ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY

ILLUSTRATING SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
ASTRONOMICAL METHODS

BY

PRABODH CHANDRA SENGUPTA,
AT THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY

M.A.,
'

LATE PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, BETHUNE COLLEGE, CALCUTTA, SOMETIME LECTURER IN INDIAN ASTRONOMY AND MATHEMATICS

UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
1947

Rs.

IN INDIA

BY NISHITOHANDKA SKN, FEINTED AND PUBLISHED CALCUTTA UNIVBRSITY PBBS1, UPBBINTENDENT (OTTO.), BALL^GUNQS, CALCUTTA. 48, HA2EA ROAD,

U08B November,

CONTENTS
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
...
...
...

y
vii

...

SPECIAL NOTE TO CHAPTER VI
Section

xxvii

Chapter

Name

of Chapter

Page

I

Date

of the Bharata...

Date

of

the

Bharata-Baitle,
...

Battle

I

Mahabharata Evidences

1 34
46

II
III
II Vedic Antiquity IV
7

Bharata Battle Tradition (A)

Do.

(C)

Madhu-Vidya
Spring

or

Science of

60
72

,,

V When
VI
VII
VIII

Indra became Maghavan

,,

Ilbhus and their awakening by the Dog
Tradition
of

82

,,

Indra's

Victory
...

over Asuras
,,

90

Miscellaneous

Indications

of
...

Vedic antiquity
, f

95

IX

The

Solar

Eclipse

in

the

!Rgveda and the Date of Atri

101

X
XI
, ,

Heliacal Eising of

X and v Scorpionis

...

132
137
147

Yama and
Legend
Solstice

his

Two Dogs

...

XII
XIII

of Prajapati

and Echini

f ,

Days

in Vedic Literaof Yajur-

ture

and the Date

IV
Section

ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY
Chapter

Name

of Chapter

Page

III Brahmana

XIV

Solar Eclipse' in

tbe

Tandya
...

Chronology

Brabmana

175

XV
XVI
XVII
99 99

Time

Reference

from

the
. .
.

Jaimimy a Brahmana

183

Vedanga and Maitrl Traditions
Sariikhayana

189
19 i

Brahmana

XVIII

Baudhayana Srauta Sutra
Satapatha and Tandya

198

XIX

Brahmanas

......
Apastamba

208

XX
IV
Indian Eras

Katyayana
in

and

Srauta Sutras

......

212

XXI

Eclipses

Samyukta and the Date of the Nikaya Buddha's Nirvana ...

the

217

XXII
XXIII

Kani ska's Era
Earlier

......
the Kharothl
...
,

222

Era

of

Inscriptions

,

229
235

XXIV

Samvat or the Malava Era

,,.

XXV

The Gupta Era
Date
of

V
ERRATA

XXVI

Kalidasa

Epilogue

...... ...... ......

263
279

PREFACE
I
of

published
five

in the Journal of the

Bengal,

Letters,
:

in

the years

Royal Asiatic Society 1988 and 1939, the from the Maha-

following
(i)

Some

papers Astronomical

References
,

bharata and their Significance in Vol II No. 10. Bharata-Baltle Traditions. (it) ^ Published f (Hi) Solstice Days in Vedic Literature. in Vol. IV, (iv) Madhu-vidyaor the Science of Spring. C When Indra became Maghavan. ) Nos. 15-18 (v)

The
cated

last four of

the above papers were kindly
Asiatic

communi-

to

the

Royal

Society

of

M. N. Saha, F.R.S., who had found

in these papers

Bengal by Prof. methods

and results in Ancient Indian Chronology which deserved It was at his suggestion that I submitted encouragement.
to

the

authorities

of

the

Calcutta University, in a
a

letter

dated the 23rd August, 1939,

scheme

for publication

of a

research work on Indian Chronology,

The University very

kindly sanctioned my scheme in their Minutes of the Syndicate, dated the 30th September, 1939, and appointed Mr.

Nirmalchandra Lahiri, M.A., to assist me in my research Under the very favourable conditions thus created work. by the University i took up work under the scheme from
Nov., 1939, which was finished by July, 1941 in the form of the present work Darned ''Ancient Indian Chronology."
papers mentioned above formed the nucleus of The last four of the above-named papers the present work. were noticed in the famous British Science Journal,
five

The

"Some Indian caption, on the light of Astronomical Evidence" which is Origins quoted at the end of this work.
have carried on the researches embodied in the present work in the spirit of a sincere truth seeker. If I have been
I

"Nature" in Vol. 145, Jan., "Research Items/' under the

G,

1940,

in

the Section of

led

by any bias

my

critics will

kindly correct

me and

point

vi

ANCIENT INDIAN CEBONOLOGY
I

out the same to me.
of

have not hesitated to reject some

former findings when further study and new light I trust my work received therefrom justified such action.

my

will be continued
line in future.

by other Indian researchers in

the

same

I

have to acknowledge
JacobP,
the

my
Tilak

indebtedness to the works
2

of

the late Prof.

and Dlksita3 on Vedic

Chronology.
indebted for

To

works of Tilak and Dlksita I
in

am

many

references from the Vedas, but

many

cases my interpretation has been different from theirs. I have also to acknowledge with thanks the sympathy

and help with which I was received by Mm. Vidhusekhara of Sanskrit, Calcutta UniverSastrl, late Asutosh Professor Mm. Sltarama Sastri, whenever I and his colleague
sity

to the correct interpretation of Vedic approached them as Prof. Dr. M. N. Saha, F.E.S., I am indebted passages. To and help in the matter of for constant encouragement

making many books accessible to me and for many helpful I have to express iny thanks to discusssions and criticisms. the authorities of the Calcutta University, and specially to
Dr. Syamaprasad Mookerjee, M.A., B.L., D.Litt., Bar.-atLaWj M.L.A., late President of the Council of PostGraduate Teaching in Arts, for creating this facility for to carry on my researches,
Finally I

me

have

to,

memory

of

the late

Sir

pay my tribute of respect to the Asutosh Mookerjee, the inspirer

and organiser and of the

of research studies at the Calcutta University,
late

Maharaja Sir Manindrac handra Naadi, K.C.I.E., of Cossiinbazar, the donor of the fund created for Research work in Indian Astronomy, from which was

'

met the major expenses in carrying out the researches.
Calcutta, Octobert 1947.
1

P. C. SENGUPTA,
xxiii,

"On

the Date of the Bgveda'

1

Indian Antiquary, Vol,

pp. 154-159.

to 625 B. The data for dates 4170 B." In the of the Vedic at and of later times. both * dates. The word * ' now come and to mean and * the science of" computing and adjusting time periods of time. tions accepted is in the present the work are justifiable. BrShnaana -Chronology. arranging events in order of time it means computation of time and assignation of events to their correct present work.INTRODUCTION meant apparent dating only. Now. dates from any other Srauta Sutras excepting those of . that So far has concerned be has this satisfaction he could not find any better interpretations than what. it is the science of Astronomy alone that has been brought into requisition in ascertaining the dates of past history of the Hindus. the Date of and on the the Vedic Antiquity.Vedic Sanskrit arrived from Indian eras* they have been derived chiefly from the archaeological sources.C. have been derived from the sources which are either of the Vedic or In the section on the literature. post. is a point that as he IB to be decided by author's critics. chronology The word has from" the 16th century of the Christian era. Bharata Battle.. and also of recording . viz.C. chronology is based on the interpretation that we may put to any statement which is derived either from the Whether the interpretaliterary or epigraphic sources. ascertain any It has not been possible to Indian Kras. he references which he couldaccepted of the astronomical It is made op-bf discover and use for the present work. the following sections.

Baudhayana..C.C. The antiquity of the Bgveda as in the chapters af the book extend from 4000 B. Janamejaya Pariksita. the applicable to all the Grkya Sutras. The Atharva Veda indications dates from 4000 B. more specially the Rg-veda. they are books on rituals only and as such they cannot belong to the same antiquity as the Vedas themselves.. beginning the sacrifices Such date of about 3550 B.C. or a earliest itself is more or less a The Brahmanas as a rule record the traditional days for which indicate the statements. us the dates of cannot give record them. Iru Jyautisa Vedangas indicate a date of about the section of the Indian Eras. the Brdhmana Yajurveda work on rituals.C.C. should be taken Nikator the zero year itself may be called that of Selukus also .C. if the eclipses spoken of in the real Samyukta Nikaya can be the Buddha's life held It as events happening in time. so far as evidences can be discovered from the 'Sanskrit literature. has been shown that the zero year of the early Kharosthi as the year 305 B. Brahmanas and Sraida tfutras. The Grhya : Sutras do not present any new indication of dates.C. while the different sections of the Yajur-veda show a range of dates beginning from about 2450 B. So to the As far as my studies go.C..viii ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Katyayana and Apastamba. to same The 1400 B. of also viz. to about 630 B. Brahmanas which however. the era inscriptions. to about 2350 B. The range of dates obtained for this type of works extends from about 1625 B.. no other date for the event shown is now possible.C. the The Srauta Sutras earlier generally are crude followers of rules as remarks are the beginning of the year.C.C. it has been shown that the Buddha's Nirvana era should be dated at 644 B..C. to perhaps point to the time 2450 B. . The results of the findings may be briefly stated thus The date of the Bharata Battle has been proved to have been the year 2449 B.

. that it was started from 57 B. while the date of the modern Ramayana. The date of Kalidasa has been ascertained as the middle of the sixth The modern Ramayana may century of the Christian era. The points to be settled are date is perhaps not possible. older than the time of the the present Mah&bh&rata must be dated about 400-300 B.INTBODUCTION of the later KharosthI . must be dated much later.D. which is reckoned as the year 1 of this era.D. (L) When did the present highly scientific W Indian alphabet come into being? ( 2) alphabet was in use amongst the Hindus for recording their Vedic songs and other literature? of the words used (8) What were the earliest vocal forms that the antiquity while the date of the of the Vedic culture is one thing the date of the Bharata Battle present Rgvedu in another.C. The date of the Bhftrata Battle is 2149 B.D.. ix inscriptions or of Kaniska's era was the current Sakaerathe Zero year is 77-78 80 A. or 319-20 A. to made Saka year 241 as recorded by Alberunl. One point-that I specially want to emphasise is this The date of a book may be much later than the date of an The Rama story is certainly much event which it records.C. is is one thing while the date of the modern Mahabharata What in the Vedas? We therefore conclude is one thing another. be taken as the year 319 A.C. or the . but the modern work R&mayana cannot be dated earlier than about 450 A. An attempt has been show why the years of this era are called Krta The Zero year of the Gupta era should definitely years..C. : Pandavas. while of A. but the book. It has been shown in the chapter on the Samvat or Malava era. The Vedic antiquity runs up to 4000 B.D. be dated about a hundred years earlier than the time of Ivalidasa.D. but the date when the Tlgveda was written in the form in which we get To ascertain this later it now. the date of Kama or the Rama story The is another.

M. and the author of ancestor of in division was Vyasa common Kauravas and the Pandavas.Veda fSi&nadevasi: (a) we get the following references to the M. The Alharva Veda. Thus prospers well in the according to 'the also evidences cited above." I understand that the time indicated is between >J14{) to 2350 B. 99. VII. do us harm: let not the evil do harm to our progeny. 30-34. 5 : '* Let not the Baksasas. 3 (6) : rite/' (Wilson) . may be seen from Chapters VIII. to tradition Vedas were the into Sama ahd the Yajus. X. exert himself (in the restraint of) disorderly beings.C. the Atharva Veda was completed about the time of the Pandavas. Vedic Antiquity and the Indux Valley civilisation In the Eg. X. opinion.xii ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY suktas or hymns in the 3rig-Veda. 1 X or and XL man this Veda (Atharva) says at *ra?f *raro in s l "that time*' the (southerly) course an: U *B$wf?T ^ is the Maghas THJ: qrftftRfl or " my that kingdom of Pariksiin. so that the unchaste . subdivided thip when according $fe.). Indra the devas) may not disturb our M. which my records as traditions are as old as of the !Rg- Veda As and itself. spirits let Indra. All these considerations lead us to conclude that the latest portions of at the Rg-Veda were composed the time of the Pandavas the (2449 B. *r snr 21. most powerful sovereign lord (Indra).C.

desiring he set himself to the acquisition of 'all wealth." (Wilson) It (was concealed) appears that these large Phallic.INTRODUCTION f* xiii Going the spoil. the Asuras many by Krsna. In the Vana parva or the Book III of the Mahabharata. we have. in the Vayu Parana (chapter 88). between Rama and Brhadvala. but furnish no data for any chronological finding % b astronomical methods. destroying the Phallus-worshippers he won by his prowess whatever wealth in the city with hundred gates. Chapters 13-22 give us a description of the destruction of the Saubha Purl again we have Raksasas." If the Puranic is dynastic thought reliable. ( Invincible. references also in the land of the seven rivers (the and the Aryan which show Hindus had their Kingdoms side by side. marching with easy gait. lists may at all be and the Matsya Purana (chapter 12) records 14 generations Vismi Purana records 33 generations only.C. It may now be asked "is it possible to find the time of Rama astronomically?" The answer I have to give is a definite "no. mention the above references with which I came across in my chronological survey of the Vedas and the Mahabharata. This I may mean the destruction of a city like Mohenjo-daro. These 3inadevas were probably the people living in cities. If we put any faith in the . while the between Rama and Brhadvala. Date of In the present work of the Bharata battle Rama it or Rama Story has been ascertained that the date 2449 B. same who founded the and lived In the Mahabharata that cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa Punjab). They have been noticed by others before me. to the battle.worshippers were a rich which were raided by the worshippers of Indra and other Vedic gods and carried away a rich booty. a reckoning of 28 generations till the Bharata battle.

