Industrial Centrifugal Pumps
Bronze Aluminum Polyester Plastic Seal Replacement Instructions
General specs in chart below. For more detailed information, click here to view the list of spec sheets available.
Flow: 1-100 GPM (3 - 380 LPM) Pressure: 0-60 PSI (0-4.1 BAR) Performance: Flow drops to zero with maximum pressure output. Suction Lift (Water): Zero for straight centrifugal. 15 ft. with foot valve (4.6 meters) Self-priming models to 20 ft. (6.1 meters) Liquid Cleanliness Clean or contaminated. Cannot pump viscous liquids above and Viscostiy: 2000 SSU. Liquid Compatibility: Most common liquids. Noise: Extremely quiet. Power Required: Least amount to start and operate; maximum amount at wide open flow and zero pressure; power demand decreases with pressure increase. Discharge Line: May shut off for extended time periods. Bearing Lubrication No Required: -40 degrees F. to 250 degrees F. ( -40 degrees C to 122 Temperature: degrees C) Seal Arrangement: Mechanical Types: Close coupled and pedestal
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Flow: 0-100 GPM (0 - 380 LPM) Pressure: 0-60 PSI (0 - 4.1 BAR) Performance: Flow drops to zero with maximum pressure output. Suction Lift (water): Zero for straight centrifugal. 15 ft. with foot valve. (4.6 meters) Self-priming models to 20 ft. (6.1 meters) Liquid Cleanliness Clean or contaminated. Cannot pump viscous liquids above and Viscosity: 2000 SSU. Liquid Compatibility: Compatible liquids Noise: Extremely quiet Power Required: Least amount to start and operate; maximum amount at wide open flow and zero pressure; power demand decreases with pressure increase. Discharge Line: May shut off for extended periods. Bearing Lubrication No Required: -40 degrees F. to 250 degrees F. (-40 degrees C to 122 Temperature: degrees C) Seal Arrangement: Mechanical Types: Close coupled and pedestal
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Flow: 0-200 GPM (0 - 75 LPM) Pressure: 0-50 PSI (0-3.5 BAR) Performance: Flow drops to zero with maximum pressure output. Suction Lift (water): Self-priming models to 20 feet. (6.1 meters) Liquid Cleanliness and Clean or contaminated. Cannot pump viscous liquids above 2000 Viscosity: SSU. Liquid Compatibility: Corrosive liquids and chemicals. Noise: Extremely quiet. Power Required: Least amount to start and operate; maximum amount at wide open flow and zero pressure; power demand decreases with pressure increase.
Discharge Line: May shut off for extended periods. Bearing Lubrication Required: No Temperature: 0 degrees F. to 180 degrees F. (-18 degrees C to 82 degrees C) Seal Arrangement: Mechanical Types: Close coupled or pedestal
3/4HP & 1HP PROSSER SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
PART NO. 9-01011-28FK 9-01012-28FK 9-01311-28FK 9-01312-28FK HP .75 .75 1 1 VAC PH HZ RPM 115 230 115 230 1 1 1 1 60 60 60 60 3450 3450 3450 3450 START CODE G G D D FULL LOAD AMPS 11.0 5.8 12.0 6.7 LOCKED AMPS 36.2 18.1 36.2 18.1 CORD CORD SIZE TYPE 14/4 14/4 14/4 14/4 SOW SOW SOW SOW
PUMPS AVAILABLE IN OTHER VOLTAGES. CALL FOR INFORMATION (800) 928-7763. Specs & Performance Curves: .75HP & 1HP Prosser Pumps
2HP, 2.5HP & 2.75HP PROSSER SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
PART NO. 9-20111-13 9-20112-13 9-27112-13 HIGH HEAD 9-25132-03 HIGH VOLUME 2.5 230 3 60 3450 J 6.8 49.2 12/4 SOW HP VAC PH HZ RPM 2 2 115 1 60 3450 230 1 60 3450 START CODE F G D FULL LOAD AMPS 23.4 11.7 12.5 LOCKED AMPS 92.5 51.0 52.6 CORD SIZE 12/4 12/4 12/4 CORD TYPE SOW SOW SOW
2.75 230 1 60 3450
2.5 230 3 60 3450
PUMPS AVAILABLE IN OTHER VOLTAGES. CALL FOR INFORMATION (800) 928-7763. Specs & Performance Curves: 2HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 2.5HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 2.75HP Prosser Pump
3.5HP & 5HP PROSSER SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
PART NO. 9-35112-03 1 STAGE 9-50132-03 5 230 3 60 3450 H 15.5 87.8 12/4 SOW HP VAC PH HZ RPM 3.5 230 1 60 3450 START CODE F FULL LOAD AMPS 18.5 LOCKED AMPS 84.0 CORD SIZE 12/4 CORD TYPE SOW
2 STAGE HIGH HEAD 9-55132-03 5 230 3 60 3450 H 15.2 87.8 12/4 SOW
PUMPS AVAILABLE IN OTHER VOLTAGES. CALL FOR INFORMATION (800) 928-7763. Specs & Performance Curves: 3.5HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 5HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 5HP 2 Stage Prosser Pump
10HP, 15HP & 25HP PROSSER SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
6/4 12/4 6/4 12/4 4/4 4/4
SOW SOW SOW SOW SOW SOW
10 230 3 60 3450 10 460 3 60 3450 15 230 3 60 3450 15 460 3 60 3450 25 230 3 60 3450 25 460 3 60 3450
K K J J J J
30.0 39.0 288.0 144.0 464.9
208.0 232.5 19.PART NO.7 65.0 104.0 15.0 464.7 65.0 15.0 39.8 32.0
6/4 12/4 6/4 12/4 4/4 4/4
SOW SOW SOW SOW SOW SOW
PUMPS AVAILABLE IN OTHER VOLTAGES. HIGH HEAD 9-81032-23 9-81034-23 9-81532-23 9-81534-23 9-82532-43 9-82534-43 HIGH VOLUME 9-81032-03 9-81034-03 9-81532-03 9-81534-03 9-82532-33 9-82534-33
HP VAC PH HZ RPM
FULL LOAD AMPS
10 230 3 60 3450 10 460 3 60 3450 15 230 3 60 3450 15 460 3 60 3450 25 230 3 60 3450 25 460 3 60 3450
K K J J J J
30.0 104.8 32.0 232.9
208. Specs & Performance Curves: 10HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 15HP Prosser Pump Specs & Performance Curves: 25HP Prosser Pump
.0 144.0 288.5 19. CALL FOR INFORMATION (800) 928-7763.
HIGH HEAD 9-85034-24 HIGH VOLUME 9-85034-04 50 460 3 60 3450 G 56. CALL FOR INFORMATION (800) 9287763.0 360.0 4/4 SOW 50 460 3 60 3450 G 56. Specs & Performance Curves: 50 HP Prosser Pump
E-mail: email@example.com Tel: 800-WCT-PROD (800-928-7763) Local Tel: 310-822-5212 Fax: 310-306-9343 13309 Beach Ave.50HP PROSSER SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
PART NO.0 4/4 SOW HP VAC PH HZ RPM START CODE FULL LOAD AMPS LOCKED AMPS CORD SIZE CORD TYPE
NOTE: PUMPS AVAILABLE IN OTHER VOLTAGES. Marina del Rey.0 360. CA 90292
Review of the irrigation equipment manufacture and supply sector in India. Indian pumps are made according to the specifications of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). availability and supply Service assistance for installation and maintenance Joint venture with local private people Conclusion Acknowledgements
India's economy is based mainly on agriculture and it is the backbone of the country. Today 60% of India's requirements of domestic and agricultural pumpsets are made in Coimbatore. Sundaram
C. most of whom manufacture motors and pumps of various types. needs several irrigation techniques.S. cloth and
. Where water levels are at 6-40 metres head or on river sides. mostly radial flow pumps are used. India
Pump industry in India Special criteria for motor and pump design Small industries testing and research centre (SITARC) Product quality and performance Types of pumps. Sundaram Secretary. Coimbatore (with 1. India. It is called the "Manchester" of South India due to the presence of hundreds of spinning mills. To avoid the uncertainty and vagaries of the monsoon.R.2 million population) is also famous for Textile machinery manufacture and is rated sixth in the World. The Southern India Engineering Manufacturers' Association (SIEMA) (established in 1952) has 215 members.R. India's agriculture depends upon the timely monsoon and the amount of rainfall in any year. For deep bore wells submersible or jet or compressor pumps are used depending on head and discharge requirements and on availability of water in the bore well (yield). farmers in India resort to various methods of irrigation. performance range and price Spares. In areas of shallow water levels (1-6 metres head) axial flow or mixed flow pumps are used to lift water.S. C. Southern India Engineering Manufacturing Association Coimbatore.
