Celestial Navigation in a Teacup
Formerly “The Armchair Celestial Navigator”

Concepts, Math, History, the Works, but Different Teacup Navigation Rodger E. Farley

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Contents
Preface Variable and Acronym List Early Related History Review of Fundamentals Celestial Navigation Concepts Calculations for Lines of Position Measuring Altitude with the Sextant Corrections to Measurements Reading the Nautical Almanac Sight Reduction Putting it Together and Navigating Star Identification Special Topics Lunars Coastal Navigation using the sextant Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet Making your very own Octant On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

6th Edition Copyright 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011 Rodger E. Farley Teacup Navigation Publishing. All rights reserved. My web site: http://mysite.verizon.net/milkyway99/index.html I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning, user beware! This is for educational purposes only.

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To those readers familiar with ‘celestial’. You will need a scientific calculator. And yes. and practical points of view. also how to build your own navigational tools. This book should also interest experienced navigators who are tired of simply ‘turning the crank’ with tables and would like a better behind-the-scenes knowledge. it instinctively seemed to me an art beyond my total understanding.O.O. I don’t know other than celestial navigation has always had a shroud of mystery surrounding it (no doubt to keep the hands from mutiny). the essential background and equations to the solutions will be presented such that the reader can calculate the answers precisely with a hand calculator and understand the why. they will notice that I have departed the usual norms found in celestial navigation texts. 229. Why. I use a consistent sign convention which allows me to discard same-name and opposite-name rules. Some time in my 40s I began to discard my preconceived notions regarding things that required ‘natural’ talent. Programmable graphing calculators such as the TI-86 and TI-89 are excellent for the methods described in the book. Rather. I am referring to the typical Hydrographic Office methods H.Preface Growing up I had always been fascinated by the thought of navigating by the stars. to teach the concepts. some interesting history. With the prevalence of hand electronic calculators. 249 and H. and thus I began a journey of discovery. and computational methods using the simple pocket scientific calculator (or better yet make your own navigation software). although it is not comprehensive of all my studies in this field. My intention is for this to be used as a self-teaching tool for those who have a desire to learn celestial from the intuitive. the traditional methods of using sight-reduction tables with pre-computed solutions will hardly be mentioned here. However. Rodger Farley 2002 4 . Like most educational endeavors one may sometimes plunge too deeply in seeking arcane knowledge and risk losing the interest and attention of the reader. academic. those having trigonometric functions and their inverse functions. With that in mind this book is dedicated simply to removing the cloak of mystery. This book represents my efforts at teaching myself ‘celestial’. the techniques.

meters Correction for dip of the horizon due to eye height Correction to the tabular GHA for the variance v Correction to the tabular declination using rate d Correction to the tabular GHA for the minutes and seconds Correction to the sextant altitude for refraction. arcmin per hour Eye height above the water. or dead-reckoning latitude Estimated longitude. or true altitude angle Calculated altitude angle Index correction Angular semi-diameter of sun or moon Upper limb of sun or moon Lower limb of sun or moon Greenwich hour angle Greenwich hour angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Declination angle Declination angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Sidereal hour angle Local hour angle Uncorrected azimuth angle Azimuth angle from true north Hourly variance from the nominal GHA rate. or dead-reckoning longitude Line of position Local apparent noon Local mean time 5 .Variable and Acronym List Hs Ha Ho Hc IC SD UL LL GHA GHAhour DEC DEChour SHA LHA Zo Zn v d heye CorrDIP Corrv Corrd CorrGHA CorrALT R Doffset LAT LON LATA LONA LATDR LONDR LOP LAN LMT Altitude angle as reported on the sextant scale Apparent altitude angle Observed. and semidiameter Correction for atmospheric refraction Offset distance using the intercept method. arcmin per hour Hourly declination rate. nautical miles Latitude Longitude Assumed latitude Assumed longitude Estimated latitude. parallax.

considering he was less than 1% off. And that as the year moved on the constellation’s position would slowly crank around as well. The Egyptians had divided the day into 24 hours. 6 . 60 seconds per minute. Simple tools and an enlightened mind can produce extraordinary results. a stick would cast a measurable shadow. It would have seemed that the angle of rotation per day was 1/90 of a quarter circle. He wondered that on the same day in Alexandria. who was the director of the Egyptian Great Library of Alexandria. only going thru certain constellations named the zodiac (in the ecliptic plane). a nautical mile. who reported it was 500 miles. or 50 • 500 = 25000 miles. He hired a man to pace out the distance between Alexandria and Syene. mile comes from the Latin milia for 1000 double paces of a Roman soldier. which = 1. But how big was it? On June 21 he measured the angle cast by the stick and saw that it was approximately 1/50th of a full circle (7. and this observation by Eratosthenes confirmed the curvature of the Earth. It is easy to see the analogy between angle and clock time. or ~ 90 days. A degree could be thought of as a heavenly angular unit. You would have noticed that after ¼ of a year had passed. An arcminute of a great circle on the surface of our planet defined the unit of distance. and the Mesopotamians further divided the hour into 60 minutes. Size of the Earth In the Near East during the 3rd century BC lived an astronomerphilosopher by the name of Eratosthenes. The ancient Greeks had hypothesized that the earth was round.2 degrees). In one of the scroll books he read that on the summer solstice June 21 in Syene (south of Alexandria). The planets were mysterious and thought to be gods as they roamed around the night sky.15 statute miles. then the Earth’s circumference would be 50 times longer. If 500 miles was the arc length for 1/50 of a huge circle. and 60 arcseconds per arcminute. which is quite a coincidence with the Babylonian base 60 number system which established the angle of an equilateral triangle as 60º. that the constellation had turned ccw about ¼ of a circle. since the angle was further divided into 60 arcminutes per degree. By the way. one could see the sun’s reflection at the bottom of deep wells (on tropic of Cancer).Chapter One Early Related History Why 360 degrees in a circle? If you were an early astronomer you would have noticed that the stars rotate counterclockwise (ccw) about Polaris at the rate of seemingly once per day. once per year ccw.

This produced a 12-month year with only 354 days. Polaris would always be more or less at a constant altitude angle above the horizon all year at any hour. two of which are illustrated on the next page. In the Pacific. and decreed a leap day every 4 years to make up for the ¼ day loss per Julian year of 365 days.2 years.2424 days long. and the color and temperature of the water gave clues. then ‘run down the latitude’ until you arrive at the destination (interestingly Polaris was not always the Pole Star). 11 minutes and 14 seconds shorter than 365 ¼ days. If you knew the altitude angle of Polaris for your destination. the bottom became rich black. the north pole star. Presumably also to take a shorter route. and the astrolabe are ancient tools that allowed one to measure the altitude of the Pole Star. as well as the composition of the bottom. Why venture out into the deep blue water? Because of coastal pirates. the kamal. Unfortunately. and 3 leap year days would not be counted every 400 years to maintain synchronicity.Calendar Very early calendars were based on the lunar month. Determining longitude would remain a mystery for many ages until accurate clocks could be made. used instead the position of the sun and fixed the true year at 365 ¼ days. So long as your last stage of sailing was due east or west. one could follow birds and know that a stationary cloud on the horizon meant an island under it. And then there are the stars. This difference adds a day every 128. Julius Caesar abolished the lunar year. you could sail north or south to pick up the correct Polaris altitude. Their astronomy was not accurate enough to know that a tropical year is 365. indicating that you should turn south. Polynesian navigators could also read the swells and waves. Early Navigation The easiest form of navigating was to never leave sight of the coast. and storms that pitch your boat onto a rocky coast. Techniques used in surveying were adopted for use in navigation. One could follow flights of birds to cross the Atlantic. 29 ½ days. you could get back home if Polaris was at the same altitude angle as when you left. Polaris. so in 1582 the Gregorian calendar was instituted in which 10 days that particular October were dropped to resynchronize the calendar with the seasons. from Europe to Iceland to Greenland to Newfoundland. Species of fish and birds. this would ‘drift’ the seasons backwards 11 ¼ days every year according to the old lunar calendars. 7 . For any given port city. Latitude hooks. One in particular. When one neared the entrance to the Nile on the Mediterranean. determine in which direction land would lie due to the interference in the wave patterns produced by a land mass.

changing latitude where safe to pick up trade winds Surveying techniques with absolute angles and relative angles 8 .‘Running down the latitude’ from home to destination.

it is like going downhill where the Earth travels a little faster thru its orbital path. with a mean distance from the Sun equal to 1 AU (AU = Astronomical Unit = 149. When it’s closer. If the Earth’s orbit were perfectly circular. it is like going uphill where the Earth travels a little slower. in which case the orbital velocity would be unvarying and it could act like a perfect clock. The Equation of Time at local noon is noted in the Nautical Almanac for each day. This time difference between the mean Sun and true Sun is known as the Equation of Time. and so the mean Sun is another way of saying the yearaveraged 24 hour clock time. The definition and significance of solar declination will be explained in a later section.870. For several months at a time. we produce a shape known as the analemma. This means that the Earth is sometimes a little closer and sometimes a little farther away from the Sun than 1 AU. When we graph the Equation of Time in combination with the Sun’s declination angle.Chapter Two Review of Fundamentals Orbits The Earth’s orbit about the Sun is a slightly elliptical one. the position of the Sun in the sky if the Earth’s axis was not tilted and its orbit were truly circular. local noon of the true Sun will be faster or slower than clock noon due to the combined effects of Earth’s orbital eccentricity and orbital velocity. We base our clocks on the mean Sun. This leads to the situation where the true Sun is up to 16 minutes too fast or 14 minutes too slow from clock reckoning. Mars. km). This brings us to the next topic… Mean Sun The mean Sun is a fictional Sun. and was not perturbed by any other body (such as the Moon. Venus.597. 9 . When it’s farther away. or Jupiter).

Mechanical clocks could be reset daily according to observations of these guide stars.9 seconds is well within reasonable error. Initial calibration errors when the atomic second was being defined in the late 1950’s. 20 MHz). After 23. the prime meridian. along with the gradual slowing of the Earth’s rotation. UTC is the time that you will use for celestial navigation using the nautical almanac. The data in the nautical almanac is based on UT. we find ourselves with one more second of atomic time per year than a current solar year. This time scale that astronomers use is called Ephemeris Time. A small problem with this reasonable approach is that the Earth’s spin rate is not completely steady.9 seconds different from UT. more later) from when the guide star first crossed the hairline. but can be an integral number of seconds off in order to be coordinated with UT such that it is no more than 0. nor is the direction of the Earth’s spin axis. solar mean time. The radio time ticks are more accessible. and 0. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) This is the basis of short wave radio broadcasts from WWV in Fort Collins Colorado and WWVH in Hawaii (2.5. It is also on a 24-hour scale. and the equation of time to tell us the difference between solar and mean noon. but how to measure it? If we use the Earth as a clock.9 seconds of UT. It is synchronized with International Atomic Time. (also known as Greenwich Mean Time GMT). but it is relative to Earth’s orbital speed. Time Standards for Celestial Navigation Universal Time (UT. Thus we keep fiddling with the definition of time to fit our observations of the heavens. A leap second is added usually in the last minute of December or June to be within the 0. 10 . a simple clock could always be reset daily. 5. the star will pass again which indicates that the earth has made a complete revolution in inertial space. which is a means of momentum transference between the Moon and Earth. even though strictly speaking UT is the proper input to the tables. like military time. GMT) This standard keeps and resets time according to the mean motion of the Sun across the sky over Greenwich England.Time With a sundial to tell us local noon. until atomic clocks showed that the Earth’s rate of rotation is gradually slowing down due mainly to tidal friction.10. we could set up a fixed telescope pointing at the sky due south with a vertical hair line in the eyepiece and pick a guide star that will pass across the hairline. UT is noted on a 24-hour scale. as the Earth was our best clock.93 hours (a sidereal day. But orbital calculations for planets and lunar positions (ephemeris) must be based on an unvarying absolute time scale.15. We think we know what we mean when we speak of time. It was hard to measure. Einstein of course disagrees with an absolute time scale.

93447 hours (~ 24 x 360/361).Sidereal Year. As a side note. the true inertial period of rotation is the time it takes the Earth to spin in 360 degrees using say. Solar Day There are 365.256 solar days in a sidereal year. That is a sidereal day. 23. We base the calendar on this number as it is tied into the seasons. this system of sidereal hour angle SHA is the negative of what an astronomer uses. But due to the backward clockwise precession drift of the equinox (the Earth orbits counterclockwise as viewed above the North Pole). However. The position of the stars can be measured as elapsed time from when the celestial prime meridian passed. the fixed stars as a guide clock. or in actuality with respect to very distant stars). That is our common solar (synodic) day of 24 hours. the Earth’s orbital period with respect to an inertially fixed reference axis (fixed in the ‘ether’ of space. coincidentally (or not). and that number reduced to degrees of celestial longitude (SHA) due to the known rotational period of the Earth. a sidereal day. Solar Year.242 days).242 solar days. With 360 degrees in a complete circle. our solar year (also referred to as tropical year) catches up faster at 365. That means inertially the Earth really turns about 361 degrees every 24 hours in order to catch up with the Sun due to orbital motion. that’s approximately 1 degree of orbital motion per day (360 degrees/365. which is right ascension (RA). Sidereal Day. The difference between a Sidereal day and a Solar day 11 .

Latitude and Longitude
I will not say much on this, other than bringing your attention to the illustration, which show longitude lines individually, latitude lines individually, and the combination of the two. This gives us a grid pattern by which unique locations can be associated to the spherical map using a longitude coordinate and a latitude coordinate. The prime N-S longitude meridian (the zero longitude) has been designated as passing thru the old royal observatory in Greenwich England (established 1884). East of Greenwich is positive longitude, and west of Greenwich is negative longitude. North latitude coordinates are positive numbers, south latitude coordinates are negative.

Maps and Charts
The most common chart type is the modern Mercator projection, which is a mathematically modified version of the original cylindrical projection. On this type of chart, for small areas only in the map’s origin, true shapes are preserved, a property known as conformality. Straight line courses plotted on a Mercator map have the property of maintaining the same bearing from true north all along the line, and is known as a rumb line. This is a great aid to navigators, as the course can be a fixed bearing between waypoints. If you look at a globe and stretch a string from point A to point B, the path on the globe is a great circle and it constitutes the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. The unfortunate characteristic of a great circle path is that the bearing relative to north changes along the length of the path, most annoying. On a Mercator map, a great circle course will have the appearance of an arc, and not look like the shortest distance. In fact, a rumb line course mapped onto a sphere will eventually spiral around like a clock spring until it terminates at either the N or S pole, known mathematically as a loxodrome. 12

Chapter Three

Celestial Navigation Concepts

There are three common elements to celestial navigation, whether one is floating in space, or floating on the ocean. They are; 1) knowledge of the positions of heavenly bodies with respect to time, 2) measurement of the time of observation, and 3) angular measurements (altitudes) between heavenly objects and a known reference. The reference can be another heavenly object, or in the case of marine navigation, the horizon. If one only has part of the required 3 elements, then only a partial navigational solution will result. In 3 dimensions, one will need 3 independent measurements to establish a 3-D position fix. Conveniently, the Earth is more or less a sphere, which allows an ingeniously simple technique to be employed. The Earth, being a sphere, means we already know one surface that we must be on. That being the case, all we need are 2 measurements to acquire our fixed position on the surface. Here listed is the Generalized Celestial Navigation Procedure: Estimate the current position Measure altitude angles of identified heavenly bodies Measure time at observation with a chronometer Make corrections to measurements Look up tabulated ephemeris data in the nautical almanac Employ error-reduction techniques Employ a calculation algorithm Map the results, determine the positional fix The 4 basic tools used are the sextant, chronometer, nautical almanac, and calculator (in lieu of pre-calculated tabulated solutions). In this book and in most celestial navigation texts, altitudes (elevation angle above the horizon) of the observed heavenly object s are designated with these variables: Hs = the raw angle measurement reported by the sextant’s scale. Ha = the apparent altitude, when instrument errors and horizon errors are accounted for. Ho = the true observed altitude, correcting Ha for atmospheric refraction and geometric viewing errors (parallax) associated with the heavenly object.

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THE FOUR BASIC CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TOOLS

Sextant, Chronometer (time piece), Nautical Almanac, and a Calculator

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Not so for the Moon. even for Polaris since it is not exactly on the axis (it is close…) Circles of Position (COP) Every heavenly object seen from the Earth can be thought of as shining a spotlight on the Earth’s surface.Geographical Position (GP) The geographical position of a heavenly object is the spot on the Earth’s surface where an observer would see the object directly over head. stars are so far away that their light across the solar system is parallel. the zenith point. 15 . the GP is always changing. The Sun is sufficiently far away that light from any point on the Sun’s disk will be more or less parallel across the face of the Earth. You can think of it as where a line connecting the center of the Earth and the center of the heavenly object intersects the Earth’s surface. in turn. cast concentric circles on the Earth’s surface about the GP. Since the Earth is spinning on its axis. For the most part. At a given moment anybody anywhere on a particular circle will observe the exact same altitude for the object in question. This spotlight. These are also known as circles of constant altitude.

the center-to-center line direction from the Earth to the heavenly object is what is tabulated. moonset) and is designated as the horizontal parallax HP. and needs to be calculated and added to the observed altitude to make an apples-to-apples comparison to the information in the almanac. It is a constant number for anyone on a particular circle of constant altitude. The reason why parallax matters to us is because in the nautical almanac. The maximum parallax possible is when the altitude is equal to zero (moonrise. 16 . are guilty of. Instead of a spotlight of parallel light. The Moon’s parallax can be almost 1 degree. it should be apparent that the parallax is a function of the altitude measurement. if we know how far away the heavenly object is (which we do). The particular parallax angle correction corresponding to the particular altitude is known as parallax-in-altitude PA. From the illustration. namely the Moon. The parallax can be calculated easily.Parallax This is a geometrical error that near-by heavenly objects. and needs to be accounted for. The particular cone angle is not tabulated. a near-by object casts more of a conical floodlight.

Line of Position (LOP) Circles of Position can have radii thousands of miles across. One could be anywhere (within reason) on that line and measure the same altitude to the heavenly object. This line is necessarily perpendicular to the azimuth direction of the heavenly object. and so we draw it as a line tangent to the circle of constant altitude. and in the small vicinity of our estimated location on the map. 17 . the arc looks like a line.

It is improbable that the navigator will misidentify the Sun or Moon (one would hope…). then the first observation will require a ‘running fix’ correction. which will be discussed later. the spot where it crosses the 1st line of position is our pin-point location on the map. and averaging the results in the hope that the random errors will have averaged out to zero. noon. and where they intersect is the fix. We could of course measure the same heavenly object twice. Measurement errors of angle and time put a box of uncertainty around that pinpoint location. The circles intersect in two places. the navigational fix. and the only way to be on both circles in the same place is to be on one of the two intersections. and afternoon. correction errors. or you are always 1 second slow in the clock reading. but measurement errors still need to be minimized. then running fix corrections can be applied here as well. the one true location becomes obvious. not to mention that you can simply read the wrong numbers from the almanac. we will need two heavenly objects to observe. If you are underway and moving between observations. This will produce two different circles of constant altitude. 18 . Reducing the measurements to 2 LOPs. Systematic errors (constant value errors that are there all the time) such as a misaligned sextant. In fact. and if the navigator only has 2 heavenly objects and one is a mistake. your consistent mistaken technique. or atmospheric optical effects different from ‘normal’ viewing conditions all need to be minimized with proper technique and attention to details. Since we know the azimuth directions of the observations. the navigator will be using 6 or more heavenly objects in order to minimize errors. Perhaps you are always reading a smaller angle. The two measurements of time and altitude contain random errors and systematic errors. to obtain a reliable fix.Navigational Fix To obtain a ‘fix’. More often than not. clocks that have drifted off the true time. Stars or planets can be mistakenly identified. a unique latitude and longitude location. but at different times of the day to achieve the same end. this is how navigating with the Sun is done while underway with observations in the morning. and is called the error box. If you’re not. he/she may find themselves in the middle of New Jersey instead of the middle of the Atlantic. providing you stay put. This is assuming you are stationary for both observations. This will require a ‘personal correction’. One can also have calculation errors and misidentification errors. Another source of systematic error is your own ‘personal error’. The random errors in measurement are minimized by taking multiple ‘shots’ of the same object (~3) at approximately one minute intervals. See the illustration of the navigational fix to see the two possibilities with overlapping circles of constant altitude.

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one of which will be collinear with one of the 1st pair. Notice that if the football shape enlarges to infinity. You need to have a nearby object for the final fix. and you will create a football shaped Surface of Position. you could measure the angle between the Sun and a known star. If you used a third star instead of a planet. the only way to be on both cones at the same time is to be on either of those 2 intersection lines. which intersects the first one along two lines. 20 . the end points locally resemble cones. with the ends of the football centered on the Sun and the planet (see pg 7). The football shape is merely the circular arc method revolved about an axis to create a 3-D surface. where this one measurement tells you only that you are somewhere on the surface of this imaginary cone. Make another measurement to a second star. Make a third measurement between the Sun and a planet. and you get a second cone.Surfaces of Position (SOP) If you were floating in space. This is a Surface of Position. This is what star cones 1&2 actually are. you would create another pair of intersection lines. It will not get you a point. Now. This third SOP intersects one of the two lines at one point. That is your position in 3-D. There will exist a conical surface with the apex in the Sun’s center with the axis of the cone pointing in the star’s direction whereby any observer on that conical surface will measure the exact same angle.

