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H. Ozer et al.
Steganalysis of audio based on audio quality metrics Morphological steganalysis of audio signals and the principle of diminishing marginal distortions Steganalysis of audio: Attacking the Steghide
Estimate original signal by denoising and use statistical distance features to detect stego vs. cover. Uses DMD to detect hidden messages in uncompressed audio. More useful for repeated embedding attempts. Detects steganography applied from Steghide method by finding correlation between wavelet coefficients as statistics. Build a linear basis by using audio spectrograms and use these low-dimensional statistics to classify stego/cover. An extension of Ozer et al.'s 2003 paper that removes content-dependency from distortion measures. Calculate statistics of differences in unwrapped phase signal (derived from block FFT of audio) for classification. Combine known steganalysis features with new Melcepstrum based features for better performance in recorded speech. Add the Hausdorff distance to the toolset of statistical distortion measures used by other steganalysis methods.
O. Altun et al.
X.-M. Ru et al.
M. K. Johnson et al.
Steganalysis of recorded speech
Audio steganalysis with content-independent distortion measures A novel steganalysis algorithm of phase coding in audio signal
W. Zeng et al.
C. Kraetzer and J. Dittman
Mel-cepstrum based steganalysis for VoIPsteganography
Y. Liu et al.
A novel audio steganalysis based on high-order statistics of a distortion measure with Hausdorff distance
None SVM Yes (25) Steganalysis features. skewness. and kurtosis of spectrogram PCA frames (20) Perceptual and nonperceptual (temporal and spectral) features SVM Yes ANOVA. Linear regression Yes (SFS) (5) Variance. etc. Linear regression Yes (SFS) (1) Morphological distortion None Neural network Yes (5+) Predictor coefficients. mean. Sequential Floating Search Method SVM. and mean None absolute deviation of unwrapped phase differences SVM Yes (20+) Statistical features. Sequential Floating Search Method SVM. median.Audio Features (19) Perceptual and nonperceptual (temporal and spectral) features Preprocessing Classifiers Supervised? ANOVA. skewness. kurtosis None SVM Yes (4) Mean. MFCCs. variance. variance. kurtosis. skewness. including Hausdorff distance Wavelet denoising SVM Yes .
DCTwHAS. Steganos. FHSS. echo No hiding. Publimark. Steganos. Stools 80% or better Global DSSS. FHSS. SS. echo hiding. VAWW 89% or better Global LSB. No Steghide. WaSpStego. Hide4PGP No 80% or better Both DSSS. Hide4PGP. Stochastic modulation No 60% or better Global Steghide No 80% or better Local LSB. 2A2W.Performance Local/Global Features 80% or better Both Targeted Methods Compression? DSSS. Steghide No 95% Local Phase Coding No ? Both LSB. Steghide No .