Ochoa & Reddy - Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates

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Ochoa & Reddy - Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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The th irty six coefficients Cij are not all independent of each other. The Some anisotropic materials may possess material symmetries and their consti-

number of indep endent constants depends on the material constitution. First we tutive behavior can be described with fewer than 21 constants. When the elastic

show that C k j = Cjk i that is, they are symmetric for materials for which the strain coefficients at a point have t he same values for every pair of coordinate systems

energy density function Uo is such that which are mirror images of each ot her in a certain plane, that plane is called a

plane of elastic .!ymmetry for the material at that point . Materials with one plane

of symmetry are called monoclinic materials, and the number of ela stic coeffi-

(2.2 - 3) cients for such materials reduces to 13. If the plane of symmetry is :1: 3 = 0, the

constitutive relations become:

To illustrate this, we consider the strain energy density of the material which may

be expressed as C 13 0 0 C 16 El

C23 0 0 C26 E2

C 33 0 0 C36 E3

(2.2 - 4)

= C44 C45 0 E4

(2.2 - 8)

C55 0 E5

sym. C66 E6

Substituting equation (2.2-1) into equation (2.2-4) and integrating, we obtain

This is different from the idea that stress is

symettric because of angular mom

Note that the out-of-plane shear st resses , namely 0"4 and 0"5, are independent of

conservation. But if stress and strain are 1 normal strains and t he inplane shear strain.

both symmetric tensors, does that not

u, = 2 -CyYE" Ej (2.2 - 5)

make the Hooke Tensor symmetric too? K j( If a material system has three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic sym-

metry, then the number of independent elastic coefficients can be reduced to nine .

Substituting for Uo from Eq . (2.2-5) into Eq . (2.2-3), we arrive at the expression

Such materials are referred to as orthotropic. The stress-strain relations for an

orthotropic material are given by

(2.2 - 6)

ie every plane tends to C 13 0 0 0 El

remove the effect of a C 23 0 0 0 E2

By comparing expressions (2.2-6) and (2.2-1), we conclude that Ckj = Cjk' shear strain on the the

C 33 0 0 0

principly directed shear E3

(2.2 - 9)

Because of this symmetry, there are only 21 independent elastic constants for

stresses in the system

= C 44 0 0 E4

anisotropic materials. In matrix form Eq. (2.2-1) can be expressed as

055 0 E5

sym . 066 E6

C 13 CH C 15 C 16 El

C 23 C 24 C 25 C 26 E2

Note that there are no interactio~s between extensional and shear components for

C 33 C 34 C 35 C 36 E3

orthotropic materials when loaded along the material coordinates.

C 44 C 45 C 46

(2.2 - 7)

E4

The stiffness coefficients C ij for an orthotropic material may be expressed in

C 55 C 56 E5

sym. terms of the engineering constants by (see Reddy [4])

C 66 E6

It is understood from Eq. (2.2-7) that, in general, the elastic coefficients a - 1 - 1123 V32 a _ 1121 + 1131 1123 = 1112 + 1132 1113

Oij relating the Cartesian components of stress and st rain depend on the coor - 11 - !:lE2E3 ' 12 - !:lE2 E3 !:lE1 E2

dinate system"( :1: 1 , :1:2, :1:3) used. Referred to another Cartesian coordinate system a - 1131+ 1121 1132 1113 +1112 1123 a = 1- 1113 1131

(Xl, X2, X3) , the elastic coefficients are Gij , and in general Gij :.j:. Oij. If Gij = Oij, 13 - !:lE2 E3 !:lE1 E2 22 !:lE1 E3

then they are independent of the coordinate system and the material is said to be

isotropic. a _ 1132 + 1112 1131 = 1123 + 1121 1113 a = 1 - 1112 1121

23 - !:lE 1E3 !:lE 1E2 33 !:lE 1E2

tensor rotation rule for

sigma.

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