However. and the two equatorial planes are virtually the same.61 years due to the Moon’s precessing (wobbling) orbital plane tugging on the earth. It wiggles (nutates) around it now. 5000 years ago it pointed at Thuban and was used by the ancient Egyptians as the Pole Star! The Earth wobbles (precesses) in a cone-like shape just like a spinning top. In our lifetimes. and the most effect from stars with the highest elevation from the ecliptic plane. With that thought. the stars are more or less fixed in inertial space. but in 10000 years it will point and wiggle about Deneb. The same effect is true of light. the direction of the rain seems to tilt forward.792 kilometers/s. and the slowest (but largest) lasting 18.77/299792)). Think of light as a stream of particles like rain (photons) speeding along at 299.44 degree tilt angle of the Earth’s axis. the Earth’s spin axis does not constantly point in the same direction. This effect can be as great as 20. painting the stars. Sun and our solar system planets on the inside of this sphere like a planetarium. It just does not spin. In fact. It is not a physical sphere like the Earth’s surface.Celestial Sphere The celestial sphere is our star map. their distance is so great that their dim light across the solar system is more or less parallel. There are two periods of nutation. with the least effect from stars near the ecliptic plane. It is a construction of convenience.15 arcminutes. or epoch) mapped onto the celestial sphere is where you will also see the constellations of 21 . When you run in the rain. We know the cone angle to be the same as the 23. the speed of light. but even that tilt angle wiggles (nutates) up and down about 0. the apparent location of a star changes slightly on the star map due to precession and nutation of the Earth’s axis. but for the purposes of navigation we mostly need to know only their direction in the sky. Aberration is the optical tilting of a star’s apparent position due to the relative velocity of the earth vs. We are on the inside of the bubble looking out. The stars do have a 3dimensional location in space. we define the celestial poles to be an extension of Earth’s poles. However. That is. For stars. The ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane at a given reference date. as well as annual aberration. We usually think of the North Pole axis always pointing at Polaris.77 kilometers/s. the quickest equal to ½ year due to the Sun’s influence. the North Star (it’s currently 41’ off from the pole). cycling once every 25800 years. The celestial sphere has an equatorial plane and poles just like the Earth. Their very slow movement is called proper motion. The Earth is traveling at a mean orbital velocity of 29. we can construct a transparent sphere which is like a giant bubble centered over the Earth’s center where the fixed stars are mapped. It is fixed in space while the Earth rotates inside it.5 arcseconds (3600 x arcTan(29.

and declination is a celestial version of latitude. That point just happens to be where the Sun is located on the celestial sphere during the spring (vernal) equinox. These are the constellations that we see planets traverse across in the night sky. that point is now in the zodiacal constellation of Pisces. But this map needs a reference. The prime vertical circle runs from east to zenith to west. all of these slight variations are accounted for in the tables of the nautical and astronomical almanacs. Local Celestial Sphere This is the celestial sphere as referenced by a local observer at the center with the true horizon as the equator.the zodiac mapped. That point will travel westward to the right towards Aquarius thru the zodiac an average of 50. but we say Aries for nostalgia. Since the Earth’s axis wiggles and wobbles. The local meridian circle runs from north to zenith to south. nadir is straight down. it is referred to as Sidereal Hour Angle (SHA) and declination (DEC) respectively. and therefore got special attention from the ancients. Instead of describing the location of a star on the celestial sphere map with longitude and latitude. Zenith is straight up. Due to precession of the Earth’s axis. a zero point where its celestial prime meridian and celestial equator intersect. Fortunately. It is the point of intersection between the mean equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane. and is known as the Point of Aries. Sidereal Hour Angle is a celestial version of west longitude. Local celestial sphere for a ground observer 22 . a reference mean location for the equatorial plane is used.3 arcseconds per year due to the 25800 year precession cycle.

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moon. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole 24 . relative to Greenwich zero longitude. The sun. is the west longitude of that object at a given instant in time relative to the Earth’s prime meridian. and GHAAries relates the star map to the Earth map. and planets move across this map continuously during the year. which varies continuously with time because of Earth’s rotation. The Sun’s GHA is nominally zero at noon over Greenwich. GHA can refer to any heavenly object that you are using for navigation. but due to the slight eccentricity of Earth’s orbit (mean vs. true sun) it can vary up to 4 degrees. The relationship for a star is thus: GHA = GHAAries + SHA = the Greenwich hour angle of a star. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole Greenwich Hour Angle of Aries GHAAries (or GHAγ ) The point of Aries is essentially the zero longitude and latitude of the celestial sphere where the stars are mapped. including the position of the celestial prime meridian.Greenwich Hour Angle GHA The Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) of a heavenly object. the point of Aries. GHAAries is the position of the zero longitude of the star map. The declination (celestial latitude) of the star needs no ‘translation’ as it remains the same in the Earth map as in the star map. SHA and declination relate the position of a star in the star map.

The stars do not. A post-meridian passage (positive LHA. then LHA = LHACALCULATED . The Sun’s declination follows nearly a perfect sine wave where over the course of 365.44 degrees. or 0<LHA<180) means that it is literally after noon.44 degrees. This is a crucial piece of information for the determination of latitude using the Sun.West Longitude Observer If the calculated value of LHA > 360. This leads to the relationship: LHA = GHA + East Longitude Observer. a premeridian passage (negative LHA or 180<LHA < 360) means that it is still morning. the declination of an object is the celestial version of latitude measured on the celestial sphere star-map.Local Hour Angle LHA The Local Hour Angle (LHA) is the west longitude direction angle of a heavenly object relative to a local observer’s longitude (not Greenwich).24 days it varies northwards 23.44 degrees and southwards –23. Due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of 23. LHA = 0 Declination DEC As stated earlier. 25 . At exact local noon. the sun and planets change their declinations on the celestial sphere continuously during the year.360 Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole When we are speaking of the Sun. or LHA = GHA .

For Declination: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Latitude: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Longitude: East is positive (+) West is negative (-) For GHA. and negative eastwards (pre meridian passage) -180 <LHA < 0. maximum declination occurs with the summer solstice which has the longest hours of daily sun. it is a positive number between 0 and 360 degrees westward For LHA. During the equinoxes. above the horizon is positive (+) Also if you are not aware. which make the mathematics consistent and unambiguous. 26 . it is positive westwards (post meridian passage) 0 <LHA < 180. and the spring and fall equinox (“equal night”) having equal day and night times corresponding to zero solar declination. in an equation A·B means A multiplied by B. the sun will rise directly from the east and set directly in the west. Ho. Solar declination as seen by an observer on the ground varying seasonally Sign Convention We should digress momentarily to establish the proper signs for numbers. At 40 degrees latitude.As one can see. the minimum declination with the winter solstice having the shortest hours of sun. or 180 <LHA < 360 For observed altitude. there are 6 more hours of daylight in the summer as compared to the winter.

Relative to the horizon. Now Polaris is not exactly on the north celestial pole. To see why this is not really a coincidence. That makes for good emergency navigation.Concepts in Latitude The simplest example to illustrate how latitude is determined is to consider Polaris.Ho. For a star that passes right overhead at the zenith. Our latitude at the North Pole coincidentally is also 90 degrees. If now instead we were sweating somewhere on the equator on a hill in Ecuador at night. We can generalize the matter by taking into account the declination of any particular star. The altitude relative to the horizon would be approximately zero. as shown in the illustration. 27 . Coincidentally. we would see Polaris just on the northern horizon. We could say generally that the observed altitude of Polaris is equal to the latitude of the observer (actually small corrections need to be made since Polaris is slightly off center from the pole). the North Star. see the illustration to understand the geometry involved. the star’s declination is equal to your latitude. Also note that the declination of Polaris in the celestial sphere is about 90 degrees. The Latitude is then 90 + DEC . at the zenith point. and if we know the declination for every hour of the year. it would have an altitude of approximately 90 degrees of angle. Such a star can be the Sun. but close enough for our intuition to work here. If we were sitting on Earth’s north pole (avoiding polar bears). the latitude on the equator is zero. we would observe that Polaris would be directly overhead. we can wait until the Sun is at its meridian passage (local apparent noon LAN) to make an altitude measurement Ho.

To determine distance.15 statute miles. The Earth’s circumference is then equal to 21600 n mi (1nm per arcmin x 60 arcmin per deg x 360 deg per full circle). The upshot of all this explanation is that to know longitude.25 · 2). zero longitude. one minute of arc (1/60 degree) corresponds to one nautical mile (n mi) of distance. It is no coincidence that along a great arc on the Earth (such as the equator). This is why the chronometer needs to be synchronized with Greenwich time. For a rotating object. What a contraption! But. It is easy to see now how a time error (either the clock is off or the time is read wrong) can put the longitude determination way off. It is a little off due to Earth’s elliptical orbit.Concepts in Longitude If we think of a car traveling at 60 mph.25 · 2 · 360 degrees per rev). and observes the time to be 15:00 UT. You get the general picture. a time error of 60 seconds will put the longitude off by 10 n mi. This is also equivalent to ¼ n mi per second of time. or 15 degrees per hour (360/24). It rotates once in 24 hours with respect to the position of the mean Sun in the sky. in 2 hours it will have traveled 120 miles (60 · 2). Pendulum clocks were not suitable for the motion of ships. Now let’s think of the Earth. local noon). is 15 deg/hour x 3 hours = 45 degrees of longitude in the westward direction. that’s 3 hours past noon in Greenwich. In mid latitudes. 28 . If we know the rotational speed. with its ‘grasshopper’ escapement and twin balance-arm oscillator. This idea was noted as early as 1530 by the Flemish professor Gemma Frisius. so the observer can determine the difference in angle (longitude) with respect to the prime meridian (zero longitude). it is the same. it was the start of marine chronometers that could take the rocking and rolling of a ship and not lose a beat. one then needs to have a clock set to the time in Greenwich England. and a clock. That’s 360 degrees in 24 hours. but actually the true position of the Sun does not correspond with clock time as we have already described earlier. or 180 degrees(0. and it was John Harrison in 1735 that made the first semi portable clock. say ¼ revolutions per minute (RPM). The difference in angle between the observer and Greenwich. One nautical mile is equal to 1. The maximum surface speed of rotation for Sun observations will occur along the equator at 15 n mi per minute of time (21600 n mi per day/(24hr per day x 60 min per hr)). You will recall. UT is based on the time in Greenwich. and we have a stopwatch. If a person on the Earth observes the Sun passing across the local N-S meridian line (in other words. in 2 minutes it should have rotated ½ revolution(0. all we needed was knowledge of the speed.

The method has certain steps to maintain accuracy. capture the highest point in the sky that the Sun traveled plus some sightings after meridian passage. This equation works whether you are in the northern or southern hemispheres. In keeping with the consistent sign convention. and plot this information as true altitude versus time. If Signnoon · Honoon + DEC is equal to zero. latitudes. Using the nautical almanac. latitudes. then subtract 180 from it. if your chronometer is inaccurate then the longitude will be off considerably since you are in essence comparing the local time with time in Greenwich. and with a sighting every minute. From the plot you can smooth the curve and determine the highest point (Honoon) and estimate the time of LAN to within several minutes or better of Universal Time (~10-20 n miles of longitude error). by introducing a new variable Signnoon. We will now make a distinction regarding the direction of meridian passage. If you don’t know which pole you’re on then you should have stayed home. and so. Take sightings with your sextant several minutes before LAN. You make corrections to obtain the true altitudes. in or out of the tropics. the value of Signnoon is +1. 29 . Remember the sign convention and apply it. For longitude. the value of Signnoon is -1. the trigonometry disappears and reduces down to mere arithmetic. The technique is to predict approximate local apparent noon (LAN) for your estimated longitude from dead reckoning navigation. When the meridian passage is southwards such as commonly occurs in N. as the azimuth is unambiguously known as either due south or due north.Traditional Noon Sighting The noon sighting is an old way of determining latitude and (with misgivings) longitude. Just follow the sign convention. then you are exactly on either the north or south pole. Here. obtain the GHA and declination of the Sun (DEC) at the time of LAN. when the meridian passage is northwards such as commonly occurs in S. the local hour angle LHA is zero. Thus: Latitude = Signnoon · Honoon + DEC + 90 If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. It will be off considerably anyway due to the plotting estimates. whether the sun peaked in the south or in the north. determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . and it will all come out fine.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 Remember.

set the sextant to the altitude setting that you had in measurement #1. Signnoon = +1. then subtract 180 from it. determine the sun’s declination DEC. The moment the altitude matches the pre-positioned setting. The latitude will be derived from measurement #2. Finally. record this as your measurement #2. and a northerly passage = -1. then the difference between them is 21 min and 12 sec. Half that is 0:10:36 difference. Latitude = Signnoon · Ho#2 + DEC + 90 (remember the sign for DEC) If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. 30 . For southwards meridian passage.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 If for example T#1 = 19:27:31. Time of LAN = (Time #1 + Time #2) *0. Then keep track of the sun with the sextant and when it reaches the maximum altitude. and observe the sun. Record this as your measurement #1. and so determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . Noon will be at the average between time measurements #1 and #3.5 For longitude. record the time (UTC). you can shoot the sun for a reference point of altitude and time. 15 minutes before LAN. From the almanac.3-Measurement Noon Sighting: Double Altitudes There is an antiquated technique to determine latitude and longitude with a noon sighting using 3 measurements. so add that to T#1 and you get 19:37:67 which is 19:38:07 as LAN (67 seconds = 1 min+7 sec). and T#3 = 19:48:43. the local hour angle LHA is zero.

The angles between the intersecting planes are the same as the surface angles on the surface of the sphere. or InvSIN. b. which your calculator will approximate by truncating the series after evaluating only a few terms. with the law of sines and the law of cosines (spherical trigonometry) being the most relevant to navigation. B.α) Spherical Trigonometry Three Great Circles on a sphere will intersect to form three inner corner angles a. Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚. Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C) Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles by using the useful identies: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A) 31 . On your calculator it might be ASIN. All you have to know are these three basic relationships: sine (α) = Lo / R shorthand is sin(α) cosine (α) = La / R shorthand is cos(α) tangent (α) = Lo / La shorthand is tan(α) The values of these trigonometric functions can be expressed as an infinite series.Plane Trigonometry The simplest notion of ‘trig’ is the relationship of the sides and angles in a triangle.α) cos(α) = sin(90˚. C. ArcSin or arcCos is the inverse function. Relationships between the corner angles and surface angles have been worked out over the centuries. Every intersecting pair of Great Circles is the same as having two intersecting planes. c. and three surface angles A.

in that the inner corner angles a. The modified law of cosines formula for co-altitudes becomes: sin(H) = sin(Lat) · sin(DEC) + cos(Lat) · cos(DEC) · cos(LHA). latitude and declinations. If you substitute a co-altitude (like 90-H) into the co-altitude formula (90-a). b. latitude. The inner corner angles corresponding to the arc sides are modifications of the altitude. As can be seen in the drawing the “coangles” are 90˚ – the inner corner angle: Co-altitude = 90˚ – H Co-declination = 90˚ – DEC Co-latitude = 90˚ . 32 . But if a consistent sign convention is used. a = 90-H.The Navigational Triangle The navigational triangle applies spherical trigonometry. and the surface angles are related to azimuth and LHA angles. we need only concern ourselves with the one picture. c are related to altitude. so 90-(90-H) = H . and declination angles.LAT Most authorities will examine 4 cases concerning North or South declination and latitude.

INVCOS. Remembering to use the sign convention. 33 . then Z = Zo If S. The obvious choice of assumed latitude and longitude is the estimated position by dead reckoning. how fast you were going. and how long you went. then Z = 180 – Zo True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. ACOS.Chapter Four Calculations for Line of Position The calculated altitude is a way of predicting the altitude of a heavenly object by first assuming a latitude and longitude for a hypothetical observer and working out the problem backwards. The uncorrected azimuth angle Zo of a heavenly object can also be calculated as thus: Zo = arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(LatA) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(Hc)}] Corrected azimuth angle Z (not used in any of the equations here) If N. arcSin or arcCos on your calculator could also be designated as ASIN. This is important to extract the proper values of GHA and declination from the nautical almanac. The math becomes direct and unambiguous when done in this manner. the law of cosines gives us this relationship for the calculated altitude Hc: Hc = arcSin[ Sin(LatA) · Sin(DEC) + Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] Where LatA is the assumed latitude. or 180<LHA < 360). or INVSIN. Dead reckoning is the method of advancing from a last known position by knowing the direction you headed in. DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. latitudes. then subtract 360 from the calculated LHA. Zn = 360 – Zo Post meridian check can also be established if: Sin(LHA) > 0 Remember. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180). LonA is the assumed longitude and the calculated local hour angle LHA = GHA + LonA If LHA is greater than 360. You will eventually compare this calculated altitude to a measured altitude. You must be talking about the same instant in time for a correct comparison. and so the calculated altitude must correspond to the same time as the measured altitude. latitudes.

This is your assumed line of position. 34 . S-S) or opposite name (N-S. By calculating an altitude. The difference in observed altitude and calculated altitude informs you how much smaller or larger the actual circle is. Let’s say you measured the altitude of the Sun at a given moment in time.By using the sign convention. you are further away. DOFFSET is in nautical miles for both cases. you have created one circle of constant altitude about the geographical position. Classical same name (N-N. then parallel offset your assumed line of position in the azimuth direction towards the heavenly object. From an assumed position of latitude and longitude.Hc). altitudes in minutes of arc. S-N) rules do not apply here. Line of Position by the Marcq Saint-Hilaire Intercept Method This clever technique determines the true line of position from an assumed line of position and is the basis of modern sight reduction. The offset distance DOFFSET to determine the true line of position is equal to: DOFFSET = 60 · (Ho . You could also simply remember that a higher observed altitude means you are closer to the geographical position GP. On your map. then draw it away from the heavenly object. angled perpendicular to the azimuth angle. or DOFFSET = (Ho . All texts on celestial that I know of will list 4 cases due to the inconsistently applied signs on declination and latitude. and needs all the appropriate corrections applied to make it an ‘observed altitude’). you may want to assume a different longitude and latitude to minimize errors. The true line of position will be offset from this line either towards the sun or away from it after comparing it to the actual observed altitude Ho (the raw sextant measurement is Hs. You look up the GHA and declination of the Sun in the nautical almanac corresponding to the time of your altitude measurement. knowing that the actual circle of constant altitude is concentric to the calculated one. the true circle will cross the azimuth line at the intercept point. altitudes Ho and Hc in decimal degrees. If not. If DOFFSET is positive. you draw a line thru the pin-point assumed latitude and longitude. you calculate the altitude and azimuth of the Sun according to the preceding section and arrive at Hc and Zn.Hc). Offsetting along the radial azimuth line. If negative. we only have two cases to examine to obtain the true azimuth angle. If the offset is greater than 25 nautical miles.

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Check both just to make sure. These are two points on the circle in the vicinity of your dead reckoning position. and out pops a slightly different longitude. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): LonC = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . and out pops a longitude. the answer can be the angle A or the angle -A. Mark longitude and latitude on the map.1 degree. we draw a small arc in the vicinity of our dead reckoning position. The two values for assumed latitude could be the dead reckoning latitude LatDR + 0. Also. there is a circle surrounding the geographical position of the heavenly object where all observed altitudes have the same value Ho. 36 .Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Where LatA is the assumed latitude. Or were they? Was the answer for longitude unreasonably off? Notice that for every latitude line that crosses the circle. the fact that only the assumed latitude is required means no estimated position of the longitude is needed at all. the GHA and declination for the time of observation. just two calculations with the same equation having slightly differing latitude arguments.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): LonC = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . Now input a slightly different latitude. There is no azimuth calculation. but why bother? What if instead. This method turns into an E-W LOP when near the meridian passage. As we should know by now. to make it the observed altitude instead and to solve the equation for LHA. why an arc at all. Mark the map.1 and – 0. The advantage to this method is that the LOP comes out directly without offsets. since at the map scale that interest us.Line of Position by the Sumner Line Method If we measure the altitude of a heavenly object and make all the proper corrections. The procedure is to input an assumed latitude. All we need do is to rearrange the equation of calculated altitude. In the arcCos function. an east and west solution. connect the dots and you have a Sumner Line. there are 2 solutions for longitude. LonC is the calculated longitude DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. just like a noon shot. this reduces to the observed altitude Ho. a straight line will do just fine. In fact. which will give us longitude. We could practically draw the entire circle on the map.

