# ENGC6353 Dr.

Mohammed Arafa Page 1

Design Example 3
Rectangular Silo

Design a single rectangular concrete silo for storing peas. The bottom is a symmetrical
pyramidal Hopper. The silo walls rest on the Hopper base which is supported by four
columns. The Roof load ( DL = 150 kg/m
2
and LL= 100 kg/m
2
Use
).
' 2 2
350 / , 4200 /
c y
f kg cm f kg cm = =

Solution
For Peas
3
'
800 /
25
0.296
o
kg m γ
φ
µ
=
=
=

b=6m

a
=
4
m

An Above Hopper

b=6m

a=6m
Openning0.5x0.5m

30m

5m

7m

φ50cm

3m

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 2

Assume angle of response = =25
2
3tan 25 1.4 1.0
3
1 sin 25 0.577
4
1.0
4 4
'
1.0
4
2 4 6 '
' 4.8 1.2
4 6 4
s s
a
b
b
h m h m
k
a
R m
a
R m
a
a R m
ρ φ
= = ⇒ ≅
= − =
= = =
= =
× ×
= = = =
+

Overpressure Factor C
1 d
d
/ 40/10 4
upper H c 1.5
lower 2/3 H c 1.85
Hooper 1.5
d
H D
c
= =
=
=
=
d

At the bottom of the silos
( ) '
2
2
2
2
At the bottom of the silos 30-1.0 29.0
1
'
( 1.0) 4.65 t/m
0.577 4.65 2.7 t/m
( 1.2) 5.53t/m
0.577 5.53 3.2t/m
kY R
Y m
R
q e
k
p kq
For short wall R q
p kq
For long wall R q
p kq
µ
γ
µ

= =
(
= −
¸ ¸
=
= =
= = × =
= =
= = × =

( )
( )
( )
Short Wall 0.8 30 4.65 1.0 19.35ton
Long Wall 0.8 30 5.53 1.2 22.16ton
Friction V Y q R
V
V
γ = −
= × − × =
= × − × =

Wall tension and bending moment
( )
( )
,
,
Short Wall 1.7 1.85 3.2 6 2 30.2ton/m
Long Wall 1.7 1.85 2.7 4 2 17.0ton/m
a u
b u
F
F
= × × =
= × × =

Frame action analysis using moment distribution Analysis
Assume wall thickness h=30cm
25cm

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 3

The moment distribution is computed for an idealized rectangular frame 6.3 by 4.4 m
Using symmetry
a
2 2
Short Wall =0.465I
4.3
2 2
Long Wall =0.317I
6.3
0.465
DF 0.6
0.465 0.317
0.4
a
a
b
b
b
I I
K
L
I I
K
L
DF
= =
= =
= ≅
+

Short Wall Long Wall
DF 0.6 0.4
FEM 4.16 -10.6
Balancing 3.86 2.58
FINAL 8.0 -8.0
Assume fillit (hunch) at the corner =25cm
Negative moment will be calculated at the face of the hunch
2
b,-ve
2
a,-ve
M 8.0 3.2 0.4 / 2 10.1 0.4 4.2 .
M 8.0 2.7 0.4 / 2 5.8 0.4 5.9 .
t m
t m
= + × − × =
= + × − × =

Check for thickness
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
' 2
, 2
5
3
2
, 2
5
3
2
, 2
6
2 2 350 37.4 /
For long Wall
6 4.2 10
1 17 10
11 /
1.7 1.85 30 100
30 100
For short Wall
6 5.9 10
1 30.2 10
15.7 /
1.7 1.85 30 100
30 100
The wall thicknes
t b r c
t b r
t b r
T M
f f f kg cm
bt bt
f kg cm f
f kg cm f
= + ≤ = = =
(
×
×
( = + = <
×
(
¸ ¸
(
×
×
( = + = <
×
(
¸ ¸
sis oK

Design for Reinforcement
Long Wall
negative moment M
Check for small eccentricity
-ve

3.2 t/m
2

2
.
7

t
/
m
2

6.3m

4.3m

7.9 t.m

-8.0

-8.0

-
1
.
5

25cm

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 4

( ) 4.2 100
24.7 '' 15 5.7 9.3
17 2
u
u
M h
e d
F
= = = > − = − =

Small eccentricity approach can not be used
3
2
st
'' 15 5.7 9.3
2
Direct tension reinforcement
17 10
A 4.5 /
0.9 4200
y
h
e d
T
cm m
f φ
= − = − =
×
= = =
×

Bending Moment Reinforcement
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
4.2 17 9.3/100 2.6 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.61 10 2.6
0.85 350
1 1 0.00117
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00117 100 24.3 2.85
4.5 2.85 7.35 /
14@20
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ

