67.025˚ N.8’ DEC = +12˚ 9. in two parts: CorrDIP = -2.Zo = 237˚ 58 .2’ = 105˚ 19.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 20m 21s Sextant measured altitude of the moon Hs = 44˚ 22.0 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the moon’s azimuth.8’ Increment of GHA for the 20 minutes and 21 seconds CorrGHA = 4˚ 51.4’ N d = +11.1’ = 44˚ 47.32˚ + .5’ CorrALT = +50. Lon = -67.7’ + 4˚ 51.1’ + 3.2’ = 105.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3. Zn = 360 .2200˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 105.22 ˚) – Sin(44.

830˚) = –1.4’ –2.4’ = 110˚ 44. Lon = -67. Hs = 59˚ 47.8’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (59.850˚ = 42.4’ GHAAries table = 53˚ 14.025˚) · Cos(45.8’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.1’ N = +45.8’ +3.025˚ N.4’ DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.5’ True altitude Ho = 59˚ 47.2850˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 110.Zo = 288˚ 59 .8033˚ –59.5’ CorrALT = -0.83˚)}/{Cos(44.6 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the star’s azimuth.5’ = 59˚ 48.5’ – 0.025˚) · Cos(59.4’ + 7˚ 52. Calculated Azimuth direction of star Zo = arcCos[{Sin(45.735˚ + – 67.3’ + 49˚ 37.8033˚ From the almanac tabular data.2850˚) – Sin(44.025˚) · Sin(59.4’ Time of observation UTC = 8h 31m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Deneb.3’ GHA = 53˚ 14.1’ = 110.885˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(45.83˚)}] Zo = 72˚.830˚ = 59˚ 49.1’ N No v or d corrections for stars Increment of GHA for the 31 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 7˚ 52.285˚) · Cos( 42.2’ = 59.885˚) ] Hc = 59. Zn = 360 . and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).285˚) · Sin(44. morning twilight: DR position Lat = 44.735˚ DEC = DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.025˚) + Cos(44.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3. at the 8th hour July 15 2001: SHADENEB = 49˚ 37.Star Shot Example You took a shot of Deneb in the constellation of Cygnus.

0’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/16/2001 Index correction IC = +3.0’ +3.602˚ = 18˚ 36.842˚) · Cos( -9.5’ GHA = 55˚ 30.368˚ + – 67.9’ = 18.850˚ = – 9.842˚) – Sin(44. same local day.4’ Time of observation UTC = 01h 11m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Mars.4’ –2.5’ CorrALT = -3.6’ + 2˚ 51.5’ – 3.5’ S v = +2.602˚) = +1. Hs = 18˚ 40.602˚)}/{Cos(44.025˚) + Cos(44.5’ = –26. Lon = -67. Calculated Azimuth direction of Mars Zo = arcCos[{Sin(-26.8 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards Mars’s azimuth.025˚) · Cos(-26.Planet Shot Example Mars in the evening. Zn = Zo = 171˚ 60 .025˚) · Sin(18.482˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(-26.368˚ DEC = DECMARS = –26˚ 50.0’ True altitude Ho = 18˚ 40.025˚) · Cos(18.0’ = 18˚ 37.632˚ From the almanac tabular data.0’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 0.6’ and d =0 Increment of GHA for the 11 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 2˚ 51.482˚) ] Hc = 18.632˚ – 18. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).0’ + 0.025˚ N.842˚) · Sin(44. at the 1st hour July 16 2001: GHAMARS table = 55˚ 30.5’ = 58˚ 22.6’ DECMARS table = –26˚ 50.1’ = 58.602˚)}] Zo = 171˚.842˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 58. but the next day in GMT: DR position Lat = 44.1’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (18.

61 . from early morning twilight to mid morning to evening twilight. The ellipse represents the 95% probability area of the position fix using all 4 LOPs. These observations are over the course of a day.Plots of the Lines Of Position (LOP) from the previous 4 examples The observer was stationary during all of the observations. The arrows indicate the azimuth direction (bearing from true north) of the heavenly objects.

the longitude lines start to crowd in on each other as they reach the poles. It’s too easy to make mistakes punching in numbers and doing the trig. an estimated position is essential for our simple methods. But on a spherical surface. three circles and you are pinpointed. Undoubtedly. These approximation methods are known as plane sailing. longitude. flat-Earth approximations are close enough to advance the estimated position from a previously known fix. In our day-to-day wanderings. Strictly speaking. an estimated position is not needed. you could wander across all 360 longitude lines in just a few short steps! Plane Sailing Shorthand True course from true north TC Speed of vessel. an important element was the estimated position. Dead reckoning is simple to understand on a flat earth. just as it is not needed with the Global Positioning System. you would sooner or later regret it. Three spacecraft. If you head northwest at 60 mph. orbiting spacecraft have geographical positions and circles of constant altitude. Just think. In the case of GPS. you should be 120 miles to the northwest of your last position. if you didn’t reckon correctly. say using your car. knots Time interval from last fix. and you drove for 2 hours. but electronically it is circles of constant timing. The ‘crowding in’ at the current latitude can be thought of as being more or less fixed for short distances. on the north or south pole. also known as the dead reckoning (DR) position.Chapter 9 Putting it Together and Navigating I encourage you the navigator to program your simple calculators to provide the calculated altitude Hc and calculated uncorrected azimuth Zo from inputs of latitude. A simple programmable calculator mechanizing the simple steps in the calculations will go a long way in reducing the silly arithmetic errors. hours D = Speed · Time distance traveled nmile DEW = D sin(TC) east-west distance DNS = D cos(TC) north-south distance ∆Lat = DNS arcmin latitude change ∆Lon = DEW /cos(Lat) arcmin longitude change 62 . and DEC. GHA. But since intersecting straight LOPs is a lot easier than solving simultaneous equations for intersecting circles. Plane Sailing and Dead Reckoning (DR) With the celestial methods described so far.

knots (kts) V= Time interval between the present desired fix and the last fix.Plane Sailing Work Sheet Last Known Latitude. corrected for current. compensated for leeway and current). decimal degrees from true north TC = Estimate of distance. SLatO = Last Known Longitude. WLonO = Speed of vessel. decimal degrees LatDR = LatO + ∆Lat/60 Change in longitude. decimal degrees LonDR = LonO + ∆Lon/60 63 . nautical miles (nm) D = V · ∆Time Change in latitude. decimal degrees E+. decimal hours ∆Time = ∆ True course made good (heading. arcminutes ∆Lat = D · Cos(TC) New estimated latitude. decimal degrees N+. arcminutes ∆Lon = D · Sin(TC)/Cos(LatO + ∆Lat/120) New estimated longitude.

With a quick study of the figure. if you produced a ‘good’ LOP earlier. the old LOP is parallel-advanced in the direction of the true course-made-good (TC) to the DR distance between the last LOP and the new one. Most frequently. it is used to advance an old LOP to get a fix with a new LOP while the ship is under way. the reader should discern the mechanics involved. Quite simply. you can ‘drag it’ along with your moving vessel as if it were pinned to the stern using the simple distance = rate x time for the distance to drag. Essentially.Running Fix The running fix is a method by which two or more line of positions (LOPs) taken at different times on a moving vessel can be coalesced together to represent a navigational fix at any single arbitrary time between the observations. and it gets dragged in the same course direction as the vessel. 64 .

you would follow a procedure similar to this: 1) Pre-dawn sighting of planets and stars. Double check with the compass. Note: Morning and evening twilight observations need to be carefully planned. When the moon is a young moon. A Sun-Moon fix is nice when available. advancing a dawn LOP for a running fix. advancing the mid-morning LOP for a running fix. it will be in the sky east of the sun in the late afternoon. their estimated altitudes and azimuth angles.Daily Observation Schedule During your typical navigating in-the-blue sort of day. It is a time when both night objects and the horizon are visible simultaneously. 2) Mid-morning Sun observation. When it is an old moon. 4) Mid-afternoon Sun observation. it will share the sky west of the sun during the morning hours. advancing the noon LOP for a running fix. That’s not a whole lot of time for off-the-cuff navigation. so that you are sure of what you are looking at. providing a definite fix. Plan the objects. providing a definite fix. 5) Twilight observation of planets and stars. 65 . 3) Noonish sighting.

LONa. All else is relative to this location. Roffset3. This selected time for the fix is called the time of fix. and designate it Roffset1. Since the vessel is continuously underway.. we define an arbitrary time that we want the newest fix to apply to. the intercept distances Doffset1. t3 (decimal hrs). draw a line in the azimuth direction Zn. 5) Then from that mark. We were at such-andsuch location at such-and-such time. Roffset2 = V · (tfix – t2 ). tfix. then draw the LOP from that point. scale makes corresponding latitude and longitude measurements possible without calculations.. 66 . 2) Draw a line thru the center in the direction of the true course TC going both ways. Zn2. Doffset3 and the calculated azimuths Zn1. as you can do everything necessary to plot a LOP. If Doffset is negative. 3) Generally there are two scales you can use. LONa. the speed V (kts).miles for those close encounters. but after trying it once. and an assumed position LATa. measure along the true course line in the forward direction (if Roffset is +. Roffset2. Ho3. The plotting sheet has a built-in scale of 60 n. etc. Let us say that we have the true course TC. backwards if Roffset is -) the distance Roffset and mark it with a dot. Basically you draw the Roffset vector from the center of the compass rose along the direction of the true course. 4) For the first observation. but with an arrow showing the forward direction. (n. Here are the detailed steps: 1) The very center of the compass rose on the plotting sheet is designated as the assumed position LATa. then draw the Doffset vector from the head of the Roffset vector. we also have the calculated altitudes Ha1. the observed altitudes Ho1.miles) Notice that for observation times after the time of fix. This is very convenient. the length being the distance Doffset. The procedure seems complicated. From sight reduction.m. Staying in either the 60 or 6 n. Mark the spot. draw the line in the opposite direction (180 degrees different). Ha3. Ha2. the offset is negative. Doffset2. the mechanics will seem obvious.Plotting Multiple Lines of Position (LOP) with Running Fixes Plotting the LOPs is best done on a universal plotting sheet. We calculate the running fix distance corrections that each observation will require. The corrections are calculated thus: Roffset1 = V · (tfix – t1 ). the times of the observation t1 . etc.miles which could just as easily be 6 n. Zn3. t2 . which is a sheet of paper with a graduated compass rose in the center. even though that time does not correspond exactly to any of the observation times. requiring in addition a drafting triangle and a scaled ruler. Ho2.

passing thru the last mark. This is the LOP compensated for intercept and running to an arbitrary time.6) Draw a line perpendicular to the Zn. 67 . 7) Repeat for all the other LOPs.

68 .

Where the latitude angle intersects the circle. you draw the custom longitude line for that position. the number is +. if northwards or eastwards. The north-south distance we will designate as DLAT. the number is -. The compass rose lets you set up your own custom longitude scale for your latitude. LONa is thus: LAT∆ = (DLAT / 60) decimal degrees LON∆ = (DLON/ 60)/ Cos(LATa + LAT∆/2) decimal degrees The position of the new fix is thus: LATFIX = LATa + LAT∆ LONFIX = LONa + LON∆ The corrective change can also be deduced graphically. Measure the distance with the linear scale you are using for the plot from the center. 1 nautical mile N-S is equivalent to 1 arcminute of latitude. you can mark what appears to be the best solution of the fix. Following the sign conventions. as it is really set up for this.Once all the LOPs are plotted. and the east-west distance as DLON in nautical miles. from the universal plotting sheet. The corrective change ∆ in latitude and longitude from the assumed position LATa. 69 . Remember. If southwards or westwards.

CALCULATING A FIX FROM MULTIPLE LOPs FROM A FIXED ASSUMED POSITION WHILE RUNNING Form the quantities A,B,C,D,E,G from these summations: N A = n=1 Cos AZMn

2

N = total number of LOPs participating in the fix

N B = n= 1 Cos AZMn . Sin AZMn

N C = n=1 Sin AZMn

2

N D = n= 1 Cos AZMn . p1 n p2 n

G = A .C

B

2

N E = n= 1 Doffsetn 60 Roffsetn 60 Sin AZMn . p1 n p2 n

Where

p1 n

=

and

p2 n

=

. Cos AZM n

TC

Doffset n is the nth intercept offset distance, n.miles Roffsetn is the nth running-fix offset distance, n.miles AZM n is the nth azimuth direction of the nth heavenly body TC is the true course angle from true north

LON I = LON A

( A . E B .D ) G . Cos LAT A ( C .D G B .E)

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

LAT I = LAT A

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

dist = 60 .

LON I

2 2 LON A . cos LAT A

LAT I

LAT A

2

Distance from assumed fix to calculated fix, nm. Should be < 20 nm. If not, use the improved fix as the new assumed position and start all over again

70

**Good Practice and Error Reduction Techniques
**

There are many sources of error, not the least misidentification of the heavenly object. Slim chance of that happening with the Sun or Moon. With objects that you are sure of, a set of 3 or 4 shots of each known object can reduce random measurement errors. With stars at twilight, perhaps it is better to take single shots but have many targets to reduce the effects of misidentification. This type of error has the distinction of putting you hundreds of miles off, and so are easy to catch, allowing you to disregard the specific data.

