Formerly “The Armchair Celestial Navigator”

Concepts, Math, History, the Works, but Different Teacup Navigation Rodger E. Farley

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Contents
Preface Variable and Acronym List Early Related History Review of Fundamentals Celestial Navigation Concepts Calculations for Lines of Position Measuring Altitude with the Sextant Corrections to Measurements Reading the Nautical Almanac Sight Reduction Putting it Together and Navigating Star Identification Special Topics Lunars Coastal Navigation using the sextant Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet Making your very own Octant On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

6th Edition Copyright 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011 Rodger E. Farley Teacup Navigation Publishing. All rights reserved. My web site: http://mysite.verizon.net/milkyway99/index.html I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning, user beware! This is for educational purposes only.

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or dead-reckoning latitude Estimated longitude. or true altitude angle Calculated altitude angle Index correction Angular semi-diameter of sun or moon Upper limb of sun or moon Lower limb of sun or moon Greenwich hour angle Greenwich hour angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Declination angle Declination angle as tabulated at a specific integer hour Sidereal hour angle Local hour angle Uncorrected azimuth angle Azimuth angle from true north Hourly variance from the nominal GHA rate. arcmin per hour Eye height above the water. meters Correction for dip of the horizon due to eye height Correction to the tabular GHA for the variance v Correction to the tabular declination using rate d Correction to the tabular GHA for the minutes and seconds Correction to the sextant altitude for refraction. arcmin per hour Hourly declination rate. nautical miles Latitude Longitude Assumed latitude Assumed longitude Estimated latitude.Variable and Acronym List Hs Ha Ho Hc IC SD UL LL GHA GHAhour DEC DEChour SHA LHA Zo Zn v d heye CorrDIP Corrv Corrd CorrGHA CorrALT R Doffset LAT LON LATA LONA LATDR LONDR LOP LAN LMT Altitude angle as reported on the sextant scale Apparent altitude angle Observed. and semidiameter Correction for atmospheric refraction Offset distance using the intercept method. or dead-reckoning longitude Line of position Local apparent noon Local mean time 5 . parallax.

It would have seemed that the angle of rotation per day was 1/90 of a quarter circle. He hired a man to pace out the distance between Alexandria and Syene. 6 . The planets were mysterious and thought to be gods as they roamed around the night sky. a stick would cast a measurable shadow. Size of the Earth In the Near East during the 3rd century BC lived an astronomerphilosopher by the name of Eratosthenes. and the Mesopotamians further divided the hour into 60 minutes. If 500 miles was the arc length for 1/50 of a huge circle. that the constellation had turned ccw about ¼ of a circle.15 statute miles. a nautical mile. But how big was it? On June 21 he measured the angle cast by the stick and saw that it was approximately 1/50th of a full circle (7. who was the director of the Egyptian Great Library of Alexandria. Simple tools and an enlightened mind can produce extraordinary results. and this observation by Eratosthenes confirmed the curvature of the Earth. The Egyptians had divided the day into 24 hours. once per year ccw.2 degrees). mile comes from the Latin milia for 1000 double paces of a Roman soldier.Chapter One Early Related History Why 360 degrees in a circle? If you were an early astronomer you would have noticed that the stars rotate counterclockwise (ccw) about Polaris at the rate of seemingly once per day. He wondered that on the same day in Alexandria. who reported it was 500 miles. one could see the sun’s reflection at the bottom of deep wells (on tropic of Cancer). since the angle was further divided into 60 arcminutes per degree. In one of the scroll books he read that on the summer solstice June 21 in Syene (south of Alexandria). and 60 arcseconds per arcminute. considering he was less than 1% off. And that as the year moved on the constellation’s position would slowly crank around as well. which is quite a coincidence with the Babylonian base 60 number system which established the angle of an equilateral triangle as 60º. By the way. The ancient Greeks had hypothesized that the earth was round. You would have noticed that after ¼ of a year had passed. A degree could be thought of as a heavenly angular unit. only going thru certain constellations named the zodiac (in the ecliptic plane). or ~ 90 days. An arcminute of a great circle on the surface of our planet defined the unit of distance. It is easy to see the analogy between angle and clock time. then the Earth’s circumference would be 50 times longer. which = 1. 60 seconds per minute. or 50 • 500 = 25000 miles.

‘Running down the latitude’ from home to destination.changing latitude where safe to pick up trade winds Surveying techniques with absolute angles and relative angles 8 .

with a mean distance from the Sun equal to 1 AU (AU = Astronomical Unit = 149. If the Earth’s orbit were perfectly circular. When it’s farther away. This time difference between the mean Sun and true Sun is known as the Equation of Time. When we graph the Equation of Time in combination with the Sun’s declination angle. For several months at a time. We base our clocks on the mean Sun.Chapter Two Review of Fundamentals Orbits The Earth’s orbit about the Sun is a slightly elliptical one. and was not perturbed by any other body (such as the Moon. The definition and significance of solar declination will be explained in a later section. This leads to the situation where the true Sun is up to 16 minutes too fast or 14 minutes too slow from clock reckoning. This brings us to the next topic… Mean Sun The mean Sun is a fictional Sun. This means that the Earth is sometimes a little closer and sometimes a little farther away from the Sun than 1 AU. the position of the Sun in the sky if the Earth’s axis was not tilted and its orbit were truly circular. we produce a shape known as the analemma. and so the mean Sun is another way of saying the yearaveraged 24 hour clock time. 9 . The Equation of Time at local noon is noted in the Nautical Almanac for each day. it is like going downhill where the Earth travels a little faster thru its orbital path. When it’s closer.597. Mars. in which case the orbital velocity would be unvarying and it could act like a perfect clock. local noon of the true Sun will be faster or slower than clock noon due to the combined effects of Earth’s orbital eccentricity and orbital velocity. km).870. or Jupiter). it is like going uphill where the Earth travels a little slower. Venus.

However. Solar Year. That is our common solar (synodic) day of 24 hours. The difference between a Sidereal day and a Solar day 11 . that’s approximately 1 degree of orbital motion per day (360 degrees/365. the fixed stars as a guide clock. which is right ascension (RA). But due to the backward clockwise precession drift of the equinox (the Earth orbits counterclockwise as viewed above the North Pole). coincidentally (or not). That means inertially the Earth really turns about 361 degrees every 24 hours in order to catch up with the Sun due to orbital motion. the true inertial period of rotation is the time it takes the Earth to spin in 360 degrees using say. a sidereal day. the Earth’s orbital period with respect to an inertially fixed reference axis (fixed in the ‘ether’ of space. Solar Day There are 365.Sidereal Year. As a side note.256 solar days in a sidereal year. With 360 degrees in a complete circle. 23.242 days). Sidereal Day.242 solar days. The position of the stars can be measured as elapsed time from when the celestial prime meridian passed. our solar year (also referred to as tropical year) catches up faster at 365. this system of sidereal hour angle SHA is the negative of what an astronomer uses. That is a sidereal day. or in actuality with respect to very distant stars). and that number reduced to degrees of celestial longitude (SHA) due to the known rotational period of the Earth.93447 hours (~ 24 x 360/361). We base the calendar on this number as it is tied into the seasons.

Latitude and Longitude
I will not say much on this, other than bringing your attention to the illustration, which show longitude lines individually, latitude lines individually, and the combination of the two. This gives us a grid pattern by which unique locations can be associated to the spherical map using a longitude coordinate and a latitude coordinate. The prime N-S longitude meridian (the zero longitude) has been designated as passing thru the old royal observatory in Greenwich England (established 1884). East of Greenwich is positive longitude, and west of Greenwich is negative longitude. North latitude coordinates are positive numbers, south latitude coordinates are negative.

Maps and Charts
The most common chart type is the modern Mercator projection, which is a mathematically modified version of the original cylindrical projection. On this type of chart, for small areas only in the map’s origin, true shapes are preserved, a property known as conformality. Straight line courses plotted on a Mercator map have the property of maintaining the same bearing from true north all along the line, and is known as a rumb line. This is a great aid to navigators, as the course can be a fixed bearing between waypoints. If you look at a globe and stretch a string from point A to point B, the path on the globe is a great circle and it constitutes the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. The unfortunate characteristic of a great circle path is that the bearing relative to north changes along the length of the path, most annoying. On a Mercator map, a great circle course will have the appearance of an arc, and not look like the shortest distance. In fact, a rumb line course mapped onto a sphere will eventually spiral around like a clock spring until it terminates at either the N or S pole, known mathematically as a loxodrome. 12

Chapter Three

There are three common elements to celestial navigation, whether one is floating in space, or floating on the ocean. They are; 1) knowledge of the positions of heavenly bodies with respect to time, 2) measurement of the time of observation, and 3) angular measurements (altitudes) between heavenly objects and a known reference. The reference can be another heavenly object, or in the case of marine navigation, the horizon. If one only has part of the required 3 elements, then only a partial navigational solution will result. In 3 dimensions, one will need 3 independent measurements to establish a 3-D position fix. Conveniently, the Earth is more or less a sphere, which allows an ingeniously simple technique to be employed. The Earth, being a sphere, means we already know one surface that we must be on. That being the case, all we need are 2 measurements to acquire our fixed position on the surface. Here listed is the Generalized Celestial Navigation Procedure: Estimate the current position Measure altitude angles of identified heavenly bodies Measure time at observation with a chronometer Make corrections to measurements Look up tabulated ephemeris data in the nautical almanac Employ error-reduction techniques Employ a calculation algorithm Map the results, determine the positional fix The 4 basic tools used are the sextant, chronometer, nautical almanac, and calculator (in lieu of pre-calculated tabulated solutions). In this book and in most celestial navigation texts, altitudes (elevation angle above the horizon) of the observed heavenly object s are designated with these variables: Hs = the raw angle measurement reported by the sextant’s scale. Ha = the apparent altitude, when instrument errors and horizon errors are accounted for. Ho = the true observed altitude, correcting Ha for atmospheric refraction and geometric viewing errors (parallax) associated with the heavenly object.

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THE FOUR BASIC CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TOOLS

Sextant, Chronometer (time piece), Nautical Almanac, and a Calculator

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Geographical Position (GP) The geographical position of a heavenly object is the spot on the Earth’s surface where an observer would see the object directly over head. the zenith point. These are also known as circles of constant altitude. You can think of it as where a line connecting the center of the Earth and the center of the heavenly object intersects the Earth’s surface. This spotlight. For the most part. the GP is always changing. Not so for the Moon. Since the Earth is spinning on its axis. stars are so far away that their light across the solar system is parallel. even for Polaris since it is not exactly on the axis (it is close…) Circles of Position (COP) Every heavenly object seen from the Earth can be thought of as shining a spotlight on the Earth’s surface. At a given moment anybody anywhere on a particular circle will observe the exact same altitude for the object in question. cast concentric circles on the Earth’s surface about the GP. in turn. The Sun is sufficiently far away that light from any point on the Sun’s disk will be more or less parallel across the face of the Earth. 15 .

the center-to-center line direction from the Earth to the heavenly object is what is tabulated. The maximum parallax possible is when the altitude is equal to zero (moonrise. are guilty of.Parallax This is a geometrical error that near-by heavenly objects. it should be apparent that the parallax is a function of the altitude measurement. From the illustration. The particular parallax angle correction corresponding to the particular altitude is known as parallax-in-altitude PA. a near-by object casts more of a conical floodlight. The Moon’s parallax can be almost 1 degree. Instead of a spotlight of parallel light. The particular cone angle is not tabulated. namely the Moon. 16 . It is a constant number for anyone on a particular circle of constant altitude. if we know how far away the heavenly object is (which we do). and needs to be accounted for. The parallax can be calculated easily. The reason why parallax matters to us is because in the nautical almanac. and needs to be calculated and added to the observed altitude to make an apples-to-apples comparison to the information in the almanac. moonset) and is designated as the horizontal parallax HP.

and in the small vicinity of our estimated location on the map. One could be anywhere (within reason) on that line and measure the same altitude to the heavenly object. This line is necessarily perpendicular to the azimuth direction of the heavenly object. and so we draw it as a line tangent to the circle of constant altitude. 17 .Line of Position (LOP) Circles of Position can have radii thousands of miles across. the arc looks like a line.

noon. this is how navigating with the Sun is done while underway with observations in the morning. and if the navigator only has 2 heavenly objects and one is a mistake. then the first observation will require a ‘running fix’ correction. The circles intersect in two places. If you are underway and moving between observations. More often than not. See the illustration of the navigational fix to see the two possibilities with overlapping circles of constant altitude. In fact. The two measurements of time and altitude contain random errors and systematic errors. It is improbable that the navigator will misidentify the Sun or Moon (one would hope…). Since we know the azimuth directions of the observations. clocks that have drifted off the true time. he/she may find themselves in the middle of New Jersey instead of the middle of the Atlantic. to obtain a reliable fix. but measurement errors still need to be minimized. One can also have calculation errors and misidentification errors. providing you stay put.Navigational Fix To obtain a ‘fix’. Reducing the measurements to 2 LOPs. This will produce two different circles of constant altitude. your consistent mistaken technique. a unique latitude and longitude location. we will need two heavenly objects to observe. and is called the error box. correction errors. and where they intersect is the fix. or atmospheric optical effects different from ‘normal’ viewing conditions all need to be minimized with proper technique and attention to details. Perhaps you are always reading a smaller angle. This will require a ‘personal correction’. the navigational fix. the spot where it crosses the 1st line of position is our pin-point location on the map. and the only way to be on both circles in the same place is to be on one of the two intersections. We could of course measure the same heavenly object twice. which will be discussed later. the one true location becomes obvious. then running fix corrections can be applied here as well. 18 . This is assuming you are stationary for both observations. Systematic errors (constant value errors that are there all the time) such as a misaligned sextant. or you are always 1 second slow in the clock reading. and averaging the results in the hope that the random errors will have averaged out to zero. the navigator will be using 6 or more heavenly objects in order to minimize errors. If you’re not. Stars or planets can be mistakenly identified. The random errors in measurement are minimized by taking multiple ‘shots’ of the same object (~3) at approximately one minute intervals. and afternoon. but at different times of the day to achieve the same end. Measurement errors of angle and time put a box of uncertainty around that pinpoint location. not to mention that you can simply read the wrong numbers from the almanac. Another source of systematic error is your own ‘personal error’.

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you could measure the angle between the Sun and a known star. where this one measurement tells you only that you are somewhere on the surface of this imaginary cone. one of which will be collinear with one of the 1st pair. and you will create a football shaped Surface of Position. Make another measurement to a second star. Now. That is your position in 3-D. This is what star cones 1&2 actually are. If you used a third star instead of a planet. and you get a second cone. Make a third measurement between the Sun and a planet. with the ends of the football centered on the Sun and the planet (see pg 7). you would create another pair of intersection lines. There will exist a conical surface with the apex in the Sun’s center with the axis of the cone pointing in the star’s direction whereby any observer on that conical surface will measure the exact same angle. This third SOP intersects one of the two lines at one point. The football shape is merely the circular arc method revolved about an axis to create a 3-D surface. 20 . It will not get you a point. This is a Surface of Position.Surfaces of Position (SOP) If you were floating in space. which intersects the first one along two lines. You need to have a nearby object for the final fix. the only way to be on both cones at the same time is to be on either of those 2 intersection lines. the end points locally resemble cones. Notice that if the football shape enlarges to infinity.

However. The celestial sphere has an equatorial plane and poles just like the Earth. we can construct a transparent sphere which is like a giant bubble centered over the Earth’s center where the fixed stars are mapped.61 years due to the Moon’s precessing (wobbling) orbital plane tugging on the earth. and the slowest (but largest) lasting 18.5 arcseconds (3600 x arcTan(29. the quickest equal to ½ year due to the Sun’s influence. The stars do have a 3dimensional location in space. we define the celestial poles to be an extension of Earth’s poles.15 arcminutes. In our lifetimes. This effect can be as great as 20. In fact. The Earth is traveling at a mean orbital velocity of 29.77 kilometers/s. Aberration is the optical tilting of a star’s apparent position due to the relative velocity of the earth vs. the speed of light. We know the cone angle to be the same as the 23. but in 10000 years it will point and wiggle about Deneb. It is a construction of convenience. Their very slow movement is called proper motion. the stars are more or less fixed in inertial space. as well as annual aberration. It is fixed in space while the Earth rotates inside it. It just does not spin. However. When you run in the rain.44 degree tilt angle of the Earth’s axis. cycling once every 25800 years.Celestial Sphere The celestial sphere is our star map.77/299792)). their distance is so great that their dim light across the solar system is more or less parallel. the apparent location of a star changes slightly on the star map due to precession and nutation of the Earth’s axis. There are two periods of nutation. but for the purposes of navigation we mostly need to know only their direction in the sky. The same effect is true of light. Sun and our solar system planets on the inside of this sphere like a planetarium. but even that tilt angle wiggles (nutates) up and down about 0. and the two equatorial planes are virtually the same. Think of light as a stream of particles like rain (photons) speeding along at 299.792 kilometers/s. painting the stars. the Earth’s spin axis does not constantly point in the same direction. or epoch) mapped onto the celestial sphere is where you will also see the constellations of 21 . With that thought. We usually think of the North Pole axis always pointing at Polaris. It wiggles (nutates) around it now. the direction of the rain seems to tilt forward. 5000 years ago it pointed at Thuban and was used by the ancient Egyptians as the Pole Star! The Earth wobbles (precesses) in a cone-like shape just like a spinning top. That is. The ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane at a given reference date. It is not a physical sphere like the Earth’s surface. and the most effect from stars with the highest elevation from the ecliptic plane. For stars. We are on the inside of the bubble looking out. the North Star (it’s currently 41’ off from the pole). with the least effect from stars near the ecliptic plane.

a reference mean location for the equatorial plane is used. Local celestial sphere for a ground observer 22 . Since the Earth’s axis wiggles and wobbles. That point will travel westward to the right towards Aquarius thru the zodiac an average of 50. but we say Aries for nostalgia. it is referred to as Sidereal Hour Angle (SHA) and declination (DEC) respectively. all of these slight variations are accounted for in the tables of the nautical and astronomical almanacs. that point is now in the zodiacal constellation of Pisces.the zodiac mapped. Zenith is straight up. Local Celestial Sphere This is the celestial sphere as referenced by a local observer at the center with the true horizon as the equator. Instead of describing the location of a star on the celestial sphere map with longitude and latitude. The prime vertical circle runs from east to zenith to west. and is known as the Point of Aries. Due to precession of the Earth’s axis. Sidereal Hour Angle is a celestial version of west longitude. The local meridian circle runs from north to zenith to south. But this map needs a reference. Fortunately. That point just happens to be where the Sun is located on the celestial sphere during the spring (vernal) equinox. and therefore got special attention from the ancients. a zero point where its celestial prime meridian and celestial equator intersect. These are the constellations that we see planets traverse across in the night sky.3 arcseconds per year due to the 25800 year precession cycle. nadir is straight down. It is the point of intersection between the mean equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane. and declination is a celestial version of latitude.

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SHA and declination relate the position of a star in the star map. GHAAries is the position of the zero longitude of the star map. moon. is the west longitude of that object at a given instant in time relative to the Earth’s prime meridian. and GHAAries relates the star map to the Earth map. but due to the slight eccentricity of Earth’s orbit (mean vs. GHA can refer to any heavenly object that you are using for navigation. The Sun’s GHA is nominally zero at noon over Greenwich. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole 24 . relative to Greenwich zero longitude. including the position of the celestial prime meridian. the point of Aries. The declination (celestial latitude) of the star needs no ‘translation’ as it remains the same in the Earth map as in the star map. and planets move across this map continuously during the year. true sun) it can vary up to 4 degrees. The relationship for a star is thus: GHA = GHAAries + SHA = the Greenwich hour angle of a star.Greenwich Hour Angle GHA The Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) of a heavenly object. The sun. which varies continuously with time because of Earth’s rotation. Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole Greenwich Hour Angle of Aries GHAAries (or GHAγ ) The point of Aries is essentially the zero longitude and latitude of the celestial sphere where the stars are mapped.