Pump industry in India
The first electric motor in India was manufactured in Coimbatore in 1930 and thereafter the motor pump industry expanded rapidly there. being a vast country with much variation in geographical conditions. accessories.
Average power supply is 6 to 8 hours daily during summer and most of the time. trouble free operation. The present cost of the land is approximately US$ 500 000.5 to 51 cycle frequency (standard 415 volt and 50 cycle frequency).250 volts. Besides Coimbatore.450 volts with a 47. discharge and efficiency. Consequently. Calcutta and Dewas are the other places where agricultural pump industries are situated. In the single phase. Similarly Rajkot. raw materials and for calibration of instruments. TABLE 1 Production particulars Product type Single phase monoblock pumpsets 0. people cannot afford to spend on the maintenance of equipment.
2) During summer the ambient temperature is 35° to 40 °C with dry humidity. monoblocks. and easy maintenance for a long service period.
Small industries testing and research centre (SITARC)
This Centre was set up in 1986 for testing motors. pumps. Hence pumpsets are designed for such extreme conditions. SIEMA contributed an 8 000 m2 piece of land to SITARC where the testing centre is now functioning. SITARC has the following divisions and facilities:
. power factor. pumps and engines are designed for easy installation. Ahmedabad.5 HP to 2 HP range Three phase monoblock pumpsets 2 HP to 30 HP range Submersible pumpsets 3 HP to 30 HP range Diesel engines up to 10 HP above 10 HP Quantity per year 2 million sets 600 000 sets 600 000 sets 200 000 engines 12 000 engines $ 500 million Value
1) In India. Hence.300 volts. head. the three phase electricity power supply to villages varies from 240 .
Special criteria for motor and pump design
Apart from the general requirements for motor and pump design such as rating. voltage varies from 140 . when heat dissipation by motors or engines is poor. the following factors are to be considered during design of pumpsets. 3) The literacy level in Indian villages is very low as is the economy. Agra and Kolhapur are famous for oil engines and Rajkot alone accounts for 50 percent of engine production. motors. submersible pumps. power supply is around 240 . Baroda.garment manufacturing units in and around Coimbatore.
It is accredited by NABL in the disciplines of mechanical. electrical.Mechanical. The BIS has defined materials specifications for each component of pumps and motors and has specified time schedules for calibration of gauges. Each pump manufactured will undergo the following testing procedure before despatch: Routine test for Motor:
1) No load current. Medium and large scale industries use the latest model CNC machines and fully computerized testing facilities to achieve the desired quality. Similarly. UNIDO. Test certificates are recognized by the Export Inspection Agency.
Product quality and performance
The BIS assists exporters and industry to meet international standards and quality specifications for global acceptance through its standards formulation. Ministry of Defence. design and engineering divisions HRD/consultancy/information cell Prototyping products and tools in model tool room
SITARC is approved as a research centre by the Ministry of Science and Technology. is in the process of setting up the most modern pump testing institute. meters and other tools used in regular testing of pumps. SITARC Pump Institute funded by UNDP. certification. All industries are required to keep calibration records of their equipment and meters. It is mandatory that qualified and properly trained technicians and inspectors are appointed to conduct testing. A few SIEMA member units are beginning to obtain ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 system certification. jet and submersible pumps are also specified by BIS to be followed by the industries. materials testing and meteorology divisions Research and development. State Electricity Board and the State Water and Drainage Board. watts. speed (clock wise and anti clockwise) 2) Breakaway test to find starting torque
. Most industries have their own quality control system which are used during the manufacturing stages of each component. BIS has issued separate standard specifications for each type of pump. electrical. RITES. technical and other related activities. BIS is actively involved in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electro-Technical Commission (IEC) and also participates in various technical committees of ISO and IEC. Government of India and the Government of Tamil Nadu. Government of India. testing facilities for agricultural. The cost of the project is US$ 5 million. chemical and fluid flow and recognized by the Bureau of Indian Standards for ISI testing. Product quality begins from the selection of raw materials.
No priming is necessary for this pump and it operates at 80-90 percent of pump efficiency. speed.
. Pumps are of end suction. Casings are of cast iron. centrifugal design.30 HP 1 . power factor. They are of monoblock construction with a common shaft for the motor and pump. Class "B" insulation running at 2880 RPM and enclosures with protection IP44 & IP 55. Single phase 2880 rpm centrifugal monoblocks These pumpsets are easy to install. ruggedly built and designed for trouble free operation. lightweight.
Types of pumps. gardens. performance range and price
1) Axial flow pumps 2) Monoblock pumps . High efficiency of these pumps minimizes power charges. These Monoblocks are fitted with high quality mechanical seals for long reliable life. Capacity Head Range (cm) Output Ips 5 . efficiency slip and temperature 4) For single phase motor. pumpsets thus manufactured will have high reliability and superior performance.6M 60/300 Prices for Axial flow pumps vary depending on the requirements of head and discharge.3) Full load test of watts. domestic water supply and circulating systems. amps. test for moisture proof and current leakage for user safety
Routine test for Monoblock in addition to motor test:
5) Test for overall efficiency of the monoblock 6) Test for guarantee of performance at duty point 7) Overload test in operational range
Because of such a stringent quality control system.single phase (240 Volts) 3) Jet centrifugal combination pumps 4) Monoblock pumps . Impellers are bronze and dynamically balanced. Numerous applications include irrigation of small land holdings. Motors are made of TEFC body and covers are of cast iron with capacitor start and run.three phase (415 Volts) 5) Submersible pumpsets 6) Direct coupled or belt driven centrifugal pumps
Axial flow pumps Axial flow pumps or propeller pumps are used for a head range of 1-6 metres and give high discharge.
Jet units are available in many sizes for various suction lifts.0 HP 3.0 HP 6/20 6/24 8/30 8/42 8/53 8/62 8/72 20/80 30/80 400/220 1 580/380 2 000/500 3 200/500 3 720/480 4 000/560 4 000/520 2 300/420 2 500/900 220 280 330 455 560 640 695 890 1 260
Three phase submersible pumpsets
.Capacity Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($) 0. Stainless steel bushes and brass impeller locking nuts are provided at the pump end.30 8 .0 HP 30.5 HP 9/15 2000/1100 135 1. maintenance is easier than with submersible pumps. They are easy to install on borewells of 75 mm (3") and larger.20 6 .0 HP 1. As there are no moving parts inside the borewell jet units.5 HP 10.5 HP 15. Capacity Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($) 2. Pumps are the single stage. Range Suction head range (m) Output LPH Average price FOB Durban ($) 0.60 metres.0 HP 20.0 HP 12. end suction type and are fitted with cast iron impellers and casings.0 HP 5. stainless steel studs and brass nuts are fitted to avoid rusting and to make it easy to replace asbestos packing ropes.5 HP 2.5 HP 2. Gunmetal gland.0 HP 9/30 15/40 15/50 2700/1200 2500/1200 2900/1100 175 205 233
Three phase monoblock pumpsets Motors are the TEFC 1440/2880 RPM squirrel case induction type.0 HP 1.25 6 . Various models are available in monoblock range for selection to meet specific requirements.5 HP 1.30 220/70 400/75 440/90 480/150 105 135 165 182
Jet centrifugal pump combination sets These pumpsets are used in borewells and openwells where suction depth is 8 .0 HP 6 .0 HP 7.