Handling measurement random errors graphically Random Errors The effect of multiple shots of the same object are such that the random errors, some +, some -, will average to zero. Random measurement errors of plus or minus several miles are handled several basic ways for a set of shots of the same object: 1) Calculate all the LOPs in a set and average them graphically on the map. 2) Arithmetically average the times and altitudes for a set of shots, and calculate one LOP using the averaged value of time and altitude. 3) Graph the set of shots with time on the horizontal and altitude on the vertical. Draw a line representing the average and from that pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. This is the easiest. 4) Graph the shots as in 3), but calculate a slope and fit it to the data. The slope is determined by calculating Hc for two different times in the range of the data set with your estimated position. With these two new points, draw a line between them. Parallel offset this new line until it fits best in the data points already drawn. Then, as in 3), pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. 71

Using technique 4) should result in the most accurate LOP, however there are more calculations making it the same trouble as 1). On the other hand, practical navigation is not usually concerned with establishing a position to within ¼ mile, so unless you are particular, graphing your measurements as in technique 3) may be the easiest to implement with a good payoff for reducing random errors. Arithmetically averaging instead of graphically averaging is a good way to introduce unwanted calculation mistakes, so I would steer away from technique 2) for manual calculations. Systematic Errors This species of error, where a constant error is in all of the measurements, can come from such things as an instrument error, a misread index error, your personal technique and bias, strange atmospheric effects, and clock error. All but clock error can be handled with the following technique. If you have many objects to choose from, choose 4 stars that are ~90 degrees apart from each other in azimuth, or with 3 stars make sure they are ~120 degrees apart. This creates a set of LOPs where the effect of optical systematic errors cancels.

72

3) If you can. make a tight spaced grouping of 3 shots per object. 2) Pick objects that are spaced in azimuth 90 to 120 degrees apart for systematic error reduction.The steps for good practice 1) For a good fix. 73 . 4) Apply averaging techniques for random error reduction. pick 3 or more clearly identified heavenly objects. 5) Advance the LOPs with a running fix technique to time coincide with the time of your last shots.

and Lon is the assumed longitude position. the dimmer the star. then you can look it up in the star chart data to match it with the closest numbers. 74 . rearranged. as data for their position on the celestial sphere (star globe) is given. Star magnitudes refer to their brightness. However.6. you could use the equations for calculated altitude and azimuth. The sidereal hour angle (‘longitude’ on the star globe) is then: SHA = LHA – GHAAries – Lon Where GHA aries is the Greenwich hour angle of aries (zero ‘longitude’ on the star globe) at the time of this observation from the almanac.sin(DEC) · sin(Lat)} / {cos(Lat) · cos(DEC)}] If the azimuth is greater than 180˚. It’s actually best to this by software. Lat is the assumed latitude. it is North. If the numbers still don’t match any stars. then LHA is +. The brightest stars actually have negative magnitudes. then look in the almanac to match up SHA and DEC with any planets listed. Rearranging the azimuth equation. AZM is the approximate azimuth angle (magnetic compass + magnetic variation). and H is the altitude angle (don’t bother with dip and refraction corrections). the larger the number. the 2102-D and Celestaire star chart come to mind. SHA and DEC. Now this only applies to the bright 58 ‘navigational stars’. then LHA is –.Chapter 10 Star Identification There are various star finding charts. to help you identify stars. or have constellation charts handy. If the azimuth is less than 180˚. Once you have the essential information. such as Sirius (the brightest star) has a magnitude of -1. if – then it is South. Numerically. Rearrange the calculated altitude equation to get local hour angle LHA: LHA = (+/-) arcCos[{sin(H) . we get the declination DEC: DEC = arcSin[cos(AZM) · cos(Lat) · cos(H) + sin(Lat) · sin(H)] If the declination is +.

9 -1.7 1.2 1.6 0.0 -0.6 1.1 0.9 color Orange Orange constellation Great Square Phoenix Cassiopeia Cetus Eridanus Aries Little Dipper Eridanus Cetus Perseus Taurus Orion Auriga Orion Taurus Orion Orion Carina Canis Major Canis Major Canis Minor Gemini Carnia Vela Carnia Hydra Leo Big Dipper Leo Cygnus S.2 1.8 1. Cross S.0 2.7 2.1 2.2 0.5 2.4 2.5 1.2 2.2 1.3 2.2 1.6 2.9 1.8 1.3 0.2 2. Cross Big Dipper Virgo Big Dipper Centarus Orange Orange Blue Yellow Red White White Yellow Blue 75 .1 1.2 2.The 58 Navigational Stars Listing SHA 358 354 350 349 336 328 324 315 315 309 291 281 281 279 279 276 271 264 259 255 245 244 234 223 222 218 208 194 183 176 173 172 167 159 153 149 DEC +29 -42 +57 -18 -57 +23 +89 -40 +4 +50 +16 -8 +46 +6 +29 -1 +7 -53 -17 -29 +5 +28 -59 -43 -70 -9 +12 +62 +15 -18 -63 -57 +56 -11 +49 -60 Star Alpheratz Ankaa Schedar Diphda Achernar Hamal Polaris Acamar Menkar Mirfak Aldebaran Rigel Capella Bellatrix Elnath Alnilam Betelgeuse Canopus Sirius Adhara Procyon Pollux Avior Suhail Miaplacidus Alphard Regulus Dubhe Denebola Gienah Acrux Gacrux Alioth Spica Alkaid Hadar magnitude 2.1 3.7 1.8 1.9 0.6 1.8 1.2 1.8 2.

3 2.9 2.9 2. Kochab is just slightly lower than Polaris.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 2.3 2. 76 .2 0.2 1.7 2. Great Square If one waits until the Little Dipper is in this orientation. then the 41’ that Polaris is off from the celestial pole won’t matter and then the observed altitude will equal the latitude.6 1.6 color constellation Centarus Orange Bootes Centarus White Libra Orange Little Dipper Corona Borea.1 2.9 2.4 2. Triangle Ophiuchus Scorpio Ophiuchus Draco Sagittarius White Lyra Sagittarius Aquila Pavo Cygnus Orange Pegasus Grus Piscis Austrin.3 1.SHA 148 146 140 137 137 126 113 108 103 097 096 091 084 081 076 062 054 050 034 028 016 014 DEC -36 +19 -61 -16 +74 +27 -26 -69 -16 -37 +13 +51 -34 +39 -26 +9 -57 +45 +10 -47 -30 +15 Star Menkent Arcturus Rigil Kent Zuben’ubi Kochab Alphecca Antares Atria Sabik Shaula Raselhague Eltanin Kaus Australis Vega Nunki Altair Peacock Deneb Enif Al Na’ir Fomalhaut Markab magnitude 2.1 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.2 1. Red Scorpio S.

THE CELESTAIRE STAR CHART 77 .

SOME STAR CHARTS AND THEIR CONSTELLATIONS 78 .

79 .

The “summer triangle” 80 .

81 .

Lat = arcTan[ -cos(7. a purely East-West LOP By meridian transit This has already been covered in the discussion of the noon sighting for the sun. then combining them with running fix techniques. corrections for this slight offset and annual aberration must be accounted for. By the height of Polaris Since Polaris is not exactly on the celestial north pole. and seconds. minutes.Chapter 11 Special Topics Determining Longitude and Latitude Individually Some simplified methods can be used at specific times of the day to calculate latitude and longitude individually. Convert the time into decimal hours. One could do it for any heavenly body. Latitude Determination.5 · ElapsedTime) / tan(DEC)] You may be off by 10 arcminutes latitude depending on your timing technique. where Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT ao is a function of local hour angle LHA a1 is a function of estimated latitude a2 is a function of what month it is By the length of time of day If you measure the time of day from sunup to sunset in hours. These techniques are probably not used so much anymore. since with tabular methods and calculators the complexity of the navigational triangle is not so daunting. the only limitations now are ones of visibility of the heavenly object. and name it ElapsedTime. In other words. 82 . Start the timing and end the timing when the sun’s lower limb is about ½ diameter above the horizon. then with the timing of sunrise or just after with the prime vertical sight determine longitude. not mathematical. The nautical almanac has tables where: Latitude = Ho -1˚ + ao + a1 + a2. you can calculate your latitude. but the sun is the favorite. A scenario like this presents itself: take the height of Polaris at dawn twilight for a latitude fix. Use the running fix technique to ‘drag’ along the latitude LOP to time coincide with the longitude LOP.

h = 2 meters.664˚ Add 360 to it.5’) = + 0˚ 18. With the sextant preset to this angle.15.0’ (UL) The dip correction is always negative. But due to dip.75˚ With the sun’s LL CorrALT = .1’.664˚ = .1’) – (-0.235˚)] . (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2.75˚) · Tan(10. preset the sextant angle to Hs = -(-2. If: Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT then Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT So. Lon = 360˚ – 444. we can figure the refraction correction for when Ho = 0.Longitude Determination. the CorrALT = – 15. a purely North-South LOP By the timing of sunrise or sunset The equations simplify when the true altitude Ho is zero. adding the increments for the minutes and seconds. so we need to do a little iteration. Latitude = 41.0.15.5’ So.390˚.5’ (LL) or Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 43. refraction. observe the time UTC.39˚ = . Same with the altitude corrections in this case.5’. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =345. In the almanac. the sextant altitude needs to be preset at a low but specific angle to catch the sun at true horizon sunrise or sunset.5’) – (.235˚ N So: Lon = – arcos[-Tan(41.84. set the sextant to: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 15.GHA. Refraction correction is a function of Ha.664˚ West Longitude 83 . Longitude is then: Lon = {(+ / -) arcos[-Tan(Lat) · Tan(DEC)]} . Fortunately I’ve done it for you. the time was 11h 30m 10s. the CorrALT = – 43’ UL In short.444. for Ho = 0: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT It should be apparent that: Ha = – CorrALT = –R – SDLL or = –R + SDUL Since the average sun semi-diameter is 16’. semi-diameter and index error. but in this equation the double negative will make this number a positive.5’ LL Using the sun upper limb (UL). look up the GHA and declination.1’ When the sun is at this altitude. so here are the results: Using the sun’s lower limb (LL). and DEC = 10. so CorrDIP = . when the sun’s limb kisses the horizon.345.

This simplifies the equations such that: Ho = arcsin[Sin(DEC) / Sin(Lat)] Work out the sextant angle by: Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT Determine the UTC time when this condition occurs by waiting for the object to attain Hs.5’ For the approximated time.664˚ West By the time sight This uses the Sumner line equation. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =6. the azimuth is exactly 90˚.84. from the almanac DEC = 10. h = 2 meters. used only once by imputing your best estimate for latitude.365˚. Be careful of the (+/-) sign. Latitude = 41. if the object continues to rise.260˚ N Ho = arcsin[Sin(10. Then: Lon = (+ / -) arcsin[Cos(Ho) / Cos(DEC)] .Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA 84 .5’. determine if the object is pre or post meridian.GHA (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2.260˚ N Lon = .arcsin[Cos(15.365˚ = . East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): Lon = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . The closer to meridian transit the less accurate the answer since at meridian transit the LOP is East-West.75˚)] = 15.By the prime vertical sight If you will recall the illustration on page 21. so CorrDIP = . the sun will rise a bit to the north of east (northern hemisphere) and it may be some time after sunrise that the sun crosses this imaginary line. When it does. not North-South.75˚ If Ha ~ 15˚ then CorrALT = +12.515˚) / Cos(10. a little error in latitude will translate into a large longitude error from the calculation. In the summer months. and DEC = 10.260˚) / Sin(41. In these circumstances. the prime vertical circle goes from due east to the zenith to due west.260˚)] – 6.515˚ When the sun is at this altitude. it is pre meridian.1’.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): Lon = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . the time was 12h 54m 3s. Easily done with the sextant. then look up in the almanac GHA for the sun.0.