At exact local noon.24 days it varies northwards 23. Due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of 23.Local Hour Angle LHA The Local Hour Angle (LHA) is the west longitude direction angle of a heavenly object relative to a local observer’s longitude (not Greenwich). A post-meridian passage (positive LHA.44 degrees. a premeridian passage (negative LHA or 180<LHA < 360) means that it is still morning. LHA = 0 Declination DEC As stated earlier.44 degrees. or LHA = GHA . The stars do not. or 0<LHA<180) means that it is literally after noon.44 degrees and southwards –23.360 Bird’s-eye view above the North Pole When we are speaking of the Sun.West Longitude Observer If the calculated value of LHA > 360. This is a crucial piece of information for the determination of latitude using the Sun. the declination of an object is the celestial version of latitude measured on the celestial sphere star-map. The Sun’s declination follows nearly a perfect sine wave where over the course of 365. This leads to the relationship: LHA = GHA + East Longitude Observer. 25 . then LHA = LHACALCULATED . the sun and planets change their declinations on the celestial sphere continuously during the year.

it is a positive number between 0 and 360 degrees westward For LHA. Ho. above the horizon is positive (+) Also if you are not aware. At 40 degrees latitude. or 180 <LHA < 360 For observed altitude. Solar declination as seen by an observer on the ground varying seasonally Sign Convention We should digress momentarily to establish the proper signs for numbers. and negative eastwards (pre meridian passage) -180 <LHA < 0.As one can see. For Declination: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Latitude: North is positive (+) South is negative (-) For Longitude: East is positive (+) West is negative (-) For GHA. maximum declination occurs with the summer solstice which has the longest hours of daily sun. 26 . the sun will rise directly from the east and set directly in the west. it is positive westwards (post meridian passage) 0 <LHA < 180. the minimum declination with the winter solstice having the shortest hours of sun. During the equinoxes. there are 6 more hours of daylight in the summer as compared to the winter. which make the mathematics consistent and unambiguous. and the spring and fall equinox (“equal night”) having equal day and night times corresponding to zero solar declination. in an equation A·B means A multiplied by B.

For a star that passes right overhead at the zenith. The Latitude is then 90 + DEC . at the zenith point. the latitude on the equator is zero. The altitude relative to the horizon would be approximately zero. We can generalize the matter by taking into account the declination of any particular star. If now instead we were sweating somewhere on the equator on a hill in Ecuador at night. Relative to the horizon. the North Star. we would observe that Polaris would be directly overhead. Also note that the declination of Polaris in the celestial sphere is about 90 degrees. Such a star can be the Sun.Ho. We could say generally that the observed altitude of Polaris is equal to the latitude of the observer (actually small corrections need to be made since Polaris is slightly off center from the pole). we can wait until the Sun is at its meridian passage (local apparent noon LAN) to make an altitude measurement Ho.Concepts in Latitude The simplest example to illustrate how latitude is determined is to consider Polaris. see the illustration to understand the geometry involved. as shown in the illustration. the star’s declination is equal to your latitude. To see why this is not really a coincidence. Now Polaris is not exactly on the north celestial pole. Our latitude at the North Pole coincidentally is also 90 degrees. but close enough for our intuition to work here. That makes for good emergency navigation. and if we know the declination for every hour of the year. Coincidentally. we would see Polaris just on the northern horizon. 27 . If we were sitting on Earth’s north pole (avoiding polar bears). it would have an altitude of approximately 90 degrees of angle.

You get the general picture. This idea was noted as early as 1530 by the Flemish professor Gemma Frisius. one then needs to have a clock set to the time in Greenwich England. local noon). with its ‘grasshopper’ escapement and twin balance-arm oscillator. it is the same. so the observer can determine the difference in angle (longitude) with respect to the prime meridian (zero longitude). What a contraption! But. The difference in angle between the observer and Greenwich.25 · 2 · 360 degrees per rev). and we have a stopwatch. one minute of arc (1/60 degree) corresponds to one nautical mile (n mi) of distance. UT is based on the time in Greenwich. a time error of 60 seconds will put the longitude off by 10 n mi. If we know the rotational speed. In mid latitudes. and a clock. in 2 hours it will have traveled 120 miles (60 · 2). but actually the true position of the Sun does not correspond with clock time as we have already described earlier. all we needed was knowledge of the speed. If a person on the Earth observes the Sun passing across the local N-S meridian line (in other words. That’s 360 degrees in 24 hours. To determine distance. It is easy to see now how a time error (either the clock is off or the time is read wrong) can put the longitude determination way off. You will recall. and observes the time to be 15:00 UT. The Earth’s circumference is then equal to 21600 n mi (1nm per arcmin x 60 arcmin per deg x 360 deg per full circle).25 · 2). 28 .15 statute miles. Pendulum clocks were not suitable for the motion of ships. is 15 deg/hour x 3 hours = 45 degrees of longitude in the westward direction. and it was John Harrison in 1735 that made the first semi portable clock. It rotates once in 24 hours with respect to the position of the mean Sun in the sky. zero longitude. that’s 3 hours past noon in Greenwich. This is also equivalent to ¼ n mi per second of time. It is no coincidence that along a great arc on the Earth (such as the equator). This is why the chronometer needs to be synchronized with Greenwich time. For a rotating object. say ¼ revolutions per minute (RPM). it was the start of marine chronometers that could take the rocking and rolling of a ship and not lose a beat. in 2 minutes it should have rotated ½ revolution(0. or 180 degrees(0.Concepts in Longitude If we think of a car traveling at 60 mph. It is a little off due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. One nautical mile is equal to 1. Now let’s think of the Earth. The upshot of all this explanation is that to know longitude. or 15 degrees per hour (360/24). The maximum surface speed of rotation for Sun observations will occur along the equator at 15 n mi per minute of time (21600 n mi per day/(24hr per day x 60 min per hr)).

You make corrections to obtain the true altitudes. the value of Signnoon is -1. when the meridian passage is northwards such as commonly occurs in S. The method has certain steps to maintain accuracy. Take sightings with your sextant several minutes before LAN. and so. in or out of the tropics. and plot this information as true altitude versus time. if your chronometer is inaccurate then the longitude will be off considerably since you are in essence comparing the local time with time in Greenwich. obtain the GHA and declination of the Sun (DEC) at the time of LAN. The technique is to predict approximate local apparent noon (LAN) for your estimated longitude from dead reckoning navigation. If you don’t know which pole you’re on then you should have stayed home. This equation works whether you are in the northern or southern hemispheres. determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . whether the sun peaked in the south or in the north. the value of Signnoon is +1. by introducing a new variable Signnoon. then you are exactly on either the north or south pole.Traditional Noon Sighting The noon sighting is an old way of determining latitude and (with misgivings) longitude. the trigonometry disappears and reduces down to mere arithmetic. From the plot you can smooth the curve and determine the highest point (Honoon) and estimate the time of LAN to within several minutes or better of Universal Time (~10-20 n miles of longitude error). Using the nautical almanac. In keeping with the consistent sign convention. then subtract 180 from it. When the meridian passage is southwards such as commonly occurs in N. and it will all come out fine.GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 Remember. Just follow the sign convention. Thus: Latitude = Signnoon · Honoon + DEC + 90 If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. 29 . as the azimuth is unambiguously known as either due south or due north. We will now make a distinction regarding the direction of meridian passage. If Signnoon · Honoon + DEC is equal to zero. latitudes. Here. Remember the sign convention and apply it. the local hour angle LHA is zero. and with a sighting every minute. latitudes. It will be off considerably anyway due to the plotting estimates. For longitude. capture the highest point in the sky that the Sun traveled plus some sightings after meridian passage.

5 For longitude. then subtract 180 from it. Time of LAN = (Time #1 + Time #2) *0. The latitude will be derived from measurement #2. and so determine the sun’s GHA at the instant of LAN using the almanac: Longitude = . Half that is 0:10:36 difference. Finally. The moment the altitude matches the pre-positioned setting. For southwards meridian passage. From the almanac. you can shoot the sun for a reference point of altitude and time. Latitude = Signnoon · Ho#2 + DEC + 90 (remember the sign for DEC) If this calculated latitude is greater than 90 degrees. set the sextant to the altitude setting that you had in measurement #1. the local hour angle LHA is zero. Noon will be at the average between time measurements #1 and #3. Then keep track of the sun with the sextant and when it reaches the maximum altitude. and a northerly passage = -1. record this as your measurement #2. so add that to T#1 and you get 19:37:67 which is 19:38:07 as LAN (67 seconds = 1 min+7 sec). and T#3 = 19:48:43. Signnoon = +1. 30 .GHA if GHA is less than 180 Longitude = 360 – GHA if GHA is greater than 180 If for example T#1 = 19:27:31. and observe the sun. determine the sun’s declination DEC. Record this as your measurement #1.3-Measurement Noon Sighting: Double Altitudes There is an antiquated technique to determine latitude and longitude with a noon sighting using 3 measurements. 15 minutes before LAN. then the difference between them is 21 min and 12 sec. record the time (UTC).

Plane Trigonometry The simplest notion of ‘trig’ is the relationship of the sides and angles in a triangle. B. and three surface angles A. Every intersecting pair of Great Circles is the same as having two intersecting planes.α) Spherical Trigonometry Three Great Circles on a sphere will intersect to form three inner corner angles a. b. with the law of sines and the law of cosines (spherical trigonometry) being the most relevant to navigation. which your calculator will approximate by truncating the series after evaluating only a few terms. The angles between the intersecting planes are the same as the surface angles on the surface of the sphere. Relationships between the corner angles and surface angles have been worked out over the centuries. On your calculator it might be ASIN. ArcSin or arcCos is the inverse function. All you have to know are these three basic relationships: sine (α) = Lo / R shorthand is sin(α) cosine (α) = La / R shorthand is cos(α) tangent (α) = Lo / La shorthand is tan(α) The values of these trigonometric functions can be expressed as an infinite series. c. or InvSIN. Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C) Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles by using the useful identies: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A) 31 . C. Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚.α) cos(α) = sin(90˚.

LAT Most authorities will examine 4 cases concerning North or South declination and latitude. If you substitute a co-altitude (like 90-H) into the co-altitude formula (90-a). and the surface angles are related to azimuth and LHA angles. c are related to altitude. and declination angles. The modified law of cosines formula for co-altitudes becomes: sin(H) = sin(Lat) · sin(DEC) + cos(Lat) · cos(DEC) · cos(LHA). so 90-(90-H) = H . As can be seen in the drawing the “coangles” are 90˚ – the inner corner angle: Co-altitude = 90˚ – H Co-declination = 90˚ – DEC Co-latitude = 90˚ . latitude. we need only concern ourselves with the one picture. The inner corner angles corresponding to the arc sides are modifications of the altitude. in that the inner corner angles a. 32 . a = 90-H. b. latitude and declinations.The Navigational Triangle The navigational triangle applies spherical trigonometry. But if a consistent sign convention is used.

INVCOS. the law of cosines gives us this relationship for the calculated altitude Hc: Hc = arcSin[ Sin(LatA) · Sin(DEC) + Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] Where LatA is the assumed latitude. then Z = Zo If S. You will eventually compare this calculated altitude to a measured altitude. 33 . DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180). This is important to extract the proper values of GHA and declination from the nautical almanac. arcSin or arcCos on your calculator could also be designated as ASIN. then Z = 180 – Zo True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. Zn = 360 – Zo Post meridian check can also be established if: Sin(LHA) > 0 Remember. Dead reckoning is the method of advancing from a last known position by knowing the direction you headed in. latitudes. Remembering to use the sign convention. or 180<LHA < 360). You must be talking about the same instant in time for a correct comparison. ACOS. how fast you were going. then subtract 360 from the calculated LHA.Chapter Four Calculations for Line of Position The calculated altitude is a way of predicting the altitude of a heavenly object by first assuming a latitude and longitude for a hypothetical observer and working out the problem backwards. and how long you went. and so the calculated altitude must correspond to the same time as the measured altitude. The math becomes direct and unambiguous when done in this manner. LonA is the assumed longitude and the calculated local hour angle LHA = GHA + LonA If LHA is greater than 360. or INVSIN. The uncorrected azimuth angle Zo of a heavenly object can also be calculated as thus: Zo = arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(LatA) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(Hc)}] Corrected azimuth angle Z (not used in any of the equations here) If N. latitudes. The obvious choice of assumed latitude and longitude is the estimated position by dead reckoning.

you are further away. The offset distance DOFFSET to determine the true line of position is equal to: DOFFSET = 60 · (Ho . and needs all the appropriate corrections applied to make it an ‘observed altitude’). From an assumed position of latitude and longitude. we only have two cases to examine to obtain the true azimuth angle. S-N) rules do not apply here. you draw a line thru the pin-point assumed latitude and longitude. Line of Position by the Marcq Saint-Hilaire Intercept Method This clever technique determines the true line of position from an assumed line of position and is the basis of modern sight reduction. If negative. the true circle will cross the azimuth line at the intercept point.Hc). S-S) or opposite name (N-S. Let’s say you measured the altitude of the Sun at a given moment in time. All texts on celestial that I know of will list 4 cases due to the inconsistently applied signs on declination and latitude. then parallel offset your assumed line of position in the azimuth direction towards the heavenly object. then draw it away from the heavenly object. Offsetting along the radial azimuth line.Hc). you may want to assume a different longitude and latitude to minimize errors. If DOFFSET is positive.By using the sign convention. If the offset is greater than 25 nautical miles. altitudes Ho and Hc in decimal degrees. If not. You look up the GHA and declination of the Sun in the nautical almanac corresponding to the time of your altitude measurement. knowing that the actual circle of constant altitude is concentric to the calculated one. Classical same name (N-N. or DOFFSET = (Ho . you have created one circle of constant altitude about the geographical position. The difference in observed altitude and calculated altitude informs you how much smaller or larger the actual circle is. This is your assumed line of position. DOFFSET is in nautical miles for both cases. you calculate the altitude and azimuth of the Sun according to the preceding section and arrive at Hc and Zn. On your map. By calculating an altitude. The true line of position will be offset from this line either towards the sun or away from it after comparing it to the actual observed altitude Ho (the raw sextant measurement is Hs. angled perpendicular to the azimuth angle. You could also simply remember that a higher observed altitude means you are closer to the geographical position GP. altitudes in minutes of arc. 34 .

35 .

We could practically draw the entire circle on the map. Mark the map. The procedure is to input an assumed latitude. just like a noon shot.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Where LatA is the assumed latitude. we draw a small arc in the vicinity of our dead reckoning position. In fact. These are two points on the circle in the vicinity of your dead reckoning position. Now input a slightly different latitude. the answer can be the angle A or the angle -A. This method turns into an E-W LOP when near the meridian passage. All we need do is to rearrange the equation of calculated altitude. an east and west solution. Check both just to make sure. which will give us longitude. Also. there are 2 solutions for longitude. to make it the observed altitude instead and to solve the equation for LHA. the fact that only the assumed latitude is required means no estimated position of the longitude is needed at all.Line of Position by the Sumner Line Method If we measure the altitude of a heavenly object and make all the proper corrections. There is no azimuth calculation. this reduces to the observed altitude Ho. 36 . The two values for assumed latitude could be the dead reckoning latitude LatDR + 0.1 degree. Or were they? Was the answer for longitude unreasonably off? Notice that for every latitude line that crosses the circle. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): LonC = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .1 and – 0. As we should know by now.Sin(DEC) · Sin(LatA)}/{Cos(LatA) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): LonC = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . there is a circle surrounding the geographical position of the heavenly object where all observed altitudes have the same value Ho. connect the dots and you have a Sumner Line. and out pops a slightly different longitude. the GHA and declination for the time of observation. Mark longitude and latitude on the map. and out pops a longitude. The advantage to this method is that the LOP comes out directly without offsets. why an arc at all. a straight line will do just fine. LonC is the calculated longitude DEC is of course the declination of the heavenly object. since at the map scale that interest us. but why bother? What if instead. In the arcCos function. just two calculations with the same equation having slightly differing latitude arguments.

37 .

After passing 21 deg west longitude. and so where he might not know exactly where he was.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat1)}/{Cos(Lat1) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Declination and GHA of the sun was from the almanac and the time mark from the sun shot.History of the Sumner Line The Sumner line of position takes its name from Capt. Sumner rightfully concluded that all three points saw the same observed altitude of the Sun. At that point the wind backed from the south to the south east making the coast a lee shore. He was within 40 miles of the Tuskar lighthouse off the coast of Ireland by dead reckoning with the weather getting worse at around midnight December 17th. he noticed that all three of the points were on a line. This line just happened to cross Smalls Light as well.C. and was bound for Greenock. he noticed the 2nd position was 27 miles ENE of the 1st position He did this a 3rd time with another 10’ more northerly latitude assumption and calculated a 3rd longitude: Lon3 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . who discovered the technique serendipitously and published it. He then assumed a second latitude (Lat2) 10’ north of his dead reckoning towards the coast: Lon2 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . and then kept on a course of ENE. Thomas H. he was unsure of his dead reckoning latitude. The longitude was 15’ east of his dead reckoning position. He kept close to the wind tacking back and forth until daylight. I recount here his discovery. Ireland. Lon1. paraphrased from his book: Capt. but going so long since the last observation.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat2)}/{Cos(Lat2) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA Marking the chart with the location Lat1. Capt. Lon3). he had no observations due to thick weather until he came close to land. Sumner sailed from Charleston S. within an hour he saw Smalls Light and made his landfall. Coincidentally his course was on that line as well. Sumner. At about 10 am local time he was able to make a sun shot observation.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat3)}/{Cos(Lat3) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA After plotting this third point on the chart (Lat3. Lon2. and then with Lat2. and he continued to sail ENE. Thus the Sumner Line method was discovered accidently by practice. 1837. an American ship-master. 38 . he knew he was somewhere on that line. on November 25th. A longitude (Lon1) with his uncertain latitude (Lat1) was calculated: Lon1 = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .

you are correctly holding the sextant and can take a reading. The horizon however. In order not to burn your eye out (that would be stupid…). allowing you to see the horizon and heavenly object simultaneously in the same pupil image. In order to determine the altitude of the Sun. which is really a half mirror. as the horizon and Sun move together in the combined image. reflecting some light and transmitting the rest. curiously. and the twice-reflected sun on the right if you use a ‘traditional’ mirror as opposed to a ‘whole horizon’ mirror. This allows for a ‘shake-free’ view. silvered on the right and clear on the left. Likewise. Rock it back and forth to make sure you have the lowest reading. With a whole horizon mirror. you will see a whole image of the sun in the pupil that you can move to the right or left by rocking the sextant side to side. will only be on the left side of the image. you change the angle of the first mirror (index mirror) with the index arm until the Sun is close to the horizon in the pupil image. When it is at its lowest point. both horizon and Sun will be in the entire view. really) twice with two flat mirrors in order to combine it with a straight-thru view. there are other filters that cover the horizon mirror to remove the glare and increase the contrast between horizon and sky.Chapter 5 Measuring Altitude with the Sextant The sextant is a wonderfully clever precision optical instrument for which we can thank Sir Issac Newton for the design. 39 . It reflects the image of the Sun (or anything. Even with the traditional mirror. This makes the easy shots easier. but the more difficult shots with poor illumination or star shots more difficult. You see the horizon unchanged on the left. Now turn the precision index drum (knob) until the lower limb of the Sun just kisses the horizon. there are filters (shades) that can be rotated over the image path of the index mirror. The straight-thru view is accomplished with the second mirror (horizon mirror). It does this by partial silvering of the entire horizon mirror like some sunglasses are. The glass surface itself is reflective.