Submersible pumps suitable for 1 50 mm bore diameter Motor HP Price FOB Durban Radial flow pump price Mixed flow pump price 3.$ 18 can offer up to can offer up to 20 stage Basic 3 stage pump $ 188 Every additional stage cost extra . The motor is seated on radial seal rings. A strainer is fitted at the inlet of pump to prevent entry of solid particles.00 4. Direct coupled pumps are supplied with a common base plate for fixing the drive units. with radial or mixed flow impellers which are of bronze and dynamically balanced. The pump shaft is made of stainless steel hardened and ground.00 15. The pump is of multistage centrifugal design. and the ends are brazed with forged copper end rings. The diffusers are designed to give best possible efficiency and are built into the casings with replaceable guide bushes for easy maintenance. The shaft is supported by two sets of leaded bronze journal bearings lubricated by water. water-filled. to be driven by electric motors or diesel engines. which is hardened and ground to ensure long life.00 5. Pumps are fitted with pulleys or with flexible couplings. radial flow end. 50 Hz. Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps Size in HP reqd. Single phase submersible pumpsets suitable for 100 and 115 mm borewells are also available. The starter winding is made of PVC/Polyester film. 3 phase AC supply.50 10.00 7. Submersible pumps are versatile and are suitable for sprinkler irrigation schemes as booster pumps. water-lubricated squirrel cage induction motors. mounted on a stainless steel shaft. domestic uses and industrial requirements. The axial thrust generated by the pump is absorbed by a thrust bearing fitted at the bottom of the motor. The rotor laminations are fitted with electrolytic grade copper rods.00 315 328 350 390 450 510 580 620 Basic 3 stage pump .00 6. They are fitted with wet type.Submersible motors are designed to operate with 250/450 volts.$ 110 Every additional stage cost extra . Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($)
. The motor casing is of stainless steel.$ 36 can offer up to 12 stages
Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps are single stage. Submersible pumps can be installed in bore wells and very deep wells for irrigation schemes. wrapped around waterproof copper winding wires. suction type with horizontal shaft and vertically split casings.00 12.
0 5.0 HP 1 500 RPM 420 6.0 HP 1 500 RPM 6. Single Cylinder Water Cooled Engine Average Price FOB Durban ($) 5.0 HP A500 RPM Double Cylinder Water Cooled Engines 10 HP 13 HP 15 HP Double Cylinder Air Cooled Engines 480 495 560 690 930 960 990 430 480 615
. output and fuel consumption according to the BIS specifications.0 5.0
9/15 9/18 9/15 6/13 6/12 6/13 6/10
800/500 110/600 1 440/900 1 600/1 000 2 000/1 200 2 700/1 800 4 000/2 000
130 140 140 150 220 290 310
Vertical four stroke cycle. Each engine is tested thoroughly for speed. Grade: 15 and Grade: 20 cast iron and EN 9 materials are used in the manufacture of these engines.5 HP 1 500 RPM 7.5 HP 1 500 RPM 10.5 10.0 HP 1 500 RPM Single Cylinder Air Cooled Engine: 5. low fuel and lubricating oil consumption.64 X 50 75 X 65 75 X 75 100 X 75 100 X 100 125 X 125 150 X 150 Diesel engine
3. Rigid inspection of components at every stage of the assembly makes every part easily interchangeable. Single cylinder diesel engines are manufactured up to 10 HP and for above 10 HP.5 HP 1 500 RPM 10. Thermo . single cylinder compression ignition "water cooled"/"air cooled" cold start diesel engine Diesel engines are designed as prime movers for agriculture.0 7.Syphen or a fresh water system is used for water cooled engines.0 5. with high efficiency.0 5. A blower is attached with a fly wheel for air cooled engines. multi cylinder diesel engines are manufactured according to specifications.5 HP 1 500 RPM 7.
silver oxide bimetal contacts and other standard features to protect the electric motor from varying supply conditions.2 HP range Star Delta air break manually operated motor starters 3 to 10 HP range 12. As most of the items are in regular production. any requirement can be met at short notice and delivery can be arranged. Product Average Price FOB Durban $ 39 24 58 64
Three Phase Direct ON line starters to suit 3 to 10 HP range Single Phase Direct ON line starters to suit 0. reassembling and ordering spare parts. Centrifugal.5 . monoblock. These are built-in with over load and single phase protection with bimetal relay arrangements. availability and supply
For each pump. installation and maintenance hand book and spare parts catalogue is supplied to help the customer understand the procedure to follow in dismantling. can be supplied with the consignment. a trouble shooting and repairing manual.15 HP range 106 Three Phase Iron clad switches (rewireable): Capacity rating Average Price FOB Durban ($) 16 amps 16 32 amps 30 63 amps 69 100 amps 140
.10 HP 13 HP 15 HP Electrical Starters and Switches
1010 1030 1060
Starters for direct-on-line or manually operated Star-Delta models are suitable for 220 and 440 v .A.5 .10 HP range 101 12. three phase or single phase .50 Hz.C.15 HP range Star Delta Oil dash pot manually operated motor starters 3 . accessories. The manufacturer will specify the required spares for each pump or batch of pumps ordered and these spare parts. jet and submersible pumps consume minimum spares during their lifetime.5 .
Joint venture with local private people
In India economic reforms have been in progress since 1991. Interested parties can contact SIEMA. climate. either in India or with African countries are encouraged. Joint venture in Africa is possible when the requirement of pumpsets by value is US$ 3 to 4 million per year. water table. an installation guide book is provided with each pump.Service assistance for installation and maintenance
Centrifugal pumps are easy to install and run. SITARC will also have training facilities for pump assembly. Further a few engineers can be made available to train local people at various centres by organizing seminars and classes. testing as well as installation techniques which can also be utilized. For submersible arid jet pumps. The similarity between India and Southern and East African countries in respect of soil. depending on the requirements. literacy levels. ANNEXURES
1) Performance curves for single phase monoblocks 2) Performance curves for three phase monoblocks 3) Performance curves for submersible pumpsets i) Radial Flow Pumps ii) Mixed Flow Pumps
This site is © 2011 WCT Product
WhisperFlo® High Performance Pump
. electric system and user method.
It is hoped that the above information is useful. Proper training can be provided for a few mechanics at the suppliers' premises. makes Indian pumps ideal one for African countries. Joint ventures.
NSF2 1.90 0.67 1.60 UL1. efficiency.65 1.8230 7. NSF2 1/2 1.0-10. Motor features threaded shaft and durable commercial duty 56 frame motor with NEMA square flange.6-8.8/4.11.2 2 15.20 UL1.industry standard in pool pumps Standard and Energy-efficient Square Flange Motors available Lower HP's deliver higher performance than industry standard Compatible with all cleaning systems. NSF2