The nautical almanac contains predictions for both objects. which won’t change fast. 85 . By small. between messy observations and even messier calculations. In fact. I mean the time estimate may be off by several minutes per degree of altitude change. lunars are for the hardcore celestial zealot. It must be done by calculation or by special lunar tables. it just means you’ll have to make allowances in your longitude estimate to the tune of 15 · Cos(Lat) n. and so the arc distance between the two objects can be worked out as a function of time. one can measure sequentially and correct the altitude measurements to time coincide with the arc distance measurement.5 arcminute per minute of time. A degree of altitude change at it’s worst will take 4 minutes (at the equator).Chapter 12 Lunars These days. In order to do that. Since the arc distance is changing with time relatively fast (~0. the angular closing speed between the moon and a planet or star near the ecliptic plane. that’s not bad. the observer must nearly simultaneously obtain the altitudes of both the moon and star (or planet) as well as the actual measured arc distance between the two.508 deg per hour). The almanac many years ago contained these functions. It is possible that the errors will be small if you take three consecutive measurements within a few minutes. but stopped in 1907. a sort of ‘running fix’ correction on altitude. Whew! It helps to have two friends in the same boat with sextants. and so the observer will have to correct for it. This is a method whereby you can reset your untrustworthy chronometer if you are in the middle of the ocean (or anywhere) without friends or a short-wave radio. you may have quite a bit of time to make measurements sequentially.miles per minute of time error. from our earthly point of view. so you’ll just have to assume something like 2 minutes of time. Still. But you won’t know the error. with quartz watches and radio time-ticks. one can infer a particular time in UT to a particular arc distance. The tabular data in the almanac does not consider refraction or parallax. Since the moon appears to orbit about the Earth once every 29 ½ days (27 1/3 days in inertial space). Essentially the arc-distance between the moon’s limb and a heavenly object close to the ecliptic plane (such as a planet) is measured. is about 0. Practically speaking. But if the measurements are taken with the objects near the meridian line. this means you won’t get any closer to the real time by a minute or so. since the altitude measurements are for refraction and parallax corrections. Or perhaps you just want to feel challenged.

and Ho is the observed altitude for the object (Hs + SD is close enough). Employed best by computer. sort of. it’s fun. Tarc refers to the time you took the arc distance measurement. When final corrections are made for parallax. Besides. and Taltitude is the time you took the altitude measurement. good luck. rather the time difference is what should be accurate. When the measured arc distance Ds is corrected for index error.R. Oh. and semi-diameter. This entire task is simplified if you have a computer and use MathCad software to write and evaluate the equations.If the time difference between the arc measurement and altitude measurement is δT minutes of time. it is referred to the apparent arc distance Da. This way. although I derived the exact same equation independently when approaching the problem. The case presented is for when you don’t know the exact time and you have made the three necessary measurements as though you were doing it for real. the parallax and refraction corrections will be identical had you done simultaneous measurements. Young. refraction. Well. as far as sequencing the observations to minimize errors if you don’t feel like making the ‘running fix’ corrections. LHA is your best guess at the local hour angle for the object. LAT is your latitude. Since there are 2 altitude measurements. do this: 1) measure the arc distance first 2) measure the altitude of the most east/west next. and δHmoon increment based on time increments δTstar. δTmoon. but the longitude is as far off as the chronometer. quickly 3) measure the altitude of the southern/northern most object last The objects farthest away from meridian passage change altitude the quickest and should be measured soonest after the arc distance measurement. then add this increment to the altitude measurement: δT δH = 15 · [-Cos(LAT) · Cos(DEC) · Sin(LHA)/Cos(Ho)] · δ arcminutes where δT = Tarc – Taltitude in minutes of time. That final arc distance is designated as Dcleared and the entire procedure is known as clearing the lunar distance. By the way. Here the method assumes that the latitude assumed is very accurate. The equation for Dcleared presented here was first published in 1856 by J. There is a second method using one measurement and an assumed position. 86 . there will be a δHstar. DEC is the declination of the observed object. the resulting number is the arc distance as seen from an observer at the Earth’s center. The absolute time is not important.

87 .

degrees 0.--------------------------------. deg Measured arc distance from Lunar limb to star or planet center with Sextant Scale. determine the refraction correction for the star and the moon Record values for: R star Convert the dip and refraction corrections to decimal degrees !! R moon 88 .Clearing the distance from a lunar observation --------------------------------------IC h eye Hs star Hs moon Ds Index Error Correction.2724 . lower limb is +1. degrees From this table. meters Change all angle data into decimal degrees Measured Altitude of star or planet with Sextant Scale. upper limb is -1 When measuring arc distance. far limb is -1 HP SD moon = Horizontal Parallax HP. deg Measured Altitude of the Moon with Sextant Scale. HP Lunar semi-diameter. from the nautical almanac. deg Your imperfect clock time noted at the observation of Ds. degrees Eye Height above seal level. convert to decimal hours UT s sgn limbH sgn limbD When measuring altitude. near limb is +1.

89

The 2nd method with one measurement (the arc distance) will calculate the altitudes based on the assumed position and imperfect chronometer reading. With the new corrected time, you can also correct the assumed longitude, and iterate once or twice more with the better time and longitude results. The basic assumption is that the latitude is more accurate.

90

Derivation of the equations used in clearing the lunar distance Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C)

Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) (these laws are for spherical trigonometry; there are similar ones for plane trig) Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚- α) cos(α) = sin(90˚- α) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A)

91

not the ‘wedge angle’ δ.s = Hastar S = Hostar m = Hamoon M = Homoon cos( d ) = sin( s ) ⋅ sin( m) + cos( s ) ⋅ cos( m) ⋅ cos(δ ) cos( D ) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos(δ ) Rearrange cos(d): cos(δ ) = cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Now substitute into cos(D): cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Rearrange: cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + ( cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) ) ⋅ cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) But using the trig identity: sin( a ) ⋅ sin(b) = − cos( a + b) And substituting this definition: cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) Cratio = cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) cos( D) = ( cos(d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) D = arcCos ( cos( d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) The key to the problem is to realize that the parallax and refraction corrections only change the altitudes. 92 . and using the law of cosines. the equation with s. When the corrections are applied. m can be related to S. the picture is drawn in the positive direction to establish a consistent sign convention. M with the common angle δ. Even though refraction corrections are negative.

Take for example points A and B on the map (maybe they are water towers or prominent points). is the same angle as any other line similarly drawn to another point on the arc. and will be described in detail. If you are an observer measuring the relative angle between two known objects on the map. A wonderful property of a simple circular arc with 2 end points is that a line drawn from one end point to anywhere on the arc back to the other end point. The navigator then constructs the two arcs on the map. Include another observation for a third coastal object and make a second angle measurement. For any arc. and where they cross is the position fix. and it is useful in costal navigation where the relative angle between the observer and 3 identified costal objects are measured.Chapter 13 Coastal Navigation Using the Sextant Early in this book a surveyor’s technique was mentioned. then the circle’s radius R: R = 0. there will exist one unique circle of position where anyone on that arc will measure the same angle between the two known coastal objects. Then the observer measures an angle ‘b’ between points B and C (or A and C). This is the 3 body fix technique. if D is the distance between A and B.25 · D · [tan(a/2) + 1 / tan(a/2)] 93 . An observer measures the relative angle ‘a’ between them using the sextant held sideways.

B. using point Y as the center. This is the circle of position. use a protractor and measure an angle away from the baseline of (90-a/2) from point ‘A’. Then draw another perpendicular to split the line A-X. It represents the center point of the circle of position. After the bisector is constructed. call this point ‘X’. carrying this line until it intersects the first bisector. Repeat steps for drawing the circle of position for points B and C with included angle ‘b’. do so for the baseline. Recalling how to draw perpendicular bisectors from middle school geometry using a bow compass. Where it intersects the bisector.Constructing the arcs by graphical means The first step is to draw the baseline between points A and B. Voila! 94 . or X. Call this point ‘Y’. Finally. if the measured angle with the sextant was ‘a’ degrees. use the bow compass to draw an arc by setting the radius to include either points A.

Appendix 1 Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet 95 .

96 .

and epoxied to form the fine-boned frame shown here. This means that you do not need to sand the wood edge perfectly arc-shaped. only then is it glued to the index arm.Appendix 2 Making Your Very Own Octant Frames for octants can be made from just about any clear wood. The Vernier scale is moved radially in and out until it lines up perfectly with the degree scale. and the third brad along the side to index side-to-side motion. 97 . The Vernier scale should not go edge to edge with the degree scale. so only the degree scale needs to be placed with accuracy. 2 along the bottom forming a horizontal line. The mirrors are indexed to their position using 3 brads. In the case of the author’s octant. The laser and bubble jet printers of today are amazingly accurately. but rather overlap it on a tapered ramp. Brass shim stock cut into rectangles and formed over a round pencil produced the U-shaped mirror retaining springs. it was made from ¾ inch thick clear maple. One-inch long #4-40 screws and nuts are used to make a 3point adjustable platform for mirror alignment The arc degree scale and Vernier scale were drawn in a 2-D computer aided design program and printed out at 1:1 scale.

you can order first surface mirrors for maybe $20.65. 6. I have found that if you score lines with a handheld glass cutter on the front and back (and edges too) so that the lines are right over each other. A 4 and 6 for the horizon will give 4. The edges should be slightly rounded so as not to dig in. In their specialty house. using a soft cloth. The second surface mirrors are good enough for a homemade (and professional) sextant. available at welding supply houses for about $1. you stand a much better chance of a successful cut. Shades can be additive. and a 14. Terrible mirrors can be had at the dollar store out of compacts. a green sun disk on a green horizon. The welding shades are numbered 1 thru 16.Mirrors Surprisingly good mirrors can be found in craft stores. But safety of your eyes is paramount. 4 for the horizon filters. 10. 4 for the sky filters and 8. 2”x2” for about 25¢ each. The quality can be surmised by tilting the mirror until you are seeing a small glancing reflection of something. that is a #5 shade plus a #6 shade is equivalent to a #11 shade. For a tool.25 inch size. The back has a protective coating that must be removed to get to the reflective material. and more than one filter will distort the Sun’s image slightly). and so the mirror can be oriented on the sextant to minimize altitude distortions. Shades Shades for the sky and horizon filters can be made from welder’s mask replacement filter plates. as it will scratch glass. Most of these welder’s shades will turn the Sun green. They cut out 99. This will require practice… 98 . Ripples (slope errors) will be quite evident at these high reflection angles. 1 being the lightest and 16 the darkest. which would seem to cover all viewing situations without having to double-up on filters (the glass is not perfect. while a #5 allows around 5%. Under no circumstances should you use a scotch-brite pad to remove the silvering. The ripples may be just in one direction. Replacement shade filter plates typically can be found for 4 thru 14. Buy the plates in a 2 by 4. Now glass cutting these thick plates is no laughing matter. Shades equivalent to a commercial sextant (by unscientific methods) is approximately 14. I use a very well sharpened/honed 1” wide wood chisel. A #4 shade allows about 13% visible transmission. The problem of contrast arises.9% of harmful UV and infrared heat as well as act as neutral density filters to reduce the over-all amount of visible light. and cut them in half to make 2 squares. Removing the aluminized surface for the horizon mirror requires patience. The next best is to order a second surface mirror (50mm square) from an optics house such as Edmunds Scientifics for about $4. Use a 5. no sense of increasing chances of cataracts due to ultraviolet overexposure. and is best accomplished with a fixture to hold the mirror and a guide for the tool. The silvering can best be removed with a metal polisher such as Brasso. and 10. a 10.

The baffles are used to keep stray light from glaring up the insides of the tube.010” brass sheet stock or tin can lids. 99 . and a concave lens for the eyepiece. the better the image contrast. Generally speaking.Springs Torsion springs to hold the mirrors in place can be easily made by wrapping thin (0. Sighting telescope A simple Galilean telescope can be made with a convex lens for the objective lens. and the magnification ‘M’ is -FL1/FL2. if the objective lens has a focal length of 300mm and the eyepiece lens has a focal length of -150mm. The tubes can be made with a square cross section using basswood or thin hobby plywood. These baffles effectively trap the unwanted light. The image will be upright. while the concave lens has a negative focal length (FL2).015”) music wire around larger diameter music wire or brad nails. The spacing ‘S’ between the lenses should be FL1+FL2. and the magnification need not be greater than 3. then: Spacing S = FL1 + FL2 = 300 + (-150) = 150mm Magnification M = . Paint the insides of the tube flat black. For example. Leaf type springs can be cut out from 0. and wrapped around a pencil to get a ‘U’ shape. the more baffles. The convex lens has a positive focal length (FL1).(FL1/FL2) = -(300 / (-150)) = 2 Edmunds Scientifics sells 38mm diameter lenses for about $3 to $4 each. which then reflect into the eyepiece.

Photos of the Octant Making of the telescope Horizon mirror and mount The completed Octant 100 .

html 101 .usno.starpath.celestialnavigation.html A short guide to celestial navigation and freeware http://home.net/milkyway99/index.mil/data/docs/celnavtable.cgi?UTC/s/0/java International Earth Rotation Service.navy.mil/ Edmunds Scientifics.de/home/h.com/catalog/ American Science and Surplus.scientificsonline.edmundoptics.htm Official UTC time http://nist.time.com/ My web site: http://mysite. supplier of mirrors and lenses http://www.com/catalog/ On-line nautical almanac http://www.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.verizon.umland/index.htm Celestaire http://celestaire.net/index.gov/timezone.sciplus.Appendix 3 On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Star Path navigational school http://www.com.html Celestial navigation net.t-online. higher grade of optics http://www.com/resources/cellinks. gives delta T for Ephemeris Time http://maia.usno.tecepe.com/ Edmund Optics.isa US Naval Observatory http://aa.good all around source http://www. with all sorts of spare optical stuff http://www.navy.

Farley 102 .Appendix 4 Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method By Teacup Navigation Rodger E.

I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning. user beware! This is for educational purposes only.verizon.html All rights reserved.net/milkyway99/index. 103 . Farley My web site: http://mysite.Contents Introduction Determining Local Hour Angle Corrections to Altitude Individual Steps Work Sheets Tables Appendix: The Intercept 1st Edition Copyright 2010 Rodger E.