. his finding is not satisfactory. Further the discovery in India of the seven planets' could not have taken place within the truly Vedic period. The places of exaltation of the planets were settled only when the Yavana astrology came to India of which also the date can hardly be prior to (3) 400 A. Bentley's finding also does not give us the positions of Jupiter and Mars as stated in the Ramayana reference. Rama prior may be asked why have I not attacked the problem of finding Rama's time from the horoscope of his birth time given in the modern Ramayana ? The problem was dealt with before me by Bentley in the year 1823 AJD.siv ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY list Vayu It the time of to the date of becomes about 700 years the Bharata battle. having assumed that in Rama's horoscope. of Rama's horoscope is Five planets cannot be. Siddhanta. The Ramayana (2) 12 signs of the Zodiac spoken of in the in this connection.D. from 4000 B. were not introduced in Indian astronomy before 400 A. the sun was in Aries.in their places of exaltation under the circumstances mentioned therein.. i. not established a cycle for the reor has not even shown petition of the celestial positions.C. Swami Kannu Pillai in his work Bentley's Hindu Astronomy. 1 11 An is also impossible as calculations are^based on the S. 961 B.. 112-120.. D. and the date as March 31 of tbe year. Even then. (5) before. Indian Ephemeris." pp. cannot be assumed to have been in the sign This ought to be clear to any astrologer of the Bentley has present time. moon in Taurus.e. (6) i. Jupiter in Cancer and Saturn This in Libra.D. and admitted as such c by himself.G. L. to 2500 B. arrived at the vear 964 B. as stated that his was a unique finding.e. page 13. and his finding is that Rama which was born on the 6th of April. Mars in Capricorn.C. inconsistent in as the sun Aries. about 3150 B. 1 (1) a result is totally unreliable.C. (4) The Ramayana statement itself.C. He also believes that Kama's horoscope was unreal.

' l M.. for sacred to the water "3EIT*rf^r. and which is sacred to Indra and (9) a<*cM for the descending node's oblation and is also sacred to itself is to saturn. (8) '* ifof cending node. .I. etc. (3) "' etc. x. Moon and : from the Vedas for as Jupiter only could be found ' * to the rest of the $e planets oblations to them.I. probably).INTEODUCTION In the Vedic time only four of the ed. however. it sacred to the moon is or soma.D. the 5gveda4 " (2) is iimi4<d. etc.. Agni or fire-god. viz . etc.. (7) i&ft ^\ e etc/'. When in later 5 - times to (i. Mars is called a * cruel planet ^ra ^f%?n ^rT ) the " but not given a name. for the sacrifice to the moon and :. * M. and the ASvins carried her in their own car to the groom. the appropriate ' ' verses selected for offering libations to these ' were planets " rcas (1) for the sacrifice to the sun from ^rr IP^fj etc.". for Mars. 2. 8-23. 17. for oblations to T Venus and oblations this is sacred to Pusan. but the re Indra. The 1 planet Venus was very probably known by the names Vena. for oblations to the asgoddess.' At the time of the Bharata battle. who was married to Moon. 8 Vena 2 or the Daughter of Sun 4 or (i.e.". MR<?W ?$T. It is thus clear that the appropriate rcas for oblations to Sun.e."." (vide pages 80-32). which is also sacred STSWI sacred to Jupiter.. (5) etc. 116. 2 M. which sacred to (4) to is "sr^f^w^W. moon. Saturn and the Moon's nodes were discovered. forthcoming which would show that the Late Mars. Thus in the truly Vedic period there ' is no evidence planets Mercury.1. 14. we find that Saturn was discovered and named but confounded with Jupiter.". Even Mercury is named as son of Moon. for Jupiter which (6) iptf t srarcj. X. later ' the than 400 A. could not be suitable rcas offering found out from the same source. Jupiter and also . " Agni. etc.". the sacrifices nine planets were instituted.". for Mercury. ' ' planets were discover- the sun.". perhaps Venus.

M. birth time of It is a Rama or of Krsna. B. the time of dynastic list can about 3150 B.. at G. on which the born on the last quarter of then using was conjoined with the Rohinl (AUeU-ran). we time of Rama or of Krsna. If we want to find the established date depend on a well to find Puranic or other evidences try battle. was fought in the Bharata battle the further condition that Krsna was born on July 21. . when we meet Hence the conclusion is inevitable that the horoscope of the a statement like the above as to I. pp. and then from We have already said that if the these t imes Rama should be be believed. . 63-66.C.. Date of Krsna's Birth Krsna was in the statement that Similarly if we believe moon Sravana. or 2501 B. we can never believe it mere find the date of birth waste of energy to try to of Rama or of Krsria from ' such a statement. Thus Apparent Sun=9623' Node = 3352'44 Moon =4 50' Sun's Apogee = 2610' 48'' =.). 2449 B. four or five planets must be " eftusions poeto -astrological scientific Chronology such cannot have any place. Dikshita's finding on this point T\flW his great work as mine and the reader is referred to with . we can show that 5-8 P.C.N.C.(1st Edn.xvi ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOG? is also the same Mr.-01834612 Sun's eccentricity . -. of the inborn In Bharata have to Aw* .M. S. For on this : day Knruksetra mean time Mean Sun=9821'49" Moon=35951'16 Lunar Perigee =22231'53" A. which is tantamount to saying that whenever a great man in their exalted positions.

The moon C and Aldebaran were separated by about 3 only.INTRODUCTION xvii The moon was conjoined with Aldelamn about 10-34 P. in the place called lublia (i. In the places of exaltation were the moon. in the signs TW.. problem of findmg the Zodiac in Kr signs of week did n ot of the days of the ' W a's time . and that was invention that this statement was a pure readily recognise named Srlkrna -We by an astrologer of times a solution Bentley attempted much later than 40U AD. Yenua and a " the lotus-eyed person at this instant that the great Brahman itself. ^ vogue Hindu Astronomy. of tin. the moon had a south latitude c '2 30' and Aldebaran's south latitude was 5 -28'. page. the " Taurus and Jupiter was the eleventh house. ascendant was in the sign Mercury and Saturn. was a beautiful phenomenon to observe. Kuruksetra mean time. was born. If. Sun. and the moon's . C 1408B . however. Thus at midnight the conjunction of Moon with Robin! (Aldelaran). we pin any faith in the following as to the a horoscope of Krsna's Jyotisa (Astrology) birth-time as it statement is given in work on named WIT Mars. sign the Libra-and Scorpion were respectively and the day of the 8th tilfct on the Node it was midnight naksatra was Rohini-it was Wednesday.e. Leo. the Pisces). 91.M.

the Janamejaya Pariksita. without any shade 4 2 and the (lopathii Aitareya.xviii ANCIENT INDIAN OHBONOLOGY in India Thirdly the assignment of be the houses of exaltation to the different plauots cannot The statements of the type quoted above to 400 A.C. 1 prior are pure astrological concoctions.C. as jaya Pariksit a*$ time should Pariksit lived be about of fit) ii-li. As to the Brahmanas. the next tradition about the winter day was the of mwmtxm Magha. and that the Yajurveda was completed about the time of the PawJavuK The oldest tradition about the winter i.. 36 years after solstice the Bharata recorded The oldenf traditional days as in the BrftimuuiaH are such as indicate an antiquity of 3550 B. to the from the Kaittitaki Ilmhmana.^ (1) (*J) the Sutras. Satapatha :{ Brahmanas speak by this prince- of the Asvamedlm has been sacrifices performed From what up to the age shown before JnnmneB. much before 484 AD. king.D. which bun ..W:'J89 yearn and was <TOvviu*d battle.(J* the According finding present work. 2449 B. the tiUmkhyilyana Brulnntmaiw* in distinctly separate superior limit. the date of the Jaiminlya Braltmana has come out as about 1C25 B.C.. 1 solstice day was the full-moon day of solstice I'hiiltjuna. Taitliriya date when this was the case has been shown as 75<i as the The B.e. works cannot be of the same antiquity as the Yedas. (3) Grliya Sutras and the Vi'dMitfrtS.C. Vedic Ritual Literature On this bead we have (1) the Brahmnna. they almost all were after the time of of doubt. In later times the day Phalguna came to mean the beginning day of full-moon of of npring as in the the Satapallw and Kialimw*. having absolutely no chronological bearing.

1. been to XX. M.C. star 1 what was the latitude of the chief their It is of course easy to see that ^ Tauri the of the Krttikas and a Arietis of the A fains had 9 la the reference quoted in this chapter the method of the the summer solstice day. most probably used to be begun before With this method came the invariable concoprominent of mitant of the observation of the heliacal rising of stars at the Thus in beginning the earliest Vedic times. XV it has been shown l that the Vedic Hindus could solstice day. II. Some centuries later the heliacal rising of X. 3-5. the Apastamba and Kaiyayana Srauta These will be found detailed in Sutras about 625 B.C.2. Ugveda. Brahmana refers directly to 3 * Satapatha Brahmana. the Vedangas about 1400 B. accurately the winter or the summer For this the observation of the sun's amplifind tude at sunrise the dawn.C. a mark for Hemanta). of the solstice The Jaiminlya and the Tandya Brahmanas speak on the winter day and the tfamkhayana Brahrnana of the heliacal rising of Pollux. use of 3 In the present work I have generally avoided the ** Krttikas do not swerve from the statements like or that the east" A fains were indicative of a direction. Chapter XIII. 1.INTEODUCTION not xix brought to light yet) as about 1000 B. the heliacal risings of the A fains was found as the beginning of spring.e. 8. at the middle of the year or the summer solstice day.. on which the goda raised up the sun to the highest limit on the meridian. : (2) at what altitude did the Krttikas or A fains show the direction. and that of the the different seasons.. (3) eastward observer. Maghas as the 2 beginning of the rains.. 110. * Vide Chapters IV V. the Baudhayana $ ran la Sutras as about 900 B. Chapters In the present work. .C. 4 There are many things to be considered in this connection (1) whether the statements mean the true eastward direction. Scorpionis was used the beginning of the Indian season of Dews heliacal rising of the Delphinis cluster as (i.

respectively at very nearly . One point of very great importance has been brought to light in the Chapter XXV. at the year From these data it was quite possible" to arrive 2449 B. era. Here the astronomical finding got a corroboration .D. was the year 1929 A.D. The Sukladi reckoning was thus a creation of Aryabhata I. the years were originally of Pausa Sukladi reckoning. cannot yield a solution the declinations == Zero. and all works which show Caitra Sukladi reckoning cannot be dated earlier than 499 A.C. From a strictly astronomical view point the year arrived at might be raised or lowered by one or two multiples of the 19 year cycle. 19..D. have been already stated. In the section of this work on the Indian Eras. but after were generally begun from the winter solstice his time gradually the years came to be In the Gupta reckoned from the vernal equinoctial day. Caitra " Limitations to the Astronomical Determination of Past dates. but still we could not be sure that this was the real year of the battle unless there was a tradition to support this finding. began the Caitra SukU Thus one year was a reckoning. and (2) that the day on which the sun turned in north in the to year of the battle corresponded our time Feb. The Indian years before the time of results main Aryabhata day. but after the year 499 A. and 2350 B. on the Gupta era. year of confusion" in Indian calendar which consisted of 15 or 16 lunations. some year of this era which was different in different localities.C. as the year of the battle. the data evolved from the Mahabhdrata were really (1) that the year in our own times similar in respect of luni-solar-steller aspects to the year of the battle. but these statements of the chronological question involved. In finding the date of the Bharata Battle.xx ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGY 3000 B. 1930 A.D. I.C.

an astronomically determined past date from luni-solar data can hardly be absolutely correct. according to the data which I could evolve from this work on the position of the solstices aad from the rules for beginning the Naksatresti. and the Rdjasuya sacrifices. in ancient Indian Chronology.C. Lastly we have is to to settle might be errors of whether what we get therefore as the date ascertained be taken as the date of the work or the date of the tradition. can only give certain landmarks. PaHcasaradlya.C.C.. the date may be raised or lowered If luni-solar cycle in tropical years. I trust that they are correct to the . In Chapter XVIII on the time references from 3 the Baudhayana Srauta. when it is further recalled that there observation. It was thus possible to fix & mean date only. to have the date has come out been 887-86 B. Here also we have got other traditional evidences from the Vedas (specially from the Atharva-Veda) and also from our calendar on the date for the hoisting of Indra's Flag. Astronomical Constants used So ar*e far as the astronomical calculations and the findings degree of concerned. Speaking generally. unless we bad another event of the solar eclipse as described in the Vedic culture Eg-Veda which according to my interpretation happened in 3928 B. If the position of the solstices as indicated in the work and as understood by me is only approximate. Sutra. by some this work. some of which should be subjected to critical examina* Astronomy tion by epigraphic and other scientific methods that may be discovered and applied to test the findings in this work. on the 26th July the summer solstice day.. for the time when the data evolved were astronomically correct. as it were. the Baudha- yana had in addition an account day of the year.IlSTIKODUCTION Similarly xxi we could not be is to sure that the antiquity of tbe be dated about 4000 B. of a solar eclipse fix on a fixed we could absolutely the date.