40 .

you need to compare the position of the rear of the glass to the pivot axis first to see if this technique will work. Now roll (tilt) the sextant side to side. I mean a star). You will see the horizon on the left and the reflected horizon on the right. This is corrected with adjustments to the set screw that is perpendicularly away from the plane of the arc on the horizon mirror. Known as Perpendicularity Alignment. If not. it is checked in a round-about manner by finding the image of the arc in the index mirror when viewed externally at a low angle. then side error exists. 41 . The reflections should be parallel to the actual cylinders. This positions the index mirror reflecting surface 2 to 3 mm or so in front of the pivot axis. you should get into the habit of calibrating and if necessary adjusting the mirrors to minimize the errors. In that case. First surface mirrors (the silvering is on the front of the glass) seem to be an upgrade. This can be done two ways after setting the arc to the zero angle point such that you see the same object on the left and right in the pupil image. The first check is to see if the index mirror is perpendicular to the sextant’s arc. Set the arc to about 45 degrees. The next alignment is Side Error Alignment of the horizon mirror. The horizontal separation is the side error.Mirror Alignments Even an expensive precision instrument will give you large errors (although consistent systematic error) unless it is adjusted and calibrated. Since most mirrors are secondary surface mirrors (the silvering is on the back of the glass). then turn the set screw behind the index mirror to bring it into perpendicular alignment. the reflected image of the arc should be slightly below the viewed actual arc. Adjust the drum knob to negate the index error effect until the star and its reflection are vertically line-to-line but still separated horizontally. This can be tricky. and the vertical separation is the index error. First. Before any round of measurements are taken. where a point source that is nearly infinitely far away presents itself (yes. Same procedure as before except that you need not roll the sextant. Make adjustments to the side-error set screw until the points of light converge to a single image point. Adjust the index drum until they are in perfect alignment while holding the sextant upright. The reflected arc in the index mirror should be in line with the actual arc. but the sextant’s manufacturer may not have necessarily redesigned the mirror-holding mount. Second method is to wait until nighttime. as it only works if the mirrored surface is exactly along the pivot axis of the index arm. at sea in the daytime. What you will see is two points of light. point the sextant at the horizon. There are precision-machined cylinders about an inch high that you can place on the arc and view their reflections. Is the horizon and reflected image still line-to-line? If not.

With a little practice these procedures will be easy and routine. you can even use the sun’s disk to adjust the mirrors. set the arc to zero (index arm and drum to the zero angle position). Unfortunately this last set screw does not only change the vertical separation. reading the drum to determine the index error IE (Note: index correction IC = . A word of caution: the little wrench used to adjust the set screws maybe very difficult to replace if you should drop it overboard. their contrails. Or you could continue to zero out the index error as well with a last series of adjustments. You will notice that the star image now has two points separated vertically. In which case. 42 . and even cloud edges to adjust the mirrors (low accuracy…). Making a little hand lanyard for the wrench will preserve it. Maybe… Note: I have also used high altitude jet aircraft. for the Index Error Alignment. you can eliminate the vertical separation.You could stop here at this point. If you have dark enough horizon shades. Adjusting the remaining set screw on the horizon mirror (which is near the top of the mirror).IE). but it slightly affects the horizontal separation as well. Now you need to play around with both set screws until you zero-in the two images simultaneously.

So. Depending on the phase of the moon. and to simply let her rise or set as the case may be to the horizon. Careful with the sun. lower limb With an object such as the Sun or Moon. 43 . as you don’t want to see it unfiltered thru the horizon glass. letting her set Often it is easier to set the sextant ‘ahead’ of where the heavenly object is going. you just have to glance to the side a little to see the time. to hold the chronometer such that at the time of mark. keep the sun on the right hand side of the mirror using the darkest shade over the index mirror. Rocking for the lowest position Rocking the sextant from side to side will help you determine when the sextant is being pointed in the right direction and held proper. Upper limb. as the object will find its lowest point. Unless the Sun is partially obscured by clouds.Sighting Techniques Bringing the object down Finding the horizon is much easier than finding the correct heavenly object in the finder scope. the lower limb is generally used. either lower limb or upper limb is used. sort of. Letting her rise. That way you can be rocking the sextant to get the true angle without also fiddling with the index drum. ‘lower’ it down to the horizon by increasing the angle on the index arm until the horizon is in sight. you can choose which limb to use. the best technique is to first set the index arm to zero degrees and sight the object by pointing straight at it. This leaves a hand free. At that point you mark the time. the lower limb or upper limb. This will give the true sextant altitude Hs. Then keeping it in view.

Kamal 45 . Astrolabes. Quadrant.VARIOUS ANTIQUE INSTRUMENTS Octants. Back Staff. Cross Staff.

For our example of the bathroom scale. and dip. refraction and dip are on the order of 1/20th degree. IC = -3.Chapter 6 Corrections to Measurements There are numerous corrections to be made with the as-measured altitude Hs that you read off of the sextant’s arc degree scale and arc minute drum and vernier. semidiameter. refraction. Your zero point on the scale could be off. Lunar parallax can be at most a degree. and the correction is IC. The Hs in the figure does not account for the index error. 46 . listed from the largest effect to the smallest. semi-diameter ¼ degree. The other major corrections are parallax. the same as the bathroom scale when you notice that it says you weigh 3 lbs even before you get on it. This is known as index error. IC.

semi-diameter.0293 · SquareRoot(heye) Decimal Degrees arc minutes Corr DIP = . The table also lists slight deviations from the nominal for listed planets. The true observed altitude is a matter of adding up all the corrections: Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 47 .1. These corrections are tabulated on the 1st page of the nautical almanac based on the apparent altitude Ha. This is also tabulated in the nautical almanac. Index error is due to the angular misalignment of the index mirror. meters. Distance to visible horizon as a function of eye height above the water: Altitude Corrections Let us first define the apparent altitude.0. The correction IC is negative when the zero is “on the scale”. parallax and refraction. Generally it’s negligible. with respect to the zero point on the scale. dipping below the true horizon due to your eye height above it. the angle of the Sun’s visual radius (semi-diameter) must be accounted for.The sextant basically has an index correction IC and an instrument correction I. Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Ha is the altitude without corrections for refraction. sometimes called the ‘Main Correction’. solar or otherwise. or parallax. lunar. Since measurements are made to the edge (limb) and not the center of the Sun. is Corr ALT. and whether you are using the lower or upper limb of the Sun for your observations. The atmosphere bends (refracts) light in a predictable way. The variable name for all of these combined altitude error corrections. By adjusting the drum knob as described on pages 39 and 40 to negate the optical index error. Corr DIP is always negative. An approximate equation for dip correction that incorporates a standard horizon refraction is thus: Corr DIP = . which include the effects of lunar semi-diameter. one can see if the zero is on or off the scale. There are special lunar correction tables at the end of the almanac. and should be listed on a calibration sheet from the manufacturer. Dip Correction Dip is the angle of the visual horizon. The instrument error is due to manufacturing inaccuracies and distortions.758 · SquareRoot(heye) Where heye is the eye height above the water. The corrections vary for different seasons. and positive when “off the scale”.

5' -18.5' -2.Tables of Altitude and Dip Correction.5' 17 +13' -19' -3' 20 +13.5' -16.5' -0.4m Corr -1.0m 2.5' 85 +16' -16' 0 Dip Correction Height 0.3m 2.5' DIP Graph of Dip Correction. for when land is used as horizon 48 .7m 1. averaged values For simplified corrections.5' -17.5' -3' -3.5' -2' -2. use these tables instead of the Nautical Almanac. deg LL UL Stars 10 +11' -21' -5' 13 +12' -20' -4' 15 +12.5' -4' -4. Altitude correction for sun and stars ALT Corr Sun Sun Ha.1m 6.5' 24 +14' -18' -2' 31 +14.5' -3.5' -1.9m 5.9m 3.5' 41 +15' -17' -1' 59 +15.5' -19.

meaning the observer is a very little closer to the moon with greater altitude angle. and you must convert it to decimal degrees.2724 · HP · (1 + Sin(Ha)/60. then signlimb = -1 Observed altitude with refinements: Ho = Ha + R + PA + SD · signlimb Here we see that the altitude correction Corr ALT = R + PA + SD · signlimb Note: Convert arcminutes to decimal degrees for consistent calculations 49 . HP for the Sun = 0. For Venus.5) The terms in the parenthesis are “augmentation”. but this is rarely included as being so small a value. To determine the parallax-in-altitude PA.25) includes earth oblateness The semi-diameter of the Sun SD is given at the bottom of the page of the tables in the nautical almanac in minutes of arc. listed as ‘Additional Corrn ’. If the lower limb were observed. Start with the apparent altitude Ha: Ha = Hs +IC + Corr DIP (assume instrument correction I ~ 0) The horizontal parallax for the Moon is given in the nautical almanac tables as the variable HP in minutes of arc. This standard refraction correction Ro is thus: Ro = .28 · Pressuremb / (TemperatureDEG C + 273) The final refraction correction R is thus: R = Ro · f This number is always negative. and you must convert it to decimal degrees.4)] degrees The correction for non-standard atmospheric conditions is referred to as f: f = 0. So is the semi-diameter daily average of the Moon.0024 degrees. Atmospheric refraction is standardized to surface conditions of 10 deg C and 1010mb pressure. and refinements can be employed for non-standard conditions. then signlimb = +1 If the upper limb were observed.Refinements Corrections for observations can be calculated instead of using tables.0167 / Tan[Ha + 7. use this equation: PA = HP · Cos(Ha) · (1 –(Sin2(Lat))/298.31/(Ha+4. Use the largest number at zero altitude to = HPVenus. the HP is hidden in the altitude correction tables.0. This is a small term. but you can calculate one based on the hourly value of HP: The semi-diameter of the Moon: SD = 0.

as normally you would be looking at a horizon. measure the time. it can be used as a reflecting plane. Undoubtedly you will need to position extra filters over the horizon mirror to darken the Sun’s image.Artificial horizon A fun way of practicing sighting the Sun while on land is to use an artificial horizon. In essence you point the sextant to the pan of liquid where you see the reflection of the Sun. The ripples dampen out almost immediately. This is simply a pan of water or old motor oil that you place down on the ground in view of the Sun. let the top image set onto the reflected image. With the micrometer drum bring both images together (no semi-diameter corrections either) and take your reading. If pre meridian (morning) then let the bottom image rise onto the reflected image. as it will ripple the water’s surface and therefore the reflected image. This gives a reading nearly twice the real altitude. and SUBTRACT a semidiameter (UL): Ho = Ha + R . Protective wind guards around the pan work somewhat. you can let the sun touch limb-to-limb. Move the index arm until you bring the real Sun into the pupil image with the index mirror. Correct the reading by taking the apparent altitude Ha and divide by two. and ADD a semidiameter (LL): Ho = Ha + R + SD 50 . measure the time. Since the liquid will be perfectly parallel with the true horizon (no dip corrections here).SD If post meridian (afternoon). but generally you may have to wait minutes for a perfect calm. What works best is mineral oil in a protected pan set up on a tripod so that you can get right up to it. To be very accurate. then add the refraction correction: Ha = (Hs + IC)/2 Ho = Ha + R no dip correction no semi-diameter correction The wind is very bothersome.

add the interpolated increment for the minutes and seconds. Our sign convention imposes that a south declination is negative. but have a positive d if declination is becoming less southwards. If the tabulated hourly data for declination is advancing northwards (less southwards). Remember the sign convention. The data is tabulated for each hour on the dot for every day of the year. We could have a negative declination (south). and how to properly apply the mysterious v and d corrections. Mars.Chapter 7 Reading the Nautical Almanac The nautical almanac has detailed explanations in the back regarding how to read the tabular data and how to use the interpolation tables (increments and corrections). Every left hand page in the almanac is similar to all other left hand pages. then the sign is positive. Saturn and 57 selected stars. Hours UT at your longitude. you can express the event time in UT with the following equation: EventTimeLOCAL = LMT – Longitude/15. sunset. and their applicable fraction (the correction Corr V and Corr d) is given in the interpolation tables for the minute of the hour. Along the same line. The v and d correction is interpolated only for every minute. with variances to the rates compensated with the v and d values. and moonset at the prime meridian. The left page contains tabular data of GHA and declination for Aries (declination = 0). take the tabulated hourly value Dec and add the interpolated d correction. the value of d (with our sign convention) may be positive or negative. and a north declination is positive. GHA. so d is the direct hourly rate of change of declination. This way. Interpolation tables. These are hourly variances. The interpolation tables (‘increments and corrections’) are based on nominal rates of change of GHA for the motions of the Sun and planets. East +. For your particular locality. we could have a positive declination (north) but a negative d if the declination is 51 . only one set of interpolation tables is required. Jupiter. It also provides the Local Mean Time (LMT) for the events of sunrise. The right page has similar data for the Sun and Moon. Similarly for declination. and the same for all right hand pages. v and d corrections Probably the most confusing part of the tables is interpolation for times between hourly-tabulated data. A word of caution. the interpolation tables will tabulate increments (Corr GHA) down to the second of each minute. Take the hourly data in the tables. West -. and finally add the interpolated v correction. Venus. For GHA. moonrise. The v number refers to variances in the nominal GHA rate. Moon. Three days of data are presented for every left and right hand page pairs. and Aries. There is no nominal rate for changes in declination. and you must interpolate for the minutes and seconds between hours.

Corr V. Unfortunately the almanac has no sign for d so you must devine the correct sign by looking at the progression of DEC. convert the angles to decimal degrees and make sure the sign convention was applied consistently to the declination value. Corr GHA. Notably.com. liberal use is made of the correction factor Corrn. Carry out all calculations to 4 decimal places. Since we like to use our calculators.tecepe. and second are thus: GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEC hour + Corr d Where GHAhour and DEC hour are the table values in the almanac for the hour. the correct interpolated value for our specific time of observation is thus: GHA = GHAhour + {Rate + (v/60)} · ∆t decimal degrees Where Rate = 15. The final values at the particular hour. The n is actually a variable name for any of the parameters that require ‘correction’. v/60 and d/60 converts arcminutes per hour to degrees per hour.00000 (degrees/hour) for Sun or planets Rate = 14. Lets say we shot an observation at Universal Time H hours. M minutes. Corr ALT. and make sure the sign convention was applied correctly (carpenter’s rule: measure twice. We do the same for the declination and call it DEC hour. which are the minutes and seconds in decimal form: ∆t = (M/60) + (S/3600). and S seconds (H:M:S). minute.isa 52 . We can also define the hour fraction. Visit an on-line Nautical Almanac at: http://www. instead of using the ‘increments and corrections’ table (it’s actually very easy) we can interpolate for ourselves in the following manner. After all the interpolations and corrections are performed. declination is interpolated thus: DEC = DEC hour + (d/60) · ∆t (DEC hour and d with the proper sign) Note. It seems to appear everywhere and applied to everything. We convert it to decimal degrees and call it GHAhour. ∆t. Note: In the nautical almanac.heading south (less northwards). Now. cut once).31667 (degrees/hour) for Moon Rate = 15.04107 (degrees/hour) for Aries In a similar line.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI. and Corr d. Note the hourly variance v and declination rate d in arcminutes per hour. The nautical almanac tables for the particular day gave us a GHA in degrees and arcminutes at the UT hour. Corr DIP.

53 .

54 .

at the h hour on the UT date: GHA table = ____________ v = ___________ DEC table = ____________ (1) d = ___________ (careful of the sign) SHA = _____________ if star Increment of GHA for the m minutes and s seconds CorrGHA = ___________ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = ___________ (2) GHA = GHA table + CorrGHA + Corrv GHA = ___________ Increment of DEC for m minutes due to rate d is Corrd = ___________ DEC = ___________ DEC = DEC table + Corrd _____________________________________________________________ Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon (repeat Ho here to subtract Hc from) arcSin[ Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat) + Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC) · Cos(LHA) ] LHA = ___________ Ho _______________ = Hc _ ______________ Ho – Hc = _______________ · 60 = Offset Distance = Doffset n. West is GHA table = SHA + GHA Aries for a star 56 .miles arcCos[{Sin(DEC) – Sin(Lat) · Sin(Hc)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(Hc)}] = Zo ______________ True Azimuth Angle from True North Zn If LHA is pre-meridian passage (-. East is +. Zn = 360 – Zo Zn = __________ Notes: (1) (2) North is+. INTERCEPT METHOD Sun / Moon / Planet / Star LL / UL UT Date _____m _____d______yr Time of observation UTC = _____h _____m _____s (1) Lat = ____________ Lon = _____________ DR position Eye height Heye ______meters Index correction IC = ______ arcmin Sextant measured altitude Hs = __________deg _________arcmin Dip correction from the corrections table: Apparent altitude Ha = Hs + IC + CorrDIP Altitude correction from the corrections table: True altitude Ho = Ha + CorrALT CorrDIP = ___________ Ha = ____________ CorrALT = ___________ Ho = ____________ From the almanac tabular data. South is -. or 180<LHA < 360).SIGHT REDUCTION BY CALCULATOR. Zn = Zo If LHA is post-meridian passage (0<LHA < 180).

4’ moving less northerly Increment of GHA for the 15 minutes and 37 seconds CorrGHA = 3˚ 54.3’ N d = -0.435˚) ] Hc = 53.6’ + 3˚ 54.1416˚ From the almanac tabular data.0767˚)}/{Cos(44.025˚) · Cos(21.5’ = 53.3’ Lower Limb Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.1’ = 21˚ 27.0. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 28˚ 30.3’ .Sun Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.35.0767˚) = +3.025˚) · Sin(53.453˚) · Sin(44.67.4150˚ Increment of DEC for 15 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = .415˚ + .9’ = 32.025˚ N.5’ +15. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).025˚) · Cos(53.6’ DEC table = +21˚ 27. Zn = Zo = 116˚ 57 .5’ CorrALT = +15.3’ = 53˚ 8.850˚ = .4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 15m 37s Sextant measured altitude of the sun Hs = 52˚ 52.4533˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 32.025˚) + Cos(44.6’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (53. Lon = -67.453˚) – Sin(44.0.3’ GHA = 28˚ 30.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.1416˚ – 53.1’ DEC = +21˚ 27.3’ (interpolate in your head) Observed true altitude Ho = 52˚ 52.435˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(21.4’ -2.35. Calculated Azimuth direction of sun Zo = arcCos[{Sin(21.0767˚)}] Zo = 116˚.453˚) · Cos(.3’ = 32˚ 24.3’ + 3.2’ = 21.0767˚ = 53˚ 4.9 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards the Sun azimuth.

2’ DEC table = +12˚ 9.2’ HP = 56.0 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the moon’s azimuth.8’ DEC = +12˚ 9.7850˚ From the almanac tabular data.1’ = 44.9’ + 3.3’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 4.1’ + 3.7’ + 4˚ 51.025˚ N.3’ + 4. Zn = 360 .67.0’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (44.025˚) · Cos(44.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3.4’ + 3.2200˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 105. in two parts: CorrDIP = -2.Moon Shot Example Let’s say this is the data: DR position Lat = 44.22˚) · Sin(44.Zo = 237˚ 58 . and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).5’ CorrALT = +50.1’ True altitude Ho = 44˚ 22.8’ = 12˚ 13.2’ GHA = 100˚ 23.2’ = 105.4’ N d = +11. Calculated Azimuth direction of moon Zo = arcCos[{Sin(12.8’ Increment of GHA for the 20 minutes and 21 seconds CorrGHA = 4˚ 51.1’ Upper Limb (UL) Altitude corrections from almanac moon correction tables.32˚ + .817˚)}] Zo = 123˚.470˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(12.025˚) · Cos(12.2’ = 12.2’ = 105˚ 19.2’ –30.817˚ = 44˚ 49.4’ -2.0’ (the –30’ is for using the UL) = 24.1’ = 44˚ 47.470˚) ] Hc = 44.3200˚ Increment of DEC for 20 minutes due to rate d is Corrd = +3.850˚ = 37.22˚) · Cos( 37.025˚) + Cos(44.025˚) · Sin(44.817˚)}/{Cos(44.7’ v = +12.22 ˚) – Sin(44. at the 14th hour July 15 2001: GHA table = 100˚ 23.368˚ – 44.817˚) = -2.5’ +24. Lon = -67.4’ Time of observation UTC = 14h 20m 21s Sextant measured altitude of the moon Hs = 44˚ 22.

morning twilight: DR position Lat = 44.025˚) + Cos(44.830˚) = –1.735˚ DEC = DECDENEB = +45˚ 17. Hs = 59˚ 47.5’ CorrALT = -0.885˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(45.025˚) · Cos(45.025˚) · Sin(59.4’ + 7˚ 52.1’ = 110.8033˚ From the almanac tabular data.025˚ N.1’ N No v or d corrections for stars Increment of GHA for the 31 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 7˚ 52.2’ = 59.885˚) ] Hc = 59.83˚)}] Zo = 72˚.8’ +3.8’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2. Calculated Azimuth direction of star Zo = arcCos[{Sin(45.4’ DECDENEB = +45˚ 17.4’ GHAAries table = 53˚ 14.850˚ = 42. Lon = -67.5’ True altitude Ho = 59˚ 47.3’ + 49˚ 37.4’ –2.2850˚) – Sin(44.6 n mile Offset the assumed LOP away from the star’s azimuth.025˚) · Cos(59.Star Shot Example You took a shot of Deneb in the constellation of Cygnus.830˚ = 59˚ 49.3’ GHA = 53˚ 14.4’ Time of observation UTC = 8h 31m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Deneb.8033˚ –59. at the 8th hour July 15 2001: SHADENEB = 49˚ 37. and since 0 < LHA <180 (post-meridian).285˚) · Cos( 42.735˚ + – 67.83˚)}/{Cos(44.2850˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 110.285˚) · Sin(44.5’ – 0.4’ = 110˚ 44.5’ = 59˚ 48.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/15/2001 Index correction IC = +3. Zn = 360 .Zo = 288˚ 59 .8’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (59.1’ N = +45.