The tables represent the log (base 10) of sine and cosine of angles. These are the basic Ageton equations: Corrected meridian angle then needs to be converted to true azimuth angle. Zn. Ageton reformulated his equations with secant and co-secant functions.Introduction Ageton devised a method of dividing the navigational triangle into 2 simpler right-angle triangles to solve. then multiplied by -100 for ease. a step by step solution to the problem can be implemented using tables and simple addition/subtraction. but I have retained the original with sine. cosine. Using the Ageton equations for calculated altitude and meridian angle. 104 .

Post meridian angles range from zero to 180 degrees ( 0<LHA<180). then subtract 360. West Lon is - The Nautical Almanac hourly tabular values of Greenwich Hour Angle (GHAhour)is corrected for minutes and seconds increments (Corr GHA) plus any hourly variances v (Corr V for the minutes). then DEC is Using the correct sign (+/-) for longitude LON: LHA = GHA + LON If LHA > 360. For stars GHA = SHA + GHAAries Hourly values of declination (DEChour) are corrected for minutes with hourly rate d (Corr d for the minutes). and pre meridian angles range from 180 to 360 ( 180<LHA<360). pre-meridian LHAs need to be converted to a negative angle (-180<LHA<0) by subtracting 360 from a pre-meridian angle(for example 276 is equivalent to . GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEChour + Corr d If DEC is N then it is +.84) . For a compute program. then the sign of d is positive (+) even if the declination is still southern. even if the declination is still northern. If d is moving in a southerly direction (DEC becoming more southerly in the next hour) then d is negative (-). Beware of using the correct sign [+/-] in rate d. If the declinations are moving in a northerly direction. South Lat is East Lon is +. LHA is divided into two camps: post-meridian passage and premeridian passage.Determining Local Hour Angle LHA North Lat is +. if S. The tables and rules can handle both forms if you are careful! 105 .

Corrected Observed Altitude Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 106 . and – when on the arc.Corrections to Altitude Apparent Altitude: Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Note: index correction IC is + when off the arc.

means to take the absolute value of LHA.Individual Steps In the following algorithm. Converting Corrected Meridian angle Zo to true azimuth Zn Name of LAT to select N or S prefix. When there is a variable prefixed with sign(variable). If LHA = -12. in which case choose the angle less than 90.Zo SE: Zn = 180 . Also note that calculated altitude Hc is always less than 90 deg. in tables corresponding angle = Zo Choose the bold-faced angle greater than 90. and the given rules will make it clear which of the two to use. or a -1 value if the sign of the number is negative. There are 4 choices of angle. and note the corresponding angle.C3. it means locate the given S number. For E or W suffix: If LHA pre-meridian (-180<LHA<0 or 180<LHA<360) then E If LHA post-meridian (0<LHA<180) then W NW: Zn = 360 . In each column there are 2 numbers side-by-side. A greater-than sign is > and a less-than sign is < (K>90 means K greater than 90). then make it positive. C2 S3 = S1 + C2. in tables find corresponding C3 S4 = S2 . unless LAT and DEC same name AND |K| > |LAT|. it means determine the sign and assign it a +1 value if it’s positive. in tables corresponding angle = K K > 90 if LHA between 90 and 270 K’ = |K .Zo NE: Zn = Zo SW: Zn = Zo + 180 107 . Notes: A variable in straight brackets. In that if it is negative. then the one in the same column next to it is a C number. the arrows with “tables” mean go to the Stables and look at the numbers in the columns. then |LHA| = 12. If you have an arrow with “tables/angle”. but you will select from the 2 bold numbers. in tables C5 S6 = C5 + C3.LAT x sign(DEC) |. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) With |LHA| in tables S1 With |DEC| in tables S2. for example |LHA|. in tables corresponding angle of S6 = Hc S7 = |S3 – C6|. in tables C6 Also. If the number sought is an S number.

108 .

109 .

The assumed latitude is -40° 12’ S. Just work it out line by line to see the genesis of the numbers with the corresponding tabular values. 110 .This is an example where the LHA was already figured from the GHA and assumed longitude.

160 is the S number and 106. then 0. Go down to minute 13 and look across to the column for the 20 deg.762). and the one next to it in the same column is the C number (2. and 46. then 2. and addition is much easier! If declination DEC is 20° 13’ S. 111 . that means DEC = -(20° 13’). and C(x) = -100*log(cos(x)). and Zo you have “go backwards” thru the tables (an S value is given and you have to determine the corresponding angle). In the tables. these are the equations tabulated to the arc minute: If x is the angle. then S(x) = -100*log(sin(x)). That number (46. S(x) and C(x) are the S and C values associated with the angle x. and |DEC| = 20° 13’. If the number you were looking up was 110° 13’.146) is the S number. That heading is on the top of the table which means the arc minutes to use are on the left hand side as indicated by the double arrows.762 would be the S number. In the tables look up the boldfaced degree 20 (S-Tables. Why go to this trouble? Because logarithms change multiplication into addition. P5). The bottom row of numbers means you use the righthand minutes.146 would be the C number.699 is the C number. adding or subtracting where indicated. If you are looking up 85° 5’. Hc. Follow the calculation steps from top to bottom.Using the S-Tables In this section I will provide examples of how to navigate the tables. Get it? Using the bottom row of numbers is equally easy. For the values of K.

304 190.379 169.218 119.149 0.000 0.026 0.021 120.095 0.090 0.358 145.008 0.112 116.708 166.633 118.138 0.515 151.117 122.008 0.042 177.634 153.010 0.008 0.675 112.049 0.000 0.016 0.745 169.000 0.005 0.013 0.642 115.108 0.011 0.000 353.846 106.001 0.777 200.233 126.134 0.023 0.546 125.544 175.145 0.155 0.131 0.095 124.115 0.014 0.880 127.061 0.267 122.002 0.006 0.605 140.014 0.146 0.015 0.461 115.062 0.013 112.005 0.020 0.231 132.861 155.896 131.131 210.129 0.106 137.018 0.600 143.055 0.002 0.005 111.106 0.157 0.046 0.916 204.526 113.068 0.000 0.583 228.202 180.089 0.142 0.030 0.182 159.839 111.063 0.060 87° 267° 183° 3° 128.080 0.084 0.120 177° 357° 272° 92° 0.015 0.002 0.292 149.057 0.956 154.021 0.073 0.339 112.062 0.593 178.088 0.041 0.001 0.114 130.190 146.915 293.320 155.154 0.029 0.333 123.000 0.039 0.113 0.909 136.651 139.748 114.000 0.003 0.051 0.426 109.203 253.699 113.109 0.009 0.646 144.160 0.141 0.774 125.448 146.079 0.054 0.093 129.095 128.498 108.020 0.676 117.114 0.524 305.911 141.010 0.550 164.133 0.054 0.897 167.000 0.044 0.457 135.856 130.028 0.118 0.047 0.345 108.135 0.505 167.455 215.849 128.007 0.017 0.127 0.052 0.060 0.137 0.433 121.307 187.163 0.848 121.503 133.391 173.036 0.111 0.004 0.496 149.044 0.066 0.001 0.804 137.110 0.692 132.967 139.001 0.035 0.183 111.320 125.552 106.330 134.020 110.048 0.327 147.081 0.046 0.015 236.070 0.056 0.087 0.002 0.024 0.039 0.068 0.510 111.766 123.003 0.000 0.065 0.012 0.600 130.000 0.492 203.150 0.504 137.093 0.000 0.612 119.744 135.153 0.115 108.346 130.998 196.060 0.118 263.815 175.023 170.511 154.102 0.925 114.505 184.651 108.022 0.005 0.739 107.007 0.117 0.375 110.220 114.216 110.385 217.013 0.002 0.811 119.253 140.139 0.136 0.674 111.027 0.025 0.031 0.395 114.205 123.010 119.075 0.827 118.346 111.018 0.003 0.193 108.092 0.041 107.049 0.045 0.029 181.018 0.812 269.005 0.173 134.784 156.100 225.034 0.116 0.032 0.121 0.048 0.322 136.105 0.125 165.257 142.128 0.109 0.007 89° 269° 181° 1° 175.082 0.439 107.008 0.008 0.002 0.058 0.650 194.000 0.697 110.029 0.126 0.614 120.605 128.045 113.000 0.615 136.083 0.074 0.566 147.890 134.066 0.078 0.027 138.406 219.057 109.091 0.699 106.001 0.104 0.696 173.017 0.295 143.282 115.160 131.817 120.009 0.038 0.004 115.106 86° 266° 184° 4° 115.903 122.003 0.285 139.607 213.026 0.627 323.001 0.019 0.001 0.007 0.140 0.815 179° 359° 270° 90° 0.480 199.162 0.693 158.808 195.866 117.425 124.003 125.579 142.124 0.696 150.037 0.121 168.011 0.858 110.031 0.287 176.032 135.045 0.100 0.006 0.208 157.074 0.690 122.038 0.006 0.032 0.390 179.009 0.425 132.013 0.011 0.017 0.627 249.690 160.091 0.166 85° 265° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 112 .002 0.697 126.005 0.057 121.103 148.870 124.077 0.024 0.581 141.052 0.070 153.298 166.554 116.322 162.362 128.872 182.732 182.122 0.000 0.077 0.945 147.817 146.338 139.033 0.299 117.353 186.609 134.841 129.086 0.647 124.033 0.016 0.270 109.097 174.811 178.026 88° 268° 182° 2° 145.148 0.076 0.003 0.478 122.161 0.370 116.113 201.042 0.752 223.522 193.774 152.096 0.243 141.001 0.147 0.011 0.718 138.056 0.004 0.549 123.248 118.642 176° 356° 273° 93° 0.083 0.001 0.030 0.000 0.096 0.007 0.015 0.004 0.041 0.001 0.012 0.412 120.115 105.465 126.740 109.143 0.067 0.120 0.042 0.931 151.053 133.172 112.339 171.250 161.985 123.053 0.051 0.205 136.125 0.422 163.023 0.103 0.946 143.421 283.069 0.033 0.010 0.204 160.120 127.000 0.012 0.342 129.415 119.419 185.087 0.043 0.107 0.221 197.844 112.488 245. P1 180° 0° 1000.318 258.016 0.730 275.085 0.680 159.098 0.925 116.823 115.718 145.633 131.058 0.156 0.282 189.961 132.783 162.123 0.931 126.006 0.226 121.739 116.034 0.260 106.144 0.487 117.159 0.912 207.001 0.094 0.003 0.056 117.026 0.152 0.406 154.059 0.102 0.025 0.006 0.050 0.097 0.018 233.960 108.023 0.166 126.355 113.589 107.072 0.019 0.591 129.640 121.834 212.982 164.064 0.004 0.164 0.022 0.713 148.805 108.064 0.403 127.187 116.001 144.021 0.869 163.536 110.000 0.132 0.892 149.021 0.254 156.872 113.037 0.777 133.184 158.001 0.406 106.002 0.718 178° 358° 271° 91° 0.993 106.141 106.028 0.216 230.641 127.676 171.000 0.010 0.101 0.158 0.890 107.290 107.019 0.004 0.283 188.422 192.724 161.119 0.506 112.525 221.080 0.003 0.071 0.928 140.071 0.081 145.099 0.012 172.103 114.970 175° 355° 274° 94° 0.040 0.609 183.022 118.112 0.709 242.491 208.040 0.211 120.583 109.202 152.004 0.233 239.916 142.571 114.388 205.027 0.036 0.350 151.104 150.373 131.184 113.S-Tables.898 109.350 191.121 0.728 157.130 0.440 118.014 0.411 138.