Venus and Mars. .37 17 12 ..D. 1900 A. Here mean longitude of a planet longitude of its perigee or perihelition L denotes tha CD . e . and t stands for Julian centuries elapsed from the epoch. while those for Saturn./ *005926t 3 8 1243' / 15' '50+5795 '862t + 3'80258i -0'01236t 2 // e = 0-04833475 + 0'000164180i .. (a) M longitude of the ascending node of the For the sun's mean elements // : L =* 28040' 56".ttii ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY accuracy aimed at./ o) 3344G' 27 '4B + 14648522' 52t .. eccentricity of the orbit # orbit. Newcomb's and Ross's equations have been used.0"'0000004676 -0'0000000017i8 (Leverrier and G-aillot) 2 For the mean elements of Mercury./ : a = 28336' 46 *74 + 17 '32564406 "'06 1 + / 7' '14t f/ A/ 2 +0'"0068t8 .0^045t3 ^259 T 49'16-69629ir-23t + 7^48t2 + '008i8 ' (Brown) (c) For Jupiter's 9 f/ mean elements / : L=238 6> I 56 -59 + 10930687' '148i + r -20t86t2 / .37 + 129602768"' 13t + l"'089i 2 / 2 6>2S1 13' 15"-17 + 8189 -034 + r-63i -hO' '012t3 e = 0m675104-0*00004180-0'000000126 2 (Newcomb) (b) For the moon's mean elements . the equations used are of Leverrier and . as in this work the most up-to-date astronomical constants have been used throughout. They are for the epoch Greenwich mean noon on January 1.

will find them fully illustrated work and I of specially refer them to the sections on the Date the JBharata battle and on the Vedic Antiquity. Noon. M. In this general introduction interested in this new science.D. calculation of Methods of backward planetary elements from Jan. eclipses. These methods have developed in me as the necessity for them was felt. and for the apparent places of the moon only 4 or 5 of the principal equations have been applied generally. In outline they are (1) : Employment of the sidereal years 1 luni-solar cycles of 3.391. Method of finding the past time when two selected stars had the same right ascension (where possible). 1. Method of finding an eclipse of the sun in any past (4) age which happened on a given day of the tropical year. it The methods seems rather out of place to detail them. Methods of chronology employed of chronology employed in the present I hope. the In the case of the solar mean place of the maximum of 15 equations. moon has been The planetary corrected by a perturbations have not been considered. only the equation of apsis has been applied. (3) 1900 A. The eclipse-cycles established are of : 456. Those would of my readers who feel any special interest throughout this for them. 19 160 and 1939 (2) as established in this work.INTEODDOTION xrii! For finding the apparent places of the sun. 1 2 The luni-solar cycles ia tropical years will be found in Chapter IX on the . 8. be readily understood by scholars who are work will.. . I cannot persuade myself to think that I am the first to discover them. 763 tropical years and others derived from them. G.

These may prove useful to future researchers logy. Kali Ah&rgana + 588465 -* Julian days.) (4) (5) + 324'75 days.. to has made independent calculations according my direction and has helped me occasionally with valuable suggestions. 21144. 8. 12305. 133449 and 646100 days. 1768 Julian years + 388 days. 365 Julian years + 132'75 days. I shall be grateful for any corrections and suggestions for the improvement of this work. has worked my research assistant during the preparation of this work.A. the following equations true for the : Ardha- ratrika system. . the Khandakhddyaka and the Kryabhatlya are -the following 3. Nirmalchandra Lahiri. 19. He has revised- all my calculations. as Mr. Khandakhadyako. luni-solar cycles A harg ana +1964030= Julian days* according to the constants of the Surya-siddhanta. in chrono- For facilitating calculations according to the Indian Siddhantas. 57 Julian years civil In terms of days these cycles are respectively of 6585.. under the arrangement made by the Calcutta University as detailed in the preface. They (1) (2) (3) are : 18 Julian years+10*5 days (the Chaldean Saws. M. 307 Julian years + 173*25 days. will be found (a) very useful Surya Siddhanla Ahargana (from "creation") Julian days (6) (c) + 714401708162. besides the ones stated before. : The 122^26^385 and 648 Indian solar-years.xxiv ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY For finding a solar eclipse near to a past date I have also found the following cycles in the way in which the Babylonian Saras is established in astronomical text books.

should be modified." It is for this reason. Again Vamadeva's statement that the Rbhus should awake since 12 days have elapsed in their period of sleep in the orb of the of sun. that it has been assumed throughout. the correct depression of the sun below the horizon at its heliacal visibility should star.. may or may not be associated with the heliacal rising the Dogstar as spoken of by Dirghatamas. cases at heliacal visibility itself should have been taken as the basis for the determination of the dates. In view of the above consideration the finding of the This would also allow for the uncertainty of date of Vamadeva in Chapter VI. at its heliacal so very of this star. the sun's depression below the horizon 18. was which might have happened some days On the other hand it may be held that in some least the actual earlier. Sirius or be about 10. In the case of the brightest a Ganis Majoris. If this association date cannot be found 'on this is.SPECIAL NOTE TO CHAPTER VI * In risings this work in finding the past dates by the stars at heliacal of different seasons. the sun's depression below the horizon should be taken visibility. accurate in The Vedic people were perhaps not Hence in the case their observation. the horizon being clear for observation. at 12 and not 10 This would allow for the necessary altitude of the star above the horizon at the time of observation so that it might be easily recognised.not allowable Vamadeva's D-I408B . the author was under the impression concerned with the beginning that actual heliacal rising of the Vedic Hindus were more of the dawn than with that the the star concerned. when the star was observed near the horizon and not at the exact heliacal visibility. of This course may be conceded. viz.

According to thePuranas. in verses 7-10 invokes the fire-god Agni to bless the Kumara Sahadevya (son of Sahadeva) whose name is Somaka.C. M. The depression below the horizon should be 12. and obliquity of the ecliptic at 2100 B. solstice summer It from the thus becomes necessary to did the estimated determine by how many the days actual summer day. precede summer that at solstice has-been shown on . was killed in the Bharata battle. about 2000 B. it may be assumed that the day was probably estimated correct determination of the winter solstice day. Chapter VI. which is the date of the grandson of . 15.C. Sahadeva. Sirius'^ longitude for 1931 being 1038 ..-page sun's northerly course 108. each' having a length of 183 days. -2356'15*. the lasted for 186 days. Hence Vamadeva' s statement of 12 days after the summer solstice day as estimated would mean a day 9 days after the summer solstice day. (5) (3) the angle OL=3628'22" and in the figure / (6) yL = 4740'52" as shown and named in page 87. the Hence sun's right ascension declination=2327'30". If Somalia and Somadhi mean the same prince. It would follow that 99 and not 102 used in the = sun's : ZPS12Q58'9" (2) (1) = 5417'21". The sun's longitude as should be taken about sun's o>.C. and his son. (4) yO = 849'24". the increase in the longitude of the star till 1931 becomes 5527'. 3 yE = 68ol'43". The estimated 3 days before the actual summer summer solstice solstice day would be day. mean which showa the date of Vamadeva to be about 2100 B.xxvi ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY If this is basis. while the courses were of Vedic people held that the two equal duration. allowed. the son of Jarasandha. the date of Vamadeva should be about 2449 B. This seems to be a result hardly acceptable. Jarasandha was Somadhi. Vamadeva in the Bgveda. It solstice day. 9949'52". IY.C.

C. the (Pleiades) of word should have been regent is "emblem" i. MM B. the sun's declination 2358'54". 7). summer We : Sim's longitude =93.e.e. (3) LO -5129 (4) yO7741'7". Prey.. Krttikas) as stationed on the east of the earth (M. that the Krttikts do not swrve . 5.SPECIAL NOTE TO CHAPTER VI l ascending brilliant emblem of Agni (i. the date comes out as this altitude also the swift ascending stage It is quite unintelligible. echoed in &e$atapatha Bralimaya. 1. I. to mount. heliacal visibility of the Dogstar in Dlrghatamas 's time solstice day. from the same data assumed that the star was on the prime-vertical at an Prof.. Kuruksetra==30N. the Krttikas which the the is firegod Vaitvanara or Agni.(&) the sun's depression below the horizon at the heliacal visibility of the star = 12. (Winternitz's History of Indian Literature. He nee is our astronomical interpretation.ZPS12118'16". We calculate as before Z. and accompanied by worship. and at an altitude of about 730' (or 8 due on the prime-vertical. 2-3. above the immovable heaven. suited to his glory.C to refraction) At may be admitted. Vol. 2900 B.. . Kan$a> from the east. (2) r E = 6158'44". IV. (5) OL419'46" and (6) yL / Translation : " May our self-purifying praiae. quickly attain to that omniform (Vaifvanara) whose swift ascending brilliant (orb) la stationed on the east of the earth. The heliacal visibility of the star is really indicated by what rsi Dlrghatamas says . how altitude of 30 and thus arrived at the date 1100 B.. (c) the (a) obliquity of the ecliptic latitude of the station. which II. Assuming the star Alcyone of at the Krttikas was seen at Rajgir (25N) . we may It is therefore try to determine the date of Dlrghatamas. for =24!' '(d) the Now (1) the sun's right ascension a =9317 / . that the cloudy sky persists for 3 days after the the period being called ambuvacl or therefore take the following data for the cloudy days. like the sua.C." Here in place of " orb " as supplied by Wilson. page 298). the tradition of N. India. Oh.

Dlrghatamas the date of the Bharata battle as found in this work has been 2449 B. Aitareya Bra7ima#a. 22. By virtue of it Bharata. also Aindra great anointing. Ch. 9. 5. perhaps Deed no modification specially when the stars are ecliptic and also when As to the remaining they are of a magnitude 1 - less than the second. The date arrived at for becomes 2926 B. Here .- ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY of Sirius till 36 31'21". 39.. (7) the increase in the longitude 1931 = 6677' nearly. Adi.C. Dlrgbatamas. This rsi Dirghatamas was a contemporary of King Bharata of the lunar race according to the Between and Bharata Aitareya Bralimana. 11-14. in. 4. the dates stated above is 476 years. Chapter 95). Khanda "By this King Bharata. p. bathed tlie the son of Dusyanta. makes the average length of a reign period 28 years. records 17 reign periods of princes of this dynasty.. The interval between which divided by 17. 18. made of the priest Dirghatamaa* Weber'a Edn. all conquered the whole world the quarters in his A4vamedha sacrifice " victorious expedition and also no mention is Satapatha Brahmatia. 1 Now Yudhisthira the the dynastic list of the lunar race as given in Mahabharata (MBh. 95. the son of Ma rnata. findings in this work on the basis of seasonal heliacal risings of stars. Ch. performed the C/. the son of Dnsyanta.C. Hence the historical method here corroborates the astronomical finding.

" 3 Book I. 70 45. sagas or songs of In fact the Mahabharata itself is jaya or a tale of victory. Asiatic Society Edition of the MahabMrata. The next stage in the development of the Mahabharata was perhaps in the form of the works Bharata and the Mahabharata as we find enumerated in the Afoalayana Grhya Sutra (III. contains the Buddhist doctrines of rebirth. the 2 the light half. assumption that we Hitherto no epigrabrought to light. Ch.. evidence this date has been Consequently we have to rely on our great epic the Mahabharata and the Puranas. 2 . 1 Again one astronomical statement runs thus : began from There are in it mention " First comes the day and then night. Oh. from its earliest the form of gdtha naragarhsis.ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY CHAPTER I DATE OF THE BHARATA BATTLE Evidence from the Mahabharata The Bbarata real battle is now generally believed to have been a It is pre-historic past event. etc. Afonmedlia. The great epic Mahabharata has had nucleus in heroes. : titarafNr$4ta ^hich runs thus 3*RtKi1lfecHi : di Pana . In this chapter we rely solely on the Mahabhain the rata astronomical its references. ftr: t St. 4. 4). The jbresent compilation about the time of the Maurya emperors.. on this propose to pic determine the date of this leading to battle. are the Puranas. so also development into the present form. months begin from naksatras begin with Sravana and the seasons with 288'J of winter. 218. i. 44. The description of the fight can be found only Mahabharata while the Puranas de6nitely indicate that it was a real event. St. Also Book XII. Book V3I.e. Ch. Stanza 31. Cb. of the Buddhist monks and the Buddhists in several places. SO.