011514 WFE-6 208-230 011515 WFE-8 208-230 011516 WFE208-230 12
11.25 UL1.8/7.15 3.
Oversized strainer basket and volute . various filters and jet action spas Heavy-duty/durable construction is designed for long life Designed for residential and commercial applications New motor increases life. high flow with patented Funnel-Flo diffusers. energy.6 115/208. 2 in.0230 5.8 3/4 1.47 2.45 UL1. ease of installation and better cooling for long service life
ENERGY EFFICIENT SINGLE SPEED FULL RATED Product Model Voltage 011511 WFE-2 011512 WFE-3 011513 WFE-4 Full Load Amps HP SF SFHP Primary Listings and Port Size Carton Certifications3 (NPT) Wt(Lbs) 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 41 41 46 54 55 56 Curve Key E F G H I J
115/2088.4 9.6 3
ENERGY EFFICIENT SINGLE SPEED UP RATED Product Model Voltage Full Load Amps HP SF SFHP Primary Listings and Port Size Carton Certifications3 (NPT) Wt(Lbs) Curve Key
.Energy Efficient Swimming Pool Pump
40% glass-filled thermoplastic with the Cam & Ramp™ "see thru" lid design.65 UL1.5-4.2/6. NSF2 1 1.95 UL1.14. NSF2 230 115/208.30 2.4 1/2 1. suction and discharge ports.0-13. Self-priming. NSF2
10 2.4 011579 WF-3 115/230 14.10 1.0/8. NSF2 1 1.4 115/230 14. NSF2 1/2
.65 UL1.8 11.25 1.011517 011518 011519 011520
1/2 1.24 0. NSF2 1/2 2 1. NSF2
STANDARD EFFICIENCY SINGLE SPEED UP RATED Product Model Voltage 011771 011772 011773 011774 011775 WF23 WF24 WF26 WF28 WF30 Full Load Amps HP SF SFHP Primary Listings and Certifications3 Port Size Carton (NPT) Wt(Lbs) 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 41 41 46 54 55 Curve Key E F G H I
115/230 10.45 UL1.14.5 2.1 011580 WF-4 115/230 16.60 UL1. NSF2 1/2 2 1.2
1.2/7. NSF2 1.2/7.20 UL1. NSF2 3/4 1. NSF2 1 1.95 UL1.0 115/230 22.5
3/4 1.67 1.95 UL1.826 230 7.115/208.8/5.11.2/6.20 UL1.60 UL1. NSF2
11.4/11.5 14.8/7.30 2.65 1.115/208. NSF2
21.6-8. NSF2 1/2 2 3 1.5/5. NSF2 1/2
STANDARD EFFICIENCY SINGLE SPEED FULL RATED Product Model Voltage Full Load Amps HP SF SFHP Primary Listings and Certifications3 Port Size Carton (NPT) Wt(Lbs) 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 41 41 46 54 55 56 Curve Key E F G H I J
011578 WF-2 115/230 10.4 WFE208-230 28 WFE208-230 30 9.0/8.4/11.20 UL1.10 2.0 011581 WF-6 115/230 22.15 3.10 1.60 UL1.1 115/230 16.24 1.65 UL1.2 011582 WF-8 230 011583 WF12 230 11.2 230 11.024 230 5. NSF2
11.95 0.65 UL1.25 UL1.04 2. NSF2
2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2"
41 46 54 55
F G H I
11.25 UL1.25 UL1.6 WFE.04 2.
95 NSF2 3/4 1.16.90 0.230
.15 3.5 3.8/2.9 7.0 HP SF SFHP Primary Listings and Certifications3 Port Size Carton (NPT) Wt(Lbs) 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 2" X 2" 42 47 55 56 Curve Key A. NSF2 1.83.3 6. LOW SPEED 1725 RPM FULL RATED Product Model Voltage 012530 011486 011522 011523 WFDS115 3 WFDS230 4 WFDS230 6 WFDS230 8 Full Load Amps 14. H D.04.23.8 5.0/1.47 2.0/4.25 1.65 1.25 NSF2 1 1.8/3. NSF2 1/2 2 1.67 1.6/2.65 UL1.2
ENERGY EFFICIENT TWO SPEED 3450 RPM.6/4.7 7.6/1.0 10.8/3. NSF2
012518 WFDS. G C.8/3.25 UL1.7 7. F B. NSF2 1 1. NSF2
11.30 2.20 UL1.ENERGY EFFICIENT SINGLE SPEED FULL RATED .5 11.3 PHASE Product Model Voltage Full Load HP SF Amps 3.30 2.45 NSF2
WFK11.0208/230/460 12 10.65 NSF2
2" X 2" 39 2" X 2" 42 2" X 2" 46 2" X 2" 54 2" X 2" 56 2" X 2" 58
11.60 UL1. I
3/4 1.20 NSF2 1/2 2 3 1.47 2.25 UL1.4/5.60 NSF2 1.10 1.65 UL1.0/3.4 Port Primary Listings and SFHP Size Certifications3 (NPT) Carton Wt(Lbs) Curve Key E F G H I J
340061 WFK-2 208/230/460 011021 WFK-3 208/230/460 011568 WFK-4 208/230/460 011569 WFK-6 208/230/460 011570 WFK-8 208/230/460 011571
1/2 1.0 HP SF 1 1SFHP Primary Listings and Certifications3 Port Size Carton (NPT) Wt(Lbs) 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 42 47 Curve Key A.65 1.65 1.6/4.45. LOW SPEED 1725 RPM UP RATED Product Model Voltage 012485 WFDS115 24 Full Load Amps 14. NSF2
ENERGY EFFICIENT TWO SPEED 3450 RPM. F B. G
2: 'NSF' indicates that pump bears a NSF mark signifying evaluation to NSF Standard 50 for Self-Priming Centrifugal Pumps for Swimming Pools.
.single phase (240 Volts) 3) Jet centrifugal combination pumps 4) Monoblock pumps . NSF2 1/2
1: 'UL' indicates that pump bears a UL mark signifying evaluation to U. Listing status may change.S.0/3.0/4. NSF2 2" x 2" 2" x 2" 55 56 C.2 No.5 11.60 UL1.26 011524 011525 WFDS230 28 WFDS230 30 10.0
1/2 2 1.
Types of pumps.04 2.three phase (415 Volts) 5) Submersible pumpsets 6) Direct coupled or belt driven centrifugal pumps Axial flow pumps Axial flow pumps or propeller pumps are used for a head range of 1-6 metres and give high discharge. No priming is necessary for this pump and it operates at 80-90 percent of pump efficiency. performance range and price
1) Axial flow pumps 2) Monoblock pumps . Always confirm status with appropriate agency if in doubt. Standards UL1081 for Permanently Connected Swimming Pool and Spa Pumps and to Canadian Standards CAN/CSA C22.20 UL1. 108-01 Liquid Pumps for Swimming Pools Only (Enclosure 3). Spas and Hot Tubs. H D. 3: Product may have been evaluated to other state and local regulatory standards. I
Capacity Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($) 0. Pumps are of end suction.20 6 . Single phase 2880 rpm centrifugal monoblocks These pumpsets are easy to install. Casings are of cast iron. Impellers are bronze and dynamically balanced.0 HP 1. They are easy to install on borewells of 75 mm (3") and larger.
. Motors are made of TEFC body and covers are of cast iron with capacitor start and run.0 HP 9/30 15/40 15/50 2700/1200 2500/1200 2900/1100 175 205 233
Three phase monoblock pumpsets Motors are the TEFC 1440/2880 RPM squirrel case induction type. Stainless steel bushes and brass impeller locking nuts are provided at the pump end. Various models are available in monoblock range for selection to meet specific requirements.6M 60/300 Prices for Axial flow pumps vary depending on the requirements of head and discharge.0 HP 1.30 HP 1 . ruggedly built and designed for trouble free operation. centrifugal design. lightweight.5 HP 1. Numerous applications include irrigation of small land holdings.60 metres. As there are no moving parts inside the borewell jet units. These Monoblocks are fitted with high quality mechanical seals for long reliable life. end suction type and are fitted with cast iron impellers and casings. gardens. maintenance is easier than with submersible pumps.Capacity Head Range (cm) Output Ips 5 . Jet units are available in many sizes for various suction lifts. Pumps are the single stage.25 6 . stainless steel studs and brass nuts are fitted to avoid rusting and to make it easy to replace asbestos packing ropes.5 HP 9/15 2000/1100 135 1. Gunmetal gland.5 HP 2.5 HP 2.30 220/70 400/75 440/90 480/150 105 135 165 182
Jet centrifugal pump combination sets These pumpsets are used in borewells and openwells where suction depth is 8 . Range Suction head range (m) Output LPH Average price FOB Durban ($) 0. Class "B" insulation running at 2880 RPM and enclosures with protection IP44 & IP 55.30 8 . They are of monoblock construction with a common shaft for the motor and pump. domestic water supply and circulating systems. High efficiency of these pumps minimizes power charges.0 HP 6 .