829 86.184 0.535 81.455 83.203 0.448 0.982 92.385 0.170 80.600 0.847 78.466 78.530 0.626 83.568 0.283 94.133 103.558 92.555 85.371 102.167 0.425 0.945 81.238 102.325 83° 263° 187° 7° 91.562 0.048 80.317 0.404 84.368 0.172 99.228 0.344 0.544 0.514 91.560 98.411 173° 353° 276° 96° 0.207 0.602 0.532 0.858 87.468 0.606 0.195 77.863 77.357 0.579 0.302 0.290 0.550 100.683 76.192 101.482 0.304 0.266 0.239 88.196 93.922 86.170 0.363 0.571 0.237 0.387 79.273 0.567 171° 351° 278° 98° 0.088 78.843 101.187 86.755 84.573 0.370 0.538 76.548 0.487 0.253 0.387 0.105 76.497 0.256 0.658 0.194 0.236 0.465 0.231 0.855 79.863 81.720 103.195 96.416 0.220 0.200 0.296 99.636 0.489 0. P2 185° 5° 105.585 0.995 103.388 0.771 78.333 0.393 94.953 87.465 85.343 77.913 88.334 0.918 99.966 95.499 89.717 97.193 0.230 84.457 0.345 0.824 91.040 102.301 0.738 95.285 95.461 0.294 90.934 100.372 81.596 0.094 89.540 0.587 0.107 89.411 91.647 80.777 79.428 0.598 0.483 0.682 98.409 0.663 92.176 0.264 0.376 0.089 92.476 0.660 0.205 89.204 0.284 0.213 0.352 0.514 0.126 97.367 0.063 100.795 89.845 93.417 77.425 82° 262° 188° 8° 85.564 0.270 0.423 0.311 0.957 97.239 84° 264° 186° 6° 98.510 95.215 0.401 89.292 0.430 88.443 0.328 80.583 0.402 0.617 0.020 84.539 105.063 93.251 0.287 0.334 88.198 0.617 91.825 85.318 98.242 92.948 94.480 0.540 83.010 88.311 103.643 0.408 80.321 76.553 86.534 0.638 0.536 0.774 96.506 0.621 0.205 0.315 78.173 94.806 100.296 0.618 78.579 84.654 0.232 0.734 85.370 86.560 0.454 0.581 101.376 85.267 0.202 0.905 102.308 91.614 94.442 82.395 0.434 0.902 76.538 0.474 0.314 0.211 0.610 0.421 0.663 0.975 76.797 83.589 0.645 172° 352° 277° 97° 0.209 0.249 76.305 0.272 0.155 79.928 91.393 76.667 84.197 98.272 104.598 97.196 0.218 0.756 76.505 0.178 0.714 77.491 0.258 0.233 0.512 0.481 87.609 82.933 79.185 0.197 0.668 99.683 105.217 0.816 88.727 80.049 98.418 0.044 99.807 80.171 0.437 0.970 105.263 0.938 77.550 104.291 81.617 81.027 81.769 92.837 97.492 84.382 0.423 100.577 0.015 86.349 0.461 86.214 0.891 96.373 0.669 87.143 84.177 0.628 93.183 0.337 0.565 77.303 89.598 89.518 0.542 78.725 94.771 102.375 0.444 0.499 0.166 0.452 0.926 98.284 83.369 83.494 90.780 81.197 85.319 0.321 101.884 83.397 0.323 0.219 0.392 0.405 0.388 87.186 0.637 102.091 80.283 0.241 0.293 0.259 0.362 0.244 0.342 0.463 0.239 78.307 0.299 0.225 0.114 83.432 0.330 0.224 0.006 85.843 84.347 92.493 0.894 89.179 0.108 87.199 0.113 104.187 0.110 82.390 0.612 0.623 88.170 100.222 0.397 105.420 99.240 0.459 0.412 93.861 82.383 0.593 0.581 0.931 84.634 0.223 0.826 105.451 101.698 81.764 87.604 0.173 0.452 92.355 0.411 104.339 0.430 0.232 79.193 82.876 92.830 104.538 81° 261° 189° 9° 80.078 79.286 85.491 77.552 0.485 0.690 104.510 0.399 0.262 0.519 93.630 0.652 0.967 80.394 90.328 0.455 0.001 90.309 79.282 0.520 0.526 0.192 0.542 96.245 0.001 78.624 95.504 102.712 101.887 80.954 93.326 0.190 0.390 78.280 0.411 0.404 0.737 86.595 90.278 86.693 82.441 0.450 0.191 0.193 90.397 95.304 93.556 0.341 0.361 97.470 0.164 78.480 97.836 94.503 0.276 0.168 0.247 0.109 85.032 91.465 76.915 85.736 93.169 0.172 0.229 0.298 0.122 77.289 0.103 91.994 89.313 0.695 78.286 0.129 81.143 88.623 0.249 0.554 0.393 0.615 0.419 0.625 0.439 98.591 0.400 0.516 0.181 0.260 0.243 0.526 82.524 0.180 0.550 0.175 103.277 0.239 0.426 0.465 79.608 0.012 79.269 0.628 0.658 96.407 0.639 77.720 91.013 77.248 0.296 100.829 76.308 0.060 94.106 101.467 0.210 0.276 82.526 88.503 94.188 0.645 0.698 79.056 83.542 0.350 0.678 100.412 0.252 0.137 92.478 0.243 97.426 96.380 0.447 103.852 95.279 0.575 0.199 83.249 80.080 95.205 91.508 0.645 85.310 96.096 86.544 99.899 90.371 0.971 104.331 0.719 88.360 0.235 0.712 83.347 0.696 89.501 0.030 82.317 84.210 81.295 0.S-Tables.798 90.172 95.970 83.542 79.487 80.325 0.649 0.696 90.793 99.558 0.789 77.924 78.316 0.414 0.446 0.528 0.610 76.294 87.077 97.567 80.546 0.378 0.641 0.619 0.777 82.177 76.665 80° 260° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 113 .255 0.974 101.358 0.227 0.322 0.453 81.522 0.472 0.566 0.048 87.804 98.647 0.320 0.269 77.365 0.575 87.336 0.077 174° 354° 275° 95° 0.254 105.353 0.495 0.583 103.175 0.945 82.620 79.274 0.008 96.645 86.033 170° 350° 279° 99° 0.201 87.439 0.359 82.435 0.208 0.632 0.048 76.656 0.857 103.310 0.

005 71.685 0.787 69.941 0.605 75.711 63.098 67.739 67.238 1.888 0.332 72.202 1.633 166° 346° 283° 103° 1.883 0.803 0.126 66.891 0.159 70.323 75.771 0.723 70.510 59.869 73.786 70.901 0.356 64.776 0.395 73.087 1.555 74.798 67.867 62.208 1.291 1.295 71.848 59.127 59.160 1.858 0.031 1.133 1.815 0.992 0.235 1.079 59.157 1.127 73.819 75.979 60.711 62.342 65.416 1.335 1.968 0.987 0.582 61.313 1.887 61.860 0.868 0.142 74.214 67.616 71.272 68.534 75.919 62.409 66.820 0.244 1.993 72.032 63.447 67.810 0.995 0.013 65.912 0.330 61.970 0.791 0.462 73.665 73.916 67.929 60.400 62.451 62.142 1.302 64.541 69.367 1.962 0.145 1.808 0.278 1.850 0.488 71.552 63.140 60.025 1.182 63.393 1.917 0.676 75.681 0.222 59.813 0.429 1.380 61.172 1.708 0.740 0.805 0.275 1.310 76° 256° 194° 14° 61.920 0.932 68.582 60.952 0.901 64.325 1.040 70.676 65.406 1.393 63.800 59.703 59.757 0.747 75.093 68.828 0.746 71.602 69.659 62.972 74.863 0.692 0.214 1.047 1.466 66.391 68.956 64.396 1.045 1.235 69.788 0. P3 190° 10° 76.973 0.231 65.871 63.076 63.297 1.681 67.285 1.830 60.175 59.630 68.620 65.989 0.830 0.683 0.104 1.341 1.750 0.140 64.531 61.957 65.261 73.700 165° 345° 284° 104° 1.818 0.432 1.412 1.664 69.492 1.597 70.073 74.483 60.960 78° 258° 192° 12° 68.272 1.033 1.981 0.178 1.121 65.076 1.423 71.719 0.530 73.014 1.984 0.125 1.681 60.881 0.984 58.097 70.870 0.937 58.322 1.762 0.738 0.445 63.104 71.845 0.475 1.338 1.902 74.693 74.994 59.346 70.936 0.179 61.193 1.279 74.139 1.410 64.385 60.565 65.196 1.791 64.509 65.665 0.485 1.633 61.846 64.788 65.435 1.479 69.175 1.212 68.319 1.472 1.241 1.857 67.011 1.189 60.154 1.785 61.129 63.069 66.922 0.779 0.794 72.294 1.234 63.388 67.667 0.136 72.928 0.763 74.348 74.836 61.710 0.340 63.849 69.938 61.781 0.552 71.462 59.084 1.464 64.005 73.743 0.886 0.060 72.S-Tables.489 1.930 0.850 70.940 71.978 0.064 1.503 62.464 75.745 0.925 63.332 1.096 1.357 69.418 69.505 67.398 72.190 1.661 72.759 0.879 60.701 0.925 0.725 69.810 71.409 1.815 62.086 64.166 1.907 0.729 0.033 75.835 0.329 1.678 0.570 68.597 73.774 0.266 72.035 69.296 69.733 0.452 1.287 65.732 65.194 73.422 1.354 1.229 1.801 73.798 0.040 66.786 0.529 72.726 0.373 1.724 0.034 67.417 74.960 0.451 68.254 1.558 59.972 62.039 1.336 60.875 71.899 0.976 70.954 0.736 0.783 0.263 1.632 60.167 71.889 58.722 0.555 62.780 60.217 1.020 1.706 0.867 66.860 72.682 64.914 0.843 0.284 70.113 69.306 1.624 74.403 1.009 1.805 79° 259° 191° 11° 71.976 0.833 0.672 0.469 1.221 70.800 0.028 1.748 58.067 1.348 1.238 60.957 0.252 75.998 1.752 0.479 1.482 1.116 1.024 62.683 61.279 61.748 0.430 61.056 1.471 70.303 1.360 1.066 65.053 1.751 68.896 0.247 1.573 64.194 62.073 1.153 68.169 1.495 1.695 66.563 67.989 61.211 1.281 1.660 70.972 69.769 0.795 58.913 70.000 1.210 74.181 1.687 0.212 168° 348° 281° 101° 0.053 68.070 1.715 0.848 0.606 59.717 0.136 1.751 59.250 1.638 66.288 1.825 0.453 65.003 1.694 0.223 1.269 1.434 60.059 1.091 60.081 1.091 62.681 71.499 1.909 0.580 66.393 75.752 66.272 67.842 58.199 1.904 0.287 60.878 0.658 63.148 1.042 59.176 65.232 1.459 1.182 75.734 61.595 72.099 1.811 68.128 77° 257° 193° 13° 64.239 66.463 72.231 71.006 1.654 59.975 67.316 1.764 63.445 1.248 64.502 1.818 63.040 61.205 1.690 0.042 1.627 64.699 0.940 169° 349° 280° 100° 0.731 60.449 1.894 0.676 0.390 1.607 62.442 1.201 72.399 1.182 66.163 1.266 1.690 68.070 72.949 0.409 70.386 1.022 1.079 1.419 1.938 0.810 66.351 1.622 67.855 0.605 63.944 0.426 1.187 1.764 0.062 1.911 69.733 73.377 1.257 1.107 1.731 0.245 62.767 0.890 75.674 0.156 67.194 64.696 0.838 0.128 1.945 59.093 1.439 1.364 1.462 1.300 1.844 65.455 1.946 0.486 74.853 0.840 0.328 73.229 61.017 1.961 75.184 1.297 62.366 59.122 1.357 1.414 59.465 1.260 1.102 1.398 65.383 1.331 68.112 75.927 72.042 74.119 1.876 0.796 0.823 0.270 59.310 1.703 0.992 68.925 66.129 61.937 73.533 60.965 0.755 0.370 1.174 69.348 62.498 63.296 66.079 61.220 1.982 66.380 1.506 75° 255° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 114 .226 1.011 64.344 1.791 167° 347° 282° 102° 0.330 67.510 68.727 72.737 64.029 60.287 63.353 66.523 66.873 0.036 1.481 61.763 62.359 71.090 1.979 63.669 0.151 1.110 1.712 0.900 65.032 58.113 1.897 59.142 62.871 68.793 0.933 0.318 59.832 74.050 1.534 70.519 64.865 0.131 1.