3. dilated in a way which is out of proportion to the real story of the Pandava victory. there were known two books BMrata and the MalidbMrata as mentioned in the the Asvaldyana Orhya Sutra. 4. This n eans the epoch statement 441 B. Sutra 4.C. 2 mftser'ft: i Brahmatplwta Siddhdnta. the polar according to the former work. If we accept Biahmagupta's year for the position of this star. as we have it now. 1C. has swallowed up both the it 4 great epic. present longitude of Altair may time be taken as 301 nearly. been 31. vinV4. The The total shifting of that solstitial point has which indicates a lapse to be the of = now. In 1931 A.2 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY. 3 began to be compiled in its modern form from 400 to 300 B. star Altair had at that time a celestial latter according to the longitude of 270 or BrdhmaspJiuta Siddhdnta. Ch. the date is pushed up to Hence there is hardly any doubt that the MahdbMrata 297 B. Cf.C. X. . as the season winter is always taken in Hind a astronomy to begin with the winter when the the sun The passage indicates that winter began the naksatra fSravand. S. Ch. earlier works. P. while Brahmagupta in his Brahwasphuta Siddhdnta quotes its earlier polar longitude as 278 .C.. the celestial longitude of 3ravand (Altair) was 300 According to the modern l longitude of this star is 280. He estimate th* date at 450 B. B/Dft?ita*s n*^ afift:*tra. and the oldest strata in The can be found with great difficulty. therefore. 4 Atvalauana Gr'hya Sutra. the star Sravana itself marks point of the naksatra and according to the latter.ni 2nd edition. Stirya Siddhdntd. 3 3. It shows that the entered solstice. The Maliabharata stanza Hence the first quoted above shows that the winter solstitial colure passed through the star Altair (Sravana) itself or through a point 2 ahead of it. Before this as we have said already. 2232 years.* 48' 9". the naksatra begins at 2 ahead of the star.D. it is in the most discursive form. 268. The present book is in itself Whenever a topic is raised.C. In this way some of the stanzas of the old saga ya SiddMnta.

and masis. division to but we do not It know is. exact point from which this therefore. safer to take the nahsatras the mean atars or star groups in this The Mahabhdrata astronomical connection. into the story. No mention of tithi is made.' presiding deity of Ersna to Karna This in taken from the speech the . Amavasyds Paurwaamfivasya* or the period of moon's invisibility. position of the moon We (not shall have the distinct references to the Astakas. Naksatras in these references mean most probably single-stars In late* times of the Vedangas there are indeed or star groups. details The Time References from the Mahabhdrata We shall now try to set forth some of the time references as found in the present Mahabhdrata which we understand to be the oldest. 142. <j> whifh the sun reached the winter solstice that We state them as follows: In the Vdyotja follows : Pan* or Book V. recognised divided. as at the It end of his unsuccessful peace-mission to the Kaurava. In these references quoted below.court.DATE OK THE BHARATA BATTLE % 3 have got displaced from their proper settings. there will be the period the seventh day from to day. Und as such do of the year in which the portion of the equinoxes or the solstices the moon's phases near to the event happened/ They state firstly and secondly at some of the incidents of the battle to use for several stars indicate the day on year. and which lead to the determination of the year of the Bharata battle. its BO begin tbe battle in that. Oh. 27 nakwlras of equal space into which the ecliptic was . the days are indicated by the near a star. the stanza 18 runs a ' From of moon's invisibility l has been declared to be Indra. as many came to be woven often uncouthly. means . are casual or determining the year of the not directly state the time or incidental statements. references which we are going Bharata battle. was begun.

This new-moon marked the beginning of the synodic month of Agrahdyana of the year of the battle. 23.4 ANCIENT INDIAN OHBONnLOGY before that the battle broke out there was a new-moon near the star Antarea or Jyestha of which the presiding deity is Indra. from the 7th day and begin further learn that while Krsna to was Kaurava Court. Hence in the latter half of the previous night the straight edge of the dichotomised moon was probably observed as almost passing through the star Regulus. to Kuruksetra .'* The day on which Krsna addressed Karna was the fourth day from that day. ' Again from the fifth case-ending in saptamdt. the last quarter of Kdrttika took place near the star Regulus and the next new-moon near the star Antares which marked the beginning of the lunar month of Agrahdyana.' 'from the ' seventh day from to-day shows that when the speech was made. At the mean rate the moon takes about 7*5 days to to pass from Regulus Antares. Bfcitfma Parva or BK. last quarter of the Astakd or the the current month of Kdrttika was just over. . new-moon. This formed the basis of this prediction of the The moon's last till invisibility was thus the day following.7 Cancri) group. VI. Hence in the year of the battle. "2 n M. 1 today the moon is at Pusya. shows the star Jyestha near which happened the newmoon. Bfc. the full moon at the Krttikds (Pleiades) moon became of a fire-like colour in a lotus-hued heaven. We at the coming new-moon.. As invisibility of the moon was taken to last two days. from Duryodhana's command which was thus expressed: negotiating for " He repeatedly said * march ye princes. and only one presiding deity is mentioned. But the battle did not actually begin with this For on the eve of the first day of the battle Vyasa : thus speaks to Dbrtarastra " Tonight I find the (ii) lustreless. there was a day peace when the moon neared the naksatra Pusyd (8. Ch. this presiding deity Indra.73. 2.

185. -0 King. 185. then began again blessed life in battle. the next fullmoon cannot be at the star group Pleiades. was resumed when the moon rose sometime before sunrise.> Drorifl. At the mean rate the moon takes exactly 12 days 23 hours or about 13 days to pass from the star Antares to Pleiades. following *' way: Just as the sea is (Hi) raised up and troubled by the of armies by the rise rise of the moon. 2 ^rf Kifa: ^fusra" Pnswirt ftS^rcf. of men wishing the next world for the destruction of humanity. Ch. so up-raised was the sea the of the moon. type There are other references to show that the moon could not be full on the eve of the first day of the battle.DATE OF THE BH1UATA BATTLE 5 If there be a new-moon at the star Antares. Cb. Cli. 32. Drowa. continued into the was killed at at sunset Jayadratha. Vyasa by looking at such a moon thought the night to be Paurnamdsl no doubt." 3 As to the : time when the fight was resumed we have the statement 1 Aitareya Brahmana. : B/i. On the fourteenth day of the battle. ^jftra: M.. . 10. dhana's brother-in-law. night. ing How and when the fight was resumed are described in the killed. and midnight the Rdksasa hero Ghatotkaca was The contending armies were thoroughly 2 The fighttired and slept under truce on the battle-field itself. i TO T M. The moon was about 13 days old and not full. Duryothe fight was . which was the next night. Bli. but it was of the Anumati and not of the type J?afea.

.Dron(t t Ch. From that the Bharata battle was not begun on the of in our reference (i) . moon at ravand (Altair)" 3 Hence on the day of the atar Altair. Bh Drone.6.34. Bli. Ch. and at the mean mace-duel. His words were Since I started went away with the niooa I is 40 days and 2 more and have returned with the Pu^ya to-day . the rate the moon was takes Altair. M. and was 27 days old. On He just ** (t?i) returned : from a tour out. and the description of the moon as it rose was (t?) was left. near to the moon to about 18 days and 8J hours to pass from Alcyone Owing to the moon's unequal motion it is quite possible for her to accomplish Hence this passage confirms the statethis journey in 18 days..' Thus the moon rose that night when only a small part of it was left." Here one-fourth " Then the moon which was like the like the head of the out. the 18th day of the battle. 185. to bull of Mahadeva. Bh. slowly began golden rays. sunrise. first day of the battle she was not quite full but about 13 days old As has been said already the night before the first day of the battle was a Paurnamasl of the Anumati type it was not Rdkd. Krsna's half-brother Yaladeva was present at the mace-duel between Duryodhana and Bhima.G ANCIENT INDiAS CHBONOLOGY " (iv) The * battle 1 was resumed when only one-fourth * of the night must mean some small part as we cannot think that they could exactly estimate * one-fourth of the night." It was a crescent that rose this it sometime before clear is moon with sharp horns like those of a bull. bow of Cupid fully drawn and as pleasant spread her as the smile of a 2 newly married wife. ment made above that on the eve of the first day of the battle \\\\\ M. t iSalya t Ch. M. 187. new-moon day spoken and on the eve of the . at of pilgrimage to the holy places.

. Ch. to from his capital Yudhisthira started most likely in the morning the lapse of 50 nights meet Bhmma on the battle-field. He went out of Hastinapura with a party of priests. .e. The On the 10th general of day of the the Kaurava army... Yudhisthira came to the battle-field to see Bhlsnia expire and to perform the last rites. ... . Awtatana. * BE... Pusija till . XIII. . The MaMbhclrata passage runs thus " Yudhisthira (vii) : having lived at the nice city of Hastina- pura the for fifty nights (after the battle was over). ... remembered that of the Kauravas (i.. as soon as it was observed that the sun had turned north... And the fight had already lasted Total . and that 1 begun... 167 .. for incapacitated further Bhlsma. . sun had stopped after having seen (or rather inferred) that the the northerly course had from the southerly course. 8 .." winter solstice day Tt IB clear that special observation of the of the battle. the first bed of arrows. the day of ... as Bhlsma was to expire as was made in the year observed soon as it was that the sun had turned north. 13 17 .. After fit M T Bh. group Krttikds or Alcyone and that was about 13 days For From the day of the moon at . ' expired after 58 days.. Bhfsma) day of expiration of the chief had come.... Krsna's speech to Karna 3 days From that day till the new-moon at Antares (Jyestha) From the new-moon at Antares till the moon at the Eritikas ..' became fell on his the fight and in participating battle at sunset.. 41 days next day was the last day of the battle and was the 42nd day from the day when the army of Duryodhana marched to Kuruksetra and Valadeva started out on his tour.DATE OF THE BHARATA BATTLE the she 7 moon :was near to the star old.

the lunar . - M HI Total (b) . the rxew-moon at Anittrvn nr the of the lunar AgraJiuyaya till its end . fourths of the that from the light half of the month. A lapse of nights from the end of battle and that of 58 nights from the evening on which Bhisrun of arrows/* both indicate the ssimc <iav. Thievfell on his "bed Magha became over at the hint quarter or Ekastakd day. the winter ing out from his capital was the day following day. Hi <! Bhisma's generalship Bhisma on death-bed ... 2U'5 i The lunar month of Paum f of the lunar month of Muglnt ... .... . for reasons pot forili Time from the new. the son of The thousand Kunti. rayed glorious Sun has certainly bed of pointed arrows.moon ut Anhnrx to Ih** (a) moon's reaching tho KrltiMx or I'lfinilt's . YudhiHthira.8 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOOY from the evening on which the battle ended he was sure that Hence the day of Yudhisthira's startthe sun had turned north... lu . . I have passed 58 nights this time has been to me as endless as a hundred years.. Yudhisthira.. aoltftic-o When Yudhisthira met Bhlsma at Kuruksetra. Here lying on my turned back.. 2UT % J*J'M jrrSsRr TOT Bk NJH.. From heginning .. month of Magha is now fully on and its three-fourths are ovtr in This ought to be the light half of 1 the month... >. he (Bhfsma) thus spoke to (oiii) him is : "It a piece of good luck... .." Here the borative of last sentence was a pious wish not materialised. 1 our reference (mi) '50 nights and in (vih) T>H nighty" arc corroUit* each other.. that you have come with your ministers... . The time indication is peculiarly identical with The lunar months here iu*ed are of the Brahmanas..

DATE OF THE BHIEATA BATTLE Hence 9 the two reckonings are corroborative of each other. no matter even if the reference (viii) be a fiction.... the the winter solstice one day before the expiry sun reached the winter solstice according to our reference (vii).... i. . In an edition of the Magha the verse runs as 'Bhisrna was killed in the month of Agrahayana says that * ' : see oo the 8th day of the dark half. . . 14*76 days 29*50 .. 22'00 66*25 Total . we take that the sun reached of Bhisma. To was sum last up: In the of the moon in quarter near about the star year the month of Regulus as we have of the next year the of the Bbarata battle. the Secondly. ch. . " .. Magha . we could get only Half of Agrahayana (c) Month of Pausa $ of r .. to bring out the approved time for the death of Bhlsma.. astronomical calculation concerned.. It is thue* evident that the lunar months which end with the full-moon and Mahdbhdrata t-ays half a month used in earlier than the new-moon ending lunar months. -140KB . are not -references... If. . expired in the dark hulf of 2 Magha and not in the light half.' This of course refers to the day on which Bhisma fell oa his 'bed of arrows* 58 days after that.. we assume that the lunar months counted month and ending witb the month of Agrahayana wo^ld be -. exactly one day less than full two Hence also Bhisma of Magha. or that full 49 nights after the battle ended.half over light half. that 1 beginning month of Agrahayana *i original word in place of Sukla was perhaps Krsna and a. stanza 2. the commentator of the Mahabharata quotes a verse from the Bharata The Savitri. .. number of days bere counted falls short of the 68 days which comprised Bhlsma'e generalship of 10 days + 58 days ID which he was on death bed.e... which -also half of the tLonth of Bharata Savitri Bhlsma was killed by Arjuna on the 8th day of the dark Bhisma Parva. 1 these It is also clear that the MahdbJiarata that Bhisma expired So far as at sunset on the day of the last quarter is of Mtifrha... synodic months becomes the 7th day rof dark half .. the synodic with the new-moon at Antares. . on the other hand. We are inclined to think that in this reference a clear statement occurs as to the observation of the winter solstice day. there Karttika with inferred. subsequent redactor the word to JSukla.. From that time till $tb->of Magha here were from the dark-half of the were over.. changed Xllakanthn.. 17.. .

term ' Fourthly. Calculation of Dale by the First 9 On Met hud Before below the year 1931. the sun reached the winter solstice.10 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY place took with the is new-moon the near the star Antares battle or Jyestha.. till which directly stated. we have understood. but the result H obtained from both the methods will be approximate. first On was the eve of the in conjunction day of the battle. celestial longitude the 'moon with thotie With this meaning nearness* wo may derive the following seta of data lor finding the year of the Bharata battle. ' when nights the battle expired. fa. we can proceed with our mean celaatial longitudes of calculation we nott* down ttit* the ntars cotirenu'd for Star Mean t'<*k*8tiul i Jyestha or Antares Krttika or Alcyiyn* 218* u fitf 47' * J' *t I* 4 Sravnnu or Altuir MI* t .e. and 57 = 67 days.' days old sun turned north in 10 + (c) with the Krttikits or Aleytme. or the lasted the *49 moon reached after star Altair Smvam. Thirdly. before in tin. and the nun tiirn*d north in conjunction 49 days. one day before (b) Bhisma 1 s expiry. for the sake of convenience. Tn the firt method we nearness equality shall. assume that the equivalent to of in the moon of ' the several of starts as* wart . the moon !.s7<m?. Data for the calculation of the Date of by the First Method la) Ihe. art Bhisma expired on the day of the last quarter of fig ha and. liharata batlU There was a new-moon at the star Anlarex. battle broke out and the sun turned north 80 days. From these references it is possible to determine the date of the Bharata battle. (lit* moon 81 days old wan in with Sravana or Altair. We shall use two methods. the 18th day of the battle. We are to understand by the Nalwatra should also recollect that simply a star or a star-group. the sun's reaching the winter solstice took W$ M place one day earlier. i.