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This line just happened to cross Smalls Light as well. and was bound for Greenock. but going so long since the last observation.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat2)}/{Cos(Lat2) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Marking the chart with the location Lat1. He kept close to the wind tacking back and forth until daylight. He was within 40 miles of the Tuskar lighthouse off the coast of Ireland by dead reckoning with the weather getting worse at around midnight December 17th. Coincidentally his course was on that line as well. I recount here his discovery. he noticed the 2nd position was 27 miles ENE of the 1st position He did this a 3rd time with another 10’ more northerly latitude assumption and calculated a 3rd longitude: Lon3 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . within an hour he saw Smalls Light and made his landfall. Sumner. Capt.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat1)}/{Cos(Lat1) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Declination and GHA of the sun was from the almanac and the time mark from the sun shot. and he continued to sail ENE. he was unsure of his dead reckoning latitude. Lon2. Thomas H. and then kept on a course of ENE. Ireland.C. on November 25th. At that point the wind backed from the south to the south east making the coast a lee shore. and then with Lat2. 1837. After passing 21 deg west longitude. Lon3). who discovered the technique serendipitously and published it. an American ship-master. 38 . Sumner rightfully concluded that all three points saw the same observed altitude of the Sun. paraphrased from his book: Capt. A longitude (Lon1) with his uncertain latitude (Lat1) was calculated: Lon1 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . Sumner sailed from Charleston S. He then assumed a second latitude (Lat2) 10’ north of his dead reckoning towards the coast: Lon2 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . he knew he was somewhere on that line. and so where he might not know exactly where he was.History of the Sumner Line The Sumner line of position takes its name from Capt. At about 10 am local time he was able to make a sun shot observation. The longitude was 15’ east of his dead reckoning position.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat3)}/{Cos(Lat3) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA After plotting this third point on the chart (Lat3. Lon1. Thus the Sumner Line method was discovered accidently by practice. he had no observations due to thick weather until he came close to land. he noticed that all three of the points were on a line.

The straight-thru view is accomplished with the second mirror (horizon mirror). and the twice-reflected sun on the right if you use a ‘traditional’ mirror as opposed to a ‘whole horizon’ mirror. It does this by partial silvering of the entire horizon mirror like some sunglasses are. You see the horizon unchanged on the left. In order to determine the altitude of the Sun. both horizon and Sun will be in the entire view. you are correctly holding the sextant and can take a reading. It reflects the image of the Sun (or anything. as the horizon and Sun move together in the combined image. The horizon however. you change the angle of the first mirror (index mirror) with the index arm until the Sun is close to the horizon in the pupil image. 39 . Likewise. This makes the easy shots easier. but the more difficult shots with poor illumination or star shots more difficult. allowing you to see the horizon and heavenly object simultaneously in the same pupil image. Rock it back and forth to make sure you have the lowest reading.Chapter 5 Measuring Altitude with the Sextant The sextant is a wonderfully clever precision optical instrument for which we can thank Sir Issac Newton for the design. reflecting some light and transmitting the rest. you will see a whole image of the sun in the pupil that you can move to the right or left by rocking the sextant side to side. will only be on the left side of the image. In order not to burn your eye out (that would be stupid…). which is really a half mirror. really) twice with two flat mirrors in order to combine it with a straight-thru view. With a whole horizon mirror. there are filters (shades) that can be rotated over the image path of the index mirror. curiously. there are other filters that cover the horizon mirror to remove the glare and increase the contrast between horizon and sky. Even with the traditional mirror. This allows for a ‘shake-free’ view. Now turn the precision index drum (knob) until the lower limb of the Sun just kisses the horizon. silvered on the right and clear on the left. When it is at its lowest point. The glass surface itself is reflective.

40 .

41 . as it only works if the mirrored surface is exactly along the pivot axis of the index arm. In that case. where a point source that is nearly infinitely far away presents itself (yes. The horizontal separation is the side error. Since most mirrors are secondary surface mirrors (the silvering is on the back of the glass). Adjust the index drum until they are in perfect alignment while holding the sextant upright. at sea in the daytime. and the vertical separation is the index error. The next alignment is Side Error Alignment of the horizon mirror. you need to compare the position of the rear of the glass to the pivot axis first to see if this technique will work. First. This is corrected with adjustments to the set screw that is perpendicularly away from the plane of the arc on the horizon mirror. Second method is to wait until nighttime. Adjust the drum knob to negate the index error effect until the star and its reflection are vertically line-to-line but still separated horizontally. Same procedure as before except that you need not roll the sextant. There are precision-machined cylinders about an inch high that you can place on the arc and view their reflections. The reflected arc in the index mirror should be in line with the actual arc. then side error exists. it is checked in a round-about manner by finding the image of the arc in the index mirror when viewed externally at a low angle. This can be tricky. This can be done two ways after setting the arc to the zero angle point such that you see the same object on the left and right in the pupil image. First surface mirrors (the silvering is on the front of the glass) seem to be an upgrade. Known as Perpendicularity Alignment.Mirror Alignments Even an expensive precision instrument will give you large errors (although consistent systematic error) unless it is adjusted and calibrated. Now roll (tilt) the sextant side to side. What you will see is two points of light. The first check is to see if the index mirror is perpendicular to the sextant’s arc. You will see the horizon on the left and the reflected horizon on the right. you should get into the habit of calibrating and if necessary adjusting the mirrors to minimize the errors. Set the arc to about 45 degrees. This positions the index mirror reflecting surface 2 to 3 mm or so in front of the pivot axis. Make adjustments to the side-error set screw until the points of light converge to a single image point. I mean a star). The reflections should be parallel to the actual cylinders. point the sextant at the horizon. then turn the set screw behind the index mirror to bring it into perpendicular alignment. Is the horizon and reflected image still line-to-line? If not. but the sextant’s manufacturer may not have necessarily redesigned the mirror-holding mount. Before any round of measurements are taken. If not. the reflected image of the arc should be slightly below the viewed actual arc.

You could stop here at this point. and even cloud edges to adjust the mirrors (low accuracy…). reading the drum to determine the index error IE (Note: index correction IC = . With a little practice these procedures will be easy and routine. Making a little hand lanyard for the wrench will preserve it. Adjusting the remaining set screw on the horizon mirror (which is near the top of the mirror). You will notice that the star image now has two points separated vertically. Maybe… Note: I have also used high altitude jet aircraft. Or you could continue to zero out the index error as well with a last series of adjustments. their contrails. you can eliminate the vertical separation. If you have dark enough horizon shades. set the arc to zero (index arm and drum to the zero angle position). A word of caution: the little wrench used to adjust the set screws maybe very difficult to replace if you should drop it overboard. 42 .IE). Now you need to play around with both set screws until you zero-in the two images simultaneously. In which case. but it slightly affects the horizontal separation as well. you can even use the sun’s disk to adjust the mirrors. Unfortunately this last set screw does not only change the vertical separation. for the Index Error Alignment.

letting her set Often it is easier to set the sextant ‘ahead’ of where the heavenly object is going. and to simply let her rise or set as the case may be to the horizon. This leaves a hand free. you can choose which limb to use. Depending on the phase of the moon. Then keeping it in view. as the object will find its lowest point. Letting her rise. Rocking for the lowest position Rocking the sextant from side to side will help you determine when the sextant is being pointed in the right direction and held proper.Sighting Techniques Bringing the object down Finding the horizon is much easier than finding the correct heavenly object in the finder scope. Unless the Sun is partially obscured by clouds. as you don’t want to see it unfiltered thru the horizon glass. 43 . lower limb With an object such as the Sun or Moon. to hold the chronometer such that at the time of mark. keep the sun on the right hand side of the mirror using the darkest shade over the index mirror. Careful with the sun. sort of. the lower limb is generally used. Upper limb. That way you can be rocking the sextant to get the true angle without also fiddling with the index drum. the best technique is to first set the index arm to zero degrees and sight the object by pointing straight at it. the lower limb or upper limb. either lower limb or upper limb is used. ‘lower’ it down to the horizon by increasing the angle on the index arm until the horizon is in sight. At that point you mark the time. you just have to glance to the side a little to see the time. So. This will give the true sextant altitude Hs.

The sextant with it’s ability to record angles of 120 degrees came about for use in doing lunars. having some wood elements and weighing 125 lbs.Brief History of Marine Navigational Instruments The earliest instrument was the astrolabe. The calculations and corrections are indeed frightening. Fortunately in 1735 John Harrison invented the first marine chronometer.5 arcminute per minute of time). It could measure across 90 degrees of arc. and so one needed an accurate clock. Since a cross staff looked like a crossbow. or astronomical. described in 1342. Undoubtedly if you used this method too often you would have been branded a Lunatic. It was a quarter of a circle protractor with a plumb-bob and a pair of peep sights to line up with Polaris. A clock could be mechanical. 44 . Of course one had to look at both objects simultaneously by dithering the eyeball back and forth – a bit of a problem. refinements such as tangential screws. This limited one to only sun shots to determine latitude. The Moon is about ½ degree of arc across its face. He worked on it for 40 years (until he produced the alarm-clock size H4)! The Hadley Octant in 1731 was the first to use the double reflecting principle as described by Isaac Newton a century before. and shades glasses. Also one had to look into the blinding sun. In the 1600’s a French soldier-mathematician by the name of Vernier invented the vernier scale. A perpendicular sliding cross piece over a straight frame allowed one to line up two objects and determine the angle. The Davis backstaff in 1594 was an ingenious device where sun shots were taken with your back to the sun. and those who practice it are Lunarians. and so was a contemporary of the octant. using the sun’s shadow over a vane to cast a sharp edge (so the navigator wouldn’t go blind!). even though it was only physically 45 degrees arc. and this method of determining time to within several minutes of Greenwich Mean Time is called doing Lunars. fixed the design of sextants and octants for the next 150 years. constructed in the Middle East during the 9th century AD. The first real ancestor to the modern sextant was the cross staff. an 1/8 of a circle. Contemporary was a very simple instrument. an expression still used today. whereby one could easily interpolate between degree scales to a 1/10 or 1/20 between the engraved lines on the protractor scale. and rotated a shadow vane on an arc until the shadow edge lined up on the forward peep hole. one was said to be ‘shooting the sun’. The search for determining longitude created bizarre proposals. Tables to do this were first published in 1764. It was a mechanical rotating slide rule with a pointer to determine the altitude of stars against a protractor. but it was recognized that determining the time was the answer. The navigator would line up the horizon opposite the sun azimuth with a pair of peep holes. By 1780. and moves across the celestial sphere at the rate of about one lunar diameter every hour (~0. vernier scales. the quadrant. Therefore its arc distance to another star could be used as a sort of astronomical clock.

Astrolabes. Quadrant.VARIOUS ANTIQUE INSTRUMENTS Octants. Kamal 45 . Back Staff. Cross Staff.

Chapter 6 Corrections to Measurements There are numerous corrections to be made with the as-measured altitude Hs that you read off of the sextant’s arc degree scale and arc minute drum and vernier. Your zero point on the scale could be off. semidiameter. IC = -3. refraction. the same as the bathroom scale when you notice that it says you weigh 3 lbs even before you get on it. The Hs in the figure does not account for the index error. and dip. and the correction is IC. The other major corrections are parallax. semi-diameter ¼ degree. 46 . This is known as index error. IC. refraction and dip are on the order of 1/20th degree. Lunar parallax can be at most a degree. For our example of the bathroom scale. listed from the largest effect to the smallest.

758 · SquareRoot(heye) Where heye is the eye height above the water. Distance to visible horizon as a function of eye height above the water: Altitude Corrections Let us first define the apparent altitude. The atmosphere bends (refracts) light in a predictable way. The variable name for all of these combined altitude error corrections. which include the effects of lunar semi-diameter.The sextant basically has an index correction IC and an instrument correction I. Since measurements are made to the edge (limb) and not the center of the Sun. sometimes called the ‘Main Correction’. The table also lists slight deviations from the nominal for listed planets. semi-diameter. These corrections are tabulated on the 1st page of the nautical almanac based on the apparent altitude Ha. parallax and refraction. An approximate equation for dip correction that incorporates a standard horizon refraction is thus: Corr DIP = . By adjusting the drum knob as described on pages 39 and 40 to negate the optical index error. The correction IC is negative when the zero is “on the scale”. the angle of the Sun’s visual radius (semi-diameter) must be accounted for. and positive when “off the scale”. is Corr ALT. meters. one can see if the zero is on or off the scale. The corrections vary for different seasons. Corr DIP is always negative. or parallax. The instrument error is due to manufacturing inaccuracies and distortions. with respect to the zero point on the scale. and should be listed on a calibration sheet from the manufacturer. There are special lunar correction tables at the end of the almanac. Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Ha is the altitude without corrections for refraction. dipping below the true horizon due to your eye height above it. The true observed altitude is a matter of adding up all the corrections: Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 47 . This is also tabulated in the nautical almanac. Generally it’s negligible. and whether you are using the lower or upper limb of the Sun for your observations. lunar.1. Index error is due to the angular misalignment of the index mirror. Dip Correction Dip is the angle of the visual horizon.0. solar or otherwise.0293 · SquareRoot(heye) Decimal Degrees arc minutes Corr DIP = .

5' -4' -4.5' -17. deg LL UL Stars 10 +11' -21' -5' 13 +12' -20' -4' 15 +12. use these tables instead of the Nautical Almanac.5' -16.5' -2.9m 5.5' -2' -2.5' -19.7m 1.5' -0.5' 17 +13' -19' -3' 20 +13. Altitude correction for sun and stars ALT Corr Sun Sun Ha. for when land is used as horizon 48 .0m 2.5' DIP Graph of Dip Correction.4m Corr -1.5' -18.9m 3.5' -1.5' 24 +14' -18' -2' 31 +14.1m 6.5' -3' -3. averaged values For simplified corrections.5' 85 +16' -16' 0 Dip Correction Height 0.5' -3.3m 2.5' 41 +15' -17' -1' 59 +15.Tables of Altitude and Dip Correction.

but this is rarely included as being so small a value. So is the semi-diameter daily average of the Moon.Refinements Corrections for observations can be calculated instead of using tables. Atmospheric refraction is standardized to surface conditions of 10 deg C and 1010mb pressure. and you must convert it to decimal degrees.28 · Pressuremb / (TemperatureDEG C + 273) The final refraction correction R is thus: R = Ro · f This number is always negative. This standard refraction correction Ro is thus: Ro = . use this equation: PA = HP · Cos(Ha) · (1 –(Sin2(Lat))/298.0167 / Tan[Ha + 7.2724 · HP · (1 + Sin(Ha)/60. and you must convert it to decimal degrees. the HP is hidden in the altitude correction tables. then signlimb = +1 If the upper limb were observed.0024 degrees. If the lower limb were observed. To determine the parallax-in-altitude PA. This is a small term. Start with the apparent altitude Ha: Ha = Hs +IC + Corr DIP (assume instrument correction I ~ 0) The horizontal parallax for the Moon is given in the nautical almanac tables as the variable HP in minutes of arc. listed as ‘Additional Corrn ’. meaning the observer is a very little closer to the moon with greater altitude angle. For Venus.0.4)] degrees The correction for non-standard atmospheric conditions is referred to as f: f = 0.5) The terms in the parenthesis are “augmentation”. HP for the Sun = 0. Use the largest number at zero altitude to = HPVenus.31/(Ha+4. then signlimb = -1 Observed altitude with refinements: Ho = Ha + R + PA + SD · signlimb Here we see that the altitude correction Corr ALT = R + PA + SD · signlimb Note: Convert arcminutes to decimal degrees for consistent calculations 49 . but you can calculate one based on the hourly value of HP: The semi-diameter of the Moon: SD = 0. and refinements can be employed for non-standard conditions.25) includes earth oblateness The semi-diameter of the Sun SD is given at the bottom of the page of the tables in the nautical almanac in minutes of arc.

as normally you would be looking at a horizon. Move the index arm until you bring the real Sun into the pupil image with the index mirror.SD If post meridian (afternoon). If pre meridian (morning) then let the bottom image rise onto the reflected image. measure the time. but generally you may have to wait minutes for a perfect calm. let the top image set onto the reflected image. Correct the reading by taking the apparent altitude Ha and divide by two. Undoubtedly you will need to position extra filters over the horizon mirror to darken the Sun’s image. The ripples dampen out almost immediately. you can let the sun touch limb-to-limb. it can be used as a reflecting plane. To be very accurate. measure the time. Protective wind guards around the pan work somewhat. With the micrometer drum bring both images together (no semi-diameter corrections either) and take your reading. This gives a reading nearly twice the real altitude. then add the refraction correction: Ha = (Hs + IC)/2 Ho = Ha + R no dip correction no semi-diameter correction The wind is very bothersome. In essence you point the sextant to the pan of liquid where you see the reflection of the Sun.Artificial horizon A fun way of practicing sighting the Sun while on land is to use an artificial horizon. This is simply a pan of water or old motor oil that you place down on the ground in view of the Sun. Since the liquid will be perfectly parallel with the true horizon (no dip corrections here). What works best is mineral oil in a protected pan set up on a tripod so that you can get right up to it. and SUBTRACT a semidiameter (UL): Ho = Ha + R . and ADD a semidiameter (LL): Ho = Ha + R + SD 50 . as it will ripple the water’s surface and therefore the reflected image.

but have a positive d if declination is becoming less southwards. sunset. take the tabulated hourly value Dec and add the interpolated d correction. The right page has similar data for the Sun and Moon. There is no nominal rate for changes in declination. The data is tabulated for each hour on the dot for every day of the year. you can express the event time in UT with the following equation: EventTimeLOCAL = LMT – Longitude/15. Hours UT at your longitude. Along the same line. then the sign is positive. and a north declination is positive. Every left hand page in the almanac is similar to all other left hand pages. so d is the direct hourly rate of change of declination. the interpolation tables will tabulate increments (Corr GHA) down to the second of each minute. These are hourly variances. Mars. and Aries. v and d corrections Probably the most confusing part of the tables is interpolation for times between hourly-tabulated data. It also provides the Local Mean Time (LMT) for the events of sunrise. and their applicable fraction (the correction Corr V and Corr d) is given in the interpolation tables for the minute of the hour.Chapter 7 Reading the Nautical Almanac The nautical almanac has detailed explanations in the back regarding how to read the tabular data and how to use the interpolation tables (increments and corrections). The left page contains tabular data of GHA and declination for Aries (declination = 0). Interpolation tables. Moon. and how to properly apply the mysterious v and d corrections. This way. For GHA. Remember the sign convention. GHA. A word of caution. If the tabulated hourly data for declination is advancing northwards (less southwards). The v and d correction is interpolated only for every minute. and you must interpolate for the minutes and seconds between hours. We could have a negative declination (south). and finally add the interpolated v correction. add the interpolated increment for the minutes and seconds. Similarly for declination. Take the hourly data in the tables. The interpolation tables (‘increments and corrections’) are based on nominal rates of change of GHA for the motions of the Sun and planets. and moonset at the prime meridian. Our sign convention imposes that a south declination is negative. East +. The v number refers to variances in the nominal GHA rate. moonrise. For your particular locality. Saturn and 57 selected stars. West -. only one set of interpolation tables is required. Venus. the value of d (with our sign convention) may be positive or negative. and the same for all right hand pages. with variances to the rates compensated with the v and d values. we could have a positive declination (north) but a negative d if the declination is 51 . Three days of data are presented for every left and right hand page pairs. Jupiter.

∆t. After all the interpolations and corrections are performed. Carry out all calculations to 4 decimal places. M minutes. Unfortunately the almanac has no sign for d so you must devine the correct sign by looking at the progression of DEC. which are the minutes and seconds in decimal form: ∆t = (M/60) + (S/3600). Visit an on-line Nautical Almanac at: http://www. Note: In the nautical almanac. The final values at the particular hour. and make sure the sign convention was applied correctly (carpenter’s rule: measure twice. declination is interpolated thus: DEC = DEC hour + (d/60) · ∆t (DEC hour and d with the proper sign) Note. the correct interpolated value for our specific time of observation is thus: GHA = GHAhour + {Rate + (v/60)} · ∆t decimal degrees Where Rate = 15. We can also define the hour fraction. Corr DIP. The nautical almanac tables for the particular day gave us a GHA in degrees and arcminutes at the UT hour. and Corr d. and S seconds (H:M:S). liberal use is made of the correction factor Corrn. Notably.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.tecepe. Since we like to use our calculators.isa 52 . instead of using the ‘increments and corrections’ table (it’s actually very easy) we can interpolate for ourselves in the following manner. It seems to appear everywhere and applied to everything. cut once). convert the angles to decimal degrees and make sure the sign convention was applied consistently to the declination value. Corr V. v/60 and d/60 converts arcminutes per hour to degrees per hour. Lets say we shot an observation at Universal Time H hours. We convert it to decimal degrees and call it GHAhour.04107 (degrees/hour) for Aries In a similar line. Note the hourly variance v and declination rate d in arcminutes per hour.31667 (degrees/hour) for Moon Rate = 15. Corr ALT. Corr GHA. The n is actually a variable name for any of the parameters that require ‘correction’. Now. and second are thus: GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEC hour + Corr d Where GHAhour and DEC hour are the table values in the almanac for the hour.heading south (less northwards). minute. We do the same for the declination and call it DEC hour.00000 (degrees/hour) for Sun or planets Rate = 14.com.

53 .

54 .