279 2.913 1.265 57.637 1.995 1.610 2.543 56.547 1.839 46.334 2.560 1.314 51.151 2.960 1.898 1.822 53.933 1.298 48.940 1.242 53.067 49.143 56.432 51.459 2.966 49.963 50.284 54.868 1.651 2.338 2.995 52.533 1.860 1.655 53.106 52.673 1.186 52.190 47.615 47.794 54.771 1.774 1.921 1.574 1.381 2.212 2.526 1.595 160° 340° 289° 109° 2.627 1.018 2.767 1.529 1.393 51.464 2.796 1.485 2.254 2.741 1.791 52.601 2.232 58.226 52.054 56.852 49.468 2.157 54.660 2.159 2.579 2.327 49.630 46.666 54.763 1.200 53.804 1.031 53.512 58.547 2.830 1.760 1.812 56.346 52.360 2.306 52.967 1.181 55.615 55.634 1.751 52.986 51.394 2.411 54.808 1.944 1.295 47.083 57.010 55.692 50.508 52.159 53.731 50.433 2.139 58.034 2.716 74° 254° 196° 16° 55.042 2.782 1.014 2.046 2.710 52.923 54.676 1.275 51.509 1.694 1.674 2.290 49.576 50.119 51.130 2.266 2.928 49.494 2.099 56.878 55.651 47.539 2.589 49.219 57.712 1.581 54.543 2.550 51.003 2.448 53.809 48.589 51.642 2.705 1.500 50.326 2.957 48.595 1.989 53.139 2.811 1.189 48.082 2.310 57.665 2.734 46.702 49.722 56.628 2.589 48.355 2.508 47.623 1.326 54.890 49.115 54.253 49.427 52.481 2.351 2.993 56.174 57.678 2.814 57.975 1.605 1.619 1.365 53.514 49.588 1.944 46.648 1.804 46.847 50.697 2.937 47.197 51.402 47.747 55.200 2.387 52.723 1.407 163° 343° 286° 106° 1.597 2.883 1.627 49.188 2.011 2.979 1.441 55.947 53.664 46.276 56.143 2.407 48.309 2.372 58.606 2.692 2.523 1.948 1.887 1.278 58.407 2.084 47.216 2.407 53.366 47.994 48.241 2.409 56.506 1.231 56.778 1.697 53.045 48.320 56.528 55.716 1.864 1.171 2.598 1.041 51.647 2.698 1.793 47.910 1.894 1.773 48.905 53.653 50.126 2.907 57.914 52.300 2.246 2.354 55.080 50.287 2.727 1.398 2.199 54.670 52.521 2.221 2.167 2.508 2.477 49.823 1.686 47.633 56.308 50.437 47.516 48.758 47.095 55.237 2.548 52.267 55.748 51.531 53.768 57.589 52.073 54.832 52.313 2.353 51.009 47.070 2.530 2.046 57.879 1.050 2.283 2.669 2.489 53.002 50.947 56.493 57.739 49.226 48.467 52.588 56.749 1.544 47.250 2.402 49.372 2. P4 195° 15° 58.026 51.861 57.080 51.225 2.539 57.964 1.867 51.443 48.499 2.966 164° 344° 285° 105° 1.637 2.347 2.722 47.092 58.819 1.815 49.676 57.583 2.565 2.756 1.669 1.584 57.439 49.853 1.940 73° 253° 197° 17° 53.538 50.574 2.666 1.134 2.094 2.559 58.815 1.465 58.612 1.592 2.078 2.472 2.516 2.952 1.703 55.827 51.403 2.364 2.343 2.955 52.658 1.699 48.953 57.534 2.780 53.453 54.118 2.262 48.477 2.691 1.147 2.880 54.937 1.225 47.183 2.317 2.536 1.651 1.664 49.987 1.179 2.365 49.077 53.846 48.752 1.901 47.849 1.917 1.398 55.324 53.187 56.511 51.042 50.117 48.192 2.701 70° 250° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 115 .368 54.699 46.262 2.110 2.270 50.708 51.330 2.455 2.114 2.118 53.260 47.175 2.579 47.700 58.687 1.906 51.266 52.538 54.S-Tables.864 53.543 1.906 1.567 1.304 2.442 2.875 1.902 56.865 47.450 2.146 52.232 50.701 1.738 53.447 57.179 49.480 48.102 2.138 55.049 47.419 58.991 1.473 47.512 2.429 2.004 49.871 1.570 2.118 50.026 2.036 52.461 50.194 50.229 2.153 48.790 55.641 1.571 1.098 2.009 54.624 2.454 56.275 2.769 50.058 2.007 2.623 54.204 2.014 46.334 48.857 56.377 2.155 2.902 1.929 1.630 57.922 55.677 56.385 2.242 54.074 2.829 47.734 1.423 50.196 2.920 48.736 161° 341° 288° 108° 2.185 58.572 55.030 2.490 2.271 2.751 54.368 2.081 48.616 1.104 49.578 1.663 48.553 1.416 2.216 49.496 54.885 50.785 1.789 1.709 54.424 2.296 2.437 2.845 1.512 1.154 47.966 55.557 1.581 1.979 46.411 2.615 2.777 49.385 50.834 55.633 2.614 53.401 57.030 48.325 58.659 55.283 53.629 51.983 1.054 2.588 2.971 1.142 49.874 46.883 48.106 2.999 57.503 2.787 51.311 55.471 51.086 2.688 2.890 1.730 1.564 1.925 1.999 2.236 51.292 2.446 2.156 50.090 2.838 1.119 47.609 1.163 2.606 58.158 51.738 1.540 1.973 47.946 51.956 1.485 55.561 2.371 48.331 47.585 1.793 1.769 46.668 51.258 2.873 52.834 1.653 58.233 2.390 2.909 46.346 50.066 2.826 1.002 162° 342° 287° 107° 1.630 1.709 1.736 48.066 52.837 54.022 2.122 2.626 48.656 2.433 71° 251° 199° 19° 48.683 2.719 1.655 1.365 56.602 1.619 2.966 54.498 56.662 1.644 1.038 56.321 2.722 57.683 1.516 1.128 57.356 57.208 2.052 55.552 2.552 49.553 48.550 1.572 53.615 50.767 56.525 2.519 1.179 72° 252° 198° 18° 51.224 55.680 1.924 50.062 2.038 2.420 2.800 1.745 1.629 52.556 2.856 1.591 1.808 50.841 1.

044 44.507 3.299 3.771 3.172 38.480 3.115 42.785 43.941 45.955 38.818 2.899 3.181 46.941 2.777 3.669 45.031 44.465 3.641 39.284 46.305 43.838 41.456 46.255 38.839 45.893 3.239 39.231 45.161 4.700 3.052 4.428 3.927 2.261 4.732 37.545 40.723 40.975 2.944 3.979 37.411 39.443 41.523 3.619 3.034 3.799 42.132 3.058 4.624 3.092 4.020 42.869 41.594 41.238 3.612 39.029 4.843 3.012 4.201 41.422 46.625 43.222 40.576 3.846 2.541 37.766 3.915 43.243 3.938 3.190 4.023 4.514 37.567 159° 339° 290° 110° 2.711 3.304 3.992 41.233 3.345 3.506 38.951 2.464 43.711 2.222 3.185 4.667 3.454 3.662 3.171 41.117 38.630 3.182 39.034 38.310 40.512 3.706 3.427 40.597 3.851 2.167 3.422 38.664 40.888 3.210 43.965 2.737 45.898 2.785 2.214 4.004 3.272 65° 245° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 116 .038 3.078 3.961 40.362 42.896 37.804 3.207 42.646 38.930 39.107 3.832 2.053 42.294 3.695 3.884 2.172 3.080 4.901 39.604 40.255 4.386 3.309 3.382 39.398 40.674 38.438 3.502 3.931 44.283 68° 248° 202° 22° 42.208 4.905 3.146 43.491 3.760 3.319 3.980 2.251 40.243 4.144 4.024 3.339 40.805 45.780 2.724 2.202 4.517 3.369 43.771 2.874 2.843 39.325 39.810 3.879 2.613 3.401 43.292 41.146 46.073 3.544 3.970 2.747 41.399 45.305 44.910 3.872 39.565 3.086 4.069 4.814 38.933 3.698 39.837 2.459 3.117 3.155 4.808 2.501 44.127 4.516 40.197 3.999 3.366 3.841 2.152 3.870 2.721 43.871 3.366 38.486 42.927 38.562 38.518 42.568 37.860 2.568 45.217 3.930 41.635 45.496 43.684 3.762 2.650 37.908 2.738 3.727 39.019 3. P5 200° 20° 46.736 42.776 2.864 44.147 3.722 3.354 39.068 3.567 44.207 44.956 2.069 39.017 39.822 2.097 3.873 45.154 39.705 42.951 37.666 44.946 2.865 3.382 41.771 45.040 39.503 41.112 3.228 3.716 3.112 46.854 3.575 40.248 3.075 4.014 3.674 42.533 3.528 3.921 3.716 41.365 45.785 39.985 69° 249° 201° 21° 44.831 44.268 39.433 45.882 3.146 42.176 42.076 40.799 3.689 3.841 37.083 43.450 38.021 40.893 2.433 3.115 4.178 43.693 40.757 2.051 43.733 3.787 37.009 3.959 39.046 4.808 41.141 41.432 43.611 42.322 41.677 37.211 39.766 2.788 3.231 41.642 42.088 3.812 40.137 3.273 3.730 38.832 3.144 38.526 39.150 4.799 2.122 3.371 3.581 3.907 45.296 39.640 3.261 41.752 2.138 4.449 3.478 38.850 43.407 3.978 3.947 43.528 43.006 37.258 3.744 3.225 4.164 45.496 3.196 4.715 2.272 44.198 45.995 2.263 3.241 43.332 45.215 46.000 4.231 4.790 2.455 42.534 41.473 41.318 46.913 2.142 44.331 42.009 45.174 44.134 40.078 46.283 38.376 3.925 42.753 43.827 2.564 41.368 40.370 44.955 3.882 43.814 37.109 4.012 43.601 45.006 4.642 158° 338° 291° 111° 2.738 2.902 40.500 45.821 3.109 44.871 38.058 3.069 156° 336° 293° 113° 3.249 4.964 44.162 3.765 44.966 3.432 37.352 41.903 2.394 38.768 42.337 43.657 3.592 43.587 3.125 39.782 3.497 39.793 3.956 42.418 3.860 3.554 39.466 45.704 37.625 41.046 40.927 3.686 41.132 4.815 3.127 3.338 38.043 3.997 44.200 38.818 43.898 44.300 42.220 4.571 3.592 3.729 2.777 41.597 67° 247° 203° 23° 40.093 3.595 46.S-Tables.029 3.177 3.423 3.040 4.403 44.916 3.748 2.192 40.989 3.487 37.063 3.405 155° 335° 294° 114° 3.937 2.706 2.298 45.804 2.081 41.831 42.280 40.972 3.753 40.932 2.975 45.812 157° 337° 292° 112° 3.469 44.111 41.689 43.486 3.084 42.924 37.253 3.265 45.814 39.670 39.877 3.424 42.459 37.734 2.360 3.121 4.044 46.755 3.105 40.743 2.991 40.324 3.651 3.782 40.534 45.269 42.699 44.289 3.278 3.534 44.402 3.227 38.657 43.393 42.560 3.335 3.635 3.702 38.950 3.392 3.089 38.157 3.355 3.872 40.102 3.340 3.961 2.053 3.131 45.267 4.103 4.350 3.732 44.468 39.098 4.167 4.353 46.618 38.922 2.590 38.798 44.539 3.899 38.985 2.813 2.273 43.889 2.961 41.187 3.064 45.786 38.794 2.249 46.239 44.855 2.600 44.869 37.114 43.826 3.192 3.758 38.268 3.387 46.061 38.048 3.555 3.595 37.077 44.633 44.212 3.961 3.142 3.238 42.397 3.381 3.097 45.634 40.990 2.549 42.337 44.646 3.678 3.182 3.862 42.988 39.491 46.179 4.457 40.893 42.163 40.931 40.412 41.603 3.842 38.035 4.314 3.983 3.927 66° 246° 204° 24° 39.608 3.984 38.756 39.283 3.549 3.173 4.655 41.838 3.237 4.475 3.703 45.444 3.580 42.720 2.439 39.759 37.849 3.012 38.436 44.083 3.623 37.583 39.917 2.412 3.979 43.727 3.097 39.022 41.673 3.202 3.534 38.560 46.842 40.018 4.560 43.486 40.526 46.995 4.865 2.207 3.701 2.063 4.470 3.900 41.311 38.330 3.749 3.051 41.988 42.