DATE OF THE BHAEATA BATTLE (A) 11 sun. 377 54' the present (1931) celestial long.... ahead or of the suif by .... the sun for that time .'. the From the moon and data (a) we assume. Hence the present the sun at the (1931) longitude of at new-moon Ant arcs -4248 4% f 57^ 6* . 158 * 32' 2' <" 57* the sun's present day (1931) mean celestial longitude for that time . battle 331 11' 9" (B) . in 1931 of the sun for reaching the winter 78 51' solstice of battle the year of the Bharaja " 327 39' W (1) (B) From the data (6). of . Sun's motion in 80 days Hence the mean celestial lofig. Hence the present (1931) celestial longitude of the moon for that time 30C) 48' 9" The moon was 360 x 31 29-530588 . Sun's motion in 67 days 26U 66 18" Hence the present (1931) mean celestial longitude of the sun for reaching the winter solstice of the year of the Bbarata battle (C) 326 the 35' 15" (2) From data (c) moon at our assumed conjunction with Sravam or Altair was 31 days old. HeStce the (1931) celestial longitude of the moon at that time was 59" 1' 44* The moon was 13 days old and the mean synodic month has a length of 29-530588 days " ...'.. as already stated...'. that the the star Antares had the same celestial longi- tude at that new-moon. Sun's motion in 49 days of the 282 48 53' 17' 21' 48* Hence the (1931) mean celestial longitude yun of for solstice the reaching the winter year of the Bharata . the moon was ahead of the sun by . the moon at the assumed conjunction with Krttika or Alcyone was 13 days old..

48'4 min.. As a first appoximation. Working with tbe mean to of the two values (tiz 49" '7984) the lapse of years comes out be 4*228.. Now from the above equation the annual 1900 A. M. G. Hence as a first 58 28' 29". f \.. the step the total shifting of 28' 29" . the mean of the results (1). result (1) (b). the longitude of the sun's for the change in the apogee was about 29. the sun's equation the Bharata the mean longitude of 270 in the year of of the sun's works out to have been + 1 51' nearly. of centuries with the annual rate of 50" 25. the solstices from 1900 AD.. (2) and (3). at 4 brs.D. The year This is of the Bharata battle thus becomes near 2432 B.. year.. 327 39' 3".!D.. method. viz.12 ANCIENT 1NU1AN CHItUNULOGY thus arrive at three divergent values of the present (1931) mean celestial longitude of the sun for reaching the winter solstice of the year of the Bharata battle. . Hence allowing . and 4188 years earlier (i. 9 December 1. . (2) (3) (c) . . .) rate for 1931 A.D. T. Hence what was 270 of the longitude of the sun in the battle 28' plus 1 51' (= 330 190 in the year 1931 A.270 roughly 328 winter ftlstice = eccentricity centre for battle of apparent orbit..... new-moon very nearly at the star Antares took place on: On (J) 9 hrs. * of precession or at +0" 0222 T.. 56*4 min Kuruksetra mean time... 29" The mean of these values = 328 From longitude the above calculations.D. the present (1931) mean tropical of the sun at the winter solstice of the year of the is Bharata battle 328 28' 29".. via.' 326 381 35' 18*. up to 1931 A. 1929.D. was 328 which shows a of solsticial shifting of 60 19' and represents a lapse to 4362 years. .. : We From " data (a) .e. where np. take 4183 >ears to recede through 58' 27' 28".C. is 50"* 2633. the best result that can be obtained from our Calculation of Date by the Second first Method we find that a looking up some of the recent calendars. IV 28' V. is 1 which represents a lapse 0^4228 years Now 42 centuries betore 1900 A. 4157 years before 1 Annual rate = 50"' 2664 T = it was 49'" 3335.

of of Kuruksetra mean first time which corresponded with the the day of the Bharata battle The sun's longitude The moon's longitude The longitude of Krttikd * or 262 54 59 1' 57" 40' 7" Alcyone nearly The moon came In the to conjunction with Krttikd in about 8J hrs. This evening corresponded with the evening on which the " Bharata battle ended. M. M. Thirteen days later was 1. morp.M. at 5-8 P. the conjuncIt was the day of the taking place very new-moon of which the presiding deity was Indra and it was the beginning of the synodic monAh of Agrahayam. before.DATE OF THE BHAliATA JiATTLE The sun's longitude at G. at 5-8 -eve P. v as < 13 r Kuruksetra mean 248 19' 4' time 10" The moon's longitude at that time The longitude of Antares 246 248 24" 46' nearly new-moon day.M. Hence December 1929 was a tion nar to Antares. 1929 . of Kuruksetra mean time: . Fifty days later came the day corresponding to that of (4) 20jj|h February. evening behind the Krttikds visibly. Eighteen days later was (3) at the moon was about January 1. At 5-8 P. the moon being affected by parallax due to its position near the eastern horizon at nightfall. 1930 Bhisma's expiry. of Kuruksetra mean time: 280 296 22' The sun's longitude The moon's longitude The longitude of Altair 2* 47' 35// 45' nearly or Sravayfr 300 The moon came to conjunction vnth Altair in 8 hours more. 8 min. (2) December : 14. 3 Kurukaetra. . 1930 . A. The sun's longitude The moon's longitude 331 8' I" 242 her last quarter at about l 40' 55" The moon had come t > hrs. midnight 5 far*?.M.

On the Svening'of the 19th February.winter solstice day of the year of the Bharata battle fell on the 19th February. we deduce that the sun's equation of centre for the sun's mean longitude of 270 in the year of the battle was +1 51' nearly. thus becomes 4379 years.D.. 1930. 3. at 5-8 P. Three Traditions as to the Date of Uie Bharata Battle There are at present known traditions three orthodox traditions as to the date of the Bharata battle.e. . By a similar process shown before in our first method.D. (much than Aryabhata Varaha says ' The seven rsis were in the MagMs. The battle year should be thus very near to 2450 B. (1) firsfc of his the is due to ' Aryabhata I (499 in JEon.C.D. six Manus. 1 nomical Kali age or at about 3102 B. the sun's mean tropical longitude was 328 42' nearly which is in excess of the value obtained by the first method by 15' only. says of the present Kalpa. when the King Yudbisthira was feigning Dafagltika. the true anniversary of the ..D.). M.14 ANCiLNT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Assuming that the sun turned north exactly one day before Bhlsma's expiry.D. 330 $3 in 1930 A. noon of that day.) ** is him to an by Varahamihira (550 earlier astronomer Vrddha Garga recorded I). or 27 Mahayugas and three quarter Yuyas ' This is a simple Thursday of the Bharatas 'statement that the Pandavasjived at the beginning of the astroelapsed before the . of Kuruksetra time which was the G. Dasagitikd.M.C. 3. (>(> up to 1930 A. c (2) The second ascribed by earlier tradition A. By the first method we have arrived at the date 2432 B.C. The total shifting of the solstices 33' representing a lapse of while our second now to examine if method gives the year 2450 B. 1930 A. Hence what.Cr there is any tradition which supports We have these findings.was 270 in the year of the battle was 828 A2'-h 1 51' i. The who A. as before.

Of these three traditions our finding of the date of the Bbarata battle. 5 therefore.C. 15 his ' era l is the era of the Saka Kings to which have been added remained a riddle to all second part gives a became King in 2526 first part of this statement has researchers up to the present time. whether 2432 or 2450 B. the birth of Panksita^ according to the statement of this Puranie writer. in closest coincidence with the From. -2526 of the Saka era. or 1871 B.C. Pargiter's Dynasties of the Kali Age. and the rule of the Nandas"to have lasted place in 821 Now B 50 years in all.C. the various conjunctions of the moon with the sun and the several stars happened Mahdbhdrata references. p. . 2526 years was 4377.e birth of Pariksit to the says. (3) Tie third tradition ' is due to an astronomical writer of the Pwanas.' taking the accession of Chandragupta to have taken C. 3. the time is one thousand and one thousand 2 fifteen years or one thousand five hundred years).C.DATE OF THE BHAIIATA BATTLE over the earth '2526 .C. The of Saka era. -2526 the Saka era or 2449 B. who years (or accession of fifty Prom th. The most categorical statement that Yttdhistbira . necessary to examine the ear. becomes abput 1421 B. year. 2526 of the Saka We have found before that ' in 1851 of ' Saka era elapsed or 1929-30 A. 58.C. Mahapadma Nanda. Astronomical Examination of the year. xjii. srrafr yetf jftrfW writ \ tliita.. to We : 1651 elapsed of the Saka era. whfcb corresponds to 2449 B. of approaches closest to the It is. the number of shall assume that these were Fidereal years.D. em or 2449 B..

. 160 and '1939 three of the above convergents give the luni-solar cycles \ears in which the ruoon^ phases with respect to the sun and the st^rs repeat themselves. Here the Mahabharata references enable us to construct the battle calendar various phases of the the battle-year on we further. Here we have 4377 = 1939 x 2 + 160 x 4 -f In fact 19.. conjunctions in the is inferred as that the various of the moon with the sun and the stars recorded Mahabharata did actually happen in 2526 of Saka era or 2449 B. solstice" d ty stood in the year in relation to the day of Bhisma's expiry.C. 1929 A. . Construction of the Battle Calendar It has been said before that a new moon near in our times the star Antares happened taken to have been more or on December less 1.D. Sidereal year Sidereal _ 365-25636 month - 27-32166 = 134- 2+ i1+ i_ 2+ 2+ 8+ e 12 + 7+ 1 he successive convergents are IB 1 j?7 2 ' i?" 3 ' 12! 8 254 ' 2139 J ' 25922 ' 6l/C ' 19 160 1939 The last of 19.16 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOQY Now. Sidereal month x 58515 = 159872(5-993 and Synodic month x 54138 = 1598726-978 a consideration it Thus from * * of the a mean motions certainty of the sun and the moon. which we have exactly similar to th&t which happened in the year of the battle. we have Sidereal year x 4377 = 1598727-092 days . . want to see how the moon npar to the fixed stars happened in the days and how the winter stated.

4' Mean Longitude of Antares=188W neorU The new moon near Ant are*. 3. before. =827220 day s on Jan. Mean Sun . or Ale yone = 35830' nearly. Apparent . Moon =191 4".2449 B. which n is the junction star of the naksatra Jyestha. (/') This new cited before- oon (2) is mentioned in the Mahabharata reference on Nov.C. 3-1408B ^ --^^^ fO * . /. 1900 A.N. . Mooii-1914G'.15.M. at . . At below the Krttikus. about 7-8 A. Kuruksetra meantime and conjunction took place very near to the star Antares. (1) Hence on Oct. =827220. before. 1929 =242^947 al less no.C. =18925'45". or Kuruksetra mean time 5-8 P. Kuruksetra meantime This phase of the moon (it) is mentioned in^Jt reference 6 quoted before. happene.*. =27 'A71. G. Lunar Perigee = 18826'44"*75. 21. =2415021. A Node Sun's Apogee 's =103 9'58" 75.M.C. and Julian days on Oct. days 54138 synodic months =1608727. at G..e. Difference =1587801 days =43-47 Julian eeiiturie* +59-25 days. i. 2449 B. Sun=202 c 4 / Moon = 225'40". The conjunction of the moon with the Krttikcis had happened about 10 hrs. eccentricit) = 0-01833. Mean Sun . 18' apparent Sun188 c 4G'. = 20214'33". 8 A.M.M.... Mean Node =12028'36". Moon= 334' longitude of Krttika Lunar Perigee =1 89 A.D.d about G hrs.25. OB shown Julian days for the required date the date arrived at is October 21. of . Now Julian 1. ai.DATE OF THE BHABATA BATTLE Now Julian Days on Dec.e. in 1.N. 53'39".M. at 11 i.. We have next -2449 B.'.C. whence 2449 B.