This ‘Marcq Saint-Hilaire’ method remains the basis of almost all celestial navigation used today. followed by the early logarithm tables of Edmund Gunter in the late 1600’s.O. 229 and H. what is needed here most is organization to minimize the calculation random errors. The following page is an example of a sight-reduction form using the “calculator method” instead of the typical HO 229.O. Sight reduction was greatly simplified early in the 1900’s by the coming of the various short-method tables . 214 (1936). and natural haversine tables. and H. though. 211 (1931). H. and haversine ( ½ [1-cos] ). H. and Ageton's H. described in 1875 by Commander Adolphe-LaurentAnatole Marcq de Blonde de Saint-Hilaire. 2 computations for the Saint-Hilaire method. which tabulated zillions of pre-computed solutions to the navigational triangle for all combinations where LHA and latitude are whole numbers. Computed altitude and azimuth angle have been calculated by means of the log sine. and 2 for the Sumner line method. 55 . 249 tabular methods. No whole number assumptions are required. The English almanacs were published later in the 1700’s. 249 developed in the mid 1940’s and early 1950’s remain the principle tabular method used today.Chapter 8 Sight Reduction The process of taking the raw observational data and turning the information into a Line Of Position (LOP) is called sight reduction. H.O.such as the Weems Line of Position Book. History Trigonometric tables were first published by Regiomontanus in the mid 1400's. which allowed multiplication to be treated as addition problems. and the tables are a bit of a maze (takes practice). 229. cosine.O. This is the basis of the slide rule (does anybody remember those??). Dreisonstok's Hydrographic Office method H. 249 were published. You must do some minor addition.O. which are only 9 pages long.O. But the Sumner line method may be considered equally easy.O. The altitude-difference method of determining a line of position introduced the age of improved navigation. of the French Navy. Almost all calculations were eliminated when the inspection tables. and the answers are the same as a navigational calculator. The simplest tabular method of all is to use a shorthand version of Ageton’s tables known as the S-tables. 208 (1928). French almanacs were published in the late 1600’s where the original zero longitude ‘rose line’ ran thru Paris. Even though the equations and methods have been described all throughout the book. The last two methods.

miles arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(Lat) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(Hc)}] = Zo ______________ True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. West is GHA table = SHA + GHA Aries for a star 56 . Zn = 360 – Zo Zn = __________ Notes: (1) (2) North is+. INTERCEPT METHOD Sun / Moon / Planet / Star LL / UL UT Date _____m _____d______yr Time of observation UTC = _____h _____m _____s (1) Lat = ____________ Lon = _____________ DR position Eye height Heye ______meters Index correction IC = ______ arcmin Sextant measured altitude Hs = __________deg _________arcmin Dip correction from the corrections table: Apparent altitude Ha = Hs + IC + CorrDIP Altitude correction from the corrections table: True altitude Ho = Ha + CorrALT CorrDIP = ___________ Ha = ____________ CorrALT = ___________ Ho = ____________ From the almanac tabular data. or 180<LHA < 360).SIGHT REDUCTION BY CALCULATOR. East is +. at the h hour on the UT date: GHA table = ____________ v = ___________ DEC table = ____________ (1) d = ___________ (careful of the sign) SHA = _____________ if star Increment of GHA for the m minutes and s seconds CorrGHA = ___________ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = ___________ (2) GHA = GHA table + CorrGHA + Corrv GHA = ___________ Increment of DEC for m minutes due to rate d is Corrd = ___________ DEC = ___________ DEC = DEC table + Corrd _____________________________________________________________ Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon (repeat Ho here to subtract Hc from) arcSin[ Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat) + Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] LHA = ___________ Ho _______________ = Hc _ ______________ Ho – Hc = _______________ · 60 = Offset Distance = Doffset n. South is -. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180).

4150˚ Increment of DEC for 15 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = . Lon = -67.435˚) ] Hc = 53.4533˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 32.025˚) · Cos(53.35.5’ +15. Calculated Azimuth direction of sun Zo = arcCos[{Sin(21.9’ = 32.1’ DEC = +21˚ 27. Zn = Zo = 116˚ 57 .415˚ + .025˚) + Cos(44.4’ moving less northerly Increment of GHA for the 15 minutes and 37 seconds CorrGHA = 3˚ 54.3’ = 53˚ 8.453˚) · Sin(44.1’ = 21˚ 27.435˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(21.6’ + 3˚ 54. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 28˚ 30.2’ = 21.025˚ N.Sun Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.3’ Lower Limb Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.5’ CorrALT = +15.0767˚) = +3.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 15m 37s Sextant measured altitude of the sun Hs = 52˚ 52.0767˚)}] Zo = 116˚.0767˚)}/{Cos(44.3’ + 3.35.67.4’ -2.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.3’ (interpolate in your head) Observed true altitude Ho = 52˚ 52.0767˚ = 53˚ 4.6’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (53. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).1416˚ From the almanac tabular data.5’ = 53.850˚ = .453˚) – Sin(44.3’ GHA = 28˚ 30.1416˚ – 53.025˚) · Cos(21.453˚) · Cos(.0.3’ N d = -0.3’ .0.025˚) · Sin(53.3’ = 32˚ 24.6’ DEC table = +21˚ 27.9 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards the Sun azimuth.

5’ CorrALT = +50.9’ + 3.8’ Increment of GHA for the 20 minutes and 21 seconds CorrGHA = 4˚ 51.32˚ + .025˚) · Sin(44.850˚ = 37.368˚ – 44.817˚)}] Zo = 123˚.2’ = 105.4’ + 3.2’ = 12.0 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the moon’s azimuth. Lon = -67.817˚ = 44˚ 49.3’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 4.2’ GHA = 100˚ 23.817˚) = -2.22 ˚) – Sin(44.025˚) + Cos(44.Zo = 237˚ 58 .7850˚ From the almanac tabular data.1’ + 3.2’ HP = 56.3’ + 4.1’ = 44˚ 47.22˚) · Cos( 37.4’ N d = +11.1’ = 44. Calculated Azimuth direction of moon Zo = arcCos[{Sin(12.470˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(12.025˚ N.817˚)}/{Cos(44.2’ = 105˚ 19.2’ –30.025˚) · Cos(12. Zn = 360 .Moon Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 20m 21s Sextant measured altitude of the moon Hs = 44˚ 22. and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).3200˚ Increment of DEC for 20 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = +3.0’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (44.0’ (the –30’ is for using the UL) = 24.7’ v = +12.5’ +24. in two parts: CorrDIP = -2.7’ + 4˚ 51.8’ = 12˚ 13.025˚) · Cos(44.8’ DEC = +12˚ 9.470˚) ] Hc = 44.1’ True altitude Ho = 44˚ 22.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 100˚ 23.67.2200˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 105.1’ Upper Limb (UL) Altitude corrections from almanac moon correction tables.22˚) · Sin(44.2’ DEC table = +12˚ 9.4’ -2.

Calculated Azimuth direction of star Zo = arcCos[{Sin(45.885˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(45.885˚) ] Hc = 59.850˚ = 42.025˚) · Sin(59.4’ = 110˚ 44.5’ CorrALT = -0.8’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.285˚) · Sin(44. morning twilight: DR position Lat = 44.3’ + 49˚ 37.83˚)}/{Cos(44. Hs = 59˚ 47.5’ – 0.4’ Time of observation UTC = 8h 31m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Deneb.Star Shot Example You took a shot of Deneb in the constellation of Cygnus.1’ N = +45.4’ –2.1’ = 110.8’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (59.4’ GHAAries table = 53˚ 14.5’ True altitude Ho = 59˚ 47.830˚ = 59˚ 49.735˚ DEC = DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.830˚) = –1.2850˚) – Sin(44.025˚ N.2’ = 59.285˚) · Cos( 42. Lon = -67.2850˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 110.5’ = 59˚ 48.83˚)}] Zo = 72˚.6 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the star’s azimuth.Zo = 288˚ 59 . and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).8033˚ From the almanac tabular data.1’ N No v or d corrections for stars Increment of GHA for the 31 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 7˚ 52.025˚) · Cos(59. Zn = 360 .8’ +3.025˚) · Cos(45.735˚ + – 67.025˚) + Cos(44.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.3’ GHA = 53˚ 14.8033˚ –59.4’ + 7˚ 52. at the 8th hour July 15 2001: SHADENEB = 49˚ 37.4’ DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.

632˚ – 18.0’ + 0.842˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 58.850˚ = – 9.842˚) · Cos( -9.482˚) ] Hc = 18.8 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards Mars’s azimuth.6’ + 2˚ 51.4’ –2. Hs = 18˚ 40.5’ = 58˚ 22.632˚ From the almanac tabular data.842˚) · Sin(44.6’ DECMARS table = –26˚ 50.0’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 0.602˚)}] Zo = 171˚.0’ True altitude Ho = 18˚ 40.4’ Time of observation UTC = 01h 11m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Mars.025˚) · Cos(18.368˚ + – 67.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/16/2001 Index correction IC = +3. Zn = Zo = 171˚ 60 .5’ S v = +2.368˚ DEC = DECMARS = –26˚ 50.602˚)}/{Cos(44.5’ = –26.6’ and d =0 Increment of GHA for the 11 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 2˚ 51.025˚ N.1’ = 58.1’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (18.602˚) = +1.025˚) · Sin(18. Calculated Azimuth direction of Mars Zo = arcCos[{Sin(-26.025˚) + Cos(44.025˚) · Cos(-26.842˚) – Sin(44.5’ CorrALT = -3.5’ GHA = 55˚ 30.602˚ = 18˚ 36. at the 1st hour July 16 2001: GHAMARS table = 55˚ 30.0’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2. same local day.482˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(-26. Lon = -67.0’ = 18˚ 37.5’ – 3. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).0’ +3.9’ = 18.Planet Shot Example Mars in the evening. but the next day in GMT: DR position Lat = 44.

from early morning twilight to mid morning to evening twilight.Plots of the Lines Of Position (LOP) from the previous 4 examples The observer was stationary during all of the observations. The ellipse represents the 95% probability area of the position fix using all 4 LOPs. 61 . These observations are over the course of a day. The arrows indicate the azimuth direction (bearing from true north) of the heavenly objects.

hours D = Speed · Time distance traveled nmile DEW = D sin(TC) east-west distance DNS = D cos(TC) north-south distance ∆Lat = DNS arcmin latitude change ∆Lon = DEW /cos(Lat) arcmin longitude change 62 . knots Time interval from last fix. you should be 120 miles to the northwest of your last position. Just think. just as it is not needed with the Global Positioning System. also known as the dead reckoning (DR) position. The ‘crowding in’ at the current latitude can be thought of as being more or less fixed for short distances. and you drove for 2 hours. Dead reckoning is simple to understand on a flat earth. and DEC. but electronically it is circles of constant timing. GHA. Strictly speaking. if you didn’t reckon correctly. orbiting spacecraft have geographical positions and circles of constant altitude. Undoubtedly. an estimated position is essential for our simple methods.Chapter 9 Putting it Together and Navigating I encourage you the navigator to program your simple calculators to provide the calculated altitude Hc and calculated uncorrected azimuth Zo from inputs of latitude. But since intersecting straight LOPs is a lot easier than solving simultaneous equations for intersecting circles. But on a spherical surface. the longitude lines start to crowd in on each other as they reach the poles. These approximation methods are known as plane sailing. an important element was the estimated position. In the case of GPS. say using your car. you could wander across all 360 longitude lines in just a few short steps! Plane Sailing Shorthand True course from true north TC Speed of vessel. Three spacecraft. In our day-to-day wanderings. Plane Sailing and Dead Reckoning (DR) With the celestial methods described so far. longitude. on the north or south pole. three circles and you are pinpointed. It’s too easy to make mistakes punching in numbers and doing the trig. If you head northwest at 60 mph. you would sooner or later regret it. an estimated position is not needed. A simple programmable calculator mechanizing the simple steps in the calculations will go a long way in reducing the silly arithmetic errors. flat-Earth approximations are close enough to advance the estimated position from a previously known fix.

nautical miles (nm) D = V · ∆Time Change in latitude. decimal hours ∆Time = ∆ True course made good (heading. compensated for leeway and current). knots (kts) V= Time interval between the present desired fix and the last fix.Plane Sailing Work Sheet Last Known Latitude. decimal degrees from true north TC = Estimate of distance. decimal degrees LonDR = LonO + ∆Lon/60 63 . arcminutes ∆Lon = D · Sin(TC)/Cos(LatO + ∆Lat/120) New estimated longitude. decimal degrees E+. WLonO = Speed of vessel. decimal degrees N+. decimal degrees LatDR = LatO + ∆Lat/60 Change in longitude. arcminutes ∆Lat = D · Cos(TC) New estimated latitude. SLatO = Last Known Longitude. corrected for current.

Essentially. you can ‘drag it’ along with your moving vessel as if it were pinned to the stern using the simple distance = rate x time for the distance to drag. 64 .Running Fix The running fix is a method by which two or more line of positions (LOPs) taken at different times on a moving vessel can be coalesced together to represent a navigational fix at any single arbitrary time between the observations. Quite simply. the reader should discern the mechanics involved. it is used to advance an old LOP to get a fix with a new LOP while the ship is under way. With a quick study of the figure. the old LOP is parallel-advanced in the direction of the true course-made-good (TC) to the DR distance between the last LOP and the new one. Most frequently. if you produced a ‘good’ LOP earlier. and it gets dragged in the same course direction as the vessel.

advancing the mid-morning LOP for a running fix. so that you are sure of what you are looking at. It is a time when both night objects and the horizon are visible simultaneously. A Sun-Moon fix is nice when available. 4) Mid-afternoon Sun observation. advancing a dawn LOP for a running fix. you would follow a procedure similar to this: 1) Pre-dawn sighting of planets and stars. Plan the objects. Double check with the compass. 3) Noonish sighting. providing a definite fix. 5) Twilight observation of planets and stars. When the moon is a young moon. When it is an old moon. That’s not a whole lot of time for off-the-cuff navigation. 65 . it will be in the sky east of the sun in the late afternoon. advancing the noon LOP for a running fix. 2) Mid-morning Sun observation. Note: Morning and evening twilight observations need to be carefully planned. providing a definite fix. their estimated altitudes and azimuth angles. it will share the sky west of the sun during the morning hours.Daily Observation Schedule During your typical navigating in-the-blue sort of day.

then draw the LOP from that point. even though that time does not correspond exactly to any of the observation times. then draw the Doffset vector from the head of the Roffset vector. 4) For the first observation.. This selected time for the fix is called the time of fix. 2) Draw a line thru the center in the direction of the true course TC going both ways. the mechanics will seem obvious. requiring in addition a drafting triangle and a scaled ruler. we define an arbitrary time that we want the newest fix to apply to. as you can do everything necessary to plot a LOP. Since the vessel is continuously underway. Ha3. Mark the spot. t2 . etc. We calculate the running fix distance corrections that each observation will require. The corrections are calculated thus: Roffset1 = V · (tfix – t1 ). Ha2. the length being the distance Doffset. and designate it Roffset1. Roffset2. the speed V (kts).miles) Notice that for observation times after the time of fix. Let us say that we have the true course TC. Ho2. backwards if Roffset is -) the distance Roffset and mark it with a dot. 3) Generally there are two scales you can use. 66 . Doffset2. the intercept distances Doffset1. This is very convenient. The procedure seems complicated. Ho3. (n. but with an arrow showing the forward direction. measure along the true course line in the forward direction (if Roffset is +. draw a line in the azimuth direction Zn. 5) Then from that mark. t3 (decimal hrs). All else is relative to this location. Roffset3.miles which could just as easily be 6 n. Staying in either the 60 or 6 n. If Doffset is negative. we also have the calculated altitudes Ha1. etc. which is a sheet of paper with a graduated compass rose in the center. tfix. the offset is negative. Here are the detailed steps: 1) The very center of the compass rose on the plotting sheet is designated as the assumed position LATa. Zn2. Basically you draw the Roffset vector from the center of the compass rose along the direction of the true course. the times of the observation t1 . LONa. but after trying it once. Zn3. draw the line in the opposite direction (180 degrees different). the observed altitudes Ho1.miles for those close encounters. LONa. From sight reduction.m. The plotting sheet has a built-in scale of 60 n. Doffset3 and the calculated azimuths Zn1. and an assumed position LATa.Plotting Multiple Lines of Position (LOP) with Running Fixes Plotting the LOPs is best done on a universal plotting sheet.. We were at such-andsuch location at such-and-such time. Roffset2 = V · (tfix – t2 ). scale makes corresponding latitude and longitude measurements possible without calculations.

passing thru the last mark. 7) Repeat for all the other LOPs. 67 .6) Draw a line perpendicular to the Zn. This is the LOP compensated for intercept and running to an arbitrary time.

68 .

1 nautical mile N-S is equivalent to 1 arcminute of latitude. 69 . Following the sign conventions. the number is -. The corrective change ∆ in latitude and longitude from the assumed position LATa. Where the latitude angle intersects the circle. LONa is thus: LAT∆ = (DLAT / 60) decimal degrees LON∆ = (DLON/ 60)/ Cos(LATa + LAT∆/2) decimal degrees The position of the new fix is thus: LATFIX = LATa + LAT∆ LONFIX = LONa + LON∆ The corrective change can also be deduced graphically. The compass rose lets you set up your own custom longitude scale for your latitude.Once all the LOPs are plotted. you draw the custom longitude line for that position. if northwards or eastwards. the number is +. Remember. you can mark what appears to be the best solution of the fix. and the east-west distance as DLON in nautical miles. If southwards or westwards. Measure the distance with the linear scale you are using for the plot from the center. as it is really set up for this. The north-south distance we will designate as DLAT. from the universal plotting sheet.

CALCULATING A FIX FROM MULTIPLE LOPs FROM A FIXED ASSUMED POSITION WHILE RUNNING Form the quantities A,B,C,D,E,G from these summations: N A = n=1 Cos AZMn
2

N = total number of LOPs participating in the fix

N B = n= 1 Cos AZMn . Sin AZMn

N C = n=1 Sin AZMn
2

N D = n= 1 Cos AZMn . p1 n p2 n

G = A .C

B

2

N E = n= 1 Doffsetn 60 Roffsetn 60 Sin AZMn . p1 n p2 n

Where

p1 n

=

and

p2 n

=

. Cos AZM n

TC

Doffset n is the nth intercept offset distance, n.miles Roffsetn is the nth running-fix offset distance, n.miles AZM n is the nth azimuth direction of the nth heavenly body TC is the true course angle from true north

LON I = LON A

( A . E B .D ) G . Cos LAT A ( C .D G B .E)

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

LAT I = LAT A

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

dist = 60 .

LON I

2 2 LON A . cos LAT A

LAT I

LAT A

2

Distance from assumed fix to calculated fix, nm. Should be < 20 nm. If not, use the improved fix as the new assumed position and start all over again

70

Good Practice and Error Reduction Techniques
There are many sources of error, not the least misidentification of the heavenly object. Slim chance of that happening with the Sun or Moon. With objects that you are sure of, a set of 3 or 4 shots of each known object can reduce random measurement errors. With stars at twilight, perhaps it is better to take single shots but have many targets to reduce the effects of misidentification. This type of error has the distinction of putting you hundreds of miles off, and so are easy to catch, allowing you to disregard the specific data.

Handling measurement random errors graphically Random Errors The effect of multiple shots of the same object are such that the random errors, some +, some -, will average to zero. Random measurement errors of plus or minus several miles are handled several basic ways for a set of shots of the same object: 1) Calculate all the LOPs in a set and average them graphically on the map. 2) Arithmetically average the times and altitudes for a set of shots, and calculate one LOP using the averaged value of time and altitude. 3) Graph the set of shots with time on the horizontal and altitude on the vertical. Draw a line representing the average and from that pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. This is the easiest. 4) Graph the shots as in 3), but calculate a slope and fit it to the data. The slope is determined by calculating Hc for two different times in the range of the data set with your estimated position. With these two new points, draw a line between them. Parallel offset this new line until it fits best in the data points already drawn. Then, as in 3), pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. 71

Using technique 4) should result in the most accurate LOP, however there are more calculations making it the same trouble as 1). On the other hand, practical navigation is not usually concerned with establishing a position to within ¼ mile, so unless you are particular, graphing your measurements as in technique 3) may be the easiest to implement with a good payoff for reducing random errors. Arithmetically averaging instead of graphically averaging is a good way to introduce unwanted calculation mistakes, so I would steer away from technique 2) for manual calculations. Systematic Errors This species of error, where a constant error is in all of the measurements, can come from such things as an instrument error, a misread index error, your personal technique and bias, strange atmospheric effects, and clock error. All but clock error can be handled with the following technique. If you have many objects to choose from, choose 4 stars that are ~90 degrees apart from each other in azimuth, or with 3 stars make sure they are ~120 degrees apart. This creates a set of LOPs where the effect of optical systematic errors cancels.

72

2) Pick objects that are spaced in azimuth 90 to 120 degrees apart for systematic error reduction. 3) If you can. make a tight spaced grouping of 3 shots per object. 4) Apply averaging techniques for random error reduction. 73 . pick 3 or more clearly identified heavenly objects. 5) Advance the LOPs with a running fix technique to time coincide with the time of your last shots.The steps for good practice 1) For a good fix.