= − × =
(

( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =

Design for Positive Moment at Midspan
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
7.9 17 9.3/100 6.32 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.61 10 6.32
0.85 350
1 1 0.00289
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00289 100 24.3 7.0
4.5 7 11.5 /
16@15
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ
+
+
+
= − × =
(

( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =

Design for Short Wall
negative moment M
Check for small eccentricity
-ve

( ) 5.9 100
19.5 '' 15 5.7 9.3
30.2 2
u
u
M h
e d
F
= = = > − = − =

Small eccentricity approach can not be used
ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 5

3
2
st
'' 15 5.7 9.3
2
Direct tension reinforcement
30.2 10
A 8.0 /
0.9 4200
y
h
e d
T
cm m
f φ
= − = − =
×
= = =
×

Bending Moment Reinforcement
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
5.9 30.2 9.3/100 3.0 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.61 10 3.0
0.85 350
1 1 0.00137
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00137 100 24.3 303
8.0 3.3 11.3 /
16@15
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ

= − × =
(

( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =

Design at Mid-span

Design of the Hopper Walls
The pressure changes very little with depth of the hopper, so use the pressure at the top of
the hopper with Cd=1.35
2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
1.35 4.65 6.28t/m
1.35 0.577 4.65 3.6t/m
1.35 5.53 7.47 t/m
1.35 0.577 5.53 4.3t/m
a des
a des
b des
b des
q
p
q
q
= × =
= × × =
= × =
= × × =

1
1
Angleof slopes
3
tan 48
3 0.3
3
tan 60.5
2 0.3
a
a
α
α

| |
= =
|

\ .
| |
= =
|

\ .

2 2 2
,
2 2 2
,
3.6sin 48 6.28cos 48 4.8t/m
4.3sin 60.5 7.47cos 60.5 5.0 t/m
a des
b des
q
q
α
α
= + =
= + =

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 6

Horizontal Ultimate tensile forces
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
2
2
1.7 5.0 6/2 sin 48 =19.0t/m
1.7 4.8 4/2 sin 60.5 =14.2t/m
tau
tbu
F
F
=
=

The own weight of the Hopper and its contents
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
3 4 6 3 0.8 60
3 4 6 3 0.2 2.5 38
L
L
W ton
W ton
π
π
= × =
= × × =

For simplicity neglect the opening area at the bottom of the hopper. Hopper side A
a
and A
b

can be calculated as:
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
4 3 6
2
1
6 2 6
2
6
1/ 4
a
b
a b
a b
A m
A m
A A m
c c
= × =
= × =
= =
= =

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
,
,
1.7 1.4
1.7 0.25 60 6 6.28 1.4 0.25 38
34.6
sin 4sin 48
1.7 1.4
1.7 0.25 60 6 7.47 1.4 0.25 38
22
sin 6sin 60.5
a L a a des b g
mau
a
b L b b des b g
mbu
b
c W A q c W
F ton
a
c W A q c W
F ton
b
α
α
+ +
× + × +
= = =
+ +
× + × +
= = =

Hopper wall bending can be computed using Tables for triangular slabs:
For Hopper wall A
( )
2
2
4.3
6.3/ 2 3 4.35
/ 1.0
a m
c m
a c
=
= + =

From table 16.4 in Appendix At the centre of the top edge n
x
= -0.209 and n
y
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1.7 0.209 4.8 4.3 / 64 0.493 .
1.7 1.255 4.8 4.3 / 64 2.89 .
xau
yau
M t m
M t m
= =
= =
=-1.255

This slab is to be designed for bending and tensile force similarly as shown above.

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 7

Design of the edge beam
Dowels are provided to transfer the vertical loads from hopper edge beam into the vertical
walls
3
2
,
sin 34.6sin 48 25.7 /
25.7 10
6.8 /
0.9 4200
mau a
st dowels
T F ton m
A cm m
α = = =
×
= =
×

Since the edge beam is to be joining the vertical wall using dowels. The upper wall shear
and horizontal components of the hopper are assumed to be in equilibrium. Thus no
horizontal load is carried by the edge beam. Its only purpose is to simplify construction.
Minimum longitudinal steel and shear stirrups are provided

Vertical Wall
The vertical walls are analyzed as deep girder (strut and tie analysis can be used) to carry
From dowel 25.7 ton/m
Friction 1.7(19.35) = 32.9 ton/m
Wall weight,
1.4(2.5)(0.3)(30)= 31.5 ton/m
Total = 90 ton/m