566 30.902 5.714 4.297 37.846 5.300 5.584 33.279 30.958 32.738 35.669 34.306 5.708 4.393 5.748 5.968 30.982 32.018 5.487 5.066 6.149 35.859 4.083 5.375 31.651 5.583 5.420 31.952 5.820 34.406 5.696 4.378 37.429 35.001 36.233 36.324 37.591 4.811 30.302 35.980 4.145 6.238 31.076 36.102 5.123 35.783 4.644 5.764 4.259 36.856 30.180 36.569 34.406 62° 242° 208° 28° 32.286 5.455 35.730 33.213 30.390 33.160 6.220 5.876 33.693 5.395 34.295 34.994 31.290 4.938 5.403 4.454 5.276 35.783 5.727 4.080 6.839 5.894 36.512 4.024 33.557 31.314 4.404 35.632 30.997 34.278 4.946 35.787 31.579 4.098 34.741 5.440 5.167 6.999 5.469 34.088 6.867 5.005 5.216 37.519 34.367 32.214 5.821 4.910 4.649 31.721 4.575 36.318 33.172 34.390 36.191 30.511 31.972 35.718 31.493 4.047 35.296 4.609 35.400 5.744 32.301 30.031 5.147 34.380 5.002 6.626 31.839 32.201 5.524 4.739 4.240 6.549 36.444 34.087 32.443 36.102 6.225 35.594 34.644 34.579 32.018 31.609 4.832 5.420 5.189 37.860 5.815 4.788 30.720 5.469 4.508 32.373 4.569 5.673 32.285 36.232 6.583 35.640 4.900 30.037 6.417 36.367 30.370 34.714 5.266 5.352 31.971 34.511 33.194 5.148 31.797 5.603 31.096 5.313 5.867 36.207 5.754 33.980 5.929 4.946 34.451 4.948 4.815 32.803 33.518 4.535 33.878 4.135 37.501 5.103 31.474 5.171 31.147 30.910 32.555 32.405 37.108 37.787 36.657 33.343 4.351 37.528 5.409 4.391 4.917 5.051 5.272 4.481 5.697 32.948 36.631 5.974 36.870 34.261 31.221 34.326 5.098 35.679 5.542 5.935 4.251 35.580 31.845 34.247 60° 240° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 117 .925 33.048 34.477 30.961 4.665 5.814 36.562 5.894 35.218 6.734 5.235 30.355 4.924 5.494 5.078 33.659 4.128 36.833 4.530 4.022 34.558 35.727 5.536 4.245 33.776 5.628 4.721 32.617 5.544 34.044 5.142 5.397 31.549 5.761 36.602 32.337 4.095 6.295 153° 333° 296° 116° 4.768 32.122 34.225 6.810 31.712 35.129 5.302 4.013 30.461 32.320 5.588 30.025 5.903 4.496 36.752 4.993 4.916 4.284 4.180 32.608 33.532 32.077 5.683 4.818 5.973 4.655 30.622 4.397 4.868 35.744 30.755 5.274 32.508 5.360 5.677 4.311 36.902 31.920 35.469 36.023 6.764 31.157 32.153 6.366 5.746 4.389 30.655 36.122 5.500 4.173 33.349 4.499 30.181 6.168 5.050 36.624 5.293 5.833 30.707 5.073 35.559 33.064 32.197 33.149 33.221 33.871 4.427 5.200 35.421 4.554 4.931 5.925 31.616 4.073 6.842 35.619 34.030 33.154 36.895 5.879 31.652 4.677 30.515 5.463 33.271 34.187 5.058 31.386 5.253 5.344 32.555 5.884 4.169 30.681 36.950 33.945 30.758 4.665 4.852 4.705 33.762 5.632 33.294 33.896 34.297 32.270 37.207 36.196 6.134 32.162 37.211 6.125 31.338 36.467 5.125 30.506 4.986 4.379 4.934 32.246 34.734 36.808 4.485 32.332 4.975 33.433 5.460 5.535 5.634 64° 244° 206° 26° 35.284 31.080 31.353 35.602 36.174 5.967 4.174 35.771 4.320 32.626 32.227 5.216 31.699 30.695 31.203 6.646 4.193 31.463 4.174 6.635 35.802 4.327 35.260 5.910 5.457 4.124 6.280 5.923 30.948 31.494 34.840 4.638 5.954 4.320 34. P6 205° 25° 37.628 36.590 5.901 33.016 6.233 5.012 5.661 35.521 5.566 4.522 36.342 33.481 35.779 33.125 33.816 35.443 31.320 4.411 30.102 36.433 30.420 34.415 4.181 5.686 5.438 32.672 31.841 36.057 5.804 5.115 5.878 30.306 31.521 30.487 4.846 4.414 32.922 4.887 32.466 31.155 5.041 32.790 35.532 35.438 33.054 33.443 151° 331° 298° 118° 5.745 34.367 4.818 61° 241° 209° 29° 31.863 32.101 33.597 4.988 5.811 5.792 32.766 30.687 35.110 32.257 30.634 4.326 4.941 4.702 4.481 4.777 4.890 4.827 33.694 34.971 31.650 32.921 34.135 5.839 152° 332° 297° 117° 5.385 4.560 4.361 4.790 5.103 150° 330° 299° 119° 5.035 31.585 4.070 5.825 5.945 5.998 35.012 63° 243° 207° 27° 34.240 5.576 5.733 4.719 34.658 5.148 5.881 5.447 5.131 6.323 30.708 36.833 31.439 4.966 5.999 33.770 34.378 35.764 35.038 5.596 5.865 4.603 5.475 4.506 35.973 5.273 5.413 5.534 31.333 5.269 33.006 32.856 31.024 35.888 5.346 5.489 31.089 5.995 6.189 6.853 5.109 5.722 30.789 4.796 4.610 30.542 4.445 4.427 4.816 154° 334° 295° 115° 4.045 6.433 4.603 4.852 33.329 31.391 32.610 5.366 33.455 30.573 4.030 6.055 37.250 32.671 4.345 30.247 5.052 6.827 4.161 5.921 36.681 33.897 4.414 33.874 5.073 34.308 4.548 4.769 5.340 5.353 5.690 4.741 31.109 6.672 5.487 33.243 37.345 34.700 5.116 6.064 5.204 32.364 36.959 5.544 30.990 30.227 32.373 5.082 37.S-Tables.028 37.138 6.795 34.196 34.009 6.059 6.

453 8.064 7.898 7.237 7.921 28.188 25.037 30.253 28.119 7.293 7.881 7.451 25.S-Tables.923 6.213 7.405 7.754 25.092 8.349 7.331 8.018 26.271 8.723 7.839 6.137 27.325 7.513 6.418 27.637 8.802 27.327 6.565 6.205 7.604 29.535 6.972 29.134 8.540 8.197 27.467 24.341 7.132 25.648 6.795 28.707 7.395 24.733 29.522 24.098 27.237 8.616 7.777 6.177 27.432 25.168 8.261 29.856 7.842 29.595 6.789 7.599 27.610 6.048 7.190 7.806 7.994 29.401 6.087 7.079 7.386 6.998 8.690 29.907 29.888 25.166 7.134 7.291 6.378 27.367 29.475 29.169 25.429 7.983 25.437 7.706 24.068 28.693 59° 239° 211° 31° 28.458 27.774 28.762 27.350 6.254 6.584 26.469 25.311 26.823 27.157 27.453 29.142 7.592 7.584 8.111 7.595 24.830 25.583 25.716 6.837 28.486 7.632 24.079 26.892 6.058 8.305 6.182 7.445 7.602 8.523 28.808 6.564 25.389 7.394 25.282 29.370 26.020 25.739 6.099 26.446 6.048 28.315 28.373 7.761 26.985 28.024 7.558 8.475 6.820 26.816 149° 329° 300° 120° 6.873 7.231 24.239 29.409 26.383 8.709 6.671 6.375 25.916 6.453 6.143 56° 236° 214° 34° 25.724 6.939 6.816 24.150 7.488 25.112 29.650 24.398 28.342 6.253 26.982 7.234 26.057 25.202 8.297 8.017 7.668 29.701 27.331 26.678 25.467 26.877 6.747 6.998 26.009 7.233 28.358 24.365 7.879 26.947 6.510 7.640 27.641 7.273 26.300 25.394 6.846 6.755 29.194 8.340 24.731 7.890 24.158 58° 238° 212° 32° 27.948 7.297 27.753 28.323 8.978 6.197 29.427 8.674 7.602 25.800 26.618 6.633 7.322 24.389 147° 327° 302° 122° 7.584 7.559 7.565 28.993 7.376 24.229 7.690 28.269 6.628 8.527 7.539 29.488 8.504 24.781 26.665 7.607 28.978 26.410 29.076 25.793 6.340 8.526 25.505 8.143 8.567 8.854 6.171 28.253 7.573 6.003 25.133 29.357 8.413 24.940 7.798 29.389 26.831 6.151 8.931 6.288 8.337 27.081 30.487 26.277 7.722 26.558 6.620 27.470 8.058 27.049 8.927 24.192 28.539 27.640 25.792 25.660 27.150 25.909 24.950 29.928 29.269 7.731 6.461 28.559 27.150 28.505 6.946 24.907 25.925 27.614 24.889 7.986 6.215 26.421 7.586 28.962 6.356 25.490 6.669 28.742 24.212 28.872 24.611 8.931 7. P7 210° 30° 30.541 24.137 26.432 29.831 7.056 7.118 26.659 25.843 27.158 7.899 26.398 27.195 24.663 6.498 27.247 6.001 7.027 28.990 7.686 6.041 26.858 28.462 7.305 8.900 28.565 26.625 6.174 7.409 8.823 7.176 29.535 7.773 7.109 8.309 7.518 29.245 8.206 25.956 7.518 27.647 29.262 6.964 28.100 8.862 6.656 6.627 28.438 27.413 7.678 6.693 6.655 8.303 29.319 25.197 7.154 29.314 8.908 6.764 7.619 8.257 27.964 24.885 29.481 28.336 28.237 27.600 7.748 7.885 6.502 7.900 6.118 27.221 7.986 27.059 30.263 25.060 26.544 28.494 7.945 25.798 24.582 29.506 26.698 7.580 6.276 6.551 7.919 26.346 29.483 6.884 27.117 8.015 8.514 8.069 29.032 8.372 6.249 24.721 27.320 6.973 7.244 25.811 25.486 24.007 27.381 7.159 24.304 24.470 7.623 26.409 6.401 8.970 6.624 7.800 6.761 24.245 7.032 7.478 7.682 26.814 7.449 24.177 8.286 24.711 28.431 24.945 27.071 7.906 7.954 6.577 24.281 25.349 8.782 27.103 30.040 7.217 27.301 7.741 27.869 6.267 24.702 26.126 7.926 25.545 25.543 7.262 8.697 25.357 7.006 28.357 27.549 8.741 26.531 8.438 6.816 6.219 8.868 25.039 25.228 8.089 28.657 7.313 6.964 25.130 28.375 8.690 7.835 24.559 24.479 8.185 8.083 8.211 8.762 6.468 6.641 57° 237° 213° 33° 26.195 26.378 28.625 29.444 8.942 28.567 7.848 7.496 8.849 25.435 8.575 8.724 24.682 7.440 28.593 8.418 8.640 6.177 24.038 27.027 29.075 8.335 6.715 7.502 28.428 26.754 6.545 26.664 55° 235° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 118 .357 28.103 7.357 6.366 8.507 25.176 26.364 6.663 26.095 7.701 6.687 24.157 26.113 25.523 8.141 145° 325° 304° 124° 8.448 26.007 8.016 29.712 29.295 28.498 6.740 7.274 28.608 7.389 29.646 8.756 7.423 6.419 28.160 8.218 29.526 26.621 25.735 25.633 6.528 6.298 6.109 28.225 25.781 7.561 29.779 24.853 24.643 26.939 26.213 24.350 26.496 29.041 8.261 7.604 26.379 6.024 8.001 24.413 25.603 6.820 29.823 6.091 29.965 7.317 7.860 26.285 7.431 6.338 25.904 27.863 29.126 8.680 27.543 6.770 6.648 28.397 7.588 6.462 8.333 7.550 6.785 6.094 25.244 146° 326° 303° 123° 7.923 7.280 8.066 8.518 7.520 6.879 28.416 6.773 25.959 26.776 29.325 29.254 8.283 6.839 7.716 25.840 26.649 7.478 27.575 7.966 27.863 27.669 24.454 7.078 27.022 26.292 26.579 148° 328° 301° 121° 6.798 7.048 29.461 6.983 24.732 28.317 27.579 27.392 8.914 7.816 28.864 7.277 27.