wrapped around waterproof copper winding wires.00 6. 3 phase AC supply.0 HP 12. The diffusers are designed to give best possible efficiency and are built into the casings with replaceable guide bushes for easy maintenance.00 315 Basic 3 stage Basic 3 stage pump 4.0 HP 20. which is hardened and ground to ensure long life.Capacity Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($) 2. mounted on a stainless steel shaft. Single phase submersible pumpsets suitable for 100 and 115 mm borewells are also available.0 HP 30. The starter winding is made of PVC/Polyester film. Submersible pumps are versatile and are suitable for sprinkler irrigation schemes as booster pumps.00 328 350 390 pump . Submersible pumps suitable for 1 50 mm bore diameter Motor HP Price FOB Durban Radial flow pump price Mixed flow pump price 3.0 HP 6/20 6/24 8/30 8/42 8/53 8/62 8/72 20/80 30/80 400/220 1 580/380 2 000/500 3 200/500 3 720/480 4 000/560 4 000/520 2 300/420 2 500/900 220 280 330 455 560 640 695 890 1 260
Three phase submersible pumpsets Submersible motors are designed to operate with 250/450 volts.0 HP 3. They are fitted with wet type. Submersible pumps can be installed in bore wells and very deep wells for irrigation schemes. The axial thrust generated by the pump is absorbed by a thrust bearing fitted at the bottom of the motor. The motor is seated on radial seal rings.00 5.0 HP 7. The motor casing is of stainless steel.5 HP 10. water-lubricated squirrel cage induction motors. domestic uses and industrial requirements. with radial or mixed flow impellers which are of bronze and dynamically balanced. The rotor laminations are fitted with electrolytic grade copper rods.$ 110 Every additional stage cost extra .0 HP 5.$ 18 $ 188 Every additional stage cost extra
. The pump shaft is made of stainless steel hardened and ground. The pump is of multistage centrifugal design. A strainer is fitted at the inlet of pump to prevent entry of solid particles. 50 Hz. The shaft is supported by two sets of leaded bronze journal bearings lubricated by water.5 HP 15. and the ends are brazed with forged copper end rings. water-filled.
0 9/18 9/15 6/13 6/12 6/13 6/10 110/600 1 440/900 1 600/1 000 2 000/1 200 2 700/1 800 4 000/2 000 140 140 150 220 290 310
. multi cylinder diesel engines are manufactured according to specifications.0 5.0 7. Each engine is tested thoroughly for speed. single cylinder compression ignition "water cooled"/"air cooled" cold start diesel engine Diesel engines are designed as prime movers for agriculture. low fuel and lubricating oil consumption. Head range (m) Output LPM Average price FOB Durban ($) 64 X 50 3. Direct coupled pumps are supplied with a common base plate for fixing the drive units. radial flow end. output and fuel consumption according to the BIS specifications. A blower is attached with a fly wheel for air cooled engines. suction type with horizontal shaft and vertically split casings.5 10. with high efficiency.0 5.0 5. Grade: 15 and Grade: 20 cast iron and EN 9 materials are used in the manufacture of these engines.0 9/15 800/500 130 75 X 65 75 X 75 100 X 75 100 X 100 125 X 125 150 X 150 Diesel engine Vertical four stroke cycle. Single cylinder diesel engines are manufactured up to 10 HP and for above 10 HP.0 HP 1 500 RPM 420 5.00 15.50 10.00
450 510 580 620
can offer up to can offer up to 20 stage
.Syphen or a fresh water system is used for water cooled engines.00 12. Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps Size in HP reqd. to be driven by electric motors or diesel engines.$ 36 can offer up to 12 stages
Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps Direct coupled and belt driven centrifugal pumps are single stage. Rigid inspection of components at every stage of the assembly makes every part easily interchangeable. Single Cylinder Water Cooled Engine Average Price FOB Durban ($) 5. Thermo . Pumps are fitted with pulleys or with flexible couplings.7.
10 HP range 101 12. three phase or single phase .A.5 .0 HP 1 500 RPM 6.15 HP range 106 Three Phase Iron clad switches (rewireable):
.5 HP 1 500 RPM 7.5 HP 1 500 RPM 7.5 HP 1 500 RPM 10.0 HP 1 500 RPM Single Cylinder Air Cooled Engine: 5.15 HP range Star Delta Oil dash pot manually operated motor starters 3 .6.50 Hz. Product Average Price FOB Durban $ 39 24 58 64
Three Phase Direct ON line starters to suit 3 to 10 HP range Single Phase Direct ON line starters to suit 0.5 .5 .5 HP 1 500 RPM 10.0 HP A500 RPM Double Cylinder Water Cooled Engines 10 HP 13 HP 15 HP Double Cylinder Air Cooled Engines 10 HP 13 HP 15 HP Electrical Starters and Switches
430 480 615 480 495 560 690 930 960 990 1010 1030 1060
Starters for direct-on-line or manually operated Star-Delta models are suitable for 220 and 440 v . silver oxide bimetal contacts and other standard features to protect the electric motor from varying supply conditions.2 HP range Star Delta air break manually operated motor starters 3 to 10 HP range 12.C. These are built-in with over load and single phase protection with bimetal relay arrangements.
installation and maintenance hand book and spare parts catalogue is supplied to help the customer understand the procedure to follow in dismantling.
It iTYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CLS DUPLEX VACUUM HEATING PUMP
Joint venture with local private people
In India economic reforms have been in progress since 1991.
Service assistance for installation and maintenance
Centrifugal pumps are easy to install and run. SITARC will also have training facilities for pump assembly. Interested parties can contact SIEMA. either in India or with African countries are encouraged. For submersible arid jet pumps. Joint ventures. Centrifugal. accessories. availability and supply
For each pump. a trouble shooting and repairing manual. any requirement can be met at short notice and delivery can be arranged. As most of the items are in regular production. Joint venture in Africa is possible when the requirement of pumpsets by value is US$ 3 to 4 million per year. can be supplied with the consignment. an installation guide book is provided with each pump. testing as well as installation techniques which can also be utilized. Proper training can be provided for a few mechanics at the suppliers' premises. jet and submersible pumps consume minimum spares during their lifetime. The manufacturer will specify the required spares for each pump or batch of pumps ordered and these spare parts. monoblock. Further a few engineers can be made available to train local people at various centres by organizing seminars and classes. reassembling and ordering spare parts.Capacity rating Average Price FOB Durban ($) 16 amps 16 32 amps 30 63 amps 69 100 amps 140
Spares. depending on the requirements.
Furnish one Duplex Automatic Return Line Vacuum Heating Pump Model ______________. The pump shall be manufactured by the NES Company. two condensate pumping units. two air pumping units. condensate being pumped by centrifugal elements. Separate hurling or sealing water compartment shall not be required. NJ. Each air pumping unit shall have a capacity of not less than _____ cubic feet per minute of dry air at 70°F and at _____inches mercury vacuum. Accessories to be supplied by the pump manufacturer shall consist of inlet strainer. The receiving tank is to be _______gallon capacity cast iron. Motors are to be general purpose type suitable for ___phase.C. ____volts A. air and vapor being pumped by rotary type vacuum elements in which gravity flow of condensate is used as the displacement medium. Equipment to be included is one receiving tank. Each air pumping unit shall be driven by a motor rated for ____ horsepower. Pine Brook. The equipment must be capable of delivering simultaneously the full rated condensate and air capacities as defined above. Each condensate pump shall have a capacity of not less than _______ gallons of condensate per minute at 70°F from _____inches mercury vacuum against ______PSI discharge pressure. Each condensate pumping unit shall be driven by a motor rated for _______horsepower. accessories and control as listed below. The pump shall of the type in which condensate and air are separated in the receiving tank under vacuum. water level gauge
Vacuum pumps are to be controlled by 2-pole diaphragm type vacuum switches to provide primary and back-up operation. Upon approval. and vacuum relief valve. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS AIR PUMPS: industrial type rotary liquid ring vacuum pump with shrouded rotor. Air pump sizes SC2 and SC3 are separately mounted on
. Condensate pumps are to be controlled by a single mechanical alternating float switch allowing alternate operation of the 2 pumps under normal operation. both pumps together under peak load conditions.glass. the installation is to be made in full accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. thermometer. The back-up vacuum switch will cycle between 2 and 8 inches Hg vacuum and operate both pumps together under start-up and peak load conditions and insure single operation when only one pump is in service. vacuum gauge. The installing contractor shall secure from the pump manufacturer drawings and installation instructions which must be submitted to the specifying Engineer for approval prior to actual installation. Rotating member is dynamically balanced for quietness and freedom from vibration. The primary switch is to be set to cycle between 3 and 8 inches Hg vacuum and wired to electrically alternate the vacuum pumps in normal operation. air inlet check valves. and function as a single switch when only one pump is in service. Air pump sizes MVF15 through MHF120 have rotors rigidly mounted on motor shaft and the pump and motor assembly is mounted on receiving tank.