M. 18 G. = 1038' only. DAY THE BATTLE ENDED. Hence happened rose at 4 29 in the at 6-23 A. Node 5'. 8". longitude Rohim of junction star or A Ideharan was had taken the conjunction the moon with RoJiml place on the preceding night at at about 2-30 A. Noon.T.18 (3) ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY THE BATTLE BEGAN The mean 8 17'. of K. For on the 2449 B. 18. M. morning latitude = 58'42"N. Moon=24447'. at G. Kuruksetra mean time.C. ON preceding day. Apparent Sun = 21658' Moon = 19339' Moon = 19225> Moon's celestial L.M. Kumksetra mean Mean . N. from Nov.. . Mean Sun = 21959' Appt. On Nov.C. the 20tb Nov. moon which was crescent rose about 1 hr. 10135'. or 5 8 A. and the nioon had been * conjoined with the junction star* Sravana about 8i hrs. is 54 inin. before.M.T. T. of of Nov. the sunrise Kuruksetra meantime and the moon Thus the A. 21. 2449 B. Mean Sravand (Altair) = 10131'25" =24017' nearly. Moon=23946'll". 3".2449 B. M. A. Moon's celestial Moon . ..M.. or K.M. of Lunar Perigee = 191 A. at G. 4. before the sunrise. hr. Node = 10142'32". Perigee = 19130'34". Sun=218B2' 4*. Nov.M. Node 53'57'/. This moonrise (it?) spoken of in the bharata references (m). (4) On time....M. moon was not visible at nightfall on this day.Sun Hence the latitudes 4 1'28"N nearly. This was the day of the first visibility of the crescent after the THIS preceding new-moon. (5) and (0) quoted before.C. Sun=21927' f Moon =230 A. or the day of following. 5-8 P. Appt. long. M.

of astronomy. by the calendar authorities B.DATE OF THE BHARATA BATTLE The month this 20th 1<J of lunar Pausa was most probibly reckoned from of Nov. 28'iO" Node= 9852'33". of an astronomical assistant of his time. Moon = 17552'.e. Dr M. or K.ny from the earliest times up to 400 B. 2449 B. the winter solstice about 28 hours on the preceding day as already explained. 10..is in his paper in " Science and Culture of for March. made with the some our finding to We are. references are not Fjrstly. Saha tl. is help as however. of opinion that such a hypothebib to their origin not justifiable. at the Pamlava time. Appt. The date of the B. later.C. Thus the sun had reached before. (6) Lastly on Jan. .M. could " * Pruf . 488-488.C. may lead propound the the?ry that there were all later additions by the epic compiler of about 400 B. Mean Sun =269 16' 0". raised in the question. the Vrddha-Garga Tradition recorded by Arc the Mahtibhurata References Later Intcipolaiionts?' 1 The striking consistency of the critics of Mahabharata references..C. these astronomical : all collected at scattered over the battle books from any single place they are the Udyoya to Anusasana. Lunar Perigee = 197 A. 2448 G.C. to The moon came her last quarter in about 104 hrs. 1939 to pp.N.. .C. which is astronomically established as the year 2449 by supported Varaharnihira.. 26-20. the knowledge not enable a. 1 The author the present *ork replied this " Science and Culture/ July. 1938 in pp.. i. 5-8 P. Bhisma the longitudes expired on this day at about the time for which Bharata battle is thus have been calculated.M.T.. N.M. developed in India Secondly..

Thirteen The ing battle began from the next morning. months of the year in which Here as shown before. could be predicted by the astronomical . Conpled we must exactly know where the winter solstice day stood in the fixed stars. of our times fixed so far as moon's that the phases near to the stars are concerned. Yudhistbira was satisfied that the the sun had turned north or that the sun had readied soUtice one day earlitr. of we have the evolved two astronomical data for the determination the Bharata battle : year (?) that tie year of the battle in was the similar to the year 1929-30 A. The arguments the in favour of our position set below as briefly as possible. vtas equal are to the forth task. and (it) observers of the sun appointed by the Pandavas were satisfied that the sun's northerly course had begun exactly after a lapse of 50 nights from the evening on which the battle ended Before the battle broke out there was a new. Exactly nights the battle ended. So far as our studies go.20 astronomical ANCIENT JNDJAN CliKoNULOOY assistant to determine the set of those astro- nomical references which we have used in this chapter. neither the of the Veddngas. the star in from which the lunar month of Agrahdyana began the nearly days later in the evening.moon near Antares. On the night follow- the fourteenth day of the battle. no date of any past event can be with these repetitions of the lunar phases. full. winter As regards the repetitions of the moon's phases near fixed stars they orcur at intervals of 19 or 160 and 1939 years. We now end of show that the interval of 50 days between proceed the battle and the first day of the sun's northerly not course of the year. nor of the in astronomy of the Brahmanas. the interval from is January 1 the : to February 20 of 1930. to exactly 50 days. nor Paitdmaha Siddhdnta as summarised the Paficasiddhdntika of Varahamihira. a crescent moon last rose someof time before the day-break. the moon was observed near the star group Krttikds or Pleiades.D. battle. the fifty OQ the 18th or the or da^ the moon was after conjoined with Sravanci Altair. to the sidereal Hence by the mere near to repetition of these phases of the moon determined. year. From of Mahdbhdrata references cited above. relation to these phases or the lunar the event happened.

also this type of J\I<lghu Hence both for fttarting from the 9th of February the years 1924 A. In Vedic times. a Vedic luni-solar cycle of 5 years. we had finding. of our time.. This latter the year of the Bharata battle according to our year has become Between the years 1921 A.D. In our times such could not be a sid^really fixed lunar month. B C. 30'JO a peculiar month of Mdgha was used from about tant B C. Now 1. according to our estimate. According of Varahamihira such a Mdgha came in year 2 8aka elapsed or 80 A. 1929 A. and end between and 7th of March.D.D.. the uu mil equinox am! the summer Pleiade* i and Reyulu* were.D. The beginning of this standard Mdgha its oscillates between the 2nd and 6th of the 3rd February. 1927. it (Antares). years truly. were suitable the former being more suitable than the latter. about 2150 respectively c. had the same lunar phases as 2454 B. (ii) its full-moon at the star Magha (Regulus) and (Hi) its last quarter at the star Jyesthd 1 In spite of these well pronounced characters.D.. exactly one lustrum Hence the five-yearly Vedic cycle to 1929 A. the year 1929 bad to the llth of M^rch.D/ was similar 1 Tis topic lun been fully discussed in Chapter XIII on ' Solstice days in \>iJic Literature/ 2 near to The reference is IHTO to the ago when soldtire.D. and 1929 A..C. Here the battle year was similar to 1929 A. that features at (i) This lunar Magha had these three imporit should have for its beginning the new- moon Dhanislhd (Delphinis}.. ...C. and the Vedic five-) early cycle. the same as the year 2449 B. and 1929 A. (1) First.D.D. 1932 and 1935 A.D.l)ATJbl 01<* THE BHAUATA in 11 A TILE 21 knowledge that developed 400 B. and 2449 B. and this j ear was similar to 1924 to the A.D.D.C. If we allow a slightly greater latitude. cycle or India from the earliest times up to for starting the five yearly luni-solar synodic lustrum. a in month the of Mdgha happened 1924. D. as has been shown already. let us suppose that the full^moon day of Mdgha in the year similar and the winter solstice day were the same day before the battle year which to 1921 A.C. and a similar lustrum existed between 2454 B..)24 A.C. and the year to exactly preceding the battle year by one lustrum was similar 1924 A.

C.. of 1930 A. 44. would have between them an interval of 57 days and not 50 days as found by observation.. day of the battle which corresponded with January 1 1930 A. let it (2) Secondly. 8&n1i.Bh. . of us suppose that 5 years before the beginning of the battle year. new-moon was found by observation that the day of the 2 then at Magha begun. for the winter solstice the Now hence one Vedic year consisted of 12 lunations plus 12 nights the estimated day of the next winter solstice would be the 27th day of lunar Magha to come... at the conclusion Krsna must have addressed these words to Bhlsma of the fight or on the day following. there still remain 56 days more of your life then laying aside this body you will attain those worlds which are the fitting rewards of your good deeds : blissful in this world/ 11 This verse proper of the in original setting the saga is found displaced from its present recensions of the Mahdbharata. 2 51. tc O chief of Kurus. We shall discuss this stanza more fully in the next chapter. . anew from of the day following the full-moon the battle year.D. fipimt M. which Krsna's prediction of the first contains day of the sun's northerly course on which Bhlsma was to expire. Reference is here to the time about 1400 B. This is also illustrated and the from the following verse of the Mahdbharata. The 28th day of this Magha would be the first day of the sun's northerly course.2-' ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY day of May ha of It would then be usual to start the Vedic lustrum started therefrom would end on the full- moon the battle year. was the winter solstice day . and this full-moon day day according to day of Magha would be taken reckoning used. the dale of the Vedahgas. Thus the predicted day of winter solstice could not generally agree with the accurately observed winter solstice day in the Pandava times. . This day would correspond with the 27th February time. of our Hence last the predicted first day of the sun's northerly course.D.

it was not possible for an Indian astronomical assistant by any back calculation to furnish the of astronomical references Mahdbhdrata compiler of 400 B. winter solstice day the date would be the There would thus be a clear difference estimated days Mwctm the winter solstice day and the . it day of the sun's northerly course of Magha and in our gauge year 1929-30 would correspond with the llth February. would correspond with the the Mahabharafa references. would be reckoned as the winter solstice day.C. According to November. because this was an older tradition." We can in the here explore the possibilities of the above assumption The year of the Brahmanas and the following way: Vedtlngas consisted of 806 days and a quarter-year was thus of 9V day?. The day of ibis.D. 1934. full-wo<m of KurtHkn w nld correspond with 21st solstice The predicted day of winter 81st of February.DATE OF THE BHiRATA BATTLE battle year. while inserting the astronomical references merely calculated back on the assumption that the Great War was fought when Pleiades formed the vernal equinoxial point.(>. the 23 the end or termination of the five-yeaily cycle at the starting of the new moon day of Magha begun.C. Between the ending day of the battle (corresponding with Januarj ]. then a full -moon at the Krttikas would be on the day of autumnal equinox. 7?/3fl. and the winter 9i'5 days interpret solstice day should couie after according to this the in mode Mahilbhdratti of reckoning.. may be contended that "the Mahublulrata writer of the 4th century B.D. there would intervene H days as predicted and not 50 days as observed. The first the beginning of the next estimated winter bolstice day for year would be the 12th tithi of the coming Magha and the tithi would be the 13th A. Now in order to astronomical references we take a gauge year to the K rt tibia which the full-moon of Kfirttika took place very near would be 3934-35 A. of reckoning of Thus judging by the methods the Vedic and post-Vedic followers of the five-yearly luni-solar cycles. Tfthe Krtliknx or Pleiades were at the vernal equi- nox. 1930. 1930) and the first day of the sun's northerly course. it was fought in 2449 B. the would be Janu- anniversary of the last day of the Bharata battle ary 6.>car . with the set which we have used to establish that the Bharata battle Lastly. 1935 and of the 85th o/ 4 February..

and the Ar)an Hindus had their Kingdoms side by side. -2526 of Saka era or ki449 B. MahdbMrata Asuras we get many show Rdksasas. date arrived at The makes the event In the that as contemporary with the f Indus valley references to civilization. 1 Mahdbharata-stated icinter Here if we take the be correct. In Vana-parva or Book III... the problem of finding this date from the Mahdbharata data. been taken as really observed astronomical events or phenomena. representing a lapse of 4810 years till 1935 A.24 ANCIKST INDIAN CHRONOLOGY solstice day. the integral parts of the Pandava saga which formed the nucleus for the older Mahdbharata and the Bharata in my great epic when it was first formed about 400 B. cannot be taken as interpolation by the epic compiler of about 400 B. we get a total precession of the solstice-day amounting to 65 days. . chapters 13-22 give us a description of the destruction This may mean the destruction of a of Saubha Purl by Ersna. -91*6 da. city event and the Puranic dynastic lists relating to this period to 1 By the mean reckoning the number of days from the full-moon day of Rarttfta the 7th day of the dark half of M&gha x 29*6 x 34-7 = 95*5 days and 95*5 da. therefore.C. and the date of the battle is Mahdbharata date for winter solstice to pushed up to 2876 B. D. CONCLUSION We have thus come to the most definite conclusion that the Bharata battle did actually take place in. These references have. which gets no anchorage at either of the Sryabhata or the Vrddha-Garga tradition.C.C. made hi the battle year itself and which were incorporated in the finally and were included in the original Pandava saga. They opinion. were. has been satisfactorily solved in this work for the first time. Hence the above hypothesis cannot of the explain the possible finding chapter. nearly. We tiust. compiler or his astronomical assistant of 400 B. is also = 4 days.C. The Bharata battle was a pre-historic like Mahenjo Daro. For one single event only one date is possible.C. Mahdbharata references as used in this by the epic It is thus established that the Mahdbharata references used by us for finding the date of the Bharata battle.

no better evidence of not recorded date is Our examination in the light of these references fully corroborates the date recorded by Varahamihira whose statement must now be regarded as more reliable than those of the host of the writers of the Purdnas of unknown name and time. 1 Not such are the Mahdbharata references which we have collected from the Udyoga to the AnuSasana parva. who have used the sameness or similarity of names as a basis for a historical conclusion. which have yet There are undoubtedly several gaps in these to be accounted for. for 112-135. also JASB. Wilford. etc. confounding for a time. IX. they all may be echoes of one statement ani are not acceptable. l For a full discussion of * Asiatic Researches. man of the first and second centuries of was wrongly the identified with Parasara. Such mistakes have been made by many subsequent researchers. pp. The historical methods are often of liable to very serious errors by wrong identification The astronomer Parasara. Sir Wm. said already.D. probably a the Christian era. has but given an but neither the time of the Pandavas nor of the astronomer Parasara. II. this paper. Not such are the astronomical references as used in They are all definite in meaning and. Also Brennand's Hindu Aatronomj.. my thesis stands on solid astronomical basis selected with the greatest care and discrimination. of. as to the position of the solstices .DATE OF THE BH1EATA BATTLE cannot be taken as 25 correct. 51. the astronomer. on some occasions. sources. 2 They based their calculation on the statement of this Parasara. 4 1408B . by the earliest researchers.. In many cases. The misinterpretations of the commentator have been. They are mere conjectures and could be accepted only when they could be verified from other more reliable lists. the father Vyasa. Davis aud Pratt. 1862 A. Oh. wrong in traditions may be found repeated many books . p. date is we have in a possible. of persons from a similarity of names. Jones. We trust. common ancestor of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. for an event of which the reliable historical work. their calculation approximate date of an astronomical event. Vol Paranic evidences the reader is referred to Chapter HI.