85 × 3.u 1.0 29.7 (1.2 ) × 6 2 30.85 Hooper cd = 1.35 ton 22.2 ton/m = = Fb .7 p= = kq 0.65) ×1.65 t/m 2 2.8 × 30 − 5.5 25cm At the bottom of the silos At the bottom of the silos Y 30 -1.u 1.8 × 30 − 4.7 ) × 4 2 17.2 = 19.65 = t/m 2 For long wall (R 1.8 R= = 1.0) q = = 4.0 = ( 0.2) q = = 5.85 × 2.0m = = γR  −( µ ' kY R )  q = 1 − e  µ 'k p = kq For short wall (R 1.0m b 4 2× 4× 6 a' a' = = 4.577 × 5.7 (1.577 k = 25 = a 4 R a= = = 1.0m = 3 1 − sin 0.5 lower 2/3 H cd = 1.577 × 4.16ton Wall tension and bending moment Short Wall Long Wall Fa .2 p= = kq 0.53t/m 2 3.Assume angle of response ρ =φ =25 2 hs= 3 tan 25 1.2m b 4+6 4 Overpressure Factor C d H / D 40 /10 4 = = upper H1 cd = 1.53) ×1.0ton/m = = Frame action analysis using moment distribution Analysis Assume wall thickness h=30cm ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 2 .53 = t/m 2 Vertical Loads Due to Friction Friction Short Wall Long Wall V = V = V = (γY − q ) R ( 0.0m 4 4 a' R= = 1.4m ⇒ hs ≅ 1.

8 × 0.86 8.317I Lb 6.b = + 11 2 1.6 2.7 ×1.85  ( 30 )(100 ) ( 30 ) (100 )    For short Wall  30.3 by 4.4 = 4.6 0.42 / 2 − 10.b = + 2 1.0 + 3.3m 7.7 t/m2 4.0 DF FEM Balancing FINAL 0.2 ×105 )  1   =kg / cm 2 < f r f t .3m 3.9 ×105 )  1   =15.4 -1.4 = 5.7 ×1. Mohammed Arafa Page 3 .m Check for thickness T 6M f t .-ve = 8.42 / 2 − 5.16 3.4 Short Wall Long Wall 0.2 t .58 -8.4 m Using symmetry Short Wall Long Wall DFa = = Ka Kb = 2I 2I = =0.-ve = 8.m 0.b = + 2 ≤ f r = 2 f c' = 2 350 = 37.2 × 0.The moment distribution is computed for an idealized rectangular frame 6.2 ×103 6 ( 5.5 -8.317 DFb ≅ 0.85  ( 30 )(100 ) ( 30 ) (100 )    The wall thickness is oK Design for Reinforcement Long Wall negative moment M -ve Check for small eccentricity ENGC6353 Dr.465I La 4.1× 0.0 -10.3 2I 2I = =0.2 t/m2 6.7 × 0.0 -8.9 t.0 Assume fillit (hunch) at the corner =25cm Negative moment will be calculated at the face of the hunch M b.0 + 2.7 kg / cm 2 < f r f t .4 kg / cm 2 bt bt For long Wall 25cm  17 ×103 6 ( 4.9 t .6 4.3 2.465 + 0.m M a.465 ≅ 0.

2 2 Fu Small eccentricity approach can not be used ENGC6353 Dr.m d=30-5.7 = 9.32 )  0.9 − 17 × 9.3 17 2 Fu Small eccentricity approach can not be used h e = − d '' =15 − 5. Mohammed Arafa Page 4 .5 cm 2 / m φ f y 0.6 )  0.3) ⋅ 350    2 = (= 7.7 = 9.3) ⋅ 350    2 = (= 2.−ve = 4.e= M u 4.0 cm A s ( +ve ) 0.32 t .85cm A s ( −ve ) 0.85 ⋅ 350  1 − 1 −  = 0.7 =9.6 t .3 /100 = 2.3 2 Direct tension reinforcement = A st T 17 ×103 = = 4.85 = cm 2 / m use φ14@ 20cm Design for Positive Moment at Midspan M u' .61 ⋅105 ( 6.total = 4.2 (100 ) h = = 24.85 ⋅ 350  1 − 1 −  = ρ −ve = 0.2 − 17 × 9.61 ⋅105 ( 2.7=24.7=24.3 2.9 × 4200 Bending Moment Reinforcement M u' .00289 2 4200  100 ⋅ ( 24.9 (100 ) h = = 19.m d=30-5.+ve = 7.3 /100 = 6.5 > − d '' = 15 − 5.5 cm 2 / m use φ16@15cm Design for Short Wall negative moment M -ve Check for small eccentricity e= M u 5.00117 )(100 )( 24.7 > − d '' = 15 − 5.3) = ρ +ve A s .5 + 7 = 11.3 2.3 30.00289 )(100 )( 24.5 7.total = + 2.3) 4.00117 2 4200  100 ⋅ ( 24.35 A s .