Now this only applies to the bright 58 ‘navigational stars’. if – then it is South. The brightest stars actually have negative magnitudes. the dimmer the star. to help you identify stars. SHA and DEC. 74 . AZM is the approximate azimuth angle (magnetic compass + magnetic variation). rearranged. The sidereal hour angle (‘longitude’ on the star globe) is then: SHA = LHA – GHAAries – Lon Where GHA aries is the Greenwich hour angle of aries (zero ‘longitude’ on the star globe) at the time of this observation from the almanac. the larger the number. then look in the almanac to match up SHA and DEC with any planets listed. If the azimuth is less than 180˚. and Lon is the assumed longitude position. Numerically. However. we get the declination DEC: DEC = arcSin[cos(AZM) · cos(Lat) · cos(H) + sin(Lat) · sin(H)] If the declination is +.Chapter 10 Star Identification There are various star finding charts. such as Sirius (the brightest star) has a magnitude of -1. If the numbers still don’t match any stars. and H is the altitude angle (don’t bother with dip and refraction corrections). Rearrange the calculated altitude equation to get local hour angle LHA: LHA = (+/-) arcCos[{sin(H) .6. It’s actually best to this by software. then LHA is +. Rearranging the azimuth equation. the 2102-D and Celestaire star chart come to mind. then you can look it up in the star chart data to match it with the closest numbers. as data for their position on the celestial sphere (star globe) is given. Once you have the essential information.sin(DEC) · sin(Lat)} / {cos(Lat) · cos(DEC)}] If the azimuth is greater than 180˚. it is North. or have constellation charts handy. Star magnitudes refer to their brightness. Lat is the assumed latitude. you could use the equations for calculated altitude and azimuth. then LHA is –.

5 2.0 -0.6 0.1 2.1 1.4 2.2 1.9 1. Cross S.2 1.3 0.8 2.6 2.8 1. Cross Big Dipper Virgo Big Dipper Centarus Orange Orange Blue Yellow Red White White Yellow Blue 75 .2 1.2 1.6 1.9 0.7 1.8 1.2 2.1 3.8 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.7 2.The 58 Navigational Stars Listing SHA 358 354 350 349 336 328 324 315 315 309 291 281 281 279 279 276 271 264 259 255 245 244 234 223 222 218 208 194 183 176 173 172 167 159 153 149 DEC +29 -42 +57 -18 -57 +23 +89 -40 +4 +50 +16 -8 +46 +6 +29 -1 +7 -53 -17 -29 +5 +28 -59 -43 -70 -9 +12 +62 +15 -18 -63 -57 +56 -11 +49 -60 Star Alpheratz Ankaa Schedar Diphda Achernar Hamal Polaris Acamar Menkar Mirfak Aldebaran Rigel Capella Bellatrix Elnath Alnilam Betelgeuse Canopus Sirius Adhara Procyon Pollux Avior Suhail Miaplacidus Alphard Regulus Dubhe Denebola Gienah Acrux Gacrux Alioth Spica Alkaid Hadar magnitude 2.7 1.9 color Orange Orange constellation Great Square Phoenix Cassiopeia Cetus Eridanus Aries Little Dipper Eridanus Cetus Perseus Taurus Orion Auriga Orion Taurus Orion Orion Carina Canis Major Canis Major Canis Minor Gemini Carnia Vela Carnia Hydra Leo Big Dipper Leo Cygnus S.6 1.3 2.5 1.9 -1.0 2.2 2.1 0.2 2.

1 2. Triangle Ophiuchus Scorpio Ophiuchus Draco Sagittarius White Lyra Sagittarius Aquila Pavo Cygnus Orange Pegasus Grus Piscis Austrin.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 0.2 1. then the 41’ that Polaris is off from the celestial pole won’t matter and then the observed altitude will equal the latitude.3 1.9 2.1 2. Kochab is just slightly lower than Polaris.2 1.1 1. Red Scorpio S.SHA 148 146 140 137 137 126 113 108 103 097 096 091 084 081 076 062 054 050 034 028 016 014 DEC -36 +19 -61 -16 +74 +27 -26 -69 -16 -37 +13 +51 -34 +39 -26 +9 -57 +45 +10 -47 -30 +15 Star Menkent Arcturus Rigil Kent Zuben’ubi Kochab Alphecca Antares Atria Sabik Shaula Raselhague Eltanin Kaus Australis Vega Nunki Altair Peacock Deneb Enif Al Na’ir Fomalhaut Markab magnitude 2. 76 .7 2.1 0.6 color constellation Centarus Orange Bootes Centarus White Libra Orange Little Dipper Corona Borea.3 0.3 2.9 2.0 0. Great Square If one waits until the Little Dipper is in this orientation.2 2.1 2.6 1.9 2.

THE CELESTAIRE STAR CHART 77 .

SOME STAR CHARTS AND THEIR CONSTELLATIONS 78 .

79 .

The “summer triangle” 80 .

81 .

then with the timing of sunrise or just after with the prime vertical sight determine longitude. but the sun is the favorite. In other words. where Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT ao is a function of local hour angle LHA a1 is a function of estimated latitude a2 is a function of what month it is By the length of time of day If you measure the time of day from sunup to sunset in hours. and name it ElapsedTime. 82 . One could do it for any heavenly body. then combining them with running fix techniques. since with tabular methods and calculators the complexity of the navigational triangle is not so daunting. Lat = arcTan[ -cos(7. Use the running fix technique to ‘drag’ along the latitude LOP to time coincide with the longitude LOP. Convert the time into decimal hours. Latitude Determination. minutes.5 · ElapsedTime) / tan(DEC)] You may be off by 10 arcminutes latitude depending on your timing technique. The nautical almanac has tables where: Latitude = Ho -1˚ + ao + a1 + a2. a purely East-West LOP By meridian transit This has already been covered in the discussion of the noon sighting for the sun. and seconds. A scenario like this presents itself: take the height of Polaris at dawn twilight for a latitude fix. the only limitations now are ones of visibility of the heavenly object. not mathematical. These techniques are probably not used so much anymore. Start the timing and end the timing when the sun’s lower limb is about ½ diameter above the horizon.Chapter 11 Special Topics Determining Longitude and Latitude Individually Some simplified methods can be used at specific times of the day to calculate latitude and longitude individually. By the height of Polaris Since Polaris is not exactly on the celestial north pole. corrections for this slight offset and annual aberration must be accounted for. you can calculate your latitude.

look up the GHA and declination.390˚.5’ So.Longitude Determination. If: Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT then Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT So.664˚ Add 360 to it.39˚ = .1’) – (-0.75˚) · Tan(10. set the sextant to: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 15. refraction. Latitude = 41. we can figure the refraction correction for when Ho = 0.235˚ N So: Lon = – arcos[-Tan(41. semi-diameter and index error.5’ (LL) or Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 43. for Ho = 0: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT It should be apparent that: Ha = – CorrALT = –R – SDLL or = –R + SDUL Since the average sun semi-diameter is 16’. Lon = 360˚ – 444.GHA. when the sun’s limb kisses the horizon.5’.5’) – (. a purely North-South LOP By the timing of sunrise or sunset The equations simplify when the true altitude Ho is zero.444. Refraction correction is a function of Ha. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =345. and DEC = 10. (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2. the sextant altitude needs to be preset at a low but specific angle to catch the sun at true horizon sunrise or sunset. In the almanac. observe the time UTC. so CorrDIP = . but in this equation the double negative will make this number a positive. the CorrALT = – 15.1’ When the sun is at this altitude.15.5’) = + 0˚ 18.0’ (UL) The dip correction is always negative.664˚ = . Fortunately I’ve done it for you. so here are the results: Using the sun’s lower limb (LL).345. so we need to do a little iteration. h = 2 meters. But due to dip.75˚ With the sun’s LL CorrALT = . the time was 11h 30m 10s.0.15. adding the increments for the minutes and seconds. Same with the altitude corrections in this case.664˚ West Longitude 83 .5’ LL Using the sun upper limb (UL).84. the CorrALT = – 43’ UL In short. With the sextant preset to this angle. Longitude is then: Lon = {(+ / -) arcos[-Tan(Lat) · Tan(DEC)]} .235˚)] .1’. preset the sextant angle to Hs = -(-2.

not North-South. and DEC = 10.260˚)] – 6. so CorrDIP = . the time was 12h 54m 3s. Latitude = 41. h = 2 meters. then look up in the almanac GHA for the sun. In these circumstances.5’ For the approximated time.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA 84 . East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): Lon = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .5’. the prime vertical circle goes from due east to the zenith to due west.260˚) / Sin(41. the sun will rise a bit to the north of east (northern hemisphere) and it may be some time after sunrise that the sun crosses this imaginary line.365˚ = .260˚ N Lon = . it is pre meridian. determine if the object is pre or post meridian.0.365˚. Easily done with the sextant. This simplifies the equations such that: Ho = arcsin[Sin(DEC) / Sin(Lat)] Work out the sextant angle by: Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT Determine the UTC time when this condition occurs by waiting for the object to attain Hs.84. a little error in latitude will translate into a large longitude error from the calculation.515˚) / Cos(10.1’. the azimuth is exactly 90˚.515˚ When the sun is at this altitude.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): Lon = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .By the prime vertical sight If you will recall the illustration on page 21. if the object continues to rise. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =6. Be careful of the (+/-) sign.GHA (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2. When it does.664˚ West By the time sight This uses the Sumner line equation. Then: Lon = (+ / -) arcsin[Cos(Ho) / Cos(DEC)] .260˚ N Ho = arcsin[Sin(10.75˚ If Ha ~ 15˚ then CorrALT = +12.arcsin[Cos(15. used only once by imputing your best estimate for latitude. In the summer months. The closer to meridian transit the less accurate the answer since at meridian transit the LOP is East-West.75˚)] = 15. from the almanac DEC = 10.

Chapter 12 Lunars These days. This is a method whereby you can reset your untrustworthy chronometer if you are in the middle of the ocean (or anywhere) without friends or a short-wave radio.5 arcminute per minute of time. is about 0. that’s not bad. one can infer a particular time in UT to a particular arc distance. It is possible that the errors will be small if you take three consecutive measurements within a few minutes. 85 . the observer must nearly simultaneously obtain the altitudes of both the moon and star (or planet) as well as the actual measured arc distance between the two. In fact. In order to do that.miles per minute of time error. the angular closing speed between the moon and a planet or star near the ecliptic plane. Since the arc distance is changing with time relatively fast (~0. and so the observer will have to correct for it. Still. The almanac many years ago contained these functions. But you won’t know the error. Whew! It helps to have two friends in the same boat with sextants. The nautical almanac contains predictions for both objects. A degree of altitude change at it’s worst will take 4 minutes (at the equator). By small. since the altitude measurements are for refraction and parallax corrections. so you’ll just have to assume something like 2 minutes of time. It must be done by calculation or by special lunar tables. and so the arc distance between the two objects can be worked out as a function of time. The tabular data in the almanac does not consider refraction or parallax.508 deg per hour). lunars are for the hardcore celestial zealot. with quartz watches and radio time-ticks. from our earthly point of view. a sort of ‘running fix’ correction on altitude. one can measure sequentially and correct the altitude measurements to time coincide with the arc distance measurement. but stopped in 1907. Or perhaps you just want to feel challenged. which won’t change fast. Practically speaking. between messy observations and even messier calculations. Essentially the arc-distance between the moon’s limb and a heavenly object close to the ecliptic plane (such as a planet) is measured. it just means you’ll have to make allowances in your longitude estimate to the tune of 15 · Cos(Lat) n. I mean the time estimate may be off by several minutes per degree of altitude change. you may have quite a bit of time to make measurements sequentially. But if the measurements are taken with the objects near the meridian line. this means you won’t get any closer to the real time by a minute or so. Since the moon appears to orbit about the Earth once every 29 ½ days (27 1/3 days in inertial space).

The case presented is for when you don’t know the exact time and you have made the three necessary measurements as though you were doing it for real. LAT is your latitude. Since there are 2 altitude measurements. the parallax and refraction corrections will be identical had you done simultaneous measurements. do this: 1) measure the arc distance first 2) measure the altitude of the most east/west next. there will be a δHstar. Tarc refers to the time you took the arc distance measurement. sort of. Well.R. refraction. although I derived the exact same equation independently when approaching the problem. rather the time difference is what should be accurate. Here the method assumes that the latitude assumed is very accurate. good luck. Besides. but the longitude is as far off as the chronometer. δTmoon. This way.If the time difference between the arc measurement and altitude measurement is δT minutes of time. Employed best by computer. it’s fun. The absolute time is not important. The equation for Dcleared presented here was first published in 1856 by J. That final arc distance is designated as Dcleared and the entire procedure is known as clearing the lunar distance. 86 . quickly 3) measure the altitude of the southern/northern most object last The objects farthest away from meridian passage change altitude the quickest and should be measured soonest after the arc distance measurement. and semi-diameter. and δHmoon increment based on time increments δTstar. the resulting number is the arc distance as seen from an observer at the Earth’s center. Oh. When final corrections are made for parallax. When the measured arc distance Ds is corrected for index error. then add this increment to the altitude measurement: δT δH = 15 · [-Cos(LAT) · Cos(DEC) · Sin(LHA)/Cos(Ho)] · δ arcminutes where δT = Tarc – Taltitude in minutes of time. There is a second method using one measurement and an assumed position. and Taltitude is the time you took the altitude measurement. as far as sequencing the observations to minimize errors if you don’t feel like making the ‘running fix’ corrections. and Ho is the observed altitude for the object (Hs + SD is close enough). By the way. it is referred to the apparent arc distance Da. This entire task is simplified if you have a computer and use MathCad software to write and evaluate the equations. LHA is your best guess at the local hour angle for the object. Young. DEC is the declination of the observed object.

87 .

convert to decimal hours UT s sgn limbH sgn limbD When measuring altitude. determine the refraction correction for the star and the moon Record values for: R star Convert the dip and refraction corrections to decimal degrees !! R moon 88 . deg Your imperfect clock time noted at the observation of Ds. lower limb is +1. near limb is +1. deg Measured arc distance from Lunar limb to star or planet center with Sextant Scale.Clearing the distance from a lunar observation --------------------------------------IC h eye Hs star Hs moon Ds Index Error Correction. deg Measured Altitude of the Moon with Sextant Scale. degrees From this table. far limb is -1 HP SD moon = Horizontal Parallax HP. upper limb is -1 When measuring arc distance. meters Change all angle data into decimal degrees Measured Altitude of star or planet with Sextant Scale.2724 . degrees 0. from the nautical almanac. HP Lunar semi-diameter. degrees Eye Height above seal level.--------------------------------.

89

The 2nd method with one measurement (the arc distance) will calculate the altitudes based on the assumed position and imperfect chronometer reading. With the new corrected time, you can also correct the assumed longitude, and iterate once or twice more with the better time and longitude results. The basic assumption is that the latitude is more accurate.

90

Derivation of the equations used in clearing the lunar distance Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C)

Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) (these laws are for spherical trigonometry; there are similar ones for plane trig) Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚- α) cos(α) = sin(90˚- α) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A)

91

the picture is drawn in the positive direction to establish a consistent sign convention. and using the law of cosines. M with the common angle δ. the equation with s. When the corrections are applied.s = Hastar S = Hostar m = Hamoon M = Homoon cos( d ) = sin( s ) ⋅ sin( m) + cos( s ) ⋅ cos( m) ⋅ cos(δ ) cos( D ) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos(δ ) Rearrange cos(d): cos(δ ) = cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Now substitute into cos(D):  cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m)  cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅   cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)   Rearrange:  cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M )  cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + ( cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) ) ⋅    cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)  But using the trig identity: sin( a ) ⋅ sin(b) = − cos( a + b) And substituting this definition:  cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M )  Cratio =    cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)  cos( D) = ( cos(d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) D = arcCos ( cos( d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M )    The key to the problem is to realize that the parallax and refraction corrections only change the altitudes. 92 . Even though refraction corrections are negative. m can be related to S. not the ‘wedge angle’ δ.

The navigator then constructs the two arcs on the map. If you are an observer measuring the relative angle between two known objects on the map. This is the 3 body fix technique. then the circle’s radius R: R = 0. Take for example points A and B on the map (maybe they are water towers or prominent points). is the same angle as any other line similarly drawn to another point on the arc.25 · D · [tan(a/2) + 1 / tan(a/2)] 93 . Then the observer measures an angle ‘b’ between points B and C (or A and C). Include another observation for a third coastal object and make a second angle measurement. A wonderful property of a simple circular arc with 2 end points is that a line drawn from one end point to anywhere on the arc back to the other end point. An observer measures the relative angle ‘a’ between them using the sextant held sideways. and will be described in detail.Chapter 13 Coastal Navigation Using the Sextant Early in this book a surveyor’s technique was mentioned. if D is the distance between A and B. and it is useful in costal navigation where the relative angle between the observer and 3 identified costal objects are measured. and where they cross is the position fix. there will exist one unique circle of position where anyone on that arc will measure the same angle between the two known coastal objects. For any arc.

Constructing the arcs by graphical means The first step is to draw the baseline between points A and B. using point Y as the center. carrying this line until it intersects the first bisector. Finally. Where it intersects the bisector. use a protractor and measure an angle away from the baseline of (90-a/2) from point ‘A’. use the bow compass to draw an arc by setting the radius to include either points A. if the measured angle with the sextant was ‘a’ degrees. Voila! 94 . Call this point ‘Y’. Repeat steps for drawing the circle of position for points B and C with included angle ‘b’. do so for the baseline. Recalling how to draw perpendicular bisectors from middle school geometry using a bow compass. B. This is the circle of position. It represents the center point of the circle of position. Then draw another perpendicular to split the line A-X. After the bisector is constructed. or X. call this point ‘X’.

Appendix 1 Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet 95 .

96 .

and epoxied to form the fine-boned frame shown here. The laser and bubble jet printers of today are amazingly accurately. The Vernier scale is moved radially in and out until it lines up perfectly with the degree scale. it was made from ¾ inch thick clear maple. The mirrors are indexed to their position using 3 brads. 2 along the bottom forming a horizontal line. Brass shim stock cut into rectangles and formed over a round pencil produced the U-shaped mirror retaining springs. but rather overlap it on a tapered ramp. so only the degree scale needs to be placed with accuracy. One-inch long #4-40 screws and nuts are used to make a 3point adjustable platform for mirror alignment The arc degree scale and Vernier scale were drawn in a 2-D computer aided design program and printed out at 1:1 scale. and the third brad along the side to index side-to-side motion.Appendix 2 Making Your Very Own Octant Frames for octants can be made from just about any clear wood. only then is it glued to the index arm. The Vernier scale should not go edge to edge with the degree scale. This means that you do not need to sand the wood edge perfectly arc-shaped. In the case of the author’s octant. 97 .

4 for the sky filters and 8. 1 being the lightest and 16 the darkest. The second surface mirrors are good enough for a homemade (and professional) sextant. Shades equivalent to a commercial sextant (by unscientific methods) is approximately 14. The next best is to order a second surface mirror (50mm square) from an optics house such as Edmunds Scientifics for about $4. Shades can be additive. The problem of contrast arises. But safety of your eyes is paramount. Use a 5. They cut out 99. I have found that if you score lines with a handheld glass cutter on the front and back (and edges too) so that the lines are right over each other. 10. available at welding supply houses for about $1. This will require practice… 98 . Buy the plates in a 2 by 4. Replacement shade filter plates typically can be found for 4 thru 14. The quality can be surmised by tilting the mirror until you are seeing a small glancing reflection of something. The ripples may be just in one direction. Ripples (slope errors) will be quite evident at these high reflection angles. 2”x2” for about 25¢ each. The silvering can best be removed with a metal polisher such as Brasso. For a tool.25 inch size. a green sun disk on a green horizon. while a #5 allows around 5%. Terrible mirrors can be had at the dollar store out of compacts. and more than one filter will distort the Sun’s image slightly). you can order first surface mirrors for maybe $20. The edges should be slightly rounded so as not to dig in. 6. no sense of increasing chances of cataracts due to ultraviolet overexposure. A #4 shade allows about 13% visible transmission. using a soft cloth. and a 14. Most of these welder’s shades will turn the Sun green. The back has a protective coating that must be removed to get to the reflective material. you stand a much better chance of a successful cut. In their specialty house. and cut them in half to make 2 squares. 4 for the horizon filters. and so the mirror can be oriented on the sextant to minimize altitude distortions. Removing the aluminized surface for the horizon mirror requires patience.65. a 10.Mirrors Surprisingly good mirrors can be found in craft stores. Shades Shades for the sky and horizon filters can be made from welder’s mask replacement filter plates. The welding shades are numbered 1 thru 16.9% of harmful UV and infrared heat as well as act as neutral density filters to reduce the over-all amount of visible light. as it will scratch glass. A 4 and 6 for the horizon will give 4. that is a #5 shade plus a #6 shade is equivalent to a #11 shade. Under no circumstances should you use a scotch-brite pad to remove the silvering. and 10. Now glass cutting these thick plates is no laughing matter. which would seem to cover all viewing situations without having to double-up on filters (the glass is not perfect. I use a very well sharpened/honed 1” wide wood chisel. and is best accomplished with a fixture to hold the mirror and a guide for the tool.

Generally speaking.015”) music wire around larger diameter music wire or brad nails. and the magnification ‘M’ is -FL1/FL2.010” brass sheet stock or tin can lids. Sighting telescope A simple Galilean telescope can be made with a convex lens for the objective lens. the more baffles.(FL1/FL2) = -(300 / (-150)) = 2 Edmunds Scientifics sells 38mm diameter lenses for about $3 to $4 each. the better the image contrast. The image will be upright. The spacing ‘S’ between the lenses should be FL1+FL2. while the concave lens has a negative focal length (FL2). Leaf type springs can be cut out from 0.Springs Torsion springs to hold the mirrors in place can be easily made by wrapping thin (0. and a concave lens for the eyepiece. then: Spacing S = FL1 + FL2 = 300 + (-150) = 150mm Magnification M = . if the objective lens has a focal length of 300mm and the eyepiece lens has a focal length of -150mm. Paint the insides of the tube flat black. The convex lens has a positive focal length (FL1). and the magnification need not be greater than 3. For example. which then reflect into the eyepiece. These baffles effectively trap the unwanted light. The baffles are used to keep stray light from glaring up the insides of the tube. The tubes can be made with a square cross section using basswood or thin hobby plywood. 99 . and wrapped around a pencil to get a ‘U’ shape.