5’ S v = +2.8 n mile Offset the assumed LOP towards Mars’s azimuth.842˚) – Sin(44. Lon = -67.4’ –2.025˚) · Cos(-26.6’ DECMARS table = –26˚ 50.1’ = 58.025˚) · Cos(18.0’ + 0.482˚ Calculated Altitude Hc = arcSin[ Sin(-26. Calculated Azimuth direction of Mars Zo = arcCos[{Sin(-26.850˚ = – 9.025˚) + Cos(44.602˚) = +1.5’ CorrALT = -3.602˚)}] Zo = 171˚.602˚)}/{Cos(44.0’ Additional increment due to variation v Corrv = 0.5’ GHA = 55˚ 30.Planet Shot Example Mars in the evening.602˚ = 18˚ 36. and since LHA is negative (pre-meridian).4’ Time of observation UTC = 01h 11m 24s Sextant measured altitude of Mars.0’ +3.6’ + 2˚ 51.1’ Intercept Offset distance Doffset = 60 · (18.025˚) · Sin(18.9’ = 18. same local day.368˚ DEC = DECMARS = –26˚ 50.025˚ N.5’ = 58˚ 22. at the 1st hour July 16 2001: GHAMARS table = 55˚ 30.842˚) · Sin(44.368˚ + – 67. but the next day in GMT: DR position Lat = 44.0’ Altitude corrections from the abridged corrections table: CorrDIP = -2.0’ True altitude Ho = 18˚ 40.5’ – 3.632˚ From the almanac tabular data.632˚ – 18.6’ and d =0 Increment of GHA for the 11 minutes and 24 seconds CorrGHA = 2˚ 51.850˚ W Eye height = 2 meters Greenwich date 7/16/2001 Index correction IC = +3. Zn = Zo = 171˚ 60 .482˚) ] Hc = 18.842˚ Calculations: Local Hour angle LHA = GHA + Lon = 58.0’ = 18˚ 37.5’ = –26. Hs = 18˚ 40.842˚) · Cos( -9.

The arrows indicate the azimuth direction (bearing from true north) of the heavenly objects. 61 . from early morning twilight to mid morning to evening twilight. These observations are over the course of a day.Plots of the Lines Of Position (LOP) from the previous 4 examples The observer was stationary during all of the observations. The ellipse represents the 95% probability area of the position fix using all 4 LOPs.

you would sooner or later regret it. the longitude lines start to crowd in on each other as they reach the poles. In the case of GPS. It’s too easy to make mistakes punching in numbers and doing the trig.Chapter 9 Putting it Together and Navigating I encourage you the navigator to program your simple calculators to provide the calculated altitude Hc and calculated uncorrected azimuth Zo from inputs of latitude. three circles and you are pinpointed. If you head northwest at 60 mph. and DEC. if you didn’t reckon correctly. hours D = Speed · Time distance traveled nmile DEW = D sin(TC) east-west distance DNS = D cos(TC) north-south distance ∆Lat = DNS arcmin latitude change ∆Lon = DEW /cos(Lat) arcmin longitude change 62 . The ‘crowding in’ at the current latitude can be thought of as being more or less fixed for short distances. longitude. knots Time interval from last fix. also known as the dead reckoning (DR) position. but electronically it is circles of constant timing. But since intersecting straight LOPs is a lot easier than solving simultaneous equations for intersecting circles. Plane Sailing and Dead Reckoning (DR) With the celestial methods described so far. you could wander across all 360 longitude lines in just a few short steps! Plane Sailing Shorthand True course from true north TC Speed of vessel. Three spacecraft. Just think. on the north or south pole. an important element was the estimated position. A simple programmable calculator mechanizing the simple steps in the calculations will go a long way in reducing the silly arithmetic errors. an estimated position is essential for our simple methods. In our day-to-day wanderings. just as it is not needed with the Global Positioning System. orbiting spacecraft have geographical positions and circles of constant altitude. Strictly speaking. But on a spherical surface. Undoubtedly. say using your car. and you drove for 2 hours. GHA. Dead reckoning is simple to understand on a flat earth. flat-Earth approximations are close enough to advance the estimated position from a previously known fix. you should be 120 miles to the northwest of your last position. an estimated position is not needed. These approximation methods are known as plane sailing.

decimal degrees LonDR = LonO + ∆Lon/60 63 . SLatO = Last Known Longitude. decimal degrees N+. arcminutes ∆Lat = D · Cos(TC) New estimated latitude. decimal degrees E+. corrected for current. nautical miles (nm) D = V · ∆Time Change in latitude. decimal degrees LatDR = LatO + ∆Lat/60 Change in longitude. decimal degrees from true north TC = Estimate of distance.Plane Sailing Work Sheet Last Known Latitude. compensated for leeway and current). knots (kts) V= Time interval between the present desired fix and the last fix. arcminutes ∆Lon = D · Sin(TC)/Cos(LatO + ∆Lat/120) New estimated longitude. decimal hours ∆Time = ∆ True course made good (heading. WLonO = Speed of vessel.

Running Fix The running fix is a method by which two or more line of positions (LOPs) taken at different times on a moving vessel can be coalesced together to represent a navigational fix at any single arbitrary time between the observations. 64 . With a quick study of the figure. if you produced a ‘good’ LOP earlier. Quite simply. the old LOP is parallel-advanced in the direction of the true course-made-good (TC) to the DR distance between the last LOP and the new one. Most frequently. you can ‘drag it’ along with your moving vessel as if it were pinned to the stern using the simple distance = rate x time for the distance to drag. it is used to advance an old LOP to get a fix with a new LOP while the ship is under way. Essentially. the reader should discern the mechanics involved. and it gets dragged in the same course direction as the vessel.

2) Mid-morning Sun observation. you would follow a procedure similar to this: 1) Pre-dawn sighting of planets and stars. Note: Morning and evening twilight observations need to be carefully planned. 5) Twilight observation of planets and stars. Plan the objects. it will be in the sky east of the sun in the late afternoon. That’s not a whole lot of time for off-the-cuff navigation. advancing a dawn LOP for a running fix. so that you are sure of what you are looking at. 3) Noonish sighting. When it is an old moon. providing a definite fix. advancing the noon LOP for a running fix.Daily Observation Schedule During your typical navigating in-the-blue sort of day. their estimated altitudes and azimuth angles. providing a definite fix. A Sun-Moon fix is nice when available. 4) Mid-afternoon Sun observation. Double check with the compass. When the moon is a young moon. it will share the sky west of the sun during the morning hours. advancing the mid-morning LOP for a running fix. It is a time when both night objects and the horizon are visible simultaneously. 65 .

3) Generally there are two scales you can use. The procedure seems complicated. draw the line in the opposite direction (180 degrees different). (n. 4) For the first observation. draw a line in the azimuth direction Zn. LONa. and designate it Roffset1. which is a sheet of paper with a graduated compass rose in the center. scale makes corresponding latitude and longitude measurements possible without calculations. All else is relative to this location. Ho3. Staying in either the 60 or 6 n. Doffset2.m. but after trying it once. t3 (decimal hrs). the times of the observation t1 . Doffset3 and the calculated azimuths Zn1. the mechanics will seem obvious. If Doffset is negative.miles which could just as easily be 6 n. This selected time for the fix is called the time of fix. Roffset3. t2 .miles) Notice that for observation times after the time of fix. Zn2. even though that time does not correspond exactly to any of the observation times. The corrections are calculated thus: Roffset1 = V · (tfix – t1 ).miles for those close encounters. Ha2. Ho2. the offset is negative. we define an arbitrary time that we want the newest fix to apply to. 5) Then from that mark. Roffset2. etc. This is very convenient. the observed altitudes Ho1. Let us say that we have the true course TC. Roffset2 = V · (tfix – t2 ). requiring in addition a drafting triangle and a scaled ruler.. 66 . Ha3. Here are the detailed steps: 1) The very center of the compass rose on the plotting sheet is designated as the assumed position LATa. Mark the spot. and an assumed position LATa. 2) Draw a line thru the center in the direction of the true course TC going both ways. then draw the LOP from that point. the speed V (kts). measure along the true course line in the forward direction (if Roffset is +. We were at such-andsuch location at such-and-such time. but with an arrow showing the forward direction. tfix. The plotting sheet has a built-in scale of 60 n. We calculate the running fix distance corrections that each observation will require. backwards if Roffset is -) the distance Roffset and mark it with a dot. Zn3. From sight reduction.. the intercept distances Doffset1. etc. then draw the Doffset vector from the head of the Roffset vector. as you can do everything necessary to plot a LOP.Plotting Multiple Lines of Position (LOP) with Running Fixes Plotting the LOPs is best done on a universal plotting sheet. LONa. Since the vessel is continuously underway. Basically you draw the Roffset vector from the center of the compass rose along the direction of the true course. the length being the distance Doffset. we also have the calculated altitudes Ha1.

This is the LOP compensated for intercept and running to an arbitrary time. 7) Repeat for all the other LOPs. passing thru the last mark.6) Draw a line perpendicular to the Zn. 67 .

68 .

If southwards or westwards. 69 . from the universal plotting sheet. as it is really set up for this. The north-south distance we will designate as DLAT. Where the latitude angle intersects the circle. The corrective change ∆ in latitude and longitude from the assumed position LATa. the number is +. Measure the distance with the linear scale you are using for the plot from the center. Following the sign conventions. Remember. The compass rose lets you set up your own custom longitude scale for your latitude. if northwards or eastwards. you can mark what appears to be the best solution of the fix. and the east-west distance as DLON in nautical miles.Once all the LOPs are plotted. you draw the custom longitude line for that position. 1 nautical mile N-S is equivalent to 1 arcminute of latitude. the number is -. LONa is thus: LAT∆ = (DLAT / 60) decimal degrees LON∆ = (DLON/ 60)/ Cos(LATa + LAT∆/2) decimal degrees The position of the new fix is thus: LATFIX = LATa + LAT∆ LONFIX = LONa + LON∆ The corrective change can also be deduced graphically.

CALCULATING A FIX FROM MULTIPLE LOPs FROM A FIXED ASSUMED POSITION WHILE RUNNING Form the quantities A,B,C,D,E,G from these summations: N A = n=1 Cos AZMn
2

N = total number of LOPs participating in the fix

N B = n= 1 Cos AZMn . Sin AZMn

N C = n=1 Sin AZMn
2

N D = n= 1 Cos AZMn . p1 n p2 n

G = A .C

B

2

N E = n= 1 Doffsetn 60 Roffsetn 60 Sin AZMn . p1 n p2 n

Where

p1 n

=

and

p2 n

=

. Cos AZM n

TC

Doffset n is the nth intercept offset distance, n.miles Roffsetn is the nth running-fix offset distance, n.miles AZM n is the nth azimuth direction of the nth heavenly body TC is the true course angle from true north

LON I = LON A

( A . E B .D ) G . Cos LAT A ( C .D G B .E)

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

LAT I = LAT A

Improved Longitude estimate from the assumed position

dist = 60 .

LON I

2 2 LON A . cos LAT A

LAT I

LAT A

2

Distance from assumed fix to calculated fix, nm. Should be < 20 nm. If not, use the improved fix as the new assumed position and start all over again

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Good Practice and Error Reduction Techniques
There are many sources of error, not the least misidentification of the heavenly object. Slim chance of that happening with the Sun or Moon. With objects that you are sure of, a set of 3 or 4 shots of each known object can reduce random measurement errors. With stars at twilight, perhaps it is better to take single shots but have many targets to reduce the effects of misidentification. This type of error has the distinction of putting you hundreds of miles off, and so are easy to catch, allowing you to disregard the specific data.

Handling measurement random errors graphically Random Errors The effect of multiple shots of the same object are such that the random errors, some +, some -, will average to zero. Random measurement errors of plus or minus several miles are handled several basic ways for a set of shots of the same object: 1) Calculate all the LOPs in a set and average them graphically on the map. 2) Arithmetically average the times and altitudes for a set of shots, and calculate one LOP using the averaged value of time and altitude. 3) Graph the set of shots with time on the horizontal and altitude on the vertical. Draw a line representing the average and from that pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. This is the easiest. 4) Graph the shots as in 3), but calculate a slope and fit it to the data. The slope is determined by calculating Hc for two different times in the range of the data set with your estimated position. With these two new points, draw a line between them. Parallel offset this new line until it fits best in the data points already drawn. Then, as in 3), pick one time and altitude from the line to calculate one LOP. 71

Using technique 4) should result in the most accurate LOP, however there are more calculations making it the same trouble as 1). On the other hand, practical navigation is not usually concerned with establishing a position to within ¼ mile, so unless you are particular, graphing your measurements as in technique 3) may be the easiest to implement with a good payoff for reducing random errors. Arithmetically averaging instead of graphically averaging is a good way to introduce unwanted calculation mistakes, so I would steer away from technique 2) for manual calculations. Systematic Errors This species of error, where a constant error is in all of the measurements, can come from such things as an instrument error, a misread index error, your personal technique and bias, strange atmospheric effects, and clock error. All but clock error can be handled with the following technique. If you have many objects to choose from, choose 4 stars that are ~90 degrees apart from each other in azimuth, or with 3 stars make sure they are ~120 degrees apart. This creates a set of LOPs where the effect of optical systematic errors cancels.

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3) If you can. make a tight spaced grouping of 3 shots per object. 4) Apply averaging techniques for random error reduction. 2) Pick objects that are spaced in azimuth 90 to 120 degrees apart for systematic error reduction.The steps for good practice 1) For a good fix. pick 3 or more clearly identified heavenly objects. 73 . 5) Advance the LOPs with a running fix technique to time coincide with the time of your last shots.

the dimmer the star. rearranged. Star magnitudes refer to their brightness. and H is the altitude angle (don’t bother with dip and refraction corrections). the 2102-D and Celestaire star chart come to mind. as data for their position on the celestial sphere (star globe) is given. then you can look it up in the star chart data to match it with the closest numbers. to help you identify stars. Lat is the assumed latitude. the larger the number. Rearrange the calculated altitude equation to get local hour angle LHA: LHA = (+/-) arcCos[{sin(H) . such as Sirius (the brightest star) has a magnitude of -1. we get the declination DEC: DEC = arcSin[cos(AZM) · cos(Lat) · cos(H) + sin(Lat) · sin(H)] If the declination is +. and Lon is the assumed longitude position.Chapter 10 Star Identification There are various star finding charts. it is North. Numerically.sin(DEC) · sin(Lat)} / {cos(Lat) · cos(DEC)}] If the azimuth is greater than 180˚. If the numbers still don’t match any stars. then LHA is +. However. Now this only applies to the bright 58 ‘navigational stars’.6. 74 . If the azimuth is less than 180˚. you could use the equations for calculated altitude and azimuth. It’s actually best to this by software. SHA and DEC. Once you have the essential information. then LHA is –. Rearranging the azimuth equation. AZM is the approximate azimuth angle (magnetic compass + magnetic variation). or have constellation charts handy. then look in the almanac to match up SHA and DEC with any planets listed. if – then it is South. The sidereal hour angle (‘longitude’ on the star globe) is then: SHA = LHA – GHAAries – Lon Where GHA aries is the Greenwich hour angle of aries (zero ‘longitude’ on the star globe) at the time of this observation from the almanac. The brightest stars actually have negative magnitudes.

7 1.1 0.1 1.9 1.6 2.9 -1.3 0.2 1.2 0.7 2.9 0.4 2.2 2.0 -0.8 1.5 2.2 1.8 2.2 1.The 58 Navigational Stars Listing SHA 358 354 350 349 336 328 324 315 315 309 291 281 281 279 279 276 271 264 259 255 245 244 234 223 222 218 208 194 183 176 173 172 167 159 153 149 DEC +29 -42 +57 -18 -57 +23 +89 -40 +4 +50 +16 -8 +46 +6 +29 -1 +7 -53 -17 -29 +5 +28 -59 -43 -70 -9 +12 +62 +15 -18 -63 -57 +56 -11 +49 -60 Star Alpheratz Ankaa Schedar Diphda Achernar Hamal Polaris Acamar Menkar Mirfak Aldebaran Rigel Capella Bellatrix Elnath Alnilam Betelgeuse Canopus Sirius Adhara Procyon Pollux Avior Suhail Miaplacidus Alphard Regulus Dubhe Denebola Gienah Acrux Gacrux Alioth Spica Alkaid Hadar magnitude 2.0 2. Cross Big Dipper Virgo Big Dipper Centarus Orange Orange Blue Yellow Red White White Yellow Blue 75 .2 1.9 color Orange Orange constellation Great Square Phoenix Cassiopeia Cetus Eridanus Aries Little Dipper Eridanus Cetus Perseus Taurus Orion Auriga Orion Taurus Orion Orion Carina Canis Major Canis Major Canis Minor Gemini Carnia Vela Carnia Hydra Leo Big Dipper Leo Cygnus S.7 1.6 1.3 2.6 0.1 2.6 1.5 1.8 1.2 2. Cross S.8 1.2 2.2 1.8 1.1 3.

1 0.3 2. Red Scorpio S. 76 .6 1.3 1.1 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.4 2. Triangle Ophiuchus Scorpio Ophiuchus Draco Sagittarius White Lyra Sagittarius Aquila Pavo Cygnus Orange Pegasus Grus Piscis Austrin.9 2.2 1.2 0.3 2.1 2.SHA 148 146 140 137 137 126 113 108 103 097 096 091 084 081 076 062 054 050 034 028 016 014 DEC -36 +19 -61 -16 +74 +27 -26 -69 -16 -37 +13 +51 -34 +39 -26 +9 -57 +45 +10 -47 -30 +15 Star Menkent Arcturus Rigil Kent Zuben’ubi Kochab Alphecca Antares Atria Sabik Shaula Raselhague Eltanin Kaus Australis Vega Nunki Altair Peacock Deneb Enif Al Na’ir Fomalhaut Markab magnitude 2. Great Square If one waits until the Little Dipper is in this orientation.1 1.3 0.9 2. then the 41’ that Polaris is off from the celestial pole won’t matter and then the observed altitude will equal the latitude.2 1. Kochab is just slightly lower than Polaris.6 color constellation Centarus Orange Bootes Centarus White Libra Orange Little Dipper Corona Borea.0 0.9 2.

THE CELESTAIRE STAR CHART 77 .

SOME STAR CHARTS AND THEIR CONSTELLATIONS 78 .

79 .