Suction passages designed for unusually low velocities to prevent vapor binding and cavitation. Rotating member is dynamically balanced for quietness and freedom from vibration. Pump casing fitted with renewable bronze sealing ring and mechanical shaft seal. No relief valve is needed nor supplied if pump is to be operated at or above 15‖ Hg. Motors are provided with
. WATER PUMPS: Bronze fitted centrifugal pump with single suction impeller rigidly mounted on motor shaft. These allow one pump to be removed from service without the need to shut down the entire unit. RECEIVING TANK: Cast iron with air separating chambers. SEPARATOR FLOAT VALVE: Bronze fitted valve actuated by bronze rod and seamless copper float. RETURN LINE CONNECTIONS: Center of return lines are located at following elevations listed by tank size: STRAINER: Heavy duty type with lift out basket. Suction butterfly valves are available for all condensate pumps. Strainer screen is stainless steel mesh and is easily removable for cleaning. Valve is self aligning and self cleaning type with hemispherical monel metal closure.bases and are driven through flexible couplings by motors. Single phase motors are capacitor type. polyphase motors aresquirrel cage induction type. Pump and motor assembly is mounted on receiving tank. Special blanking flanges are not required. RELIEF VALVE: Bronze air relief valve is supplied for pumps to be operated below 15‖ Hg vacuum. MOTORS: Open drip protected ball bearing type made by leading motor manufacturers.
water table.‖ WIRING: Motor connections are made up for voltage of the order. Starts provide thermal overload protection and under-voltage release. electric system and user method. Starters for air pumps are supplied with three position selector switches to provide ―Hands-Off-Automatic‖ control. Diaphragm type. makes Indian pumps ideal one for African countries. The similarity between India and Southern and East African countries in respect of soil. VACUUM SWITCH: Double pole switch. climate. FLOAT SWITCH: Two pole type actuated by stainless steel rod and seamless ball float. ANNEXURES 1) Performance curves for single phase monoblocks 2) Performance curves for three phase monoblocks 3) Performance curves for submersible pumpsets i) Radial Flow Pumps ii) Mixed Flow Pumps
 Positive displacement pump
. monsoon pattern. Starters for water pumps on Duplex and Modified Duplex outfits are supplied with three position selector switch marked ―Hand-OffAutomatic. Modified and Full Duplex units use mechanical alternating float switch. literacy levels.COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES SUPPLPIED AS STANDARD EQUIPMENT s hoped that the above information is useful. Switch is easily adjustable.heavy duty bearings and are designed to operate under continuous full load with minimum temperature rise. STARING SWITCHES: Across-the-line magnetic type in general purpose steel enclosures.
until the line bursts or the pump is severely damaged. will in theory produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation. unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps. a truly constant flow rate cannot be achieved. or both. A positive displacement pump must not be operated against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve will continue to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line will increase. because it has no shut-off head like centrifugal pumps. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The relief valve can be internal or external. Thus.A lobe pump
lobe pump internals
Mechanism of a scroll pump A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it and then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. positive displacement pumps are "constant flow machines". However due to a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases. The internal valve should in general only be used
. Some positive displacement pumps work using an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side.  Positive displacement pump behavior and safety Positive displacement pumps.
 Positive displacement types
Screw pump A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid:
Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear. which allow liquid to slip through and reduce the efficiency of the pump.g. Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston or diaphragm pumps. Because of the nature of the pump. Drawbacks: Positive displacement rotary pumps also have their weaknesses. Linear-type positive displacement: Rope pumps and chain pumps. The vacuum created by the rotation of the pump captures and draws in the liquid. circumferential piston.
 Rotary positive displacement pumps
Rotary vane pump Positive displacement rotary pumps are pumps that move fluid using the principles of rotation. requiring that the pumps rotate at a slow. the fluids will cause erosion. the clearance between the rotating pump and the outer edge must be very close. shuttle block. flexible vane or sliding vane.as a safety precaution. Rotary positive displacement pumps can be grouped into three main types:
. the Wendelkolben pump) or liquid ring vacuum pumps. steady speed. screw. Rotary pumps that experience such erosion eventually show signs of enlarged clearances. an external relief valve installed in the discharge line with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank is recommended. Advantages: Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines. helical twisted roots (e. eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds.
Rotary vane pumps . reciprocating. water pump in Košice-Ťahanovce. positive displacement.the shape of the internals of this pump usually two screws turning against each other pump the liquid.
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps
Main article: Reciprocating pump
Simple soap pump
Hand-operated. Screw pumps . Furthermore. As the rotor turns.similar to scroll compressors.a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears. Reciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more oscillating pistons. Most reciprocating-type pumps are "duplex" (two) or "triplex" (three) cylinder. Pumps in this category range from having "simplex" one cylinder. they can be either "single acting"
. to in some cases "quad" (four) cylinders or more. plungers or membranes (diaphragms).
Gear pumps . Slovakia (walking beam pump). the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing. drawing the fluid through the pump. consisting of a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing. Reciprocating-type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to ensure that the fluid moves in a positive direction.
The pumps can be powered by air.
Various positive displacement pumps The positive displacement principle applies in the following types of pumps:
rotary lobe pump Progressive cavity pump rotary gear pump piston pump diaphragm pump screw pump gear pump Hydraulic pump vane pump regenerative (peripheral) pump peristaltic pump rope pump
 Gear pump
.similar to plunger pumps. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation. This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (19th century) as boiler feed water pumps. Reciprocating pumps are now typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils.a reciprocating plunger pushes the fluid through one or two open valves. steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. An example is the common hand soap pump. and special applications demanding low flow rates against high resistance. Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.independent suction and discharge strokes or "double acting" suction and discharge in both directions. These positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Diaphragm valves are used to pump hazardous and toxic fluids. closed by suction on the way back. piston displacement pumps .usually simple devices for pumping small amounts of liquid or gel manually. Typical reciprocating pumps are:
plunger pumps . diaphragm pumps . where the plunger pressurizes hydraulic oil which is used to flex a diaphragm in the pumping cylinder.
one screw turns clockwise. This shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve. and the other counterclockwise. since the teeth mesh closely in the centre. draws the fluid through the pump. the shafts also have gears on them that mesh with each other in order to turn the shafts together and keep everything in place. Fluid is pumped around the outer periphery by being trapped in the tooth spaces. Such pumps can develop very high pressure at quite low volumes. this lobe pump works by displacing the liquid trapped between two long helical twisted rotors. As with other forms of rotary pumps.
. It does not travel back on the meshed part. fluid is gradually forced up the rubber sleeve.Gear pump Main article: Gear pump This is the simplest of rotary positive displacement pumps. The turning of the screws.
 Progressing cavity pump
Main article: Progressive cavity pump Widely used for pumping difficult materials such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles. with typically a curved spiral wound around of thickness half x. although of course in reality it is made from one casting.
 Screw pump
Main article: Screw pump Screw pumps are a more complicated type of rotary pumps.