Photos of the Octant Making of the telescope Horizon mirror and mount The completed Octant 100 .

mil/ Edmunds Scientifics.de/home/h.htm Official UTC time http://nist.verizon.mil/data/docs/celnavtable.net/milkyway99/index.html 101 .net/index.usno.tecepe.isa US Naval Observatory http://aa. with all sorts of spare optical stuff http://www.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.Appendix 3 On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Star Path navigational school http://www. gives delta T for Ephemeris Time http://maia.com/catalog/ On-line nautical almanac http://www.sciplus.com/ My web site: http://mysite.navy.scientificsonline.com/ Edmund Optics.umland/index.usno.html A short guide to celestial navigation and freeware http://home.cgi?UTC/s/0/java International Earth Rotation Service.com/resources/cellinks.celestialnavigation.good all around source http://www.htm Celestaire http://celestaire. higher grade of optics http://www.com.html Celestial navigation net.t-online.starpath.com/catalog/ American Science and Surplus.gov/timezone.time.edmundoptics.navy. supplier of mirrors and lenses http://www.

Appendix 4 Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method By Teacup Navigation Rodger E. Farley 102 .

user beware! This is for educational purposes only. 103 . Farley My web site: http://mysite. I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning.html All rights reserved.net/milkyway99/index.verizon.Contents Introduction Determining Local Hour Angle Corrections to Altitude Individual Steps Work Sheets Tables Appendix: The Intercept 1st Edition Copyright 2010 Rodger E.

cosine. 104 . but I have retained the original with sine.Introduction Ageton devised a method of dividing the navigational triangle into 2 simpler right-angle triangles to solve. then multiplied by -100 for ease. Ageton reformulated his equations with secant and co-secant functions. Using the Ageton equations for calculated altitude and meridian angle. The tables represent the log (base 10) of sine and cosine of angles. a step by step solution to the problem can be implemented using tables and simple addition/subtraction. These are the basic Ageton equations: Corrected meridian angle then needs to be converted to true azimuth angle. Zn.

Determining Local Hour Angle LHA North Lat is +. For a compute program. then DEC is Using the correct sign (+/-) for longitude LON: LHA = GHA + LON If LHA > 360. GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEChour + Corr d If DEC is N then it is +. even if the declination is still northern. West Lon is - The Nautical Almanac hourly tabular values of Greenwich Hour Angle (GHAhour)is corrected for minutes and seconds increments (Corr GHA) plus any hourly variances v (Corr V for the minutes). For stars GHA = SHA + GHAAries Hourly values of declination (DEChour) are corrected for minutes with hourly rate d (Corr d for the minutes). Beware of using the correct sign [+/-] in rate d. pre-meridian LHAs need to be converted to a negative angle (-180<LHA<0) by subtracting 360 from a pre-meridian angle(for example 276 is equivalent to . Post meridian angles range from zero to 180 degrees ( 0<LHA<180). South Lat is East Lon is +. LHA is divided into two camps: post-meridian passage and premeridian passage.84) . then the sign of d is positive (+) even if the declination is still southern. If d is moving in a southerly direction (DEC becoming more southerly in the next hour) then d is negative (-). and pre meridian angles range from 180 to 360 ( 180<LHA<360). if S. then subtract 360. The tables and rules can handle both forms if you are careful! 105 . If the declinations are moving in a northerly direction.

Corrected Observed Altitude Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 106 .Corrections to Altitude Apparent Altitude: Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Note: index correction IC is + when off the arc. and – when on the arc.

unless LAT and DEC same name AND |K| > |LAT|. and the given rules will make it clear which of the two to use. In that if it is negative. then make it positive.Individual Steps In the following algorithm. C2 S3 = S1 + C2. A greater-than sign is > and a less-than sign is < (K>90 means K greater than 90).Zo NE: Zn = Zo SW: Zn = Zo + 180 107 . in which case choose the angle less than 90. Notes: A variable in straight brackets. it means locate the given S number. For E or W suffix: If LHA pre-meridian (-180<LHA<0 or 180<LHA<360) then E If LHA post-meridian (0<LHA<180) then W NW: Zn = 360 . for example |LHA|. When there is a variable prefixed with sign(variable). 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) With |LHA| in tables S1 With |DEC| in tables S2.C3. in tables corresponding angle = K K > 90 if LHA between 90 and 270 K’ = |K . then |LHA| = 12. Also note that calculated altitude Hc is always less than 90 deg. If the number sought is an S number. in tables C6 Also. then the one in the same column next to it is a C number. in tables find corresponding C3 S4 = S2 .Zo SE: Zn = 180 . Converting Corrected Meridian angle Zo to true azimuth Zn Name of LAT to select N or S prefix. If you have an arrow with “tables/angle”. If LHA = -12. There are 4 choices of angle. or a -1 value if the sign of the number is negative. in tables C5 S6 = C5 + C3. in tables corresponding angle = Zo Choose the bold-faced angle greater than 90. the arrows with “tables” mean go to the Stables and look at the numbers in the columns.LAT x sign(DEC) |. In each column there are 2 numbers side-by-side. but you will select from the 2 bold numbers. it means determine the sign and assign it a +1 value if it’s positive. in tables corresponding angle of S6 = Hc S7 = |S3 – C6|. means to take the absolute value of LHA. and note the corresponding angle.

108 .

109 .

The assumed latitude is -40° 12’ S.This is an example where the LHA was already figured from the GHA and assumed longitude. 110 . Just work it out line by line to see the genesis of the numbers with the corresponding tabular values.

and C(x) = -100*log(cos(x)).146) is the S number.Using the S-Tables In this section I will provide examples of how to navigate the tables. Get it? Using the bottom row of numbers is equally easy. these are the equations tabulated to the arc minute: If x is the angle.160 is the S number and 106.699 is the C number. If you are looking up 85° 5’. and addition is much easier! If declination DEC is 20° 13’ S. and |DEC| = 20° 13’. P5).762 would be the S number. That number (46. then 0. In the tables. 111 . Why go to this trouble? Because logarithms change multiplication into addition. Go down to minute 13 and look across to the column for the 20 deg. then S(x) = -100*log(sin(x)). The bottom row of numbers means you use the righthand minutes. Hc. and the one next to it in the same column is the C number (2. and Zo you have “go backwards” thru the tables (an S value is given and you have to determine the corresponding angle).762). If the number you were looking up was 110° 13’. Follow the calculation steps from top to bottom. For the values of K. That heading is on the top of the table which means the arc minutes to use are on the left hand side as indicated by the double arrows. that means DEC = -(20° 13’).146 would be the C number. adding or subtracting where indicated. then 2. S(x) and C(x) are the S and C values associated with the angle x. In the tables look up the boldfaced degree 20 (S-Tables. and 46.

040 0.299 117.000 0.073 0.103 114.006 0.640 121.110 0.243 141.362 128.931 151.063 0.042 0.025 0.013 0.121 0.415 119.022 0.187 116.718 145.304 190.699 113.993 106.154 0.098 0.554 116.012 0.009 0.085 0.000 0.021 0.014 0.841 129.002 0.777 200.074 0.021 120.002 0.064 0.050 0.506 112.650 194.061 0.103 0.135 0.406 154.492 203.216 230.254 156.053 133.045 0.162 0.044 0.295 143.009 0.333 123.320 155.388 205.002 0.216 110.739 116.713 148.804 137.911 141.117 122.001 0.896 131.583 109.208 157.006 0.812 269.001 0.000 0.010 0. P1 180° 0° 1000.007 89° 269° 181° 1° 175.136 0.113 201.783 162.250 161.903 122.931 126.025 0.015 0.946 143.777 133.072 0.589 107.633 118.003 0.003 125.049 0.118 0.581 141.087 0.612 119.021 0.008 0.011 0.143 0.013 112.960 108.006 0.120 127.057 109.158 0.124 0.043 0.504 137.000 353.046 0.339 171.183 111.448 146.008 0.439 107.071 0.505 167.440 118.461 115.676 171.012 172.087 0.515 151.696 150.002 0.060 0.127 0.091 0.912 207.000 0.042 177.000 0.549 123.000 0.218 119.106 0.096 0.708 166.646 144.121 0.081 145.041 0.140 0.116 0.139 0.642 176° 356° 273° 93° 0.058 0.916 142.173 134.007 0.740 109.015 0.373 131.890 134.077 0.203 253.285 139.077 0.675 112.026 0.148 0.182 159.774 125.766 123.184 113.069 0.395 114.003 0.152 0.511 154.156 0.730 275.579 142.048 0.018 0.080 0.153 0.039 0.748 114.690 160.732 182.062 0.029 0.709 242.021 0.049 0.000 0.925 116.204 160.121 168.566 147.027 0.112 0.342 129.166 85° 265° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 112 .004 0.081 0.322 136.053 0.062 0.406 219.020 0.614 120.034 0.011 0.784 156.000 0.005 0.307 187.040 0.067 0.193 108.544 175.128 0.282 115.146 0.692 132.724 161.013 0.131 0.032 135.026 88° 268° 182° 2° 145.982 164.287 176.318 258.028 0.001 0.915 293.961 132.104 150.346 111.074 0.102 0.060 0.024 0.184 158.322 162.488 245.498 108.018 0.095 0.023 0.375 110.097 0.465 126.060 87° 267° 183° 3° 128.233 126.114 130.000 0.133 0.160 0.253 140.006 0.111 0.385 217.030 0.094 0.018 0.004 115.425 124.109 0.000 0.058 0.138 0.159 0.696 173.536 110.267 122.045 113.872 113.001 0.870 124.071 0.600 143.220 114.699 106.055 0.019 0.998 196.403 127.425 132.478 122.002 0.045 0.358 145.605 140.112 116.002 0.042 0.014 0.012 0.046 0.096 0.292 149.017 0.076 0.056 117.041 107.390 179.004 0.491 208.149 0.257 142.023 0.082 0.412 120.346 130.001 0.115 108.627 249.226 121.029 0.010 0.690 122.221 197.103 148.003 0.010 0.003 0.391 173.605 128.013 0.079 0.270 109.231 132.015 0.088 0.001 0.032 0.161 0.897 167.075 0.422 192.155 0.017 0.808 195.546 125.036 0.550 164.010 0.406 106.109 0.609 134.526 113.008 0.034 0.609 183.141 106.805 108.145 0.634 153.823 115.002 0.056 0.739 107.144 0.044 0.047 0.815 179° 359° 270° 90° 0.011 0.525 221.005 0.001 0.129 0.752 223.106 86° 266° 184° 4° 115.100 225.038 0.925 114.092 0.029 181.211 120.132 0.000 0.020 0.928 140.353 186.108 0.849 128.080 0.052 0.339 112.890 107.970 175° 355° 274° 94° 0.827 118.282 189.817 146.068 0.160 131.298 166.009 0.083 0.003 0.054 0.028 0.106 137.147 0.496 149.011 0.107 0.002 0.008 0.000 0.898 109.041 0.844 112.005 0.089 0.338 139.233 239.745 169.457 135.014 0.647 124.033 0.125 165.099 0.091 0.068 0.070 0.680 159.016 0.157 0.001 0.024 0.205 136.006 0.001 0.134 0.123 0.001 144.023 0.909 136.004 0.000 0.004 0.115 0.037 0.093 0.137 0.370 116.641 127.059 0.166 126.057 121.086 0.026 0.120 177° 357° 272° 92° 0.015 236.141 0.016 0.967 139.000 0.774 152.054 0.163 0.004 0.522 193.817 120.033 0.150 0.697 110.010 119.202 180.480 199.571 114.008 0.023 170.419 185.202 152.016 0.856 130.744 135.119 0.131 210.600 130.164 0.633 131.892 149.101 0.205 123.027 0.345 108.411 138.125 0.320 125.487 117.051 0.815 175.018 233.007 0.350 151.033 0.811 178.676 117.035 0.031 0.872 182.102 0.552 106.051 0.718 178° 358° 271° 91° 0.001 0.455 215.869 163.350 191.000 0.117 0.019 0.093 129.038 0.355 113.066 0.078 0.026 0.007 0.100 0.524 305.004 0.728 157.064 0.642 115.022 118.190 146.065 0.422 163.031 0.615 136.985 123.627 323.056 0.057 0.095 124.421 283.142 0.052 0.693 158.130 0.005 0.S-Tables.505 184.503 133.030 0.113 0.839 111.036 0.327 147.433 121.037 0.118 263.020 110.105 0.866 117.379 169.674 111.260 106.593 178.718 138.003 0.027 138.122 0.120 0.083 0.000 0.000 0.848 121.591 129.005 111.248 118.330 134.846 106.607 213.066 0.095 128.032 0.001 0.697 126.022 0.283 188.811 119.290 107.084 0.126 0.861 155.916 204.945 147.510 111.097 174.017 0.012 0.956 154.048 0.003 0.880 127.115 105.090 0.651 139.039 0.007 0.172 112.104 0.070 153.426 109.001 0.834 212.005 0.651 108.019 0.114 0.583 228.858 110.

307 0.418 0.321 76.683 76.682 98.196 0.612 0.243 0.334 0.797 83.954 93.269 77.304 93.995 103.472 0.562 0.063 100.503 94.454 0.575 87.994 89.830 104.589 0.295 0.426 0.621 0.402 0.558 0.269 0.242 92.554 0.063 93.483 0.336 0.013 77.296 99.397 0.698 81.126 97.696 89.806 100.411 0.359 82.237 0.858 87.289 0.928 91.678 100.536 0.311 0.345 0.331 0.652 0.008 96.550 104.619 0.451 101.957 97.465 0.455 83.205 0.712 101.598 0.933 79.506 0.180 0.279 0.363 0.060 94.771 78.378 0.192 0.347 92.837 97.663 0.411 173° 353° 276° 96° 0.465 85.487 80.077 97.632 0.094 89.411 104.843 84.667 84.280 0.217 0.030 82.538 81° 261° 189° 9° 80.311 103.520 0.931 84.273 0.001 90.756 76.450 0.197 0.241 0.272 0.645 172° 352° 277° 97° 0.618 78.491 0.448 0.518 0.219 0.861 82.103 91.196 93.411 91.412 93.325 83° 263° 187° 7° 91.170 0.444 0.213 0.290 0.926 98.425 82° 262° 188° 8° 85.091 80.293 0.637 102.571 0.405 0.020 84.967 80.625 0.437 0.658 96.315 78.417 77.321 101.397 105.442 82.455 0.110 82.362 0.807 80.430 88.S-Tables.230 84.199 83.178 0.200 0.466 78.712 83.210 0.538 76.358 0.623 88.292 0.186 0.183 0.263 0.774 96.404 84.581 101.253 0.240 0.847 78.239 88.203 0.390 78.587 0.550 100.665 80° 260° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 113 .259 0.669 87.211 0.970 83.188 0.495 0.845 93.323 0.171 0.934 100.258 0.798 90.294 87.891 96.129 81.668 99.555 85.388 0.698 79.247 0.435 0.361 97.481 87.277 0.185 0.457 0.564 0.423 0.232 79.922 86.516 0.556 0.494 90.232 0.205 89.191 0.945 81.945 82.425 0.595 90.816 88.310 0.172 99.478 0.825 85.243 97.236 0.133 103.276 82.278 86.639 77.439 0.491 77.560 98.617 81.225 0.542 78.291 81.209 0.414 0.577 0.339 0.283 0.328 80.720 91.617 91.006 85.409 0.465 79.459 0.286 0.227 0.215 0.001 78.609 82.432 0.641 0.239 84° 264° 186° 6° 98.583 103.434 0.301 0.663 92.010 88.122 77.249 0.393 94.175 0.267 0.308 0.899 90.143 84.299 0.347 0.540 0.623 0.343 77.305 0.164 78.606 0.780 81.804 98.553 86.194 0.575 0.600 0.048 87.056 83.235 0.764 87.526 88.966 95.610 0.205 91.608 0.012 79.089 92.463 0.645 85.598 97.283 94.446 0.579 84.624 95.430 0.170 100.519 93.441 0.368 0.524 0.319 0.308 91.207 0.318 98.476 0.179 0.522 0.380 0.480 97.202 0.443 0.337 0.264 0.598 89.317 84.088 78.399 0.371 102.303 89.334 88.181 0.400 0.168 0.355 0.638 0.284 83.193 82.628 93.325 0.538 0.167 0.924 78.447 103.647 0.499 0.342 0.499 89.256 0.654 0.393 0.953 87.208 0.249 76.155 79.725 94.719 88.239 78.887 80.596 0.532 0.526 0.558 92.284 0.461 86.387 79.190 0.352 0.294 90.373 0.857 103.826 105.884 83.610 76.645 86.350 0.048 80.388 87.220 0.461 0.938 77.474 0.863 81.894 89.223 0.876 92.552 0.544 99.492 84.905 102.565 77.593 0.192 101.504 102.530 0.383 0.302 0.392 0.738 95.049 98.560 0.829 76.369 83.789 77.298 0.567 171° 351° 278° 98° 0.643 0.105 76.736 93.423 100.394 90.795 89.948 94.173 0.367 0.033 170° 350° 279° 99° 0.717 97.239 0.829 86.316 0.836 94.204 0.255 0.420 99.602 0.542 0.452 92.617 0.360 0.550 0.341 0.262 0.971 104.349 0.579 0.166 0.408 80.568 0.534 0.482 0.542 79.173 94.626 83.187 0.040 102.274 0.793 99.514 0.107 89.333 0.645 0.714 77.737 86.535 81.376 85.771 102.913 88.137 92.615 0.975 76.172 95.370 0.282 0.539 105.407 0.229 0.357 0.375 0.218 0.604 0.245 0.193 90.310 96.251 0.372 81.224 0.249 80.526 82.175 103.720 103.528 0.197 98.314 0.108 87.197 85.397 95.628 0.419 0.512 0.902 76.487 0.109 85.385 0.777 82.199 0.244 0.287 0.683 105.195 77.260 0.201 87.027 81.296 100.412 0.734 85.470 0.080 95.309 79.228 0.647 80.514 91.184 0.198 0.032 91.695 78.317 0.326 0.193 0.863 77.370 86.581 0.542 96.583 0.214 0.769 92.824 91.546 0.353 0.231 0.727 80.322 0.248 0.465 76.585 0.591 0.044 99.328 0.614 94.467 0.177 0.843 101.233 0.540 83.649 0.480 0.855 79.656 0.276 0.113 104.313 0.489 0.286 85.696 90.296 0.195 96.852 95.636 0.401 89.505 0.270 0.387 0.320 0.210 81.078 79.567 80.382 0.222 0.634 0.172 0.439 98.915 85.453 81.503 0.177 76.015 86.393 76.330 0.426 96.548 0.285 95.048 76.468 0. P2 185° 5° 105.658 0.170 80.395 0.365 0.630 0.344 0.510 0.690 104.114 83.371 0.620 79.660 0.566 0.187 86.982 92.266 0.421 0.176 0.918 99.252 0.304 0.390 0.416 0.693 82.077 174° 354° 275° 95° 0.428 0.755 84.106 101.238 102.254 105.573 0.508 0.376 0.404 0.544 0.493 0.974 101.510 95.096 86.452 0.169 0.143 88.970 105.501 0.485 0.272 104.497 0.777 79.