The “summer triangle” 80 .

81 .

minutes.Chapter 11 Special Topics Determining Longitude and Latitude Individually Some simplified methods can be used at specific times of the day to calculate latitude and longitude individually. One could do it for any heavenly body. you can calculate your latitude. the only limitations now are ones of visibility of the heavenly object. 82 . corrections for this slight offset and annual aberration must be accounted for. These techniques are probably not used so much anymore. By the height of Polaris Since Polaris is not exactly on the celestial north pole. where Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT ao is a function of local hour angle LHA a1 is a function of estimated latitude a2 is a function of what month it is By the length of time of day If you measure the time of day from sunup to sunset in hours. and seconds. Convert the time into decimal hours. and name it ElapsedTime.5 · ElapsedTime) / tan(DEC)] You may be off by 10 arcminutes latitude depending on your timing technique. but the sun is the favorite. The nautical almanac has tables where: Latitude = Ho -1˚ + ao + a1 + a2. not mathematical. then with the timing of sunrise or just after with the prime vertical sight determine longitude. A scenario like this presents itself: take the height of Polaris at dawn twilight for a latitude fix. a purely East-West LOP By meridian transit This has already been covered in the discussion of the noon sighting for the sun. Latitude Determination. Lat = arcTan[ -cos(7. In other words. then combining them with running fix techniques. Start the timing and end the timing when the sun’s lower limb is about ½ diameter above the horizon. since with tabular methods and calculators the complexity of the navigational triangle is not so daunting. Use the running fix technique to ‘drag’ along the latitude LOP to time coincide with the longitude LOP.

0’ (UL) The dip correction is always negative.664˚ West Longitude 83 .664˚ = . so CorrDIP = .5’.235˚ N So: Lon = – arcos[-Tan(41. so here are the results: Using the sun’s lower limb (LL). semi-diameter and index error. so we need to do a little iteration. Same with the altitude corrections in this case. But due to dip.75˚ With the sun’s LL CorrALT = . With the sextant preset to this angle.664˚ Add 360 to it. for Ho = 0: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT It should be apparent that: Ha = – CorrALT = –R – SDLL or = –R + SDUL Since the average sun semi-diameter is 16’. Fortunately I’ve done it for you. we can figure the refraction correction for when Ho = 0. From the almanac let’s say that GHA =345. h = 2 meters. when the sun’s limb kisses the horizon.1’ When the sun is at this altitude.0.5’ LL Using the sun upper limb (UL). a purely North-South LOP By the timing of sunrise or sunset The equations simplify when the true altitude Ho is zero.GHA. Lon = 360˚ – 444.84.5’ So.235˚)] .345.5’) = + 0˚ 18.15. If: Ho = Hs + IC + CorrDIP + CorrALT then Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT So. and DEC = 10.444.5’) – (. but in this equation the double negative will make this number a positive.39˚ = .15. set the sextant to: Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 15. preset the sextant angle to Hs = -(-2.75˚) · Tan(10. observe the time UTC. the CorrALT = – 15.1’) – (-0.390˚.1’. Refraction correction is a function of Ha. adding the increments for the minutes and seconds. the time was 11h 30m 10s. Longitude is then: Lon = {(+ / -) arcos[-Tan(Lat) · Tan(DEC)]} . refraction. the sextant altitude needs to be preset at a low but specific angle to catch the sun at true horizon sunrise or sunset.5’ (LL) or Hs = – IC – CorrDIP + 43.Longitude Determination. In the almanac. (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2. the CorrALT = – 43’ UL In short. Latitude = 41. look up the GHA and declination.

From the almanac let’s say that GHA =6. a little error in latitude will translate into a large longitude error from the calculation.260˚)] – 6.75˚)] = 15.365˚.664˚ West By the time sight This uses the Sumner line equation. if the object continues to rise. and DEC = 10.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA 84 . Then: Lon = (+ / -) arcsin[Cos(Ho) / Cos(DEC)] .260˚ N Ho = arcsin[Sin(10. determine if the object is pre or post meridian. it is pre meridian.515˚ When the sun is at this altitude.5’.260˚ N Lon = .260˚) / Sin(41. not North-South. the sun will rise a bit to the north of east (northern hemisphere) and it may be some time after sunrise that the sun crosses this imaginary line.Sin(DEC) · Sin(Lat)}/{Cos(Lat) · Cos(DEC)}] – GHA West side of the circle when the object is eastwards (pre meridian): Lon = -arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) .By the prime vertical sight If you will recall the illustration on page 21. When it does. The closer to meridian transit the less accurate the answer since at meridian transit the LOP is East-West.75˚ If Ha ~ 15˚ then CorrALT = +12. used only once by imputing your best estimate for latitude. the azimuth is exactly 90˚. so CorrDIP = .515˚) / Cos(10.365˚ = . Easily done with the sextant. In these circumstances. from the almanac DEC = 10. then look up in the almanac GHA for the sun. h = 2 meters. Be careful of the (+/-) sign. This simplifies the equations such that: Ho = arcsin[Sin(DEC) / Sin(Lat)] Work out the sextant angle by: Hs = Ho – IC – CorrDIP – CorrALT Determine the UTC time when this condition occurs by waiting for the object to attain Hs.1’.84. East side of the circle when the object is westwards (post meridian): Lon = arcCos[{ Sin(Ho) . Latitude = 41. the prime vertical circle goes from due east to the zenith to due west. In the summer months. the time was 12h 54m 3s.5’ For the approximated time.arcsin[Cos(15.GHA (+ / -) negative if sunrise or positive if sunset Example: IC = -2.0.

The nautical almanac contains predictions for both objects. the angular closing speed between the moon and a planet or star near the ecliptic plane. Essentially the arc-distance between the moon’s limb and a heavenly object close to the ecliptic plane (such as a planet) is measured. In order to do that. Or perhaps you just want to feel challenged. and so the arc distance between the two objects can be worked out as a function of time. you may have quite a bit of time to make measurements sequentially. lunars are for the hardcore celestial zealot. and so the observer will have to correct for it. with quartz watches and radio time-ticks. this means you won’t get any closer to the real time by a minute or so. Whew! It helps to have two friends in the same boat with sextants. which won’t change fast. so you’ll just have to assume something like 2 minutes of time. The tabular data in the almanac does not consider refraction or parallax. But if the measurements are taken with the objects near the meridian line. from our earthly point of view. I mean the time estimate may be off by several minutes per degree of altitude change. A degree of altitude change at it’s worst will take 4 minutes (at the equator). Still.Chapter 12 Lunars These days. The almanac many years ago contained these functions. that’s not bad. In fact. since the altitude measurements are for refraction and parallax corrections.508 deg per hour). By small. It must be done by calculation or by special lunar tables.5 arcminute per minute of time. It is possible that the errors will be small if you take three consecutive measurements within a few minutes. a sort of ‘running fix’ correction on altitude. 85 . between messy observations and even messier calculations. Since the arc distance is changing with time relatively fast (~0. But you won’t know the error. Since the moon appears to orbit about the Earth once every 29 ½ days (27 1/3 days in inertial space). but stopped in 1907. it just means you’ll have to make allowances in your longitude estimate to the tune of 15 · Cos(Lat) n. Practically speaking. one can measure sequentially and correct the altitude measurements to time coincide with the arc distance measurement. This is a method whereby you can reset your untrustworthy chronometer if you are in the middle of the ocean (or anywhere) without friends or a short-wave radio. is about 0. the observer must nearly simultaneously obtain the altitudes of both the moon and star (or planet) as well as the actual measured arc distance between the two.miles per minute of time error. one can infer a particular time in UT to a particular arc distance.

LAT is your latitude. When final corrections are made for parallax. Besides. rather the time difference is what should be accurate. but the longitude is as far off as the chronometer. By the way. This way. it’s fun. the resulting number is the arc distance as seen from an observer at the Earth’s center. The absolute time is not important. and δHmoon increment based on time increments δTstar. There is a second method using one measurement and an assumed position. the parallax and refraction corrections will be identical had you done simultaneous measurements. Here the method assumes that the latitude assumed is very accurate. DEC is the declination of the observed object. as far as sequencing the observations to minimize errors if you don’t feel like making the ‘running fix’ corrections. and semi-diameter. That final arc distance is designated as Dcleared and the entire procedure is known as clearing the lunar distance. Since there are 2 altitude measurements. there will be a δHstar. LHA is your best guess at the local hour angle for the object. good luck. Oh. The case presented is for when you don’t know the exact time and you have made the three necessary measurements as though you were doing it for real. and Ho is the observed altitude for the object (Hs + SD is close enough). Young. it is referred to the apparent arc distance Da. When the measured arc distance Ds is corrected for index error.R. 86 . sort of. δTmoon. Employed best by computer. quickly 3) measure the altitude of the southern/northern most object last The objects farthest away from meridian passage change altitude the quickest and should be measured soonest after the arc distance measurement. This entire task is simplified if you have a computer and use MathCad software to write and evaluate the equations. do this: 1) measure the arc distance first 2) measure the altitude of the most east/west next. although I derived the exact same equation independently when approaching the problem. Well. refraction. The equation for Dcleared presented here was first published in 1856 by J. then add this increment to the altitude measurement: δT δH = 15 · [-Cos(LAT) · Cos(DEC) · Sin(LHA)/Cos(Ho)] · δ arcminutes where δT = Tarc – Taltitude in minutes of time.If the time difference between the arc measurement and altitude measurement is δT minutes of time. and Taltitude is the time you took the altitude measurement. Tarc refers to the time you took the arc distance measurement.

87 .

degrees From this table. degrees Eye Height above seal level.--------------------------------. from the nautical almanac.2724 . lower limb is +1. upper limb is -1 When measuring arc distance. deg Measured arc distance from Lunar limb to star or planet center with Sextant Scale. degrees 0. convert to decimal hours UT s sgn limbH sgn limbD When measuring altitude. far limb is -1 HP SD moon = Horizontal Parallax HP.Clearing the distance from a lunar observation --------------------------------------IC h eye Hs star Hs moon Ds Index Error Correction. deg Your imperfect clock time noted at the observation of Ds. near limb is +1. HP Lunar semi-diameter. determine the refraction correction for the star and the moon Record values for: R star Convert the dip and refraction corrections to decimal degrees !! R moon 88 . deg Measured Altitude of the Moon with Sextant Scale. meters Change all angle data into decimal degrees Measured Altitude of star or planet with Sextant Scale.

89

The 2nd method with one measurement (the arc distance) will calculate the altitudes based on the assumed position and imperfect chronometer reading. With the new corrected time, you can also correct the assumed longitude, and iterate once or twice more with the better time and longitude results. The basic assumption is that the latitude is more accurate.

90

Derivation of the equations used in clearing the lunar distance Law of Sines: sin(a)/sin(A) = sin(b)/sin(B) = sin(c)/sin(C)

Law of Cosines: cos(a) = cos(b) · cos(c) + sin(b) · sin(c) · cos(A) (these laws are for spherical trigonometry; there are similar ones for plane trig) Useful identities: sin(α) = cos(90˚- α) cos(α) = sin(90˚- α) Law of Cosines in terms of co-angles: sin(90-a) = sin(90-b) · sin(90-c) + cos(90-b) · cos(90-c) · cos(A)

91

the equation with s. and using the law of cosines. the picture is drawn in the positive direction to establish a consistent sign convention. When the corrections are applied. not the ‘wedge angle’ δ. 92 . Even though refraction corrections are negative.s = Hastar S = Hostar m = Hamoon M = Homoon cos( d ) = sin( s ) ⋅ sin( m) + cos( s ) ⋅ cos( m) ⋅ cos(δ ) cos( D ) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅ cos(δ ) Rearrange cos(d): cos(δ ) = cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m) Now substitute into cos(D):  cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m)  cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M ) ⋅   cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)   Rearrange:  cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M )  cos( D) = sin( S ) ⋅ sin( M ) + ( cos(d ) − sin( s ) ⋅ sin(m) ) ⋅    cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)  But using the trig identity: sin( a ) ⋅ sin(b) = − cos( a + b) And substituting this definition:  cos( S ) ⋅ cos( M )  Cratio =    cos( s ) ⋅ cos(m)  cos( D) = ( cos(d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M ) D = arcCos ( cos( d ) + cos( s + m) ) ⋅ Cratio − cos( S + M )    The key to the problem is to realize that the parallax and refraction corrections only change the altitudes. M with the common angle δ. m can be related to S.

For any arc. Take for example points A and B on the map (maybe they are water towers or prominent points). Then the observer measures an angle ‘b’ between points B and C (or A and C). then the circle’s radius R: R = 0. This is the 3 body fix technique. and will be described in detail.25 · D · [tan(a/2) + 1 / tan(a/2)] 93 . is the same angle as any other line similarly drawn to another point on the arc. A wonderful property of a simple circular arc with 2 end points is that a line drawn from one end point to anywhere on the arc back to the other end point. there will exist one unique circle of position where anyone on that arc will measure the same angle between the two known coastal objects. An observer measures the relative angle ‘a’ between them using the sextant held sideways. and where they cross is the position fix. and it is useful in costal navigation where the relative angle between the observer and 3 identified costal objects are measured. The navigator then constructs the two arcs on the map.Chapter 13 Coastal Navigation Using the Sextant Early in this book a surveyor’s technique was mentioned. if D is the distance between A and B. If you are an observer measuring the relative angle between two known objects on the map. Include another observation for a third coastal object and make a second angle measurement.

Finally. After the bisector is constructed. Recalling how to draw perpendicular bisectors from middle school geometry using a bow compass.Constructing the arcs by graphical means The first step is to draw the baseline between points A and B. It represents the center point of the circle of position. or X. do so for the baseline. if the measured angle with the sextant was ‘a’ degrees. Call this point ‘Y’. Voila! 94 . using point Y as the center. Repeat steps for drawing the circle of position for points B and C with included angle ‘b’. use a protractor and measure an angle away from the baseline of (90-a/2) from point ‘A’. B. Then draw another perpendicular to split the line A-X. call this point ‘X’. carrying this line until it intersects the first bisector. This is the circle of position. Where it intersects the bisector. use the bow compass to draw an arc by setting the radius to include either points A.

Appendix 1 Generalized Sight Reduction and Intercept Work Sheet 95 .

96 .

The Vernier scale is moved radially in and out until it lines up perfectly with the degree scale. 2 along the bottom forming a horizontal line. and epoxied to form the fine-boned frame shown here. it was made from ¾ inch thick clear maple.Appendix 2 Making Your Very Own Octant Frames for octants can be made from just about any clear wood. Brass shim stock cut into rectangles and formed over a round pencil produced the U-shaped mirror retaining springs. The laser and bubble jet printers of today are amazingly accurately. This means that you do not need to sand the wood edge perfectly arc-shaped. so only the degree scale needs to be placed with accuracy. The Vernier scale should not go edge to edge with the degree scale. but rather overlap it on a tapered ramp. and the third brad along the side to index side-to-side motion. only then is it glued to the index arm. 97 . One-inch long #4-40 screws and nuts are used to make a 3point adjustable platform for mirror alignment The arc degree scale and Vernier scale were drawn in a 2-D computer aided design program and printed out at 1:1 scale. In the case of the author’s octant. The mirrors are indexed to their position using 3 brads.

The baffles are used to keep stray light from glaring up the insides of the tube. which then reflect into the eyepiece. Leaf type springs can be cut out from 0. Generally speaking. and a concave lens for the eyepiece.010” brass sheet stock or tin can lids. The convex lens has a positive focal length (FL1). and wrapped around a pencil to get a ‘U’ shape. if the objective lens has a focal length of 300mm and the eyepiece lens has a focal length of -150mm. the better the image contrast. Sighting telescope A simple Galilean telescope can be made with a convex lens for the objective lens.(FL1/FL2) = -(300 / (-150)) = 2 Edmunds Scientifics sells 38mm diameter lenses for about \$3 to \$4 each. 99 . while the concave lens has a negative focal length (FL2). the more baffles. and the magnification ‘M’ is -FL1/FL2. The image will be upright.015”) music wire around larger diameter music wire or brad nails. then: Spacing S = FL1 + FL2 = 300 + (-150) = 150mm Magnification M = . and the magnification need not be greater than 3. These baffles effectively trap the unwanted light. The spacing ‘S’ between the lenses should be FL1+FL2. Paint the insides of the tube flat black. For example. The tubes can be made with a square cross section using basswood or thin hobby plywood.Springs Torsion springs to hold the mirrors in place can be easily made by wrapping thin (0.

Photos of the Octant Making of the telescope Horizon mirror and mount The completed Octant 100 .

good all around source http://www.starpath.com/catalog/ On-line nautical almanac http://www.usno.html A short guide to celestial navigation and freeware http://home. higher grade of optics http://www.net/milkyway99/index.mil/ Edmunds Scientifics.com.Appendix 3 On-Line Resources for Celestial Navigation Star Path navigational school http://www.tecepe.html 101 .edmundoptics.isa US Naval Observatory http://aa. gives delta T for Ephemeris Time http://maia. supplier of mirrors and lenses http://www. with all sorts of spare optical stuff http://www.umland/index.htm Official UTC time http://nist.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.de/home/h.gov/timezone.navy.com/resources/cellinks.navy.htm Celestaire http://celestaire.verizon.time.usno.net/index.com/ My web site: http://mysite.celestialnavigation.t-online.com/ Edmund Optics.mil/data/docs/celnavtable.scientificsonline.sciplus.html Celestial navigation net.cgi?UTC/s/0/java International Earth Rotation Service.com/catalog/ American Science and Surplus.

Farley 102 .Appendix 4 Celestial Navigation via the S-Tables and Ageton’s Method By Teacup Navigation Rodger E.

Contents Introduction Determining Local Hour Angle Corrections to Altitude Individual Steps Work Sheets Tables Appendix: The Intercept 1st Edition Copyright 2010 Rodger E.html All rights reserved. user beware! This is for educational purposes only.net/milkyway99/index.verizon. Farley My web site: http://mysite. 103 . I assume no liabilities of any form from any party: Warning.

a step by step solution to the problem can be implemented using tables and simple addition/subtraction. cosine. Zn. The tables represent the log (base 10) of sine and cosine of angles. but I have retained the original with sine.Introduction Ageton devised a method of dividing the navigational triangle into 2 simpler right-angle triangles to solve. then multiplied by -100 for ease. These are the basic Ageton equations: Corrected meridian angle then needs to be converted to true azimuth angle. Ageton reformulated his equations with secant and co-secant functions. Using the Ageton equations for calculated altitude and meridian angle. 104 .

The tables and rules can handle both forms if you are careful! 105 . then the sign of d is positive (+) even if the declination is still southern. For stars GHA = SHA + GHAAries Hourly values of declination (DEChour) are corrected for minutes with hourly rate d (Corr d for the minutes). Post meridian angles range from zero to 180 degrees ( 0<LHA<180). LHA is divided into two camps: post-meridian passage and premeridian passage. pre-meridian LHAs need to be converted to a negative angle (-180<LHA<0) by subtracting 360 from a pre-meridian angle(for example 276 is equivalent to . If the declinations are moving in a northerly direction. then subtract 360. then DEC is Using the correct sign (+/-) for longitude LON: LHA = GHA + LON If LHA > 360. if S. Beware of using the correct sign [+/-] in rate d. West Lon is - The Nautical Almanac hourly tabular values of Greenwich Hour Angle (GHAhour)is corrected for minutes and seconds increments (Corr GHA) plus any hourly variances v (Corr V for the minutes). For a compute program. and pre meridian angles range from 180 to 360 ( 180<LHA<360).84) . even if the declination is still northern. South Lat is East Lon is +. If d is moving in a southerly direction (DEC becoming more southerly in the next hour) then d is negative (-). GHA = GHAhour + Corr GHA + Corr V DEC = DEChour + Corr d If DEC is N then it is +.Determining Local Hour Angle LHA North Lat is +.