Mohammed Arafa Page 5 .53 = 4.total = 8.47 t/m 2 qb .65 = 3.7 =9.3  3.2 ×103 = = 8.28cos 2 48 = 4.des = 4.5 = t/m 2 5.3 t/m 2 Angle of slopes  3  = tan −1  α a = 48   3 − 0.−ve =5.65 = 6.des = 1.8t/m 2 qα a .0 qαb .h e = − d '' =15 − 5. so use the pressure at the top of the hopper with Cd=1.7=24.0 + 3.35 × 0.des = 1.des =1.des =1.3sin 2 60.3 2 Direct tension reinforcement = A st T 30.577 × 4.0 )  0.35 × 5.28 t/m 2 p a .3   3  = tan −1  α a = 60.35 q a .6sin 2 48 + 6.3cm 2 / m use φ16@15cm Design at Mid-span Design of the Hopper Walls The pressure changes very little with depth of the hopper.35 × 4.5   2 − 0.53 = 7.0 t .85 ⋅ 350  1 − 1 −  = ρ −ve = 0.61 ⋅105 ( 3.9 − 30.m d=30-5.des = ENGC6353 Dr.00137 2 4200  100 ⋅ ( 24.3 /100 =3.0 cm 2 / m φ f y 0.00137 )(100 )( 24.2 × 9.9 × 4200 Bending Moment Reinforcement M u' .35 × 0.577 × 5.6 t/m 2 qb .3) ⋅ 350    2 = (= 303cm A s ( −ve ) 0.47 cos 2 60.3) A s .3 = 11.5 + 7.3 2.

des ) + 1.8 ) = π 3 60 ton W L = π 3 ( 4 × 6 )( 3)( 0.4 in Appendix At the centre of the top edge n x = -0.4 ( 0.209 and n y =-1.7 (cbW L + Ab qb .7 (1.m = 1.2 × 2.4 ( 0.8 ) 4.4cbW g 1.255 M xau M yau 1.8 )( 4/2 ) sin ( 60. Mohammed Arafa Page 6 .m = This slab is to be designed for bending and tensile force similarly as shown above.8 ) 4.5 Hopper wall bending can be computed using Tables for triangular slabs: For Hopper wall A a = 4.3 / 2 = ) + 32 2 4.6 ton a sin α a 4sin 48 1.25 )( 38 ) = = 34.5 )= 38 ton For simplicity neglect the opening area at the bottom of the hopper.35m a / c ≅ 1.7 (c aW L + Aaq a .7 ( 0.25 × 60 + 6 × 7.25 × 60 + 6 × 6.7 ( 5.Horizontal Ultimate tensile forces Ftau = 1.32 / 64 ) 2.209 ( 4.0 )( 6/2 ) sin ( 48 ) =19.7 ( 0.4cbW g 1. ENGC6353 Dr.0 From table 16.255 ( 4.493 t .7 ( 4.3m = c ( 6.2t/m 2 The own weight of the Hopper and its contents W L =( 4 × 6 )( 3)( 0.89 t . Hopper side A a and A b can be calculated as: 1 ( 4 × 3)= 6 m 2 2 1 Ab = ( 6 × 2 )= 6 m 2 2 = = A a Ab 6 m 2 Aa = c= c= 1/ 4 a b Fmau Fmbu 1.des ) + 1.7 ( 0.25 )( 38 ) = = 22 ton b sin αb 6sin 60.47 ) + 1.0t/m 2 Ftbu = 1.32 / 64 ) 0.28 ) + 1.5 ) =14.

The upper wall shear and horizontal components of the hopper are assumed to be in equilibrium.7(19. Minimum longitudinal steel and shear stirrups are provided Vertical Wall The vertical walls are analyzed as deep girder (strut and tie analysis can be used) to carry vertical the following vertical loads: From dowel 25. Mohammed Arafa Page 7 .7 ton / m T = = = A st .3)(30)= Total = 31.7 ton/m Friction 1.7 ×103 = 6.35) = 32.8 cm 2 / m 0.Design of the edge beam Dowels are provided to transfer the vertical loads from hopper edge beam into the vertical walls = Fmau sin α a 34. Its only purpose is to simplify construction. Thus no horizontal load is carried by the edge beam.4(2.dowels 25.5)(0.6sin 48 25.5 ton/m 90 ton/m ENGC6353 Dr.9 × 4200 Since the edge beam is to be joining the vertical wall using dowels. 1.9 ton/m Wall weight.