479. A. and as such . slayer of Madhu (Krsria). 700 to A. (or Mars having taken Antares) retrograde motion near to Jyesthti has now approached the star-group Anuradha. pp.83.D.O.. P." specially. Swamikannu Pillai.S. and causes great affliction to " The planet Saturn which living beings. . 1709 by Diwan Bahactur &. descendant of Vrsni. Satnrn being near Rohinl. 1 the is Again Mars <f be near to the star Jyesthd spoken of as in the naksatra Anuradha sun must See Appendix (Vj to An Indian Ephimeris. I.D. ('junction star' 8 Scorpionis) or has already reached it of which the presiding deity is Mitra. they omens These are : ft Udyogaparva. node (Rdhu) is reaching the sun. a planet troubles the star The marks on the moon are changed and the (oc Virginia). More Citrd O Here Saturn is indicated to have been in opposition . to be mere astrological effusions of bad also inconsistent in themselves. is acute (tlkma) and of great effulgence oppresses the star (Rohim or Aldebaran) of which the presiding deity is Prajapati.26 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY A note on the selection of astronomical references from the Mahdbhdrata for The Date of the Bharata-Battle in the In our selection of astronomical data Udyogaparva and I have understood them the present chapter no use has been made of those that are found in in chapter 143 of 1 the chapter 3 of Bhismaparva. 143. they are cannot have any bearing as to the date of Bharata-battle. (Antares).

and cannot have any chronoto We next turn logical bearing. The ruddy planet (Mars) looking sun and moon the even motion at 3 warp Stationed near Brahma. and Jupiter iuSravana naksatra division. 27 hence the sun must be nearly opposite to it retrograde and ne&r to the star group Krttikds (Pleiades).retrograde in the Maghas. both the it the naksatra Jupiter and so are seen burning as were and would continue the planets in the one year.DATE OF THE BHlIUTA BATTLE and is . Saturn for stands by overpowering VifakMs." We tabulate below the positions : of two references . the 'naks atra Proslhapada Sun (Saturn) oppresses the Phdgml) by overtaking it. the Bhtsmaparva. All this is mere logical effusion stating evil omens. Mars. The inconsistency of is the statements is apparent. Venus in Both there. <x A planet which is not named astro- spoken of as have neared to Virginis. (P. A stands by passing over the star dreadful comet is stationed at the star is' group Pusya. The son Bhaga (P. chapter 3. Bhddrapada) shines of the A or naksatra RohinL oppress the star of the Citra and Svati cruel planet is stationed at the junction like fire having got naksatras. another similar statement in ^br fefen " The Citra (<x white planet (Venus) Virginis).

28

ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY

All
evil

this
fit

is

hopelessly inconsistent

astrological

effusions

of

Groase's Tales only. Still something chronology of the Bharata battle was attempted by late Mr. Lele from them for which the reader in referred 'to Dlksita's

omens

for

Mother

of

W*cfta s^tl^rra, pp. 119-20

(Istedn.); the

him was 2127 years
the abovemenfcioned
as explained already.

before
of

3102 B.C.
planets

a

by most fantastic result

date

arrived

at

!

His finding of the positions

does

positions

indicated

not also agree with in the Mahdbhdrata

We

again have the two statements

:

M.Bh.,Sabha Ch.
9

79.

\n*\\

M.Bh., 3alya, Ch.
i.e.,

59.

" Eahu

(also)

eclipsed the sun,

king,

when

it

was not a

new-moon/'
These statements are
parva, Chapter III,
also

mere

poetic effusions.

In

BJusma
:

we have

another statement which says

e<

Ihe moon and

the sun were eclipsed in one
1
-

month on the

13th day of either half/

DATE OF THE BHABATA BATTLE

29

cannot put any faith in any statement of this chapter of the Mahdbharata. Two eclipses, one of the moon followed

We

by the other of the sun in a fortnight, are not of very rare occurrence. In the year 2451 B.C. two such occurred:
Aug. 30, 2451 B.C. at 18 hrs. Q.M.T., or Kuruksetra mean time 23 hrs. 8 min.
(1)

On

Mean Sun=137
,,

54'

5F-56,

Hence
on
this
ifc

there was a lunar eclipse
visible at

Moon = 31 7

day

k8'47"-99,
13' 3o"-60,
37' 5"-51,
1'

and
tude.

was

of

Kuruksetra, no small magni-

Lunar Perigee=101

A-Node=144 e
Sun's Apogee = 27
, ,

52"

eccentricity

= -018331
at

Again on Sept. 14, 2451 B.C. Kuruksetra Mean Time
:

G.M.T.

hr.

or

5-8 A.M.

Mean Sun = 151
,,

57' 35"-28,
14' 37"-54,

This solar eclipse
in a

is

discussed

Moon = 145

subsequent chapter. It was in the from visible morning
Kuruksetra.

Lunar Perigee =102

48'

50"-69,

A-Node-143

48"-96.
at

Now
5-8 A.M.

on Aug. 16, 2451 B.C.

G.M.T.

hr.

or

KM.

time

Mean Sun= 123 Moon = 123
L-Perigee=99

22' 33"-69,

N.M. happened about 8 hours
before.

7'41".32,

35' 0"-08,

= 14523'57"-36.
N.M. happened on Aug. 15, at K.M. time 21-8 not visible on the 16th. The days of nearly. -The moon was the month were reckoned from 17th or 18th Aug. 2451 B.C.,
Hence
the the

lunar eclipse

2451 B.C.

on Aug. 30 and the solar eclipse on Sept. 14, The eclipses in question happened two years before
fell

30

ANCIENT INDIAN OH110NOLOOY
Rharata
battle

the date of the
viz.,

as

ascertained in this chapter,

2449 B.C.
t

1

U
of the

e

2.Ca)npamon
battle.

of

the

Mahabharatu
t>19

slatfinents

of

Planetary

calculated /or positions with those

H.C.,

I lie.

ycur

Bharata

In this connection

we

think

it

necessary to
positions

examine'
at

all

the

MaMWidrata statements

of planetary

the

different

with times of the year of the Bharata battle, and compare them dates:the planetary positions in 2449 B.C. on the following
(a)

October 14, 2449 B.C., on the morning of which
as described in the Udyotja-parDa, chaptera
;

Krsnu m't
and
14.'i

Karna

14*J

as quoted already on page 26 on the evening preceding the

(b)

November

;J,

'2449
for

B.C
3

f

/.r.,
tltt*

first

day of the buttle
have

which
of

stated in planetary positions are of which those in chapter Bhtsma-parva

chapters 2 and
'<

tin*

been
fur

quoted *m

page 27;

and

(c)

November

21, sM4H

H.C.

whieh

the

in chapter 9-1 of t!ie KtinnhinirK<i> planetary positions are found now quote below one stanza from the /J/u>y;m////Tr/,

We

2, stating the position of Saturn, thus:

"

king, Saturn

(the slow-going

planet)

Maud*

the star Eohinl (Aldcbaran) the rnoon'B markn aro reverM*d

dangers are imminent." Again in the Karna-parva, \ve have

,

0>I,

40 and 5
Iiw*n
ifc*

1

In pages 482-83 of his work <m " Indian
Pillai, I. 8.
(),

^phenmrin/'

L, D. SwamikfiriiDU
dato of the
battle of the

Bharata battle

Mm.

iupporUto tli ulu^i* findihg of Sudhikara Dviv(ii tUuei'e|tt Umi ih

lends *ome

was fought and the

reign of Yudlii^hira begun in
1*8,

0449 B.C-, r*d

hi4

Mahd'Siddhanta, Contents, pp,

DATE OF THE BHIEATA BATTLE
" When Karna was killed the streamlets ceased to the sun set. The white planet (Venus) became of the
fire
(i

31
flow
colour
of

and
of

and Sun (combust or heliacally set?) and the son e., Mercury) became heliac&lly visible
obliquely."

Moon
became
are

"Jupiter surrounding the star Roliinl as bright as the sun and the moon."
planetary positions exhibited below
:

(Aldebaran)

The

according to our calculations

As
the

to Saturn,

it is

found twice stated that
of

it

was oppressing
deity
is

star

Roliinl

(Aldebaran)

which

the

presiding

Brahma,
of

the Creator or

Lord

of

men.

But the planet stands

at a

distance of about 10

from Aldebaran. The

distance for the aspect

perhaps acceptable. As to Jupiter it was Aldebaran. Mare's throughout retrograde and stood near to the star to that of Visakha progress extends from the star Citrd (a Virginis)
oppression
is
(i

"

"

Libra).

The

planet

is

called

"parusa"

or cruel in chapter 3
of the

of

the

where

Bhlsma-parva and in Chapter 142 is it spoken of as "oppressing"

Udyoga-parva
star

the

Citra or

82
a Virginia, but

ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY

in

is not given any name. Venus stands throughout the position of " Combust" or heliacal setting. Mercury was visible a little before the sunrise on Nov. 21, morning. On Nov. 8, at evening the moon is oppressing the stars Rohinl, " while the sun standing at 202 4' may be taken to " oppress another Rohinl which was Antares called also Jyestha of which

the longitude was 188 16' nearly. It seems that in the Udyoga, the verses 8 and 1'J speak the truth : and in BJilsma, 143, 2, the

stanza 32, and in Bhlsma,
positions.
verified

3,

the stanza 17 alone,
94,

tell

the

correct

quoted are our calculations. The Mahdbharata statements of by truths and planetary positions are thus found to be full of
'

In

the

Karna-parva,

the

verses

fiction

"

and

I

trust, in our selection of data for the year of the

Bbarata

battle,

we

have been

able

to avoid

"

fiction

"

and to

astronomical events on which our finding of the accept year as 2449 B.C., has been based.
the true

is

important astronomical indication that Yudhisthira was consecrated for the Afoamedha sacrifice
last

The

but not the

least

which was year-long and used to be begun with the beginning of spring ( astronomical, when the Sun's became longitude 330).

The date
)

in

question
of

is

stated to

be

Citrdpurnamasa
near
the
star

or

the day

the

full-moon

a Virginis or

Citrd.

Consistently

with

our

finding
for

the year

of the Bhcmita battle as 2449

B.C., the date
sacrifice

Yudhisthira's

consecration for the

A&vamedha

becomes
G.

March

11,

2446 B.C., on

which at

M. N.

or

K.

M. T.

17 hrs. 8 mins.
True Sun

=
=

329

42' 27"
35' nearly

Moon
a Virgini*

=

144

142

23'

Astronomical spring begins in about 7 hrs. and F. M. in about 10 hrs.
is

This was the day of the full-moon which Afaamcdhaparva, Ch. 72, thus:

spoken of in

the

" Your consecration
Qitm
(a

will

be on the

day of the full-moon

at

Virginia)

,

DATE OF THE BHARATA BATTLE
The beginning
the
of the five-yearly luni-solar cycles

.|l

Veddngas
:

is

associated with the day of the

yug,u of winter solstice

or

thus

'When
the

the

sun,

the

moon
month

and the
it is

ntiksitra

Dlwnixthl
of

(Delphinis) ascend the heavens together,

the
or

beginning

Yuga
Again

(cycle), of

the

of

Maglia
course.'
1

Tapas,

of

the

light half

and
all

of the sun's .northerly

and the Puranas* say that the Kaliyuga began with full-moon day of Mfiyha. This Ktiltbeginning was quite different from the astronomical Kuli epoch,
calendars

Hindu

the later started from the light-half of Caitra, i.e., from Feb. 17-18, 3102 B.C. Judging by the beginning of the luni-solar
cycles of

winter
the

the Vedanga period, we should identity the day of the solstice with the full-moon day of Mdfjlia, in finding
in

which is mentioned beginning of the Kaliyuga MaMbMrata and the Puranas. Now we assume that the Puranic Kaliyuga was started from which the full-moon day of the standard month oj Magha, of 3 the we have spoken before, and that day was also the day of the same Kali also understand that it is winter solstice. the reference is found in the ^ahabli'iratd and
the

We

yuga, of

which

the Puranas.
this standard month of Magha agree to accept that in 1924 A.D. from the 5th of February happened in our own time

We

to the 5th of

March, with the characteristics,

viz.,

that

it

began

also

3

rd
a

Chapter I, page 21.