Corrected Observed Altitude Ho = Ha + Corr ALT 106 .Corrections to Altitude Apparent Altitude: Ha = Hs + IC + Corr DIP Note: index correction IC is + when off the arc. and – when on the arc.

it means determine the sign and assign it a +1 value if it’s positive. then |LHA| = 12. Notes: A variable in straight brackets. in tables find corresponding C3 S4 = S2 . for example |LHA|. and the given rules will make it clear which of the two to use. means to take the absolute value of LHA. If you have an arrow with “tables/angle”.C3. and note the corresponding angle. In that if it is negative. unless LAT and DEC same name AND |K| > |LAT|. If the number sought is an S number. in tables corresponding angle = K K > 90 if LHA between 90 and 270 K’ = |K . Also note that calculated altitude Hc is always less than 90 deg. For E or W suffix: If LHA pre-meridian (-180<LHA<0 or 180<LHA<360) then E If LHA post-meridian (0<LHA<180) then W NW: Zn = 360 . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) With |LHA| in tables S1 With |DEC| in tables S2. In each column there are 2 numbers side-by-side.Zo NE: Zn = Zo SW: Zn = Zo + 180 107 .LAT x sign(DEC) |. the arrows with “tables” mean go to the Stables and look at the numbers in the columns. If LHA = -12. There are 4 choices of angle. in tables corresponding angle = Zo Choose the bold-faced angle greater than 90. A greater-than sign is > and a less-than sign is < (K>90 means K greater than 90). or a -1 value if the sign of the number is negative. Converting Corrected Meridian angle Zo to true azimuth Zn Name of LAT to select N or S prefix. in which case choose the angle less than 90. it means locate the given S number.Individual Steps In the following algorithm.Zo SE: Zn = 180 . in tables C5 S6 = C5 + C3. When there is a variable prefixed with sign(variable). C2 S3 = S1 + C2. then the one in the same column next to it is a C number. but you will select from the 2 bold numbers. then make it positive. in tables C6 Also. in tables corresponding angle of S6 = Hc S7 = |S3 – C6|.

108 .

109 .

110 . Just work it out line by line to see the genesis of the numbers with the corresponding tabular values. The assumed latitude is -40° 12’ S.This is an example where the LHA was already figured from the GHA and assumed longitude.

that means DEC = -(20° 13’).762 would be the S number. Follow the calculation steps from top to bottom. The bottom row of numbers means you use the righthand minutes. 111 . S(x) and C(x) are the S and C values associated with the angle x. P5).762).Using the S-Tables In this section I will provide examples of how to navigate the tables. In the tables look up the boldfaced degree 20 (S-Tables. In the tables.146 would be the C number.160 is the S number and 106. Go down to minute 13 and look across to the column for the 20 deg. If the number you were looking up was 110° 13’. these are the equations tabulated to the arc minute: If x is the angle. then 0. and |DEC| = 20° 13’.699 is the C number. and addition is much easier! If declination DEC is 20° 13’ S. then S(x) = -100*log(sin(x)). and Zo you have “go backwards” thru the tables (an S value is given and you have to determine the corresponding angle). If you are looking up 85° 5’. Get it? Using the bottom row of numbers is equally easy.146) is the S number. Why go to this trouble? Because logarithms change multiplication into addition. and C(x) = -100*log(cos(x)). Hc. For the values of K. That number (46. adding or subtracting where indicated. and the one next to it in the same column is the C number (2. then 2. and 46. That heading is on the top of the table which means the arc minutes to use are on the left hand side as indicated by the double arrows.

633 131.290 107.156 0.320 155.145 0.099 0.161 0.084 0.006 0.203 253.042 0.101 0.120 127.082 0.064 0.141 0.526 113.001 0.373 131.030 0.676 171.112 116.005 0.123 0.001 0.304 190.051 0.095 124.571 114. P1 180° 0° 1000.055 0.208 157.044 0.164 0.827 118.093 0.651 108.018 0.916 142.126 0.362 128.115 0.001 144.103 148.032 135.000 0.001 0.023 170.045 113.015 0.739 116.909 136.038 0.049 0.993 106.026 0.118 263.007 0.105 0.233 239.388 205.090 0.060 87° 267° 183° 3° 128.163 0.148 0.233 126.018 0.046 0.642 176° 356° 273° 93° 0.121 0.480 199.925 116.153 0.152 0.000 0.322 136.353 186.897 167.016 0.925 114.004 0.067 0.439 107.339 112.071 0.690 160.861 155.034 0.000 0.143 0.220 114.003 0.646 144.026 0.160 131.487 117.267 122.461 115.172 112.069 0.S-Tables.005 0.009 0.044 0.415 119.000 0.007 0.903 122.104 0.074 0.633 118.007 0.718 138.011 0.425 132.421 283.295 143.641 127.108 0.131 0.642 115.406 154.552 106.960 108.000 0.016 0.805 108.058 0.041 0.184 113.001 0.021 0.106 0.890 134.915 293.699 106.221 197.866 117.605 140.117 122.848 121.330 134.045 0.039 0.614 120.023 0.049 0.011 0.054 0.029 0.858 110.080 0.250 161.257 142.014 0.839 111.015 236.158 0.211 120.566 147.020 0.021 120.033 0.006 0.498 108.804 137.010 0.079 0.023 0.132 0.000 0.744 135.522 193.013 112.009 0.020 110.129 0.138 0.060 0.149 0.089 0.358 145.066 0.006 0.114 0.713 148.124 0.928 140.912 207.003 0.676 117.103 0.774 125.095 0.002 0.346 111.292 149.000 0.042 177.254 156.041 0.869 163.395 114.013 0.433 121.001 0.133 0.202 152.111 0.006 0.699 113.583 109.403 127.182 159.004 115.318 258.524 305.023 0.690 122.139 0.640 121.119 0.998 196.159 0.011 0.890 107.166 85° 265° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 112 .697 126.411 138.002 0.000 0.025 0.026 0.627 249.693 158.121 0.005 111.260 106.005 0.193 108.072 0.627 323.136 0.073 0.034 0.591 129.342 129.961 132.017 0.060 0.141 106.092 0.465 126.106 86° 266° 184° 4° 115.898 109.515 151.109 0.327 147.307 187.134 0.018 233.708 166.634 153.339 171.022 118.511 154.002 0.916 204.491 208.100 0.841 129.817 120.077 0.025 0.040 0.550 164.030 0.609 183.546 125.226 121.000 0.503 133.849 128.004 0.697 110.008 0.104 150.004 0.019 0.046 0.536 110.002 0.081 145.078 0.008 0.091 0.033 0.144 0.253 140.121 168.000 0.600 143.064 0.478 122.006 0.579 142.106 137.037 0.037 0.650 194.709 242.010 119.931 126.070 0.183 111.216 110.057 121.013 0.086 0.001 0.355 113.113 0.243 141.505 184.093 129.001 0.406 219.128 0.127 0.019 0.107 0.122 0.549 123.162 0.298 166.059 0.010 0.248 118.338 139.031 0.117 0.609 134.422 163.426 109.748 114.815 179° 359° 270° 90° 0.504 137.004 0.593 178.125 0.085 0.675 112.120 177° 357° 272° 92° 0.088 0.017 0.029 181.880 127.063 0.146 0.042 0.056 0.967 139.322 162.774 152.135 0.448 146.052 0.032 0.600 130.000 0.021 0.001 0.000 353.287 176.008 0.095 128.002 0.190 146.187 116.282 115.100 225.035 0.218 119.015 0.137 0.811 178.583 228.856 130.615 136.784 156.003 0.732 182.098 0.510 111.083 0.982 164.120 0.154 0.777 200.038 0.892 149.001 0.728 157.002 0.075 0.102 0.015 0.115 105.026 88° 268° 182° 2° 145.911 141.053 133.096 0.647 124.692 132.375 110.457 135.036 0.036 0.066 0.612 119.014 0.045 0.080 0.008 0.094 0.285 139.118 0.130 0.056 117.056 0.184 158.147 0.001 0.370 116.724 161.097 174.001 0.033 0.896 131.931 151.097 0.062 0.076 0.008 0.607 213.020 0.116 0.041 107.109 0.811 119.283 188.058 0.005 0.000 0.029 0.001 0.160 0.081 0.000 0.970 175° 355° 274° 94° 0.077 0.581 141.003 0.696 150.350 151.068 0.018 0.350 191.024 0.012 172.068 0.091 0.777 133.054 0.425 124.140 0.752 223.157 0.024 0.783 162.544 175.155 0.002 0.031 0.496 149.012 0.007 89° 269° 181° 1° 175.003 125.815 175.010 0.844 112.028 0.040 0.005 0.021 0.166 126.004 0.074 0.406 106.823 115.011 0.379 169.605 128.946 143.422 192.012 0.027 0.412 120.000 0.680 159.112 0.142 0.083 0.589 107.103 114.554 116.346 130.027 138.070 153.096 0.048 0.870 124.062 0.004 0.173 134.817 146.010 0.745 169.525 221.065 0.390 179.047 0.114 130.003 0.012 0.039 0.385 217.872 113.061 0.113 201.115 108.022 0.028 0.985 123.204 160.718 178° 358° 271° 91° 0.057 0.050 0.003 0.455 215.027 0.102 0.440 118.014 0.002 0.110 0.022 0.945 147.345 108.087 0.216 230.320 125.048 0.270 109.505 167.299 117.071 0.205 136.956 154.739 107.231 132.013 0.333 123.812 269.696 173.488 245.651 139.019 0.674 111.718 145.131 210.052 0.032 0.492 203.009 0.150 0.834 212.872 182.808 195.506 112.730 275.419 185.391 173.202 180.282 189.053 0.000 0.051 0.766 123.087 0.017 0.740 109.003 0.205 123.000 0.000 0.016 0.125 165.043 0.057 109.007 0.846 106.

385 0.606 0.359 82.283 0.503 0.283 94.598 89.326 0.455 83.276 82.347 0.264 0.105 76.425 82° 262° 188° 8° 85.171 0.232 0.425 0.617 0.309 79.538 0.645 0.727 80.322 0.177 76.360 0.393 94.214 0.411 173° 353° 276° 96° 0.402 0.254 105.717 97.287 0.286 85.970 83.195 96.096 86.040 102.510 95.199 83.337 0.316 0.725 94.191 0.199 0.372 81.184 0.596 0.902 76.439 98.847 78.048 80.269 77.350 0.634 0.170 80.632 0.595 90.274 0.591 0.262 0.953 87.243 97.581 0.663 0.242 92.843 84.388 0.604 0.478 0.089 92.698 81.736 93.239 78.719 88.411 0.012 79.554 0.667 84.647 0.423 100.319 0.564 0.404 84.110 82.205 89.343 77.581 101.376 0.375 0.321 101.737 86.192 0.279 0.922 86.598 0.291 81.325 83° 263° 187° 7° 91.167 0.967 80.307 0.155 79.453 81.244 0.423 0.353 0.197 0.489 0.452 0.683 105.328 80.798 90.344 0.474 0.470 0.693 82.270 0.418 0.534 0.643 0.308 91.645 86.277 0.682 98.542 0.608 0.567 171° 351° 278° 98° 0.333 0.669 87.472 0.077 174° 354° 275° 95° 0.210 0.465 85.311 0.321 76.387 79.318 98.260 0.336 0.764 87.540 83.172 95.313 0.620 79.238 102.845 93.480 97.658 96.577 0.540 0.660 0.293 0.528 0.049 98.203 0.361 97.443 0.544 99.080 95.857 103.284 0.230 84.282 0.612 0.211 0.342 0.368 0.060 94.173 94.217 0.825 85.304 93.542 79.248 0.720 103.341 0.565 77.571 0.618 78.239 0.091 80.771 78.863 81.412 0.334 0.579 84.272 0.451 101.538 76.207 0.393 0.444 0.789 77.924 78.181 0.395 0.439 0.756 76.806 100.272 104.435 0.593 0.397 95.614 94.884 83.201 87.363 0.370 86.048 76.487 80.388 87.550 100.315 78.027 81.619 0.855 79.334 88.419 0.575 0.188 0.504 102.304 0.205 0.995 103.347 92.278 86.196 93.499 0.397 105.393 76.103 91.915 85.414 0.467 0.621 0.240 0.001 90.774 96.228 0.465 79.010 88.355 0.284 83.358 0.816 88.514 91.567 80.170 100.481 87.001 78.450 0.213 0.411 91.518 0.373 0.437 0.465 0.411 104.371 102.698 79.129 81.804 98.193 0.168 0.239 88.143 88.552 0.255 0.044 99.560 98.249 76.589 0.170 0.187 0.573 0.852 95.466 78.638 0.463 0.143 84.558 0.512 0.269 0.114 83.562 0.442 82.928 91.317 84.015 86.122 77.382 0.371 0.829 86.195 77.663 92.448 0.303 89.296 0.945 81.446 0.290 0.247 0.376 85.202 0.227 0.556 0.954 93.755 84.223 0.712 101.994 89.583 0.426 0.187 86.390 0.305 0.497 0.583 103.S-Tables.494 90.311 103.913 88.294 90.345 0.485 0.712 83.183 0.505 0.209 0.538 81° 261° 189° 9° 80.164 78.349 0.843 101.032 91.176 0.626 83.542 96.186 0.235 0.426 96.777 82.934 100.225 0.421 0.548 0.501 0.219 0.658 0.966 95.491 0.232 79.428 0.555 85.542 78.519 93.645 85.971 104.204 0.200 0.837 97.579 0.048 87.863 77.392 0.400 0.365 0.263 0.455 0.696 89.175 103.647 80.623 0.412 93.298 0.208 0.409 0.394 90.793 99.056 83.665 80° 260° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 113 .296 99.777 79.192 101.267 0.970 105.220 0.243 0.302 0.575 87.299 0.526 0.933 79.323 0.506 0.387 0.499 89.285 95.982 92.177 0.975 76.266 0.253 0.077 97.380 0.887 80.310 96.441 0.585 0.508 0.714 77.193 90.447 103.295 0.178 0.587 0.256 0.668 99.636 0.245 0.598 97.516 0.807 80.720 91.172 0. P2 185° 5° 105.408 80.362 0.193 82.320 0.830 104.236 0.126 97.289 0.795 89.824 91.617 91.194 0.974 101.215 0.390 78.526 88.546 0.434 0.273 0.241 0.006 85.452 92.237 0.480 0.280 0.370 0.416 0.532 0.652 0.197 98.432 0.938 77.894 89.536 0.190 0.926 98.771 102.276 0.483 0.292 0.294 87.524 0.357 0.535 81.369 83.198 0.249 80.107 89.258 0.617 81.624 95.476 0.399 0.286 0.918 99.465 76.899 90.600 0.610 0.185 0.417 77.468 0.196 0.222 0.769 92.175 0.239 84° 264° 186° 6° 98.310 0.210 81.169 0.550 0.514 0.397 0.314 0.030 82.249 0.020 84.331 0.609 82.645 172° 352° 277° 97° 0.491 77.430 0.013 77.231 0.457 0.492 84.690 104.180 0.179 0.078 79.495 0.459 0.905 102.530 0.628 93.113 104.560 0.172 99.649 0.296 100.033 170° 350° 279° 99° 0.401 89.352 0.108 87.630 0.317 0.602 0.063 100.641 0.461 86.252 0.137 92.339 0.259 0.493 0.829 76.133 103.945 82.487 0.251 0.957 97.780 81.625 0.931 84.109 85.637 102.550 104.328 0.383 0.948 94.205 91.106 101.568 0.526 82.224 0.544 0.166 0.330 0.407 0.623 88.826 105.656 0.510 0.308 0.094 89.628 0.678 100.405 0.695 78.482 0.378 0.088 78.797 83.553 86.197 85.461 0.558 92.861 82.325 0.454 0.367 0.610 76.233 0.063 93.503 94.858 87.734 85.218 0.738 95.683 76.008 96.876 92.696 90.566 0.539 105.891 96.520 0.173 0.301 0.430 88.615 0.404 0.229 0.836 94.639 77.654 0.420 99.522 0.

220 1.815 62.793 0.482 1.937 73.962 0.140 60.602 69.763 74.830 0.703 0.303 1.529 72.133 1.992 68.166 1.014 1.116 1.638 66.998 1.297 1.081 1.366 59.616 71.676 75.857 67.723 70.463 72.486 74.212 168° 348° 281° 101° 0.175 59.112 75.313 1.810 0.733 73.597 73.624 74.042 74.357 69.630 68.909 0.764 63.798 0.148 1.740 0.328 73.849 69.665 0.466 66.972 62.011 64.819 75.813 0.196 1.351 1.873 0.483 60.059 1.464 64.495 1.222 59.699 0.875 71.798 67.848 59.853 0.241 1.028 1.221 70.391 68.774 0.316 1.142 1.694 0.070 1.681 60.683 61.992 0.302 64.354 1.570 68.976 70.681 0.940 71.042 59.745 0.676 0.201 72.418 69.769 0.830 60.949 0.439 1.803 0.451 68.455 1.097 70.329 1.763 62.079 59.050 1.364 1.711 63.344 1.154 1.960 78° 258° 192° 12° 68.336 60.098 67.300 1.659 62.079 61.972 74.232 1.451 62.533 60.620 65.462 1.332 72.287 60.157 1.429 1.868 0.462 59.858 0.573 64.672 0.040 66.890 75.632 60.285 1.110 1.208 1.422 1.771 0.187 1.925 63.914 0.485 1.940 169° 349° 280° 100° 0.449 1.897 59.229 61.409 66.712 0.025 1.040 70.498 63.182 66.194 64.223 1.764 0.367 1.119 1.800 0.972 69.296 66.445 1.800 59.840 0.867 66.717 0.319 1.519 64.975 67.069 66.738 0.325 1.194 62.395 73.131 1.633 61.715 0.595 72.838 0.555 62.781 0.342 65.360 1.607 62.941 0.732 65.776 0.979 60.261 73.S-Tables.291 1.693 74.266 1.946 0.031 1.925 66.759 0.136 72.142 62.257 1.978 0.383 1.916 67.860 72.269 1.786 70.993 72.867 62.848 0.380 1.901 64.981 0.736 0.835 0.127 59.104 71.669 0.961 75.917 0.033 75.160 1.791 0.159 70.275 1.791 167° 347° 282° 102° 0.128 77° 257° 193° 13° 64.855 0.153 68.711 62.272 68.032 58.970 0.633 166° 346° 283° 103° 1.278 1.330 67.011 1.296 69.810 71.900 65.472 1.412 1.899 0.989 0.954 0.534 70.409 1.205 1.142 74.810 66. P3 190° 10° 76.876 0.960 0.933 0.353 66.887 61.739 67.767 0.471 70.734 61.750 0.836 61.957 65.945 59.288 1.323 75.005 71.348 74.332 1.690 0.479 1.279 74.965 0.883 0.042 1.510 59.863 0.151 1.692 0.297 62.295 71.167 71.733 0.565 65.294 1.377 1.860 0.879 60.464 75.919 62.410 64.982 66.481 61.359 71.235 1.244 1.032 63.385 60.310 1.815 0.888 0.509 65.976 0.492 1.665 73.930 0.878 0.582 61.184 1.445 63.751 68.786 0.281 1.107 1.214 67.093 68.685 0.994 59.902 74.189 60.489 1.066 65.179 61.828 0.979 63.708 0.348 1.938 0.393 63.373 1.000 1.843 0.510 68.086 64.250 1.121 65.695 66.563 67.701 0.984 0.252 75.091 62.911 69.452 1.129 61.284 70.310 76° 256° 194° 14° 61.801 73.212 68.435 1.174 69.245 62.469 1.045 1.928 0.690 68.423 71.125 1.062 1.400 62.145 1.029 60.417 74.053 68.156 67.053 1.020 1.757 0.462 73.073 74.338 1.912 0.181 1.176 65.956 64.779 0.182 75.386 1.605 63.780 60.126 66.605 75.190 1.987 0.891 0.036 1.746 71.936 0.654 59.396 1.234 63.865 0.202 1.505 67.729 0.818 63.335 1.122 1.178 1.104 1.214 1.419 1.070 72.681 71.453 65.169 1.399 1.747 75.380 61.231 71.128 1.731 60.263 1.552 63.239 66.406 1.743 0.989 61.664 69.076 1.266 72.272 67.322 1.238 60.558 59.678 0.279 61.929 60.580 66.235 69.330 61.136 1.390 1.957 0.896 0.870 0.676 65.331 68.022 1.788 65.087 1.414 59.658 63.805 79° 259° 191° 11° 71.901 0.727 72.871 63.035 69.076 63.752 0.139 1.226 1.260 1.783 0.871 68.755 0.459 1.465 1.552 71.597 70.199 1.805 0.869 73.796 0.506 75° 255° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 114 .832 74.531 61.944 0.722 0.785 61.973 0.047 1.270 59.700 165° 345° 284° 104° 1.582 60.938 61.748 58.530 73.370 1.403 1.248 64.398 72.726 0.393 75.006 1.034 67.017 1.217 1.231 65.113 1.175 1.894 0.706 0.079 1.904 0.850 70.393 1.751 59.627 64.820 0.479 69.064 1.091 60.823 0.247 1.922 0.182 63.541 69.416 1.099 1.889 58.523 66.845 0.622 67.844 65.968 0.925 0.920 0.788 0.842 58.127 73.113 69.681 67.661 72.447 67.748 0.811 68.752 66.791 64.005 73.850 0.346 70.306 1.287 65.084 1.886 0.442 1.348 62.356 64.502 1.140 64.357 1.039 1.211 1.340 63.881 0.238 1.129 63.090 1.696 0.703 59.795 58.932 68.163 1.287 63.683 0.073 1.254 1.096 1.927 72.388 67.794 72.995 0.229 1.318 59.808 0.534 75.952 0.434 60.833 0.762 0.210 74.398 65.846 64.667 0.555 74.488 71.409 70.913 70.687 0.272 1.660 70.430 61.907 0.606 59.102 1.682 64.725 69.937 58.093 1.067 1.787 69.737 64.426 1.724 0.475 1.024 62.825 0.033 1.719 0.710 0.009 1.193 1.013 65.984 58.341 1.172 1.818 0.432 1.503 62.194 73.674 0.003 1.040 61.731 0.060 72.056 1.499 1.