 Roots-type pumps
Named after the Roots brothers who designed and invented it. and consequently the shafts to which they are mounted. It is widely used on car engine oil pumps. about ten times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a central core of diameter x. this pump consists of a helical shaped rotor. each fitting into the other when perpendicular at 90°. rotating inside a triangular shaped sealing line configuration. It consists of two meshed gears rotating in a closely fitted casing. of wall thickness typically x also. and also in various hydraulic power packs. both at the point of suction and at the point of discharge. featuring two or three screws with opposing thread —. The screws are each mounted on shafts that run parallel to each other. As the shaft rotates. the clearance between moving parts and the pump's casing is minimal.that is.
more fit for some applications. the Federal Signal Corporation's Thunderbolt. A brand of civil defense siren. Additionally. "shoes" or "wipers" attached to the external circumference compresses the flexible tube. as the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam ("restitution") fluid flow is induced to the pump. As the rotor turns. A rotor with a number of "rollers". The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing (though linear peristaltic pumps have been made). It can work at low pulsation rates and results with gentle performance. Some applications are:
High capacity industrial air compressors Roots Type Superchargers on internal combustion engines.
.This design produces a continuous flow with equal volume and no vortex. This process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such as the gastrointestinal tract.
 Peristaltic pump
360 Degree Peristaltic Pump Main article: Peristaltic pump A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for pumping a variety of fluids. the part of the tube under compression closes (or "occludes") thus forcing the fluid to be pumped to move through the tube.
 Plunger pumps
A plunger pump compared to a piston pump Main article: Plunger pump Plunger pumps are reciprocating positive displacement pumps.
the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger moves through the middle positions. Graco. They are relatively inexpensive and can be used for almost any duty from pumping water out of bunds. and zero flow when the plunger is at the end positions. Commonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to processing. Wilden Pumps. although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. In the suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into the cylinder. In the forward stroke the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve. is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump. these pumps can be made from very simple materials: A rope. In some impulse pumps the gas trapped in the liquid (usually water).
 Impulse pumps
The pulser pump Impulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). The suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder.
Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps
One modern application of positive displacement diaphragm pumps is compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps. For this reason they have become extremely popular around the world since the 1980s. Vibration and "water hammer" may be a serious problem. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design. Efficiency and common problems: With only one cylinder in plunger pumps.They consist of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger in them. Sandpiper or ARO are generally the larger of the brands. Rope pump efficiency has been studied by grass roots organizations and the techniques for making and running them have been continuously improved. In general the problems are compensated for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each other. a wheel and a PVC pipe are sufficient to make a simple rope pump. to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependent on how the pump is manufactured – elastomers / body construction). A lot of energy is wasted when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. creating a pressure which can push part of the liquid upwards. Lift is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can reach almost 200 Psi
 Rope pumps
Main article: Rope pump Devised in China as chain pumps over 1000 years ago.
and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. Geyser pump A hydraulic ram is a water pump powered by hydropower. The device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started. the ram is often useful.run on air inserted into pipe.run with natural resources. In this situation.uses pressure built up internally from released gas in liquid flow. (see below) Pulser pumps .
 Hydraulic ram pumps
Airlift pump vs. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas. where there is both a source of low-head hydropower.Impulse pumps include:
Hydraulic ram pumps . and outputs water at a higher hydraulic-head and lower flow-rate.
 Velocity pumps
A centrifugal pump uses a spinning "impeller" which has backward-swept arms
. by kinetic energy only. or on pressure inside pipe pushing water up. pushing up the water. It functions as a hydraulic transformer that takes in water at one "hydraulic head" (pressure) and flow-rate. since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water. Airlift pumps . when bubbles move upward.
hence closing a valve downstream of a positive displacement pump will result in a continual build up in pressure resulting in mechanical failure of either pipeline or pump. Dynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain is achieved. Continuous energy 2. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy (pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. Positive displacement pumps physically displace the fluid. Dynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve conditions (for short periods of time). This conversion of kinetic energy to pressure can be explained by the First law of thermodynamics or more specifically by Bernoulli's principle. Conversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head One practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is their ability to operate under closed valve conditions.Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity. These types of pumps have a number of characteristics: 1.  Centrifugal pump
Open Type Centrifugal Pump Impeller
. Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity) 3.
Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. However. Axial flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial flow pumps.
 Axial flow pumps
Axial pump (propeller in pipe) Main article: Axial flow pump Axial flow pumps differ from radial flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the same direction parallel to the rotating shaft.
 Radial flow pumps
Often simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. The fluid is not accelerated but instead "lifted" by the action of the impeller. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller. the fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0–90 degrees from the axial direction. function as a compromise between radial and axial flow pumps. The fluid enters along the axial plane. from where it exits into the downstream piping system.  Eductor-jet pump Main article: Eductor-jet pump
. As a consequence mixed flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial flow pumps while delivering higher discharges than radial flow pumps. flowing radially outward or axially into a diffuser or volute chamber. is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radially). as the name suggests. Centrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads. axial and mixed flow variations. Radial flow pumps operate at higher pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed flow pumps. the term "centrifugal pump" can be used to describe all impeller type rotodynamic pumps including the radial.
 Mixed flow pumps
Mixed flow pumps. Centrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial flow type. They may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube.A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a fluid. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed flow.
They include any type of pump powered by a steam engine and also pistonless pumps such as Thomas Savery's. In fact. Previously small steam engines have not been viable because of escalating inefficiencies as vapour engines decrease in size. LA. This low pressure sucks in fluid and propels it into a higher pressure region. the embryonic vertebrate heart begins pumping blood long before the development of discernable chambers and valves. is not necessarily lower than that having valves. The fluid pumping efficiency of a valveless system. In early 2005. many fluid-dynamical systems in nature and engineering more or less rely upon valveless pumping to transport the working fluids therein. Gordon Buck. However the use of modern engineering materials coupled with alternative engine configurations has meant that these types of system are now a cost effective opportunity. A total of 15 operating plants having nearly 15. For instance. however.
 Steam pumps
Steam pumps have been for a long time mainly of historical interest. the preface to the 2006 Pump User’s Handbook alludes to "pump failure" statistics. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes referred to as a gravity pump. In microfluidics. no valves are present to regulate the flow direction. blood circulation in the cardiovascular system is maintained to some extent even when the heart’s valves fail.000 pumps were included in the survey. examined the repair records for a number of refinery and chemical plants to obtain meaningful reliability data for centrifugal pumps. In a valveless pumping system. often of steam. John Crane Inc. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in low power solar steam pumps for use in smallholder irrigation in developing countries. For the sake of convenience. and are expected to be particularly suitable for handling sensitive biofluids.
. these failure statistics often are translated into MTBF (in this case. the Pulsometer steam pump or the Steam injection pump. valveless impedance pump have been fabricated.’s chief engineer for Field Operations in Baton Rouge.This uses a jet. In view of that fact. to create a low pressure.
 Valveless pumps
Valveless pumping assists in fluid transport in various biomedical and engineering systems. installed life before failure). The smallest of these plants had about 100 pumps.
 Gravity pumps
Gravity pumps include the syphon and Heron's fountain – and there also important qanat or foggara systems which simply use downhill flow to take water from far-underground aquifers in high areas to consumers at lower elevations.
 Pump repairs
Examining pump repair records and MTBF (mean time between failures) is of great importance to responsible and conscientious pump users. Meanwhile.
In addition. Unless the pump user upgrades the seal chamber. and failures of mechanical seals and bearings are among the major causes. from handling gas to handling liquid. etc. Having fewer pump failures means having fewer destructive pump fires. but last much longer between repairs. flood control. considered as "new. Early applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. gasoline supply. Things have improved in recent years. air conditioning systems. technician or engineer on-site to coordinate various aspects of the program. In some cases. Because of the wide variety of applications. costs $5. sewage movement. All facilities were located in the United States.several plants had over 2000. Keep in mind the potential value of selecting pumps that cost more initially. labor and overhead. from high pressure to low pressure. a typical pump failure based on actual year 2002 reports. Without this upgrading. Today. One pump fire occurs per 1000 failures. Not all plants are refineries. Let us now assume that the MTBF for a particular pump is 12 months and that it could be extended to 18 months. pumps have traditionally been "throw-away" items as chemical attack can result in limited life. the pump is used for irrigation. This would result in a cost avoidance of $2.500/yr—which is greater than the premium one would pay for the reliability-upgraded centrifugal pump. only the more compact and simple versions can be accommodated.000. The MTBF of a better pump may be one to four years longer than that of its non-upgraded counterpart. marine services. It goes without saying that unscheduled maintenance often is one of the most significant costs of ownership." others as "renewed" and still others as "established. lifetimes in chemical installations are generally believed to be around 50 to 60 percent of the refinery values. chemical movement. the alliance contract included having a John Crane Inc. This includes costs for material. and different results can be expected elsewhere. parts. Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes.