009 22.398 9.457 21.838 10.204 9.588 19.024 10.760 20.870 22.681 20.911 19.569 23.105 24.058 9.715 22.200 23.367 10.416 11.446 23.171 22.254 20.827 10.651 9.747 23.649 20.575 50° 230° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 119 .815 8.761 8.676 10.479 11.803 9.553 11.289 22.690 8.689 9.083 11. P8 215° 35° 24.391 21.970 10.784 9.073 11.937 9.168 9.918 9.537 20.666 10.687 21.647 22.195 9.625 10.746 9.069 24.979 23.151 10.278 9.491 9.961 23.250 9.145 11.939 22.555 21.087 24.156 11.121 22.288 23.067 9.391 22.013 9.928 9.649 19.797 8.522 20.476 10.179 21.991 22.033 24.770 21.232 9.621 21.205 22.987 21.510 9.680 9.396 10.405 19.406 11.880 9.595 22.436 10.516 23.527 22.976 9.269 19.907 23.113 23.121 10.696 20.925 23.585 9.921 20.340 22.779 8.204 54° 234° 216° 36° 23.456 10.872 23.995 10.327 10.539 21.343 11.765 53° 233° 217° 37° 22.505 10.950 10.332 11.756 19.469 11.222 22.259 9.222 20.664 8.522 21.361 9.836 23.347 10.141 10.615 10.031 9.520 9.754 21.635 10.253 23.726 19.244 21.375 19.858 10.451 19.601 20.864 19.501 11.175 20.544 22.054 143° 323° 306° 126° 9.213 9.149 9.787 19.228 21.343 9.741 19.228 11.817 10.165 23.352 9.929 10.716 10.374 22.634 19.552 23.312 11.943 23.887 21.235 23.895 8.306 22.357 22.681 8.239 10.410 23.538 9.942 19.794 9.585 10.044 10.711 23.314 19.177 9.736 10.727 9.147 21.977 8.784 22.131 21.704 21.131 9.676 23.931 8.037 22.340 23.049 9.837 21.868 8.903 21.375 23.746 10.958 8.082 20.082 21.905 20.953 21.223 9.291 11.603 19.042 11.841 9.588 21.957 19.293 21.803 19.347 52° 232° 218° 38° 21.788 8.985 20.895 19.717 8.188 22.160 10.661 9.585 20.870 21.061 23.490 11.980 10.238 19.026 23.672 8.301 20.426 9.878 10.772 19.909 10.851 8.440 21.529 9.947 9.385 11.166 11.258 10.128 20.572 19.448 11.141 24.899 9.803 21.473 9.654 21.239 22.656 10.632 9.506 20.315 9.324 9.974 22.466 19.886 8.824 20.496 19.787 10.913 8.617 20.104 22.463 9.922 8.515 10.190 10.125 11.859 8.969 20.458 20.241 9.640 23.301 11.937 21.428 23.595 9.284 19.904 8.638 21.269 9.820 21.872 20.435 9.015 10.919 10.940 8.191 20.807 10.949 8.386 10.094 9.495 10.564 11.880 19.017 21.420 19.424 21.207 11.408 21.427 11.501 9.113 20.122 9.411 20.522 11.926 19.353 11.332 20.889 20.051 24.557 19.681 22.054 22.390 19.288 10.775 9.219 10.833 8.877 8.726 8.374 11.437 11.348 20.309 21.957 9.767 10.035 20.160 20.193 140° 320° 309° 129° 10.737 21.532 11.576 9.706 10.254 19.020 22.389 9.021 11.633 20.176 11.695 19.158 9.991 11.003 21.445 9.578 22.123 24.278 10.078 144° 324° 305° 125° 8.765 9.851 9.104 9.548 9.752 8.239 11.296 9.299 19.098 21.001 11.208 19.053 10.051 20.642 9.511 19.557 9.306 9.416 10.595 10.408 9.566 9.605 23.287 9.209 10.818 19.909 9.135 11.618 19.819 22.011 11.187 11.458 11.623 9.889 23.605 21.960 10.144 20.840 20.426 10.905 22.466 10.376 10.186 9.364 11.005 10.066 21.015 23.183 23.034 21.092 10.261 21.114 21.180 10.285 20.613 22.425 22.022 9.888 22.853 21.155 22.953 20.818 23.493 22.710 19.063 10.997 23.004 19.920 21.138 22.316 20.767 22.750 22.207 20.004 9.249 11.575 10.342 21.223 19.756 9.317 10.063 11.130 23.630 22.277 21.699 9.170 10.800 23.970 21.708 8.712 20.555 10.770 8.040 9.832 9.797 10.131 10.218 23.792 20.614 9.050 21.238 20.066 20.076 9.443 20.359 19.305 23.322 11.622 23.664 19.375 21.664 22.307 10.966 9.114 11.113 141° 321° 308° 128° 10.380 9.824 8.922 22.995 9.032 11.686 10.986 8.853 22.486 10.364 20.379 20.323 23.777 10.148 23.104 11.490 20.259 11.337 10.196 21.248 10.939 10.849 19.326 21.052 11.463 23.268 10.718 9.813 9.499 23.737 9.070 22.406 10.269 20.861 9.370 9.S-Tables.605 10.527 19.333 9.490 21.743 8.973 19.764 23.834 19.096 23.481 19.476 22.199 10.102 10.822 9.442 22.565 10.218 11.212 21.801 22.836 22.729 23.561 22.078 23.043 23.776 20.280 11.698 22.474 20.728 20.435 19.140 9.988 19.699 8.163 21.693 23.395 20.197 11.726 10.888 10.417 9.358 21.525 10.720 21.113 9.085 9.297 10.482 9.787 21.473 21.808 20.665 20.899 10.534 23.510 22.842 8.986 9.848 10.034 10.950 51° 231° 219° 39° 20.756 10.229 10.511 11.543 11.535 10.393 23.323 22.427 20.446 10.856 20.506 21.680 19.454 9.744 20.019 20.937 20.112 10.408 22.344 19.087 22.806 8.854 23.545 10.708 9.357 10.542 19.066 142° 322° 307° 127° 9.358 23.395 11.329 19.553 20.481 23.572 21.957 22.782 23.082 10.270 23.646 10.459 22.868 10.270 11.273 22.671 21.604 9.097 20.733 22.696 10.734 8.889 9.001 20.658 23.967 8.256 22.094 11.870 9.670 9.073 10.587 23.569 20.

040 14.642 18.836 12.895 11.295 13.576 17.282 14.928 15.058 12.760 18.651 14.679 15.893 12.666 12.540 14.449 17.702 11.649 11.434 15.613 18.980 13.888 14.170 17.407 17.387 12.091 12.554 12.900 14.608 16.812 13.285 16.148 19.896 13.267 17.617 11.246 14.331 14.495 18.206 16.853 16.248 18.306 15.017 18.723 12. P9 220° 40° 19.087 17.688 14.393 18.103 19.601 14.791 12.088 19.758 15.481 18.161 18.320 18.435 17.167 12.587 13.517 13.404 14.956 13.136 14.775 18.993 12.365 13.392 14.990 16.319 14.655 12.521 12.004 14.168 13.874 17.992 14.244 12.191 13.219 18.561 17.421 15.904 12.550 15.802 12.225 13.064 13.834 18.908 16.602 15.583 18.031 18.379 16.476 12.908 13.004 16.255 12.128 17.277 12.916 17.599 13.867 16.663 14.142 17.190 18.253 17.470 13.423 13.341 13.156 12.533 17.364 18.823 15.408 15.355 14.028 19.564 13.703 17.487 12.189 12.599 12.959 17.972 12.410 12.678 12.813 14.041 13.716 18.753 13.421 12.860 13.449 138° 318° 311° 131° 12.299 16.140 15.191 15.598 18.563 15.007 15.589 14.700 12.660 11.595 16.694 13.473 16.447 15.335 18.121 13.849 15.640 15.564 14.118 19.233 18.103 18.133 19.388 13.443 12.717 16.152 16.604 17.178 12.638 11.033 16.014 12.153 15.968 13.145 12.941 15.267 15.321 12.214 13.115 17.365 17.823 136° 316° 313° 133° 13.S-Tables.825 14.569 18.949 16.528 13.632 17.738 14.293 15.820 11.294 14.306 139° 319° 310° 130° 11.132 18.537 15.020 16.928 11.087 13.349 18.477 17.954 18.756 11.874 11.864 18.894 16.446 16.118 18.291 18.750 14.817 17.763 14.202 13.881 12.519 17.466 18.960 11.875 15.229 15.101 17.730 16.692 15.859 17.935 16.511 15.734 11.540 13.510 18.788 13.527 14.577 14.307 46° 226° 224° 44° 15.611 13.368 14.800 14.741 13.681 11.400 13.994 15.543 12.961 12.809 11.126 16.233 12.245 16.064 14.069 12.672 18.977 16.283 13.163 19.007 13.777 13.674 17.798 16.731 18.478 14.863 11.002 17.421 17.451 18.524 15.379 18.949 11.052 135° 315° 314° 134° 14.614 14.098 13.353 13.585 11.075 13.028 14.133 13.198 17.666 15.209 14.379 17.596 11.826 16.242 15.622 12.588 12.493 13.554 18.888 17.185 14.237 13.339 16.799 11.326 16.312 16.212 17.568 16.913 14.653 15.670 11.848 13.932 13.393 16.046 16.073 16.102 12.660 17.649 16.618 17.173 14.127 15.337 17.417 14.499 12.352 16.260 13.310 12.581 16.399 12.879 18.734 12.281 17.926 14.309 17.894 18.539 18.566 12.139 16.705 15.718 15.931 17.073 17.204 15.222 12.262 18.149 14.532 12.845 17.408 18.060 18.745 17.505 17.927 12.657 18.161 14.453 14.382 15.692 11.058 19.849 18.039 15.178 19.628 18.525 18.850 14.670 13.634 13.510 12.306 13.211 12.686 18.200 12.790 18.380 14.485 15.046 18.490 14.788 17.917 11.862 15.902 15.881 16.432 12.701 18.690 16.610 12.343 12.465 12.370 15.950 12.872 13.842 11.458 13.344 15.032 17.156 13.491 17.852 11.219 16.255 15.774 17.765 13.099 16.875 14.376 13.318 13.824 13.086 16.775 14.812 16.779 12.982 11.971 11.915 15.216 15.330 13.729 13.018 13.628 11.606 11.146 18.760 17.014 15.552 14.788 11.197 14.689 12.662 16.259 16.945 17.204 18.112 12.051 45° 225° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 120 .838 14.725 14.988 15.419 16.354 12.646 13.089 18.052 14.622 137° 317° 312° 132° 12.030 13.026 15.395 15.016 14.745 11.222 49° 229° 221° 41° 18.422 18.944 13.615 15.576 15.270 14.357 15.280 15.552 13.922 16.332 12.088 14.077 15.001 15.731 17.915 12.102 15.758 16.797 15.825 12.909 18.331 15.644 12.711 12.343 14.043 19.295 17.938 12.724 11.454 12.460 15.784 15.366 16.406 16.785 16.870 12.124 14.703 16.441 14.365 12.802 17.963 14.744 16.589 15.064 15.299 12.831 17.166 16.393 17.983 18.429 14.351 17.757 12.435 13.232 16.233 14.481 13.053 13.954 15.745 15.487 16.115 15.658 13.836 13.013 18.847 12.323 17.839 16.732 15.968 18.460 16.503 14.863 14.446 13.623 13.820 18.682 13.514 16.633 12.575 11.577 12.859 12.221 14.963 16.307 14.676 16.437 18.073 19.995 13.110 13.902 17.639 14.272 16.258 14.541 16.239 17.701 14.888 15.505 13.831 11.018 17.805 18.060 16.045 17.004 12.500 16.318 15.705 13.112 14.156 17.059 17.938 14.939 18.628 15.998 18.463 17.810 15.717 17.587 47° 227° 223° 43° 16.746 18.527 16.590 17.248 13.788 14.939 11.813 12.266 12.884 13.547 17.288 12.622 16.777 11.272 13.134 12.771 16.277 18.179 16.036 12.123 12.047 12.626 14.676 14.192 16.025 12.433 16.984 12.836 15.988 17.466 14.885 11.179 13.768 12.166 15.893 48° 228° 222° 42° 17.175 18.980 15.100 14.554 16.974 17.717 13.646 17.498 15.906 11.771 15.411 13.376 12.515 14.713 11.689 17.924 18.074 18.178 15.800 13.635 16.193 19.745 12.713 14.076 14.575 13.089 15.472 15.225 17.976 14.113 16.080 12.951 14.920 13.967 15.306 18.184 17.766 11.144 13.

Appendix The Intercept 121 .

- Marine Meteorology
- Celestial Navigation
- Celestial Navigation in 60 Min
- Celestial Navigation
- Formulae for the Mariner
- Navigation
- Celestial Navigation
- Celestial Navigator
- Navigation Presentation
- Marine Internet Sources
- Navigation
- A Primer of Celestial Navigation, Favil
- Celestial Navigation by H. O. 249 1974 Milligan 0870331914
- Celestial Navigation Net 2004
- Celestial Navigation 3000GRT Training
- Global Positioning System
- Basic principles of celestial navigation - James Allen
- Plotting chart
- Final Exam Celestial Navigation
- Celestial Navigation Example
- 2nd Mate Chart Work Numericals
- 7.01_Master and Chief Mate
- Celestial Navigation Basics
- General Navigation Formulae
- Build Your Own Sextant Out of a CD 2004
- Chart Work [dieukhientaubien.net].pdf
- Ship Handling

- Journals of Australian Explorations by Gregory, Augustus Charles, 1819-1905
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- United States v. Louisiana, 394 U.S. 836 (1969)
- Vintage Airplane - Jul 1977
- A Voyage to the South SeaFor The Purpose Of Conveying The Bread-Fruit Tree To The West Indies,Including An Account Of The Mutiny On Board The Ship by Bligh, William, 1754-1817
- A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels — Volume 14 by Kerr, Robert, 1755-1813
- Field Artillery Journal - Nov 1942
- The MoonA Full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features by Elger, Thomas Gwyn, 1838-1897
- A Voyage Towards the South Pole and Round the World, Volume 1 by Cook, James, 1728-1779
- State of Maryland v. State of West Virginia, 225 U.S. 1 (1912)
- An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island by Hunter, John
- A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels — Volume 15 Forming A Complete History Of The Origin And Progress Of Navigation, Discovery, And Commerce, By Sea And Land, From The Earliest Ages To The Present Time by Kerr, Robert, 1755-1813
- statatlas1925.pdf
- Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by Cook, James, 1728-1779
- tmpB537.tmp
- State of Texas v. State of Louisiana, 431 U.S. 161 (1977)
- United States v. Choctaw Nation, 179 U.S. 494 (1900)
- United States v. Louisiana, 382 U.S. 288 (1966)
- Tom Sawyer Abroad by Twain, Mark, 1835-1910
- Analysis of Gps Errors During Different Times in a Day
- Mariner IV Mars Photos
- State of Missouri v. State of Iowa, 51 U.S. 1 (1851)
- statatlas1925_introduction.pdf
- Skylab 4 Voice Dump Transcription 7 of 13
- The Brick Moon and Other Stories by Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909
- nationalatlas1970_specialsubjectmaps-administrative.pdf
- State of Louisiana v. State of Mississippi, 516 U.S. 122 (1995)
- 60748_1875-1879
- Bill C-72, Qausuittuq National Park of Canada
- Arkansas v. Mississippi, 471 U.S. 377 (1985)

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