390 2.763 1.304 2.655 1.829 47.080 51.550 51.365 49.653 58.216 49.411 2.508 52.045 48.407 53.543 2.940 1.467 52.960 1.560 1.548 52.200 53.662 1.506 1.669 2.814 57.009 47.845 1.490 2.778 1.956 1.630 46.262 2.346 52.236 51.790 55.767 1.459 2.553 48.356 57.749 1.994 48.964 1.098 2.709 54.494 2.710 52.500 50.793 47.423 50.526 1.174 57.736 48.853 1.702 49.095 55.187 56.134 2.664 49.890 1.104 49.913 1.049 47.241 2.767 56.619 2.712 1.922 55.310 57.468 2.634 1.278 58.516 2.734 46.804 1.194 50.777 49.769 46.432 51.666 1.588 56.894 1.920 48.503 2.081 48.589 48.769 50.871 1.615 50.751 54.687 1.644 1.785 1.838 1.623 1.450 2.366 47.115 54.394 2.002 162° 342° 287° 107° 1.321 2.498 56.701 70° 250° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 115 .579 2.774 1.699 48.026 51.260 47.026 2.266 52.901 47.346 50.615 47.139 58.031 53.697 2.627 49.225 2.933 1.254 2.574 1.873 52.758 47.794 54.966 49.398 55.864 53.130 2.151 2.983 1.547 1.651 47.139 2.665 2.995 52.471 51.629 52.865 47.041 51.839 46.325 58.146 52.077 53.298 48. P4 195° 15° 58.923 54.009 54.530 2.538 54.966 54.186 52.979 46.579 47.472 2.084 47.219 57.834 1.719 1.804 46.570 2.326 54.485 2.086 2.038 2.627 1.078 2.630 57.722 47.171 2.861 57.552 2.589 49.879 1.595 1.574 2.651 1.578 1.292 2.511 51.327 49.489 53.411 54.074 2.925 1.153 48.902 1.117 48.477 49.647 2.832 52.453 54.512 58.360 2.330 2.811 1.906 1.668 51.837 54.538 50.708 51.119 47.231 56.190 47.864 1.216 2.629 51.929 1.516 1.106 52.118 2.283 53.543 1.437 2.427 52.295 47.381 2.138 55.283 2.883 48.147 2.464 2.595 160° 340° 289° 109° 2.159 53.917 1.615 2.651 2.347 2.703 55.736 161° 341° 288° 108° 2.581 54.883 1.181 55.050 2.868 1.553 1.791 52.822 53.756 1.343 2.073 54.365 53.589 51.589 52.042 50.678 2.331 47.354 55.514 49.403 2.709 1.118 50.189 48.641 1.010 55.953 57.559 58.637 1.748 51.773 48.906 51.062 2.011 2.018 2.576 50.143 56.663 48.119 51.284 54.614 53.054 2.275 51.971 1.565 2.606 58.179 2.658 1.561 2.885 50.200 2.433 2.287 2.080 50.564 1.233 2.270 50.232 58.591 1.114 2.653 50.022 2.986 51.265 57.420 2.355 2.034 2.887 1.424 2.364 2.317 2.815 49.910 1.676 57.628 2.038 56.539 57.082 2.588 2.846 48.099 56.192 2.480 48.368 54.163 2.698 1.030 2.975 1.716 74° 254° 196° 16° 55.179 72° 252° 198° 18° 51.907 57.616 1.700 58.385 50.529 1.416 2.727 1.808 1.642 2.966 164° 344° 285° 105° 1.338 2.226 48.878 55.947 56.722 56.441 55.860 1.262 48.909 46.351 2.290 49.656 2.523 1.834 55.004 49.311 55.747 55.372 2.780 53.429 2.188 2.669 1.447 57.058 2.666 54.694 1.372 58.158 51.597 2.493 57.745 1.267 55.875 1.258 2.519 1.S-Tables.042 2.066 52.624 2.122 2.142 49.760 1.993 56.385 2.232 50.937 47.550 1.229 2.175 2.557 1.253 49.365 56.525 2.196 2.437 47.052 55.455 2.110 2.539 2.739 49.691 1.197 51.401 57.948 1.880 54.225 47.155 2.014 2.179 49.946 51.014 46.809 48.789 1.826 1.402 49.496 54.738 1.030 48.902 56.572 55.734 1.237 2.208 2.544 47.841 1.419 58.967 1.512 2.623 54.947 53.442 2.677 56.705 1.540 1.242 53.995 1.533 1.615 55.583 2.905 53.673 1.143 2.167 2.054 56.266 2.633 56.692 50.699 46.407 2.952 1.154 47.598 1.571 1.509 1.793 1.856 1.812 56.106 2.276 56.874 46.454 56.914 52.402 47.446 2.979 1.819 1.827 51.680 1.092 58.601 2.800 1.808 50.852 49.921 1.771 1.067 49.102 2.955 52.407 48.003 2.664 46.090 2.609 1.536 1.676 1.477 2.306 52.547 2.481 2.521 2.626 48.046 57.499 2.648 1.224 55.531 53.279 2.716 1.242 54.377 2.944 1.461 50.448 53.002 50.989 53.543 56.528 55.296 2.830 1.796 1.036 52.683 1.128 57.592 2.271 2.353 51.898 1.688 2.508 2.823 1.083 57.556 2.046 2.787 51.516 48.924 50.619 1.999 57.655 53.602 1.334 2.581 1.963 50.630 1.473 47.670 52.741 1.815 1.094 2.697 53.534 2.782 1.398 2.686 47.512 1.156 50.334 48.275 2.567 1.966 55.585 1.768 57.751 52.070 2.326 2.584 57.572 53.157 54.701 1.612 1.940 73° 253° 197° 17° 53.221 2.066 2.508 47.637 2.973 47.387 52.722 57.752 1.674 2.300 2.857 56.605 1.159 2.928 49.183 2.847 50.730 1.731 50.633 2.991 1.204 2.407 163° 343° 286° 106° 1.957 48.683 2.890 49.250 2.309 2.723 1.987 1.659 55.485 55.199 54.324 53.118 53.393 51.738 53.849 1.226 52.867 51.692 2.610 2.126 2.443 48.314 51.944 46.465 58.409 56.552 49.999 2.246 2.212 2.439 49.185 58.660 2.937 1.368 2.308 50.433 71° 251° 199° 19° 48.588 1.371 48.007 2.320 56.606 2.313 2.

146 46.664 40.192 40.965 2.581 3.924 37.268 3.727 39.670 39.871 3.107 3.613 3.179 4.401 43.855 2.514 37.210 43.534 38.486 40.309 3.983 3.337 43.760 3.903 2.798 44.089 38.051 41.238 42.172 3.167 3.873 45.640 3.921 3.744 3.972 3.231 4.843 39.127 3.544 3.865 3.031 44.642 42.423 3.961 2.732 37.436 44.562 38.625 41.233 3.758 38.109 44.667 3.641 39.716 3.034 3.523 3.732 44.366 3.759 37.716 41.955 3.729 2.109 4.686 41.951 37.782 3.034 38.023 4.004 3.272 65° 245° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 116 .202 4.340 3.449 3.503 41.114 43.117 38.469 44.142 44.646 3.799 3.157 3.097 3.353 46.006 37.455 42.273 43.083 3.738 3.838 41.902 40.655 41.748 2.619 3.979 43.501 44.069 156° 336° 293° 113° 3.044 44.862 42.369 43.749 3.117 3.132 4.623 37.975 45.827 2.046 40.076 40.255 4.273 3.200 38.808 2.992 41.839 45.831 42.215 46.103 4.335 3.727 3.167 4.464 43.171 41.068 3.657 3.080 4.842 40.635 3.330 3.163 40.278 3.603 3.227 38.086 4.944 3.837 2.657 43.842 38.730 38.955 38.597 3.427 40.265 45.590 38.995 2.889 2.212 3.814 39.699 44.956 2.296 39.190 4.785 2.804 3.898 2.058 3.382 39.283 3.832 2.231 41.478 38.818 43.988 39.298 45.352 41.150 4.371 3.565 3.666 44.826 3.386 3.673 3.689 43.518 42.350 3.238 3.387 46.869 41.182 39.733 3.988 42.674 38.985 69° 249° 201° 21° 44.743 2.905 3.900 41.790 2.910 3.901 39.528 43.053 3.560 46.078 46.587 3.222 40.595 37.560 3.305 44.019 3.497 39.338 38.225 4.702 38.689 3.554 39.088 3.222 3.787 37.339 40.486 42.020 42.650 37.545 40.724 2.021 40.407 3.991 40.486 3.846 2.674 42.069 4.843 3.961 3.872 39.695 3.541 37.078 3.684 3.144 4.938 3.642 158° 338° 291° 111° 2.112 3.951 2.810 3.468 39.456 46.662 3.000 4.024 3.506 38.304 3.997 44.111 41.571 3.411 39.035 4.568 45.029 4.567 44.044 46.370 44.331 42.528 3.507 3.064 45.403 44.154 39.723 40.092 4.549 3.365 45.917 2.693 40.173 4.786 38.592 43.029 3.083 43.762 2.017 39.198 45.424 42.700 3.747 41.231 45.012 4.737 45.604 40.450 38.978 3.061 38.322 41.985 2.063 3.051 43.115 4.394 38.283 68° 248° 202° 22° 42.502 3.161 4.533 3.362 42.251 40.966 3. P5 200° 20° 46.755 3.208 4.594 41.433 45.249 46.354 39.214 4.459 3.360 3.766 2.048 3.922 2.625 43.989 3.980 2.263 3.253 3.780 2.927 38.595 46.915 43.677 37.134 40.142 3.879 2.164 45.144 38.077 44.580 42.012 38.138 4.564 41.412 41.959 39.115 42.454 3.491 46.753 43.239 39.305 43.539 3.931 40.512 3.289 3.799 42.432 43.432 37.715 2.006 4.812 40.898 44.268 39.182 3.241 43.337 44.121 4.428 3.314 3.393 42.916 3.009 3.913 2.366 38.249 4.146 42.187 3.947 43.496 3.618 38.888 3.243 4.814 38.185 4.597 67° 247° 203° 23° 40.711 2.925 42.567 159° 339° 290° 110° 2.526 39.703 45.930 41.927 3.172 38.269 42.930 39.899 38.893 42.517 3.734 2.207 44.516 40.457 40.332 45.196 4.422 38.970 2.174 44.433 3.283 38.038 3.397 3.831 44.575 40.964 44.908 2.721 43.402 3.984 38.081 41.473 41.608 3.147 3.207 42.882 3.526 46.705 42.850 43.022 41.197 3.073 3.112 46.220 4.162 3.704 37.318 46.155 4.941 2.601 45.355 3.722 3.941 45.105 40.736 42.211 39.310 40.999 3.009 45.063 4.466 45.093 3.014 3.841 37.893 3.832 3.228 3.822 2.398 40.870 2.122 3.319 3.813 2.838 3.753 40.869 37.805 45.280 40.630 3.738 2.611 42.896 37.069 39.860 3.592 3.937 2.443 41.884 2.239 44.500 45.711 3.258 3.261 41.771 45.804 2.975 2.465 3.776 2.706 2.874 2.376 3.927 2.815 3.549 42.444 3.851 2.808 41.491 3.635 45.040 39.102 3.052 4.752 2.097 45.633 44.793 3.785 39.872 40.207 3.534 44.612 39.706 3.127 4.255 38.678 3.399 45.131 45.125 39.771 2.487 37.392 3.907 45.849 3.058 4.097 39.243 3.098 4.046 4.284 46.950 3.771 3.821 3.765 44.560 43.311 38.568 37.405 155° 335° 294° 114° 3.141 41.475 3.422 46.669 45.178 43.877 3.267 4.176 42.300 42.927 66° 246° 204° 24° 39.979 37.299 3.272 44.812 157° 337° 292° 112° 3.412 3.841 2.961 40.382 41.865 2.534 41.899 3.202 3.177 3.368 40.237 4.012 43.698 39.864 44.018 4.777 41.438 3.860 2.248 3.756 39.217 3.534 45.325 39.600 44.555 3.624 3.651 3.777 3.932 2.146 43.381 3.766 3.192 3.768 42.496 43.040 4.893 2.931 44.782 40.261 4.720 2.201 41.480 3.292 41.933 3.757 2.439 39.294 3.345 3.418 3.043 3.053 42.075 4.799 2.961 41.871 38.132 3.181 46.794 2.583 39.785 43.634 40.084 42.701 2.956 42.946 2.152 3.788 3.818 2.459 37.814 37.470 3.324 3.990 2.882 43.854 3.576 3.646 38.S-Tables.995 4.137 3.

890 4.961 4.057 5.677 4.343 4.225 6.741 5.397 4.524 4.233 5.672 31.378 37.766 30.559 33.213 30.833 30.982 32.009 6.338 36.530 4.790 5.650 32.300 5.755 5.296 4.744 30.868 35.528 5.352 31.393 5.945 30.273 5.894 36.427 4.536 4.103 31.896 34.808 4.404 35.764 4.345 30.451 4.707 5.665 5.297 37.948 31.519 34.971 31.025 5.714 5.679 5.333 5.544 30.149 33.320 4.174 6.391 4.101 33.191 30.790 35.555 32.827 4.542 4.738 35.580 31.169 30.411 30.055 37.116 6.515 5.958 32.659 4.301 30.867 5.044 5.746 4.417 36.921 36.078 33.489 31.122 5.370 34.634 64° 244° 206° 26° 35.669 34.802 4.355 4.518 4.815 4.455 35.247 5.194 5.971 34.444 34.073 35.102 6.839 5.558 35.395 34.326 4.874 5.925 33.311 36.400 5.467 5.S-Tables.651 5.145 6.261 31.250 32.579 32.064 5.522 36.761 36.257 30.481 4.583 5.454 5.948 36.125 30.821 4.677 30.999 33.897 4.946 35.792 32.201 5.506 4.207 5.045 6.353 35.171 31.496 36.050 36.694 34.218 6.916 4.789 4.657 33.284 4.148 31.972 35.535 5.278 4.076 36.216 37.247 60° 240° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 117 .018 5.460 5.245 33.160 6.945 5.083 5.871 4.353 5.302 35.739 4.929 4.142 5.609 35.967 4.253 5.980 5.001 36.077 5.181 5.196 34.221 33.172 34.624 5.845 34.697 32.628 36.687 35.975 33.260 5.221 34.555 5.216 31.349 4.532 32.878 30.380 5.718 31.797 5.814 36.295 34.266 5.129 5.673 32.902 5.235 30.080 31.652 4.413 5.616 4.594 34.274 32.903 4.155 5.870 34.058 31.745 34.841 36.463 33.803 33.148 5.342 33.147 30.579 4.193 31.860 5.986 4.998 35.385 4.087 32.367 32.323 30.744 32.888 5.573 4.022 34.628 4.324 37.644 5.455 30.887 32.420 31.115 5.196 6.609 4.391 32.935 4.776 5.719 34.980 4.103 150° 330° 299° 119° 5.901 33.876 33.308 4.671 4.259 36.917 5.272 4.386 5.207 36.028 37.733 4.754 33.521 30.787 36.560 4.035 31.665 4.741 31.771 4.109 6.768 32.865 4.923 30.361 4.447 5.073 6.162 37.109 5.557 31.840 4.948 4.816 35.469 4.475 4.500 4.481 35.128 36.501 5.240 6.438 33.796 4.487 33.696 4.125 31.135 37.795 34.329 31.135 5.110 32.461 32.549 36.727 4.787 31.900 30.024 33.366 33.054 33.597 4.469 34.337 4.463 4.433 4.818 5.227 5.591 4.314 4.818 61° 241° 209° 29° 31.863 32.168 5.934 32.002 6.276 35.988 5.655 36.832 5.700 5.690 4.047 35.727 5.779 33.833 31.102 36.269 33.174 35.730 33.351 37.174 5.154 36.345 34.764 31.481 5.596 5.820 34.048 34.487 4.280 5.320 34.251 35.815 32.360 5.270 37.494 34.023 6.414 33.379 4.811 30.440 5.952 5.693 5.302 4.367 30.180 32.610 30.122 34.031 5.499 30.344 32.406 62° 242° 208° 28° 32.375 31.968 30.295 153° 333° 296° 116° 4.590 5.052 6.603 4.469 36.644 34.910 5.931 5.681 36.603 5.708 4.138 6.764 35.225 35.638 5.925 31.734 36.938 5.562 5.924 5.098 35.200 35.173 33.227 32.066 6.474 5.006 32.804 5.999 5.070 5.542 5.466 31.973 4.783 4.959 5.180 36.720 5.157 32.427 5.833 4.993 4.016 6.279 30.041 32.294 33.390 36.816 154° 334° 295° 115° 4.406 5.390 33.974 36.203 6.089 5.233 36. P6 205° 25° 37.098 34.012 63° 243° 207° 27° 34.895 5.320 32.487 5.632 30.721 32.420 5.762 5.232 6.512 4.626 32.777 4.082 37.286 5.584 33.631 5.477 30.012 5.189 37.681 33.220 5.024 35.096 5.878 4.632 33.030 6.124 6.125 33.511 33.990 30.702 4.655 30.271 34.867 36.030 33.548 4.534 31.566 4.941 4.566 30.954 4.661 35.842 35.859 4.997 34.346 5.532 35.493 4.635 35.457 4.243 37.187 5.290 4.167 6.827 33.214 5.608 33.705 33.770 34.973 5.340 5.683 4.095 6.397 31.721 4.415 4.181 6.038 5.246 34.619 34.617 5.403 4.585 4.443 36.327 35.549 5.306 31.852 4.921 34.037 6.131 6.420 34.686 5.856 31.438 32.013 30.238 31.318 33.699 30.879 31.367 4.894 35.554 4.494 5.995 6.714 4.332 4.433 30.378 35.153 6.722 30.364 36.640 4.575 36.712 35.910 32.569 34.646 4.610 5.695 31.910 4.123 35.950 33.758 4.147 34.443 31.433 5.672 5.856 30.839 152° 332° 297° 117° 5.429 35.658 5.602 36.064 32.439 4.320 5.326 5.846 4.134 32.506 35.189 6.197 33.293 5.018 31.211 6.389 30.051 5.366 5.059 6.852 33.708 36.409 4.535 33.603 31.005 5.649 31.788 30.994 31.576 5.634 4.783 5.445 4.508 32.920 35.204 32.902 31.811 5.626 31.544 34.769 5.839 32.421 4.752 4.853 5.583 35.313 5.405 37.161 5.080 6.414 32.884 4.521 5.373 5.508 5.284 31.073 34.443 151° 331° 298° 118° 5.881 5.240 5.734 5.088 6.373 4.588 30.511 31.306 5.108 37.149 35.946 34.297 32.602 32.102 5.569 5.825 5.748 5.485 32.285 36.622 4.966 5.922 4.810 31.846 5.