172 1.257 1.406 1.781 0.654 59.920 0.703 0.238 60.434 60.226 1.913 70.459 1.850 0.682 64.932 68.929 60.086 64.738 0.693 74.417 74.069 66.529 72.940 169° 349° 280° 100° 0.033 75.685 0.871 63.076 1.665 0.896 0.291 1.482 1.091 62.287 60.937 58.279 74.672 0.736 0.412 1.894 0.182 66.079 61.791 0.455 1.724 0.447 67.296 66.136 1.661 72.284 70.763 62.430 61.410 64.681 67.081 1.056 1.211 1.808 0.871 68.787 69.865 0.329 1.310 76° 256° 194° 14° 61.922 0.194 64.771 0.919 62.194 73.263 1.323 75.235 1.737 64.699 0.194 62.541 69.360 1.531 61.330 67.968 0.498 63.690 0.909 0.940 71.297 62.269 1.385 60.819 75.676 75.127 59.475 1.348 74.886 0.830 60.961 75.229 61.665 73.338 1.774 0.767 0.178 1.076 63.449 1.976 70.464 64.936 0.846 64.938 0.122 1.220 1.032 63.366 59.681 71.175 59.791 64.848 59.316 1.828 0.432 1.664 69.024 62.047 1.786 70.245 62.125 1.348 62.462 1.351 1.982 66.179 61.879 60.398 65.845 0.429 1.883 0.212 68.033 1.332 72.222 59.403 1.960 78° 258° 192° 12° 68.032 58.462 59.580 66.890 75.418 69.270 59.582 60.933 0.492 1.217 1.660 70.734 61.006 1.711 62.810 66.788 0.676 0.752 0.266 72.981 0.463 72.036 1.830 0.708 0.658 63.313 1.231 71.622 67.040 70.272 1.907 0.667 0.946 0.638 66.731 0.266 1.901 64.128 1.876 0.683 61.597 70.853 0.800 59.445 1.087 1.357 1.533 60.681 60.764 0.506 75° 255° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 114 .340 63.901 0.801 73.748 0.013 65.278 1.710 0.857 67.842 58.039 1.128 77° 257° 193° 13° 64.136 72.053 68.390 1.231 65.731 60.523 66.979 60.465 1.174 69.469 1.189 60.503 62.928 0.900 65.176 65.116 1.868 0.965 0.248 64.727 72.042 74.700 165° 345° 284° 104° 1.960 0.133 1.970 0.318 59.348 1.356 64.887 61.281 1.534 75.750 0.813 0.310 1.330 61.815 62.145 1.110 1.676 65.751 68.904 0.722 0.210 74.833 0.479 69.439 1.419 1.558 59.184 1.954 0.630 68.972 74.785 61.763 74.275 1.287 65.755 0.740 0.769 0.855 0.860 72.303 1.119 1.627 64.070 72.925 0.462 73.070 1.059 1.998 1.944 0.733 73.020 1.252 75.098 67.294 1.113 69.875 71.800 0.154 1.212 168° 348° 281° 101° 0.040 61.570 68.993 72.502 1.485 1.370 1.229 1.739 67.288 1.380 61.466 66.925 63.079 59.199 1.717 0.759 0.486 74.167 71.917 0.260 1.060 72.342 65.555 62.674 0.157 1.776 0.367 1.234 63.341 1.414 59.751 59.798 67.153 68.870 0.393 1.914 0.616 71.017 1.690 68.190 1.353 66.659 62.899 0.838 0.952 0.409 66.620 65.509 65.471 70.573 64.396 1.972 62.979 63.422 1.930 0.863 0.764 63.159 70.510 59.803 0.715 0.810 71.398 72.084 1.163 1.888 0.322 1.140 64.805 0.332 1.489 1.435 1.187 1.426 1.692 0.393 75.148 1.989 61.034 67.987 0.633 61.889 58.860 0.711 63.681 0.000 1.530 73.261 73.976 0.344 1.035 69.196 1.335 1.380 1.696 0.129 63.214 1.445 63.835 0.927 72.042 59.820 0.302 64.009 1.798 0.175 1.706 0.416 1.254 1.139 1.632 60.464 75.563 67.602 69.232 1.244 1.669 0.733 0.878 0.995 0.201 72.364 1.605 75.121 65.129 61.104 1.780 60.595 72.040 66.042 1.633 166° 346° 283° 103° 1.743 0.409 70.409 1.142 1.319 1.962 0.062 1.127 73.400 62.978 0.850 70.552 71.279 61.723 70.937 73.377 1.221 70.079 1.843 0.182 63.582 61.169 1.793 0.779 0.066 65.499 1.949 0.597 73.393 63.247 1.099 1.005 71. P3 190° 10° 76.140 60.073 1.151 1.818 63.451 62.028 1.565 65.272 67.510 68.992 68.757 0.606 59.703 59.325 1.762 0.786 0.093 1.867 66.938 61.472 1.S-Tables.956 64.354 1.748 58.067 1.142 74.452 1.073 74.624 74.131 1.607 62.897 59.911 69.972 69.712 0.395 73.383 1.534 70.005 73.984 58.992 0.214 67.050 1.391 68.815 0.840 0.725 69.483 60.331 68.694 0.726 0.064 1.029 60.832 74.388 67.102 1.795 58.810 0.916 67.605 63.719 0.104 71.858 0.752 66.902 74.181 1.399 1.112 75.096 1.945 59.811 68.788 65.011 1.142 62.300 1.825 0.423 71.442 1.796 0.836 61.881 0.957 0.250 1.166 1.989 0.014 1.495 1.794 72.357 69.745 0.505 67.295 71.975 67.238 1.701 0.272 68.891 0.235 69.818 0.451 68.844 65.791 167° 347° 282° 102° 0.208 1.848 0.241 1.957 65.984 0.555 74.223 1.097 70.003 1.488 71.912 0.022 1.090 1.091 60.746 71.031 1.678 0.053 1.202 1.205 1.849 69.925 66.160 1.873 0.994 59.113 1.695 66.359 71.823 0.025 1.093 68.373 1.747 75.973 0.732 65.126 66.182 75.107 1.805 79° 259° 191° 11° 71.453 65.869 73.285 1.479 1.783 0.328 73.156 67.687 0.297 1.683 0.519 64.941 0.011 64.346 70.336 60.296 69.386 1.867 62.306 1.193 1.552 63.045 1.729 0.481 61.287 63.239 66.

390 2.676 57.042 50.471 51.241 2.571 1.080 51.767 56.952 1.232 50.914 52.615 55.769 46.512 58.606 58.971 1.407 163° 343° 286° 106° 1.077 53.343 2.683 2.467 52.699 48.007 2.773 48.034 2.722 56.212 2.014 2.819 1.552 2.739 49.119 47.878 55.427 52.009 47.045 48.432 51.254 2.589 49.306 52.197 51.883 48.018 2.619 1.354 55.539 57.002 50.309 2.615 47.991 1.226 52.279 2.403 2.538 54.570 2.009 54.811 1.699 46.637 2.648 1.499 2.827 51.771 1.086 2.443 48.128 57.049 47. P4 195° 15° 58.697 53.868 1.653 50.070 2.615 2.042 2.857 56.530 2.185 58.589 51.073 54.314 51.225 2.598 1.398 55.480 48.498 56.664 49.780 53.890 49.653 58.669 1.995 1.538 50.665 2.490 2.769 50.552 49.229 2.196 2.894 1.879 1.062 2.616 1.923 54.845 1.553 48.011 2.902 56.751 54.098 2.823 1.887 1.655 1.372 58.030 2.966 55.143 2.126 2.727 1.083 57.940 73° 253° 197° 17° 53.705 1.804 1.496 54.296 2.789 1.633 2.767 1.171 2.641 1.550 51.579 2.708 51.683 1.347 2.917 1.606 2.327 49.837 54.533 1.516 2.030 48.266 2.054 2.688 2.516 1.446 2.543 56.922 55.519 1.192 2.955 52.494 2.167 2.158 51.822 53.508 52.734 1.790 55.860 1.407 2.485 55.793 47.038 2.658 1.514 49.763 1.118 53.219 57.118 2.716 74° 254° 196° 16° 55.106 2.883 1.964 1.216 2.199 54.591 1.453 54.906 51.106 52.556 2.619 2.523 1.271 2.698 1.465 58.946 51.983 1.913 1.364 2.511 51.004 49.010 55.709 1.864 1.647 2.276 56.637 1.411 54.722 47.875 1.512 1.221 2.159 2.448 53.194 50.433 71° 251° 199° 19° 48.284 54.353 51.994 48.067 49.756 1.398 2.529 1.953 57.439 49.947 53.901 47.138 55.385 50.283 2.561 2.956 1.174 57.455 2.633 56.674 2.429 2.026 51.572 53.503 2.473 47.134 2.331 47.905 53.583 2.948 1.778 1.634 1.664 46.334 48.712 1.906 1.747 55.308 50.880 54.710 52.188 2.686 47.351 2.760 1.338 2.605 1.663 48.730 1.146 52.738 1.539 2.979 1.447 57.407 48.224 55.416 2.459 2.092 58.666 54.330 2.834 1.393 51.928 49.584 57.360 2.867 51.346 52.670 52.154 47.409 56.433 2.190 47.187 56.310 57.420 2.402 47.548 52.627 49.186 52.242 53.179 2.678 2.528 55.278 58.668 51.963 50.574 1.924 50.300 2.265 57.236 51.567 1.614 53.326 54.655 53.944 46.629 52.159 53.054 56.080 50.242 54.559 58.702 49.547 1.262 48.800 1.122 2.716 1.317 2.595 160° 340° 289° 109° 2.993 56.687 1.691 1.287 2.749 1.290 49.356 57.151 2.394 2.267 55.326 2.791 52.304 2.709 54.385 2.S-Tables.508 47.262 2.852 49.979 46.579 47.246 2.157 54.572 55.581 54.777 49.142 49.493 57.022 2.052 55.677 56.372 2.890 1.865 47.489 53.387 52.531 53.401 57.630 46.920 48.592 2.719 1.700 58.703 55.437 47.808 1.139 2.651 2.722 57.509 1.967 1.437 2.940 1.794 54.500 50.078 2.731 50.365 53.885 50.508 2.179 49.266 52.921 1.629 51.736 161° 341° 288° 108° 2.929 1.119 51.130 2.461 50.782 1.295 47.002 162° 342° 287° 107° 1.838 1.768 57.082 2.104 49.038 56.909 46.849 1.989 53.355 2.864 53.785 1.738 53.512 2.298 48.937 1.377 2.660 2.066 2.424 2.630 1.058 2.442 2.260 47.516 48.485 2.481 2.147 2.692 50.787 51.841 1.966 54.666 1.957 48.578 1.588 56.118 50.526 1.673 1.565 2.758 47.324 53.534 2.110 2.834 55.232 58.014 46.814 57.547 2.830 1.468 2.365 56.368 54.937 47.283 53.793 1.472 2.960 1.610 2.464 2.595 1.626 48.543 2.041 51.411 2.944 1.612 1.601 2.275 2.175 2.233 2.423 50.751 52.701 1.204 2.183 2.659 55.381 2.628 2.031 53.046 57.692 2.208 2.365 49.320 56.873 52.084 47.441 55.553 1.966 164° 344° 285° 105° 1.226 48.947 56.815 49.874 46.736 48.003 2.623 1.163 2.231 56.642 2.812 56.694 1.081 48.237 2.856 1.066 52.734 46.099 56.796 1.701 70° 250° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 115 .651 1.829 47.597 2.826 1.602 1.117 48.115 54.809 48.745 1.275 51.050 2.506 1.258 2.036 52.627 1.114 2.576 50.225 47.898 1.102 2.669 2.723 1.557 1.368 2.216 49.933 1.910 1.540 1.987 1.585 1.094 2.543 1.250 2.179 72° 252° 198° 18° 51.752 1.832 52.651 47.999 57.995 52.676 1.973 47.544 47.986 51.155 2.925 1.477 2.615 50.680 1.564 1.656 2.774 1.292 2.966 49.697 2.871 1.574 2.589 52.581 1.560 1.623 54.139 58.609 1.975 1.371 48.662 1.624 2.346 50.588 2.419 58.521 2.644 1.366 47.846 48.313 2.853 1.907 57.815 1.804 46.181 55.808 50.861 57.589 48.741 1.270 50.046 2.095 55.189 48.550 1.450 2.074 2.525 2.588 1.748 51.090 2.839 46.847 50.253 49.999 2.402 49.407 53.334 2.325 58.454 56.630 57.200 2.156 50.143 56.026 2.311 55.321 2.200 53.477 49.153 48.902 1.536 1.

052 4.012 38.600 44.112 3.283 3.782 40.459 37.182 3.900 41.322 41.084 42.765 44.873 45.014 3.951 2.732 44.611 42.181 46.808 41.231 45.747 41.470 3.402 3.777 41.991 40.565 3.965 2.179 4.771 3.486 3.433 3.961 41.686 41.805 45.989 3.031 44.526 39.443 41.473 41.456 46.436 44.424 42.506 38.618 38.666 44.019 3.812 157° 337° 292° 112° 3.798 44.635 3.831 42.283 68° 248° 202° 22° 42.350 3.964 44.352 41.238 42.595 37.633 44.849 3.913 2.812 40.905 3.985 2.272 44.000 4.927 2.988 42.294 3.732 37.843 3.533 3.785 2.009 45.251 40.073 3.167 4.597 3.560 46.988 39.587 3.927 3.799 2.922 2.941 45.730 38.850 43.069 156° 336° 293° 113° 3.034 38.893 42.930 41.804 3.309 3.382 39.932 2.865 3.755 3.810 3.355 3.455 42.630 3.950 3.068 3.432 37.009 3.814 37.296 39.753 43.469 44.478 38.239 39.268 39.021 40.207 42.335 3.514 37.534 45.369 43.695 3.398 40.157 3.670 39.162 3.268 3.261 4.338 38.869 41.762 2.089 38.980 2.734 2.318 46.034 3.035 4.432 43.959 39.187 3.220 4.592 43.210 43.785 43.486 42.394 38.860 2.063 3.098 4.646 38.752 2.757 2.147 3.815 3.843 39.634 40.154 39.766 2.716 3.255 38.862 42.053 3.576 3.917 2.497 39.227 38.258 3.701 2.182 39.097 3.331 42.972 3.711 3.249 4.646 3.975 45.207 3.874 2.786 38.640 3.038 3.197 3.248 3.422 46.273 43.528 3.664 40.915 43.916 3.749 3.662 3.594 41.744 3.289 3.044 44.069 39.534 44.908 2.590 38.560 3.838 3.412 41.889 2.657 43.022 41.501 44.966 3.842 40.545 40.657 3.063 4.202 3.020 42.111 41.048 3.208 4.625 41.325 39.899 3.955 38.305 43.727 3.528 43.132 3.571 3.995 4.907 45.243 4.970 2.554 39.405 155° 335° 294° 114° 3.870 2.703 45.222 3.040 39.955 3.211 39.138 4.555 3.144 4.921 3.674 38.418 3.093 3.433 45.192 40.319 3.061 38.931 44.125 39.207 44.689 43.716 41.058 4.580 42.684 3.990 2.838 41.146 42.879 2.046 4.092 4.150 4.401 43.753 40.814 38.758 38.882 43.366 3.102 3.200 38.983 3.115 42.677 37.927 66° 246° 204° 24° 39.946 2.592 3.088 3.215 46.961 3.924 37.925 42.507 3.043 3.253 3.743 2.841 37.198 45.756 39.706 3.386 3.491 3.491 46.439 39.931 40.284 46.729 2.360 3.655 41.667 3.780 2.560 43.723 40.997 44.077 44.167 3.855 2.475 3.893 2.127 4.192 3.311 38.947 43.487 37.233 3.273 3.864 44.480 3.109 44.517 3.877 3.265 45.368 40.117 38.715 2.131 45.869 37.568 45.777 3.956 2.366 38.978 3.787 37.888 3.332 45.564 41.029 3.832 3.896 37.263 3.608 3.064 45.029 4.144 38.081 41.689 3.161 4.280 40.058 3.466 45.196 4.624 3.737 45.300 42.310 40.407 3.353 46.267 4.674 42.411 39.720 2.985 69° 249° 201° 21° 44.898 44.595 46.324 3.454 3.239 44.776 2.804 2.597 67° 247° 203° 23° 40.512 3.283 38.243 3.502 3.051 43.121 4.012 43.961 40.137 3.865 2.793 3.539 3.017 39.999 3.114 43.872 40.S-Tables.562 38.362 42.933 3.910 3.903 2.444 3.705 42.722 3.083 43.228 3.831 44.567 159° 339° 290° 110° 2.006 37.503 41.314 3.376 3.176 42.814 39.782 3.069 4.412 3.496 43.721 43.212 3.152 3.995 2.898 2.382 41.397 3.871 38.004 3.808 2.549 3.178 43.146 43.185 4.272 65° 245° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 116 .097 39.612 39.641 39.222 40.860 3.387 46.464 43.771 45.012 4.884 2.738 3.468 39.902 40.051 41.080 4.984 38.018 4.040 4.961 2.053 42.428 3.979 37.345 3.642 42.201 41.901 39.534 38.450 38.231 41.790 2.171 41.979 43.078 46.736 42.846 2.575 40.975 2.581 3.422 38.794 2.534 41.882 3.249 46.177 3.673 3.619 3.693 40. P5 200° 20° 46.837 2.190 4.046 40.427 40.105 40.164 45.771 2.371 3.678 3.457 40.083 3.423 3.241 43.214 4.822 2.261 41.122 3.851 2.788 3.078 3.392 3.304 3.583 39.255 4.760 3.941 2.173 4.872 39.023 4.944 3.938 3.024 3.174 44.500 45.438 3.117 3.217 3.337 43.893 3.365 45.818 2.841 2.339 40.759 37.711 2.393 42.871 3.623 37.305 44.541 37.601 45.854 3.842 38.642 158° 338° 291° 111° 2.142 3.526 46.523 3.292 41.486 40.748 2.163 40.951 37.702 38.992 41.956 42.839 45.278 3.518 42.700 3.299 3.354 39.724 2.370 44.625 43.107 3.172 3.134 40.785 39.937 2.826 3.827 2.650 37.568 37.927 38.112 46.076 40.399 45.231 4.075 4.544 3.146 46.465 3.097 45.613 3.155 4.567 44.799 42.818 43.821 3.449 3.832 2.459 3.127 3.706 2.651 3.340 3.403 44.733 3.115 4.237 4.006 4.269 42.799 3.738 2.172 38.109 4.298 45.699 44.337 44.766 3.330 3.086 4.669 45.930 39.549 42.044 46.103 4.225 4.635 45.132 4.141 41.516 40.899 38.704 37.813 2.604 40.603 3.238 3.202 4.142 44.698 39.768 42.381 3.727 39.496 3.

980 5.980 4.999 33.455 30.755 5.370 34.632 33.041 32.655 30.594 34.284 4.665 5.207 5.171 31.659 4.457 4.511 33.790 5.952 5.518 4.469 4.576 5.122 5.154 36.162 37.705 33.902 5.602 36.515 5.603 5.730 33.142 5.420 34.379 4.708 36.783 5.273 5.400 5.218 6.052 6.406 5.816 35.320 32.827 4.609 35.013 30.811 30.511 31.297 37.610 5.030 6.681 36.306 5.489 31.232 6.122 34.345 30.373 4.257 30.460 5.073 34.189 37.260 5.528 5.573 4.064 32.945 30.649 31.924 5.681 33.950 33.054 33.690 4.296 4.917 5.973 4.792 32.360 5.722 30.405 37.748 5.544 30.941 4.271 34.038 5.352 31.073 6.101 33.216 31.406 62° 242° 208° 28° 32.542 4.923 30.544 34.884 4.276 35.487 5.768 32.148 31.619 34.461 32.438 32.856 30.616 4.238 31.337 4.109 6.900 30.921 36.744 32.840 4.903 4.655 36.361 4.103 150° 330° 299° 119° 5.235 30.318 33.846 5.259 36.832 5.734 36.658 5.280 5.391 4.167 6.018 31.397 31.082 37.180 32.922 4.631 5.439 4.102 5.420 5.766 30.300 5.395 34. P6 205° 25° 37.200 35.285 36.560 4.597 4.677 30.859 4.931 5.485 32.566 4.683 4.948 36.727 5.270 37.333 5.998 35.433 30.827 33.548 4.233 36.652 4.761 36.326 5.624 5.967 4.009 6.609 4.575 36.295 153° 333° 296° 116° 4.211 6.585 4.147 30.076 36.634 4.380 5.741 5.247 60° 240° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 117 .554 4.047 35.128 36.500 4.512 4.669 34.245 33.628 36.204 32.650 32.301 30.522 36.129 5.938 5.610 30.591 4.696 4.297 32.856 31.181 6.999 5.174 6.673 32.353 35.279 30.196 6.816 154° 334° 295° 115° 4.602 32.109 5.921 34.018 5.787 36.155 5.746 4.626 32.839 32.311 36.050 36.469 34.802 4.764 31.896 34.455 35.403 4.617 5.671 4.535 5.888 5.332 4.771 4.535 33.048 34.797 5.695 31.148 5.634 64° 244° 206° 26° 35.901 33.499 30.181 5.925 33.867 36.833 4.443 151° 331° 298° 118° 5.125 33.272 4.194 5.894 35.995 6.841 36.803 33.108 37.180 36.852 4.622 4.814 36.870 34.397 4.240 6.064 5.988 5.910 32.644 34.628 4.741 31.055 37.534 31.878 4.077 5.948 31.251 35.569 5.718 31.411 30.820 34.051 5.700 5.031 5.320 4.990 30.S-Tables.811 5.721 32.221 33.323 30.679 5.475 4.890 4.779 33.444 34.469 36.530 4.438 33.421 4.719 34.169 30.852 33.876 33.496 36.721 4.672 31.493 4.125 30.846 4.481 4.012 63° 243° 207° 27° 34.971 34.295 34.016 6.494 5.313 5.532 35.958 32.463 4.338 36.443 31.115 5.147 34.787 31.274 32.220 5.059 6.378 37.149 33.839 5.193 31.745 34.776 5.057 5.035 31.758 4.519 34.445 4.608 33.897 4.149 35.845 34.764 35.390 36.686 5.058 31.559 33.974 36.367 32.138 6.089 5.712 35.293 5.833 30.694 34.579 32.161 5.269 33.635 35.566 30.770 34.364 36.135 37.672 5.657 33.508 32.865 4.754 33.853 5.157 32.982 32.825 5.083 5.697 32.739 4.961 4.708 4.302 35.404 35.934 32.340 5.714 4.536 4.266 5.569 34.699 30.986 4.935 4.945 5.871 4.818 5.012 5.583 35.427 4.815 4.588 30.707 5.096 5.324 37.948 4.769 5.201 5.521 5.474 5.815 32.153 6.734 5.451 4.994 31.173 33.677 4.557 31.762 5.521 30.549 36.487 33.440 5.532 32.910 4.783 4.233 5.098 34.821 4.638 5.123 35.189 6.881 5.320 5.929 4.966 5.894 36.477 30.910 5.022 34.863 32.925 31.240 5.187 5.874 5.413 5.214 5.644 5.290 4.501 5.160 6.777 4.738 35.366 5.946 35.795 34.463 33.326 4.973 5.024 35.549 5.080 6.343 4.414 32.524 4.796 4.946 34.390 33.001 36.378 35.306 31.975 33.344 32.353 5.145 6.247 5.920 35.102 6.196 34.789 4.959 5.427 5.555 5.506 35.327 35.466 31.506 4.788 30.373 5.385 4.417 36.346 5.887 32.842 35.661 35.134 32.367 30.345 34.088 6.971 31.860 5.131 6.954 4.693 5.174 5.225 35.095 6.045 6.558 35.764 4.584 33.329 31.044 5.603 4.174 35.078 33.391 32.168 5.583 5.744 30.207 36.386 5.367 4.037 6.868 35.080 31.102 36.626 31.640 4.580 31.420 31.349 4.997 34.110 32.125 31.810 31.320 34.733 4.308 4.447 5.879 31.253 5.227 32.902 31.073 35.433 5.393 5.878 30.651 5.752 4.867 5.116 6.355 4.366 33.286 5.665 4.389 30.467 5.098 35.603 31.213 30.596 5.314 4.221 34.225 6.284 31.714 5.972 35.562 5.103 31.172 34.727 4.197 33.808 4.216 37.006 32.804 5.494 34.790 35.429 35.030 33.135 5.409 4.487 4.278 4.833 31.025 5.087 32.632 30.895 5.818 61° 241° 209° 29° 31.351 37.454 5.414 33.375 31.968 30.646 4.246 34.024 33.028 37.294 33.508 5.916 4.191 30.023 6.342 33.702 4.993 4.124 6.542 5.433 4.687 35.066 6.243 37.250 32.590 5.302 4.839 152° 332° 297° 117° 5.005 5.203 6.555 32.481 35.227 5.261 31.415 4.720 5.070 5.443 36.002 6.579 4.481 5.

