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# A naly! i! of Compo site Laminate! 9 Mechani c! of Comp o!ite Laminate.

The th irty six coefficients Cij are not all independent of each other. The Some anisotropic materials may possess material symmetries and their consti-
number of indep endent constants depends on the material constitution. First we tutive behavior can be described with fewer than 21 constants. When the elastic
show that C k j = Cjk i that is, they are symmetric for materials for which the strain coefficients at a point have t he same values for every pair of coordinate systems
energy density function Uo is such that which are mirror images of each ot her in a certain plane, that plane is called a
plane of elastic .!ymmetry for the material at that point . Materials with one plane
of symmetry are called monoclinic materials, and the number of ela stic coeffi-
(2.2 - 3) cients for such materials reduces to 13. If the plane of symmetry is :1: 3 = 0, the
constitutive relations become:
To illustrate this, we consider the strain energy density of the material which may
be expressed as C 13 0 0 C 16 El
C23 0 0 C26 E2
C 33 0 0 C36 E3
(2.2 - 4)
= C44 C45 0 E4
(2.2 - 8)
C55 0 E5
sym. C66 E6
Substituting equation (2.2-1) into equation (2.2-4) and integrating, we obtain
This is different from the idea that stress is
symettric because of angular mom
Note that the out-of-plane shear st resses , namely 0"4 and 0"5, are independent of
conservation. But if stress and strain are 1 normal strains and t he inplane shear strain.
both symmetric tensors, does that not
u, = 2 -CyYE" Ej (2.2 - 5)
make the Hooke Tensor symmetric too? K j( If a material system has three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic sym-
metry, then the number of independent elastic coefficients can be reduced to nine .
Substituting for Uo from Eq . (2.2-5) into Eq . (2.2-3), we arrive at the expression
Such materials are referred to as orthotropic. The stress-strain relations for an
orthotropic material are given by

(2.2 - 6)
ie every plane tends to C 13 0 0 0 El
remove the effect of a C 23 0 0 0 E2
By comparing expressions (2.2-6) and (2.2-1), we conclude that Ckj = Cjk' shear strain on the the
C 33 0 0 0
principly directed shear E3
(2.2 - 9)
Because of this symmetry, there are only 21 independent elastic constants for
stresses in the system
= C 44 0 0 E4
anisotropic materials. In matrix form Eq. (2.2-1) can be expressed as
055 0 E5
sym . 066 E6
C 13 CH C 15 C 16 El
C 23 C 24 C 25 C 26 E2
Note that there are no interactio~s between extensional and shear components for
C 33 C 34 C 35 C 36 E3
orthotropic materials when loaded along the material coordinates.
C 44 C 45 C 46
(2.2 - 7)
E4
The stiffness coefficients C ij for an orthotropic material may be expressed in
C 55 C 56 E5
sym. terms of the engineering constants by (see Reddy [4])
C 66 E6

It is understood from Eq. (2.2-7) that, in general, the elastic coefficients a - 1 - 1123 V32 a _ 1121 + 1131 1123 = 1112 + 1132 1113
Oij relating the Cartesian components of stress and st rain depend on the coor - 11 - !:lE2E3 ' 12 - !:lE2 E3 !:lE1 E2
dinate system"( :1: 1 , :1:2, :1:3) used. Referred to another Cartesian coordinate system a - 1131+ 1121 1132 1113 +1112 1123 a = 1- 1113 1131
(Xl, X2, X3) , the elastic coefficients are Gij , and in general Gij :.j:. Oij. If Gij = Oij, 13 - !:lE2 E3 !:lE1 E2 22 !:lE1 E3
then they are independent of the coordinate system and the material is said to be
isotropic. a _ 1132 + 1112 1131 = 1123 + 1121 1113 a = 1 - 1112 1121
23 - !:lE 1E3 !:lE 1E2 33 !:lE 1E2
tensor rotation rule for
sigma.