217 27.543 6.132 25.394 25.682 26.621 25.863 29.641 7.040 7.245 7.535 6.921 28.625 29.058 8.177 8.588 6.112 29.522 24.628 8.543 7.094 25.496 29.099 26.802 27.862 6.367 29.663 26.015 8.690 29.091 29.335 6.900 6.779 24.659 25.281 25.365 7.262 6.742 24.205 7.782 27.839 6.059 30.592 7.247 6.118 27.523 28.381 7.823 6.048 28.219 8.607 28.507 25.182 7.545 26.840 26.908 6.158 58° 238° 212° 32° 27.331 8.931 7.693 6.233 28.475 6.820 26.440 28.559 7.215 26.413 24.811 25.432 29.680 27.166 7.986 6.945 27.479 8.650 24.389 7.126 8.539 29.781 26.309 7.039 25.130 28.229 7.873 7.461 28.069 29.656 6.972 29.502 7.793 6.418 8.195 24.761 24.009 7.948 7.531 8.747 6.089 28.907 25.781 7.327 6.640 27.514 8.665 7.856 7.409 6.498 6.386 6.982 7.731 7.716 6.269 6.349 7.877 6.954 6.754 25.253 26.462 7.092 8.884 27.017 7.854 6.823 7.584 7.837 28.983 25.724 6.558 6.192 28.706 24.394 6.623 26.593 8.627 28.823 27.151 8.389 29.806 7.372 6.475 29.872 24.686 6.994 29.357 8.970 6.678 25.885 29.331 26.341 7.303 29.567 8.244 25.068 28.816 149° 329° 300° 120° 6.269 7.160 8.056 7.898 7.S-Tables.315 28.478 7.202 8.842 29.575 7.154 29.022 26.350 6.879 26.660 27.221 7.060 26.800 6.545 25.405 7.134 7.185 8.510 7.831 7.438 6.762 6.212 28. P7 210° 30° 30.280 8.213 24.986 27.668 29.755 29.498 27.027 28.016 29.378 27.928 29.237 27.320 6.197 27.906 7.603 6.998 8.323 8.993 7.453 29.487 26.716 25.350 26.648 28.076 25.792 25.458 27.298 6.558 8.150 28.157 26.756 7.624 7.846 6.100 8.032 8.416 6.340 8.325 7.835 24.113 25.254 8.561 29.816 24.978 6.401 6.373 7.389 26.322 24.213 7.579 27.137 27.831 6.257 27.674 7.731 6.646 8.526 25.985 28.611 8.504 24.586 28.314 8.007 27.098 27.432 25.190 7.169 25.711 28.277 27.141 145° 325° 304° 124° 8.470 7.518 29.632 24.541 24.317 7.427 8.584 26.103 7.048 29.211 8.478 27.301 7.057 25.419 28.868 25.357 28.956 7.410 29.564 25.657 7.267 24.461 6.254 6.263 25.451 25.079 7.925 27.678 6.722 26.998 26.150 7.761 26.262 8.864 7.830 25.577 24.253 28.333 7.409 8.003 25.869 6.143 8.111 7.481 28.973 7.526 26.081 30.820 29.276 6.640 6.244 146° 326° 303° 123° 7.018 26.709 6.305 8.648 6.620 27.271 8.231 24.176 26.505 8.950 29.171 28.575 8.584 8.724 24.237 8.544 28.899 26.032 7.739 6.071 7.395 24.649 7.038 27.197 29.926 25.923 6.261 7.735 25.604 29.488 25.502 28.437 7.177 27.764 7.671 6.839 7.762 27.614 24.397 7.712 29.505 6.376 24.449 24.945 25.006 28.916 6.789 7.889 7.313 6.366 8.041 26.435 8.087 7.939 6.798 7.890 24.774 28.292 26.218 29.325 29.741 26.049 8.715 7.698 7.881 7.143 56° 236° 214° 34° 25.357 7.625 6.816 28.176 29.808 6.438 27.157 27.565 26.340 24.041 8.595 6.748 7.364 6.286 24.506 26.462 8.444 8.304 24.946 24.109 28.602 25.773 7.001 7.446 6.550 6.356 25.741 27.429 7.513 6.237 7.848 7.398 27.616 7.285 7.754 6.641 57° 237° 213° 33° 26.342 6.291 6.486 24.311 26.978 26.633 6.966 27.133 29.795 28.610 6.079 26.283 6.885 6.740 7.453 8.413 7.753 28.126 7.337 27.567 7.273 26.137 26.075 8.401 8.990 7.357 6.277 7.058 27.888 25.721 27.159 24.469 25.375 8.195 26.669 28.959 26.431 6.007 8.197 7.027 29.409 26.389 147° 327° 302° 122° 7.633 7.539 27.297 8.338 25.228 8.608 7.604 26.551 7.523 8.962 6.907 29.349 8.357 27.103 30.448 26.174 7.024 8.117 8.602 8.701 6.647 29.418 27.150 25.565 6.305 6.942 28.483 6.863 27.024 7.445 7.486 7.663 6.853 24.599 27.785 6.669 24.540 8.535 7.239 29.939 26.346 29.583 25.618 6.206 25.378 28.317 27.777 6.927 24.428 26.964 28.582 29.816 6.293 7.119 7.814 7.488 8.843 27.234 26.732 28.470 8.773 25.421 7.940 7.983 24.690 28.453 6.637 8.423 6.923 7.392 8.168 8.579 148° 328° 301° 121° 6.664 55° 235° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 118 .580 6.701 27.194 8.518 7.733 29.707 7.158 7.048 7.640 25.467 24.253 7.595 24.020 25.904 27.078 27.370 26.965 7.001 24.892 6.900 28.798 24.549 8.245 8.682 7.919 26.849 25.518 27.134 8.225 25.282 29.379 6.177 24.798 29.559 27.559 24.490 6.496 8.964 24.858 28.655 8.037 30.383 8.643 26.297 27.468 6.964 25.600 7.188 25.109 8.860 26.914 7.697 25.619 8.431 24.336 28.375 25.776 29.095 7.300 25.520 6.690 7.288 8.295 28.261 29.879 28.319 25.565 28.527 7.066 8.118 26.693 59° 239° 211° 31° 28.274 28.947 6.528 6.358 24.142 7.083 8.249 24.573 6.702 26.064 7.931 6.494 7.454 7.413 25.687 24.800 26.909 24.770 6.398 28.467 26.723 7.

019 20.664 19.595 22.069 24.417 9.928 9.393 23.050 21.003 21.104 11.385 11.800 23.258 10.961 23.622 23.054 22.555 21.511 11.840 20.767 22.538 9.756 10.212 21.681 22.696 10.537 20.818 23.899 9.803 21.820 21.043 23.510 22.870 22.718 9.141 10.204 54° 234° 216° 36° 23.066 20.020 22.032 11.712 20.851 8.128 20.232 9.838 10.920 21.522 11.743 8.953 21.870 9.693 23.051 24.808 20.270 23.140 9.326 21.853 22.291 11.218 11.005 10.720 21.138 22.190 10.985 20.305 23.501 9.595 10.035 20.672 8.443 20.049 9.454 9.715 22.112 10.729 23.457 21.777 10.249 11.877 8.259 11.073 10.166 11.666 10.301 20.689 9.473 9.426 10.063 10.819 22.222 22.357 10.196 21.506 20.937 9.886 8.539 21.527 19.638 21.474 20.988 19.654 21.615 10.343 11.614 9.096 23.779 8.306 22.067 9.859 8.424 21.364 20.617 20.473 21.177 9.750 22.476 10.506 21.135 11.481 23.976 9.868 8.787 10.451 19.569 23.420 19.168 9.037 22.493 22.034 10.522 21.398 9.256 22.872 23.572 21.557 19.405 19.188 22.711 23.435 19.125 11.895 19.066 142° 322° 307° 127° 9.031 9.352 9.361 9.149 9.510 9.872 20.858 10.052 11.004 19.905 22.680 19.746 10.340 23.158 9.834 19.094 11.296 9.199 10.717 8.163 21.280 11.775 9.905 20.889 20.087 22.490 20.070 22.588 19.634 19.661 9.585 9.269 20.001 11.545 10.175 20.314 19.649 20.197 11.957 22.680 9.970 10.044 10.754 21. P8 215° 35° 24.463 9.015 23.145 11.764 23.425 22.937 20.552 23.922 8.548 9.104 9.259 9.716 10.187 11.813 9.207 11.428 23.491 9.102 10.490 11.960 10.686 10.827 10.726 8.822 9.765 9.939 10.374 11.601 20.651 9.957 9.254 20.752 8.278 10.848 10.899 10.073 11.737 21.618 19.807 10.605 23.695 19.141 24.476 22.681 20.026 23.817 10.193 140° 320° 309° 129° 10.864 19.268 10.082 10.456 10.970 21.051 20.856 20.344 19.646 10.180 10.704 21.572 19.986 8.219 10.288 23.323 23.250 9.803 9.525 10.284 19.553 11.737 9.408 22.486 10.285 20.353 11.391 21.348 20.040 9.633 20.239 10.925 23.176 11.148 23.603 19.395 11.630 22.322 11.756 19.312 11.332 11.919 10.085 9.015 10.151 10.156 11.054 143° 323° 306° 126° 9.087 24.208 19.017 21.853 21.239 11.343 9.555 10.307 10.888 10.273 22.953 20.585 10.836 23.170 10.469 11.635 10.566 9.416 10.358 23.595 9.446 10.130 23.024 10.340 22.021 11.359 19.223 9.815 8.909 9.907 23.053 10.903 21.784 22.155 22.995 10.165 23.253 23.561 22.375 23.098 21.406 11.888 22.458 20.878 10.179 21.950 51° 231° 219° 39° 20.880 19.122 9.995 9.656 10.588 21.195 9.183 23.004 9.979 23.337 10.942 19.427 20.761 8.113 9.728 20.849 19.664 8.114 11.921 20.670 9.922 22.833 8.671 21.605 21.974 22.529 9.837 21.770 8.870 21.104 22.966 9.440 21.736 10.042 11.131 10.544 22.664 22.248 10.410 23.842 8.943 23.687 21.505 10.832 9.479 11.490 21.121 10.327 10.033 24.706 10.058 9.446 23.767 10.011 11.076 9.824 8.854 23.756 9.333 9.587 23.092 10.770 21.913 8.436 10.727 9.235 23.342 21.851 9.317 10.288 10.278 9.061 23.676 10.207 20.708 9.022 9.113 23.228 21.306 9.787 19.575 10.806 8.977 8.218 23.969 20.501 11.997 23.772 19.613 22.411 20.575 50° 230° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 119 .001 20.733 22.416 11.458 11.375 21.803 19.576 9.114 21.801 22.911 19.094 9.747 23.604 9.708 8.299 19.324 9.949 8.515 10.699 9.937 21.495 10.522 20.516 23.063 11.367 10.696 20.463 23.213 9.357 22.889 23.013 9.957 19.676 23.640 23.543 11.186 9.947 9.358 21.787 21.131 21.S-Tables.277 21.238 19.113 20.929 10.726 10.395 20.375 19.535 10.113 141° 321° 308° 128° 10.408 21.699 8.222 20.466 19.228 11.565 10.534 23.082 20.557 9.105 24.408 9.564 11.797 10.239 22.123 24.991 22.797 8.940 8.642 9.238 20.887 21.482 9.406 10.987 21.511 19.391 22.895 8.370 9.376 10.734 8.347 52° 232° 218° 38° 21.379 20.426 9.744 20.776 20.542 19.144 20.788 8.347 10.332 20.950 10.389 9.364 11.171 22.880 9.681 8.209 10.986 9.301 11.380 9.442 22.191 20.078 23.386 10.481 19.448 11.746 9.632 9.909 10.794 9.315 9.269 19.967 8.991 11.760 20.034 21.200 23.918 9.658 23.647 22.244 21.287 9.792 20.329 19.496 19.782 23.698 22.241 9.621 21.520 9.726 19.066 21.649 19.578 22.316 20.585 20.569 20.082 21.289 22.435 9.868 10.605 10.623 9.466 10.980 10.710 19.459 22.261 21.904 8.293 21.958 8.204 9.836 22.437 11.625 10.499 23.097 20.427 11.009 22.973 19.131 9.309 21.445 9.254 19.083 11.160 10.390 19.078 144° 324° 305° 125° 8.784 9.665 20.889 9.553 20.223 19.121 22.297 10.229 10.939 22.532 11.931 8.270 11.861 9.147 21.841 9.205 22.741 19.374 22.824 20.323 22.160 20.926 19.527 22.690 8.396 10.765 53° 233° 217° 37° 22.818 19.269 9.

741 13.757 12.060 18.626 14.731 18.587 13.963 16.365 12.960 11.646 17.485 15.368 14.206 16.499 12.281 17.441 14.599 13.575 13.146 18.353 13.766 11.825 14.653 15.139 16.293 15.926 14.451 18.924 18.364 18.051 45° 225° 0’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60’ 60’ 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0’ 120 .745 12.935 16.563 15.528 13.577 12.988 15.788 13.433 16.175 18.717 16.073 16.810 15.472 15.344 15.267 15.533 17.658 13.393 18.225 17.517 13.487 16.481 13.460 15.204 18.197 14.711 12.760 17.744 16.291 18.233 18.004 16.618 17.098 13.561 17.014 15.255 15.598 18.449 17.473 16.628 15.343 14.087 13.734 12.272 16.123 12.040 14.173 14.622 16.995 13.703 17.343 12.838 14.406 16.370 15.623 13.417 14.306 15.103 18.355 14.379 16.032 17.765 13.080 12.566 12.983 18.400 13.705 13.156 13.435 17.848 13.002 17.161 14.331 14.990 16.993 12.805 18.951 14.639 14.161 18.463 17.649 16.525 18.255 12.655 12.163 19.026 15.260 13.248 13.088 14.902 15.253 17.191 13.156 17.074 18.058 19.615 15.569 18.681 11.306 13.915 15.813 12.649 11.237 13.133 19.601 14.928 11.376 12.676 16.043 19.387 12.725 14.589 15.713 14.564 13.959 17.771 15.703 16.753 13.850 14.902 17.552 14.382 15.971 11.954 15.799 11.392 14.809 11.994 15.802 17.608 16.041 13.404 14.267 17.519 17.974 17.734 11.280 15.885 11.718 15.295 17.335 18.916 17.491 17.638 11.888 15.320 18.330 13.845 17.202 13.379 18.800 13.515 14.800 14.481 18.917 11.745 17.670 13.541 16.729 13.705 15.277 12.888 14.156 12.713 11.642 18.610 12.790 18.760 18.510 18.547 17.666 15.849 15.239 17.476 12.888 17.909 18.214 13.036 12.395 15.543 12.863 11.540 13.823 136° 316° 313° 133° 13.229 15.692 15.577 14.700 12.058 12.443 12.466 14.825 12.232 16.447 15.928 15.893 48° 228° 222° 42° 17.701 18.248 18.692 11.532 12.895 11.110 13.788 11.775 18.732 15.968 18.879 18.178 15.351 17.052 14.077 15.863 14.465 12.127 15.632 17.306 18.244 12.198 17.059 17.527 16.277 18.842 11.900 14.380 14.670 11.498 15.103 19.191 15.285 16.972 12.802 12.013 18.797 15.980 15.847 12.915 12.233 14.982 11.894 18.867 16.288 12.672 18.133 13.124 14.211 12.339 16.018 13.299 12.453 14.294 14.834 18.219 16.938 14.189 12.913 14.872 13.025 12.896 13.939 11.437 18.259 16.922 16.332 12.341 13.644 12.968 13.564 14.777 13.170 17.554 16.091 12.366 16.640 15.053 13.477 17.423 13.635 16.539 18.662 16.992 14.148 19.179 13.663 14.554 18.422 18.089 15.393 17.295 13.282 14.931 17.421 15.490 14.746 18.179 16.724 11.717 13.682 13.961 12.954 18.944 13.478 14.977 16.115 15.112 14.939 18.864 18.774 17.575 11.750 14.121 13.076 14.730 16.581 16.521 12.791 12.087 17.595 16.128 17.100 14.963 14.826 16.052 135° 315° 314° 134° 14.421 17.388 13.233 12.779 12.S-Tables.723 12.331 15.166 15.836 13.126 16.688 14.153 15.798 16.622 137° 317° 312° 132° 12.446 13.617 11.836 12.738 14.701 14.686 18.874 17.365 13.376 13.836 15.136 14.168 13.731 17.950 12.407 17.988 17.101 17.849 18.001 15.678 12.823 15.242 15.689 12.881 16.831 17.454 12.178 12.399 12.596 11.602 15.060 16.221 14.908 13.178 19.614 14.927 12.576 15.460 16.193 19.306 139° 319° 310° 130° 11.246 14.745 15.089 18.152 16.812 16.785 16.949 16.657 18.458 13.030 13.192 16.860 13.204 15.045 17.069 12.775 14.046 18.310 12.073 19.524 15.225 13.505 17.200 12.938 12.145 12.634 13.408 18.716 18.262 18.222 49° 229° 221° 41° 18.118 19.540 14.140 15.583 18.702 11.651 14.768 12.820 18.859 12.817 17.323 17.212 17.016 14.047 12.410 12.283 13.587 47° 227° 223° 43° 16.908 16.115 17.142 17.144 13.299 16.209 14.352 16.166 16.039 15.788 14.004 12.099 16.319 14.606 11.113 16.884 13.510 12.527 14.086 16.421 12.354 12.031 18.511 15.576 17.222 12.365 17.613 18.432 12.676 14.014 12.309 17.812 13.270 14.622 12.495 18.976 14.980 13.429 14.862 15.599 12.337 17.004 14.694 13.689 17.446 16.185 14.470 13. P9 220° 40° 19.505 13.167 12.102 15.149 14.784 15.514 16.763 14.906 11.820 11.839 16.949 11.893 12.434 15.272 13.321 12.690 16.184 17.646 13.758 15.007 13.493 13.503 14.628 18.967 15.326 16.590 17.585 11.852 11.408 15.813 14.435 13.449 138° 318° 311° 131° 12.717 17.550 15.998 18.588 12.666 12.064 14.537 15.894 16.033 16.190 18.020 16.859 17.628 11.318 13.853 16.745 11.312 16.500 16.216 15.758 16.920 13.568 16.487 12.064 15.018 17.258 14.379 17.393 16.831 11.589 14.660 11.064 13.307 46° 226° 224° 44° 15.007 15.466 18.307 14.075 13.941 15.771 16.219 18.102 12.870 12.874 11.674 17.604 17.788 17.357 15.112 12.679 15.046 16.017 18.756 11.875 15.318 15.824 13.419 16.932 13.875 14.552 13.245 16.266 12.956 13.411 13.945 17.349 18.660 17.881 12.132 18.633 12.088 19.554 12.073 17.028 14.984 12.134 12.028 19.777 11.611 13.904 12.118 18.

Appendix The Intercept 121 .