488 25.277 7.816 28.731 7.643 26.762 6.017 7.301 7.233 28.965 7.628 8.413 24.831 7.584 7.983 25.413 7.972 29.839 7.945 27.269 6.939 26.621 25.839 6.038 27.118 27.907 29.431 6.802 27.176 26.498 6.428 26.421 7.381 7.446 6.510 7.792 25.445 7.177 27.586 28.659 25.559 7.879 28.285 7.192 28.604 29.009 7.820 29.176 29.027 29.317 7.964 25.603 6.660 27.205 7.800 26.037 30.986 27.973 7.006 28.157 27.018 26.478 27.640 6.040 7.777 6.358 24.340 24.453 6.372 6.518 7.320 6.885 6.453 29.964 28.166 7.624 7.543 7.648 28.356 25.429 7.137 27.435 8.049 8.656 6.325 7.837 28.197 7.690 28.219 8.057 25.649 7.481 28.690 7.618 6.806 7.423 6.338 25.194 8.697 25.487 26.582 29.370 26.579 27.249 24.378 27.261 29.565 6.112 29.761 24.776 29.490 6.315 28.990 7.559 27.048 29.325 29.470 7.682 7.520 6.693 6.168 8.405 7.754 25.592 7.657 7.863 29.262 6.748 7.245 8.549 8.486 7.119 7.687 24.496 29.118 26.357 27.616 7.580 6.158 7.863 27.282 29.253 7.674 7.461 28.925 27.022 26.293 7.215 26.561 29.593 8.303 29.978 26.092 8.611 8.823 7.333 7.286 24.948 7.959 26.134 7.848 7.858 28.830 25.620 27.907 25.365 7.237 7.773 25.413 25.789 7.263 25.401 6.770 6.015 8.539 27.843 27.331 26.357 8.068 28.020 25.753 28.323 8.602 8.873 7.386 6.079 7.527 7.418 27.305 6.573 6.032 7.986 6.048 28.317 27.814 7.335 6.665 7.375 8.983 24.678 6.545 26.945 25.395 24.398 28.469 25.998 26.389 147° 327° 302° 122° 7.558 6.731 6.608 7.288 8.244 25.494 7.506 26.389 29.707 7.027 28.774 28.741 26.541 24.800 6.100 8.150 25.584 26.126 7.461 6.151 8.816 149° 329° 300° 120° 6.309 7.346 29.588 6.716 25.066 8.109 28.126 8.928 29.262 8.885 29.864 7.558 8.182 7.291 6.764 7.213 24.331 8.336 28.604 26.134 8.283 6.931 6.502 7.663 26.823 27.798 7.906 7.458 27.680 27.781 26.715 7.954 6.632 24.271 8.842 29.281 25.625 29.693 59° 239° 211° 31° 28.366 8.564 25.364 6.349 7.900 6.448 26.197 29.898 7.195 24.274 28.409 26.419 28.888 25.389 26.253 28.488 8.341 7.595 6.261 7.078 27.931 7.177 8.892 6.496 8.437 7.964 24.950 29.735 25.276 6.087 7.244 146° 326° 303° 123° 7.884 27.926 25.298 6.479 8.773 7.375 25.378 28.514 8.143 8.648 6.111 7.416 6.970 6.059 30.994 29.701 6.504 24.584 8.157 26.297 8.409 6.311 26.577 24.094 25.835 24.007 27.453 8.350 26.467 26.551 7.221 7.879 26.526 25.383 8.755 29.831 6.722 26.881 7.357 7.213 7.702 26.909 24.877 6.502 28.846 6.540 8.401 8.039 25.690 29.889 7.668 29.637 8.808 6.206 25.754 6.048 7.698 7.923 6.231 24.575 7.678 25.579 148° 328° 301° 121° 6.431 24.908 6.150 7.103 30.483 6.444 8.739 6.475 6.682 26.599 27.641 7.130 28.701 27.761 26.454 7.816 6.137 26.798 29.862 6.185 8.427 8.890 24.295 28.518 27.733 29.820 26.567 8.024 7.914 7.486 24.314 8.392 8.655 8.900 28.132 25.567 7.141 145° 325° 304° 124° 8.440 28.322 24.507 25.195 26.024 8.099 26.397 7.091 29.640 25.076 25.671 6.001 24.747 6.160 8.478 7.816 24.795 28.650 24.197 27.410 29.016 29.526 26.S-Tables.602 25.081 30.237 27.575 8.089 28.854 6.202 8.174 7.535 6.095 7.432 25.939 6.724 24.872 24.340 8.498 27.438 27.394 6.064 7.860 26.304 24.823 6.942 28.245 7.297 27.853 24.003 25.409 8.709 6.531 8.633 6.058 8.257 27.237 8.940 7.565 28.849 25.619 8.723 7.432 29.060 26.998 8.641 57° 237° 213° 33° 26.367 29.840 26.269 7.234 26.904 27.154 29.856 7.711 28.982 7.451 25.513 6.535 7.962 6.075 8.217 27.523 8. P7 210° 30° 30.610 6.150 28.342 6.032 8.229 7.239 29.462 7.724 6.545 25.171 28.470 8.544 28.357 28.467 24.899 26.001 7.313 6.927 24.966 27.523 28.228 8.113 25.273 26.041 8.253 26.721 27.142 7.254 8.418 8.706 24.669 28.349 8.254 6.292 26.647 29.978 6.280 8.319 25.595 24.071 7.449 24.793 6.633 7.007 8.394 25.919 26.565 26.389 7.539 29.923 7.627 28.212 28.993 7.916 6.505 6.798 24.686 6.468 6.782 27.921 28.158 58° 238° 212° 32° 27.646 8.583 25.327 6.869 6.143 56° 236° 214° 34° 25.438 6.398 27.518 29.732 28.305 8.614 24.559 24.742 24.947 6.376 24.669 24.779 24.868 25.543 6.607 28.956 7.663 6.109 8.623 26.640 27.600 7.522 24.357 6.740 7.103 7.781 7.350 6.712 29.373 7.762 27.379 6.716 6.188 25.159 24.267 24.211 8.056 7.664 55° 235° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 118 .218 29.098 27.985 28.133 29.462 8.756 7.811 25.741 27.528 6.247 6.946 24.177 24.083 8.625 6.550 6.277 27.058 27.069 29.225 25.190 7.505 8.041 26.337 27.785 6.300 25.079 26.117 8.169 25.475 29.

661 9.566 9.458 11.491 9.026 23.870 21.717 8.824 8.183 23.966 9.516 23.043 23.035 20.601 20.988 19.670 9.239 10.880 19.097 20.021 11.122 9.219 10.693 23.699 9.686 10.457 21.913 8.486 10.469 11.073 11.842 8.985 20.770 21.899 9.191 20.961 23.854 23.767 10.889 20.727 9.911 19.788 8.121 10.297 10.375 23.851 8.756 10.063 10.473 21.094 11.800 23.953 21.979 23.729 23.158 9.005 10.212 21.239 11.960 10.712 20.175 20.218 23.149 9.280 11.285 20.987 21.698 22.750 22.445 9.726 19.937 9.416 10.458 20.204 54° 234° 216° 36° 23.347 52° 232° 218° 38° 21.315 9.248 10.665 20.289 22.706 10.797 8.853 21.180 10.024 10.756 9.209 10.078 144° 324° 305° 125° 8.782 23.772 19.824 20.278 10.506 20.737 21.113 20.720 21.553 20.832 9.970 10.156 11.197 11.741 19.676 10.664 19.408 22.066 21.656 10.585 9.658 23.479 11.957 22.358 21.051 20.827 10.317 10.888 22.733 22.195 9.307 10.664 8.605 23.957 9.878 10.617 20.764 23.436 10.909 9.947 9.104 9.332 20.254 19.889 23.905 22.015 10.204 9.926 19.001 20.112 10.922 22.301 20.633 20.622 23.632 9.034 21.666 10.737 9.288 10.428 23.151 10.440 21.496 19.803 9.261 21.033 24.188 22.649 19.049 9.711 23.561 22.858 10.391 21.534 23.013 9.406 11.323 23.818 23.259 9.054 22.630 22.903 21.578 22.141 24.833 8.463 9.942 19.907 23.138 22.849 19.348 20.506 21.527 19.398 9.510 9.575 10.329 19.716 10.595 22.327 10.405 19.870 9.358 23.953 20.618 19.396 10.587 23.841 9.726 10.672 8.058 9.009 22.532 11.710 19.278 9.575 50° 230° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 119 .213 9.974 22.997 23.417 9.918 9.635 10.640 23.448 11.353 11.555 10.736 10.840 20.135 11.585 10.128 20.943 23.522 20.375 19.446 10. P8 215° 35° 24.537 20.082 20.931 8.073 10.490 20.569 23.776 20.920 21.244 21.680 19.542 19.456 10.389 9.937 20.256 22.011 11.510 22.681 20.886 8.385 11.623 9.177 9.140 9.269 20.207 20.808 20.096 23.238 20.288 23.621 21.803 21.241 9.605 10.765 53° 233° 217° 37° 22.864 19.410 23.070 22.259 11.254 20.859 8.078 23.775 9.836 22.163 21.199 10.634 19.125 11.466 19.130 23.087 24.919 10.222 20.238 19.499 23.235 23.909 10.083 11.834 19.015 23.087 22.249 11.301 11.408 21.754 21.293 21.364 11.925 23.032 11.937 21.495 10.539 21.269 9.323 22.370 9.651 9.949 8.699 8.022 9.017 21.459 22.425 22.359 19.171 22.361 9.511 11.376 10.200 23.787 21.053 10.743 8.868 10.443 20.784 9.969 20.121 22.765 9.887 21.374 11.995 9.442 22.066 20.333 9.647 22.603 19.390 19.815 8.880 9.176 11.767 22.451 19.604 9.299 19.063 11.420 19.044 10.895 8.305 23.991 11.104 11.427 20.671 21.676 23.179 21.654 21.408 9.218 11.277 21.928 9.375 21.904 8.113 141° 321° 308° 128° 10.680 9.872 23.877 8.760 20.761 8.309 21.170 10.131 21.054 143° 323° 306° 126° 9.482 9.296 9.395 20.970 21.696 10.148 23.306 9.476 10.557 9.976 9.501 11.664 22.807 10.689 9.797 10.704 21.605 21.708 9.770 8.186 9.861 9.160 10.535 10.123 24.564 11.416 11.813 9.207 11.501 9.625 10.525 10.958 8.113 23.426 9.273 22.474 20.505 10.991 22.787 10.193 140° 320° 309° 129° 10.595 10.250 9.520 9.967 8.819 22.868 8.051 24.572 19.205 22.253 23.615 10.082 21.977 8.995 10.269 19.595 9.557 19.614 9.649 20.481 23.034 10.957 19.287 9.986 8.364 20.466 10.168 9.037 22.258 10.228 11.695 19.922 8.393 23.446 23.747 23.160 20.223 9.076 9.522 11.144 20.411 20.229 10.803 19.003 21.851 9.822 9.681 8.820 21.899 10.787 19.905 20.939 10.642 9.687 21.613 22.696 20.544 22.889 9.548 9.067 9.380 9.744 20.082 10.801 22.929 10.343 11.395 11.316 20.131 9.239 22.454 9.870 22.746 9.347 10.950 51° 231° 219° 39° 20.734 8.104 22.939 22.342 21.836 23.872 20.291 11.322 11.837 21.386 10.493 22.094 9.031 9.545 10.553 11.324 9.131 10.588 21.001 11.638 21.435 9.980 10.543 11.332 11.232 9.406 10.728 20.690 8.756 19.895 19.576 9.555 21.888 10.777 10.228 21.165 23.792 20.340 23.779 8.565 10.343 9.838 10.092 10.715 22.746 10.141 10.511 19.424 21.314 19.340 22.061 23.S-Tables.806 8.437 11.646 10.050 21.527 22.190 10.379 20.223 19.374 22.004 19.572 21.681 22.569 20.752 8.481 19.921 20.019 20.357 10.187 11.426 10.004 9.114 11.105 24.040 9.284 19.718 9.552 23.848 10.973 19.585 20.463 23.708 8.856 20.113 9.268 10.155 22.490 11.529 9.145 11.784 22.069 24.588 19.515 10.042 11.222 22.940 8.986 9.166 11.344 19.367 10.312 11.114 21.435 19.538 9.306 22.817 10.950 10.196 21.098 21.270 23.270 11.052 11.391 22.522 21.490 21.352 9.427 11.818 19.326 21.794 9.473 9.337 10.102 10.066 142° 322° 307° 127° 9.208 19.853 22.020 22.085 9.147 21.357 22.726 8.476 22.

421 12.547 17.676 14.954 18.370 15.623 13.713 11.809 11.874 17.490 14.051 45° 225° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 120 .185 14.725 14.834 18.922 16.077 15.810 15.651 14.585 11.368 14.711 12.466 14.968 18.622 12.514 16.635 16.729 13.601 14.121 13.232 16.800 14.306 15.344 15.200 12.323 17.700 12.932 13.312 16.564 13.036 12.132 18.982 11.849 15.258 14.179 16.525 18.087 13.306 13.703 16.881 12.222 49° 229° 221° 41° 18.357 15.928 11.400 13.894 16.848 13.839 16.917 11.563 15.053 13.583 18.859 17.874 11.115 15.581 16.028 19.487 16.784 15.040 14.163 19.836 15.825 12.881 16.599 13.893 48° 228° 222° 42° 17.931 17.505 13.909 18.852 11.575 13.608 16.785 16.014 15.152 16.838 14.690 16.167 12.127 15.331 14.524 15.750 14.189 12.330 13.031 18.446 16.365 17.679 15.757 12.552 14.788 13.611 13.216 15.649 11.156 12.599 12.060 18.460 15.941 15.295 17.161 18.817 17.248 18.449 17.161 14.091 12.963 14.927 12.395 15.967 15.219 16.779 12.541 16.291 18.446 13.379 16.156 13.539 18.649 16.517 13.723 12.666 12.867 16.124 14.590 17.332 12.628 18.197 14.988 17.149 14.349 18.615 15.463 17.884 13.617 11.939 11.988 15.115 17.133 19.836 13.429 14.211 12.221 14.633 12.481 18.198 17.963 16.144 13.915 15.S-Tables.904 12.954 15.853 16.788 14.136 14.202 13.233 12.470 13.253 17.417 14.379 18.622 16.561 17.993 12.272 16.103 18.421 17.087 17.850 14.587 47° 227° 223° 43° 16.433 16.075 13.702 11.007 13.392 14.820 11.146 18.859 12.295 13.774 17.166 16.552 13.262 18.099 16.888 17.239 17.225 13.938 12.916 17.306 139° 319° 310° 130° 11.738 14.499 12.145 12.229 15.823 15.515 14.849 18.831 17.825 14.166 15.614 14.343 12.888 14.663 14.454 12.689 12.577 14.670 13.945 17.126 16.404 14.902 15.487 12.259 16.351 17.004 16.681 11.204 18.705 13.113 16.660 11.074 18.018 17.790 18.845 17.758 15.746 18.971 11.732 15.896 13.765 13.928 15.730 16.799 11.030 13.983 18.980 13.352 16.775 14.842 11.039 15.734 11.168 13.823 136° 316° 313° 133° 13.478 14.380 14.393 17.382 15.059 17.613 18.140 15.701 14.101 17.255 12.639 14.310 12.510 12.321 12.569 18.379 17.307 14.984 12.847 12.588 12.193 19.676 16.476 12.472 15.443 12.118 18.175 18.662 16.307 46° 226° 224° 44° 15.354 12.628 11.703 17.495 18.206 16.281 17.219 18.961 12.128 17.610 12.500 16.434 15.701 18.960 11.640 15.576 17.510 18.028 14.098 13.758 16.016 14.872 13.658 13.598 18.076 14.900 14.596 11.771 15.178 15.148 19.293 15.788 11.184 17.422 18.204 15.576 15.956 13.974 17.537 15.672 18.282 14.800 13.319 14.058 19.831 11.646 17.906 11.564 14.477 17.225 17.638 11.760 17.990 16.435 17.678 12.460 16.088 19.473 16.481 13.894 18.214 13.335 18.812 16.366 16.577 12.972 12.173 14. P9 220° 40° 19.498 15.519 17.554 16.004 12.376 12.820 18.408 15.123 12.408 18.309 17.745 17.318 13.272 13.178 12.724 11.178 19.043 19.920 13.618 17.950 12.280 15.355 14.233 18.376 13.421 15.191 15.365 12.283 13.014 12.692 11.938 14.716 18.566 12.466 18.670 11.033 16.860 13.604 17.112 14.458 13.007 15.674 17.245 16.554 12.060 16.142 17.688 14.802 17.949 16.032 17.018 13.437 18.102 15.977 16.744 16.406 16.047 12.080 12.058 12.025 12.255 15.465 12.527 16.493 13.209 14.939 18.766 11.318 15.112 12.788 17.045 17.432 12.813 12.717 13.731 18.248 13.915 12.682 13.511 15.777 11.879 18.777 13.266 12.862 15.419 16.895 11.756 11.642 18.885 11.568 16.133 13.870 12.686 18.222 12.170 17.435 13.705 15.589 15.875 14.763 14.554 18.976 14.745 12.020 16.410 12.365 13.064 14.532 12.002 17.013 18.288 12.745 11.888 15.944 13.441 14.503 14.980 15.606 11.824 13.156 17.277 12.041 13.046 16.179 13.270 14.026 15.134 12.533 17.893 12.836 12.653 15.341 13.741 13.595 16.064 13.326 16.103 19.589 14.306 18.451 18.089 15.968 13.521 12.628 15.760 18.153 15.387 12.491 17.543 12.064 15.364 18.745 15.797 15.285 16.550 15.802 12.951 14.118 19.771 16.447 15.393 18.805 18.191 13.717 16.632 17.004 14.694 13.646 13.073 19.052 135° 315° 314° 134° 14.622 137° 317° 312° 132° 12.692 15.277 18.505 17.407 17.423 13.528 13.086 16.089 18.713 14.826 16.863 11.666 15.626 14.527 14.995 13.791 12.813 14.902 17.812 13.453 14.734 12.959 17.294 14.139 16.001 15.602 15.540 14.994 15.718 15.908 13.260 13.998 18.100 14.073 16.485 15.926 14.246 14.908 16.299 16.190 18.102 12.212 17.073 17.768 12.017 18.320 18.717 17.233 14.267 15.775 18.237 13.575 11.935 16.798 16.192 16.913 14.689 17.388 13.046 18.587 13.052 14.299 12.863 14.731 17.660 17.655 12.924 18.540 13.393 16.875 15.753 13.949 11.864 18.339 16.634 13.411 13.449 138° 318° 311° 131° 12.657 18.644 12.399 12.110 13.242 15.331 15.353 13.343 14.069 12.244 12.337 17.088 14.267 17.992 14.

Appendix The Intercept 121 .

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