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Recap: Independent events. If events A and B are independent, then the probability of B happening does not depend upon whether A has happened or not. Therefore

and

Probability of B given that A has occurred .

A tree diagram can be drawn:

Dependent events: If A and B are dependent events, the probability of B happening will depend upon whether A has happened or not. We therefore have to introduce conditional probabilities in the tree diagram (as shown below):

b) If I have completed the crossword. whereas if I buy The Mail the probability that I complete the crossword is . the probability that I complete the crossword is . The tree diagram is: Notation: T = buy The Times M = buy The Mail C = complete crossword . a) Find the probability that I complete the crossword on any particular day. find the probability that I bought The Mail. The probability that I buy The Times is ¾ and the probability that I buy The Mail is ¼. If I buy The Times.The rule for combining probabilities for dependent events is P(A and B) = P(A) × P(B | A) This is equivalent to saying Example: Every morning I buy either The Times or The Mail.

In people who don’t carry the gene. Let G = person carries gene P = test is positive for gene The tree diagram then looks as follows: N = test is negative for gene We want to find However. If someone gives a positive result when tested. A test exists for detecting whether an individual is a carrier of the gene. (to 3 significant figures) So there is a very low chance of actually having the gene even if the test says that you have it. P(complete crossword) = P(T and C) + P(M and C) = b) The probability that I bought The Mail given that I completed the crossword is given by Example 2: 0. P(P) = P(G and P) + P(G' and P) = 0. Note: This example highlights the difficulty of detecting rare conditions or diseases.a) From the tree diagram. the test provides a positive result with probability 0.9. .01089 Therefore.0009 + 0. find the probability that they actually are a carrier of the gene. the test provides a positive result with probability 0. In people who actually carry the gene.1% of the population carry a particular faulty gene.01.00999 = 0.

For a randomly chosen student. Students do not retake the test once they have passed it. Solution: Let P = pass test F = fail test a) So P(pass in 3 attempts or fewer) = 1/3 + 4/9 + 5/27 = 26/27 as required b) Let X stand for when a student passes the test. But P(X = 1 and X ≤ 3) is the same as just P(X = 1). a) show that the probability of a student passing the test in 3 attempts of fewer is 26/27. Therefore . given that the student passed in 3 attempts or fewer. On any subsequent attempt. the probability of failing is half the probability of failing on the previous attempt. We need . b) find the conditional probability that a student passed at the first attempt. By drawing a tree diagram or otherwise. the probability of passing the test at the first attempt is 1/3.Past Examination Question: (OCR) Students have to pass a test before they are allowed to work in a laboratory.

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