Metering pump for gasoline and additives. and from high volume to low volume. but the somewhat restricted space available in "old" DIN and ASME-standardized stuffing boxes places limits on the type of seal that can be fitted. In chemical plants. water supply." Many of these plants—but not all—had an alliance arrangement with John Crane. pumps have a plethora of shapes and sizes: from very large to very small.000 on average. Consider that published average values of avoided pump failures range from $2600 to $12.
. As has been noted. This does not include lost opportunity costs. refrigeration (usually called a compressor). however.
 One sort of pump once common worldwide was a hand-powered water pump. It derives from the kind of the chatter and conversation that might be heard as people congregated to draw water from the community water pump. and easy to maintain with simple
. Because water from pitcher pumps is drawn directly from the soil. It would be installed over a community water well that was used by people in the days before piped water supplies.
 Pumps as public water supplies
First European depiction of a piston pump. it is more prone to contamination. In parts of the British Isles. A hand pump opens access to deeper groundwater that is often not polluted and also improves the safety of a well by protecting the water source from contaminated buckets. The clearances and displacement ratios in pumps used for liquids and other more viscous fluids cannot displace the air due to its lower density. often in rural areas in developing countries. or 'pitcher pump'. Priming a pump
Liquid and slurry pumps can lose prime and this will require the pump to be primed by adding liquid to the pump and inlet pipes to get the pump started. it was often called "the parish pump". consumption of it might lead to gastrointestinal or other water-borne diseases. by Taccola. the expression "parish pump" is still used. Loss of "prime" is usually due to ingestion of air into the pump. c. and is now used to describe a place or forum where matter of purely local interest is discussed.1450. Pumps like the Afridev pump are designed to be cheap to build and install. If such water is not filtered and purified. Although such community pumps are no longer common. Modern hand operated community pumps are considered the most sustainable low cost option for safe water supply in resource poor settings.
which has a smaller footprint. also referred to as tri-phase. multiphase pumps are used to transport the untreated flow stream produced from oil wells to downstream processes or gathering facilities. Twin Screw (Positive Displacement) The twin screw pump is constructed of two intermeshing screws that force the movement of the pumped fluid. smoothes any fluctuations in the incoming flow and acts as a sand trap. These pumps are usually specified when the pumped fluid is mainly liquid. Often. In essence. The flow stream can also contain abrasives such as sand and dirt. Buffer Tank A buffer tank is often installed upstream of the pump suction nozzle in case of a slug flow.
 Sealing multiphase pumping applications
Multiphase pumping applications. Progressive Cavity Pumps (Positive Displacement) Progressive cavity pumps are single-screw types typically used in shallow wells or at the surface. The buffer tank breaks the energy of the liquid slug. reduced equipment costs and improved production rates. For midstream and upstream operations. the economics of multiphase production is attractive to upstream operations as it leads to simpler. have grown due to increased oil drilling activity. Multiphase pumping also helps eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases as operators strive to minimize the flaring of gas and the venting of tanks where possible.  Types and features of multiphase pumps Helico-Axial Pumps (Centrifugal) A rotodynamic pump with one single shaft requiring two mechanical seals. scarcity of spare parts for these type of pumps in some regions of Africa has diminished their utility for these areas. Twin screw pumps are often used when pumping conditions contain high gas volume fractions and fluctuating inlet conditions. smaller in-field installations. Electric Submersible Pumps (Centrifugal) These pumps are basically multistage centrifugal pumps and are widely used in oil well applications as a method for artificial lift. Four mechanical seals are required to seal the two shafts. This pump is mainly used on surface applications where the pumped fluid may contain a considerable amount of solids such as sand and dirt. This pump utilizes an open-type axial impeller. Basically. the multiphase pump can accommodate all fluid stream properties with one piece of equipment. Multiphase pumps are designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. This pump type is often referred to as a "Poseidon Pump" and can be described as a cross between an axial compressor and a centrifugal pump. This means that the pump may handle a flow stream (well stream) from 100 percent gas to 100 percent liquid and every imaginable combination in between. two smaller multiphase pumps are installed in series rather than having just one massive pump.parts. multiphase pumps can be located onshore or offshore and can be connected to single or multiple wellheads. However. In addition.
inlet suction in suction feet (or metres) of head. this is governed by a series of simultaneous differential equations. In the water industry and for pharma applications SS 316 is normally used. Thus the power relationship is between the conversion of the mechanical energy of the pump mechanism and the fluid elements within the pump. From an initial design point of view.
Main article: Bernoulli's equation The power imparted into a fluid will increase the energy of the fluid per unit volume. i. solutions to the Navierstokes for the particular pump geometry). such as in the form of a pump curve.e. energy is distributed between change in the fluid's gravitational potential energy (going up or down hill). engineers often use a quantity termed the specific speed to identify the most suitable pump type for a particular combination of flow rate and head. multiphase pumps and their mechanical seals can encounter a large variation in service conditions such as changing process fluid composition. known as the Navier-Stokes equations. change in velocity. the fluid flowrate is given in m^3/s. high and low operating pressures and exposure to abrasive/erosive media. temperature variations. The challenge is selecting the appropriate mechanical seal arrangement and support system to ensure maximized seal life and its overall effectiveness. The efficiency of the pump will depend upon the pump's configuration and operating conditions (such as rotational speed. The total pressure may have gravitational. It depends on the application of the pump. flow rate.
The pump material can be Stainless steel (SS 316 or SS 304). and may be given by the manufacturer's information.e. In general. required by the pump:
where ΔP is the change in total pressure between the inlet and outlet (in Pa). and is typically derived from either fluid dynamics simulation (i. known as Bernoulli's equation can be used. or by testing. as stainless steel gives better results at high temperatures.As the name indicates. outlet pressure in feet (or metres) of head. P. Hence the power. cast iron etc.
Pumps are commonly rated by horsepower. static pressure and kinetic energy components. The head can be simplified as the number of feet or metres the pump can raise or lower a column of water at atmospheric pressure. However a more simple equation relating only the different energies in the fluid. or change in static pressure.)
. fluid density and viscosity etc. and Q. η is the pump efficiency.
the work is negative power required to drive the pump is determined by dividing the output power by the pump efficiency. Its value is not fixed for a given pump. Pump selection is done by performance curve which is curve between pressure head and flow rate. Pump efficiencies tend to decline over time due to wear (e. Thermodynamic pump testing is one method. Pump performance data such as this is usually supplied by the manufacturer before pump selection.g. this definition encompasses pumps with no moving parts. Pumps are normally available that run at 50 Hz or 60 Hz.
Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power imparted on the fluid by the pump in relation to the power supplied to drive the pump. a turbine). and is thus positive. Pump efficiency is an important aspect and pumps should be regularly tested. with power supply also taken care of. One important part of system design involves matching the pipeline head loss-flow characteristic with the appropriate pump or pumps in order to operate at or close to the point of maximum efficiency. increasing clearances as impellers reduce in size). the work is imparted on the fluid.e.
. efficiency is a function of the discharge and therefore also operating head. For centrifugal pumps. the efficiency tends to increase with flow rate up to a point midway through the operating range (peak efficiency) and then declines as flow rates rise further. such as a siphon. For the fluid imparting the work on the pump (i. Furthermore.For a typical "pumping" configuration.