1408B

During this period men were uncertain when the coming five Kaliyuga began.C. was yuga.C.. The day of the winter solstice to day were the same day according of its ending with the sunrise. The sun reached the winter solstice and the full-moon * 2| hours later. .> Mausala. Bh.D. It was in 2454 B.C. At Greenwich mean noon or 5-8 p. Bh. Visnu Pmrana.2.C. MahdbMrata convention truly began Most on likely the Mahabharata Kaliyuga from this still year of 2454 B. lOfch January. till about 2354 B. 11Q.e. 44. This smdhi was a period which was taken to last a hundred years. Now according to our finding the year of Bbarata battle was 2449 B. nearly. and the ahead of happened about 7i hours at about 1 15' the star Regulus or Maglia. was within the sandhi or junction of the Dvdpara and Kali ages. Hence the year itself of Bharata battle The taken as the beginning of the Kali3 of Krsna's expiry coming 36 year years after the the Kaliyuga* after 2454 B. beginning of the Dlianistha had its Full-moon near the MagMs and the Last Quarter conjoined with Jyestha or Antares.C.C. Moon=86 The moon was ahead fall-moon of the in 1&. 40' sun by 176 nearly . Kuruksetra time on that date the apparent longitudes were for Sun =269 36'.42 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY at with the New-moon the cluster. 24. and in so far as the moon's phases near to the fixed stars are concerned it was similar to 1929 A.D.C.C. . f.. that a full-moon happened. was in the same way similar to 1924 A. exile. marked the end of five-yearly cycle.. on the 9th January. pi 12 et $eq. most likely. was also a In these years also the day of the was not much removed from the full-moon great battle and 41 years (=38+3) beginning winter solstice of day 1 The * M M foregoing chapter.m. 1 Hence 2454 B. when the Pandavas were The year of the Bharata battle or 2449 B. t Atvamedha. rt 1. Ch. IV. years after 2454 B.

2449 B.C. 2454 B. Moon=90 Thus the fall-moon happened about 8| hrs.C.DATE OP THE BHARATA BATTLE of 48 ' Mdgha.C. cit> 9 Chapter I. 44. the calendar authorities of the Pandava time. But one day more was probably included in this period in the following way : We have shown in Chapter I. After the completion of the five yearly luni-eolar cycle in 2449 B.. course (as estimated) would be for- January 15.. p.. Bh. we arrive at the estimated day of the winter solstice as January 14. Now the battle ended on the 21st day November. Hence followed a rule of the thumb that in this whenever the standard month of Magha should apparently ' return. The first day of the sun's northerly tions plus 12 nights. 2 Hence between this date and the expected day of Bhisma's expiry.C. as the Bhisma's expiry. the day of the f ull-inoon was taken as the the ^winter solstice day. there was apparently a return of the standard month of Mdgha.C.C. most probably began the reckoning of the lunar month of Pansa from the 20th of November. that in the yeai 2449 BC. 2448 B. Sun = 274 . he. the 28th day of lunar Magha to come. 2448 B. Now the Vedic year was of 366 days or 12 lunaIf we count 366 days from January 14.C.M. As an time.. on which at G-. 2449 B.. later* This 14th of January was the estimated day of the winter solstice for the year 2449 B.. 61. 1 expected day of Bhfsrna's expiry in -Chapter discuss it again by back calculation. there would be 29*5 +28=57'5 days (here the estimated day of winter l M. We propose to It has been shown that the observed day of winter solstice must have been the same as the MdgJia full-moon day of 9th to 10th January. but it could not be the accurately determined solstice day.. illustration of how above ' rule of the thumb ' was followed for predicting the we have already considered winter solstice day in Pandava the words of Krsna as to the I. 19. 53' 89' Dearly. period. . noon: Appt. 2449 B. The number of days between these dates becomes 55 days. Santi.C. The full-moon fell on the 14th January.

2 He was thus born Now in 563 B. two-handed and bald- headed/ the Buddha's Nirvana took place according to the latest authorities at his age of eighty in 483 B. (e) Evidence of the MaliSbMrata Kali-reckoning A this question may now be asked if Mahdbhdrata jfiTaK-reckoning there is any evidence that was current in India for some : time. Vikramaditya and others of the lunar race. most probably made on the date on which the battle ended or on the day following. as it is essentially a Bengal tradition). The following instances may be cited A versa quoted in a work named the Laghu Bhdgavat(1) dmrta . and our finding statement of the year of the battle rough about the year (2)" 2449 B. Satanlka.* etc. . .C.C. Vol. ruled for Again orthodox Bengali almanacs record that * 3. which claimed its descent conquest Quoted by Sir William Jones 2 3 in his paper in the Asiatic Researches. Now reckoning from the day on which the battle ended till this expected day of the sun's norther- ly course there would be 56 or 57 days.44 solstice ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOG^ was the 27th day of lunar Magba and Bhfsrna was to expire on the following day). Parlksit.C. and began preaching the truth that came to him when he was thirty-five or about 528 B. kings Yudhisthira.. Two thousand years before the Nirvana year was the date 2483 B.C. was revealed his when of a 2. p. all in the Kali age. Hence according to the above a Jffl/z-reckoning was started near quoted is of the battle. 120 in number. SJ2..C. This would explain Krsna's prediction about the expiry of Bhisma.by Rupa Gosvami..000 years of tbe Kaliyuga had elapsed form was brown colour. thus speaks of the time when the accepted as an incarnation of Visnu * : Buddha was * He . Janamejaya. The Sena dynasty of Bengal. Perhaps the real Nirvana year was 544 B.. II.695 years 3 months (of and 18 days till the Muhamroadan Bengal presumably.C.

The a January).C. 676 . is the result of a definite a back calculation based on incorrect Astronomical constants. pp.695 years from 2449 B. we arrive at the year 1247 AD. a pure myth. the very year of the Bharata battle. Fleet's discussion about this Kali era in JEAS.735 years elapsed from that event. in 499 A. Mahdbhdrata jEMi-reckoning was We reckoning have all been supplanted by the astronomical Kali started by iryabhata I. fiction created by Aryabhata astronomical purpose. battle 2 Thus the iryabbata tradition that the Bharata indefensible is was fought in 3102 B. and is very nearly true historically. 1911 et esq. for the extinction of ihe Sena dynasty. It never could have existed before 499 A.ryabhata I. Eavikirti. cal Kali age started by a back calculation by Aryabhata I. accepts speaking of To battle Aryabhata's finding 1 his time as 3. that very few dared to contradict him. (10th Even the year of the Bharata battle (2449 B.) was possible beginning of the 14th January.C. starting from have sho\vn examples of the that have continued up to the this We present time from some other source*.C. 479 et sty.D. jSTaZi-reckoning Mahdbhdrata reckoning for is Kaliyuga. in itself former Kaliyuga truly began from 2454 B. 2449 B.D. and thus cannot truly point out the time of any is totally historical event prior to this date. VI.I) ATE OF THE BHIRATA BATTLE race. a mere astronomical The astronomical KaliI. Dr.D. and pp. in 499 A. as regards astronomy and reckoning time. further evidences as to this Mahdbhdrata Kalitrust. the famous writer of the Aihole inscription of Pulakeffin II (634 A.C. 11-122 Cf. Hence the started from the zero year of the Tudhisthira Era. years So great was the fame of 5.). 45 from the lunar reigned independently in East Bengal for some years even after the conquest of West Bengal by Muhammad Ibn Bakhtiyar.C. sum up : The Mahdbhdrata indeed says that the Bharata fought at the junction of the Kali and different of the year of the Bharata battle in was but the Mahdbhdrata Kali age was Dvdpara ages from the astronomi.. EpigrapTiia Indica.D. If we count 3. is an unreal thing as it was unconnected with any real astronomical event. pp.

limit in Mdgha and notbernmost limit the same type as of the Jyautisa Veddnga rule Mdgha-fravanayo* ' 1 Matsqa Pura%a 124. or which were the originals to necessary for us to-establish them now. as we have In fact we have to settle strata in them and which the latest. is which of the Puranas.CHAPTER III DATE OF THE BH1RATA BATTLE Bharata-Battle Tradition (C) 2. and were not true for the time of composition of these works The latest positions of the solstices as given in these of these Puranas. which are mere traditions positions of works. be some guide a* to the real sequence may The Matsya Purana says that the sun reached the southernmost 1 This is of in gravana. which are to be believed and which not. 9 9 ' In all these Puranas we have the records of some of the earlier the equinoxes and solstices. We have think of (a) The Sequence of the Puranas to The Puranas which apparently seem to throw any light as the date of Bharata battle are (1) : (2) (3) (4) The Matsya Purana The Vdyu Purana > The Visnu Purdna and The Bhdgavata Purana. . 44 and t 60. Purdnic Traditions and Evidences consider the Befoie as to the we can Purdnic traditions and evidences it time of Bbarata battle. have the oldest and which : the borrowers and interpreters.

5. p. however. In the Satapatha Brahmana or the Brhaddranyaka Upanisat? we find the enumeration of different classes of In the Asvaldyana literature in which the Purdnas have a place. 2 for discussion. 187. and It is the same as in the. Grhya-Siitra. 44. Vdyu the next in so far as the dynastic lists of the Kali Hence our finding of the sequence of the Purdnas has some support from Pargiter and so also from Dr. V. the Purdnas and Gathd-Narasamsls 9 are distinctly do not. XX. then comes the Vdyu in the same respect. present recension of the Maliabharata* Thus from the astronomical indications it appears that the Matsya Purdna has the oldest Purdnic stratum. Chapter I. know the names of the Purdnas which were current in the age of the Brdhmanas or of the Sutras. 172 and 12. 7.C.DATE OF THE BH3JRATA BATTLE ssadd ' 47 l and this was true in the for about 1400 B. 111-116. Smith. The same viz. 6 M. 53. mentioned. 3. also M.* more definite statement as to thafc of the naksatras the first was A Liio later the Vdyu Parana again says that the circle of constell&tions began from the naksatra tSravanaf Hence the latest indication of the position of the winter solstice was true for about 400 B. 16. Avamedha. A. Bh. 50. It must be clearly understood that we do not age are concerned. M. Matsya and Vdyu Purdnas are which helps 'our finding is that both the mentioned and quoted in the According to Pargiter/ present recension of the Mahdbhdrata. . Vana. 1.Q. * IbM 53. the Matsya gives the oldest version. statement occurs also Vdyu Parana? together with the the position of the Solstices.7. p. Ibid. Another evidence .. 1. 11. Introduction.* of the Vdyu and Matsya Purdnas. 9 . H^T 2 3 * H Vayu Purana. Vana. 55. 191. 3. IV> liialayana Grtya-Sutra. t 1 7 8 Pargiter's Kali Age... We 1 Yajusa Jyautisa. Brhaddranyaka Upanisat. c/. tfravisthd. Bh. Bh.. mean to say that the Purdnas as a class of literature did not exist before the present Matsya and Vdyu Purdnas began to be compiled.

t II. 20. We fchus come to the conclusion that the oldest Purdnas are the Matsya and Faj/u. Hence the story of the origin of the Visnu Parasara is Purana conflicts with our sense of historical perspective.D. la nowhere described as taking part in the events of the Pandava time. . Such a statement at a vital point at once should place the present recension of the Visnu Purana between 499 A. periods of the different dynasties made which are Vimu P /-ana. So when we attempt at finding the year of the Bharata bittle from the Puranas. character of real chronicling. IV. lists as given in the Matsya Parana. we Vyasa to find that it is the telling of Parasara. The accounts of these lists contain The Puranic dynastic two sorts of statements. fe..D. Wd.48 ANCIENT INDIAN GHEONOLOGY Now coming to the Vimu Parana. and which the reign periods of the behind which there is apparently the in (2) the statements of the reign collectively. Similar remarks apply to the Bhagavata Purana also. we should place the greatest reliance on the The Visnu and Matsya and then on the Vayu accounts. Puranic Dynastic Lists lists (b) Apparently seem to maintain * continuous record from the year of the Bharata battle down to the extinction of the Andhras. 33. Parasara the Mahabhdrata itself great grandfather of Pariksit. (1) kings are severally stated. the father of 1 one Maitreya during the reign of Pariksit. to 700 A. and the Visnu and the Bhdgavata the latest from a consideration of the astronomical indications in them. 8. latest Again coming to the in the Yisnu Purana we north at the at the first first as position of the solstices 2 stated find that it says that the sun turned point of of point Mak&ra (Capricorn) and turned south Karkat a (Cancer). Bhagavata evidences should be considered as mere conjectures and misinterpretations of the Malsya texts and as such are least We now proceed on to consider the Puranic dynastic reliable. Thus Vyasa was the greatbeing the grandfather of the Pandavas. 28-80. the grandson of Arjuna.

We consider the Brhadratha dynasty. I will those past. H . speak of them/ 1 thus professedly incomplete as it contains only the name* of chief kings and the durations of their rules. his heir Somadhi became king in he reigned 58 years. the first of which was the The Matsya account reads as follow* 1 : " Henceforward I will declare the Brhadrathas of Magadha who are Kings in Sahadeva's lineage in Jarasandha's race.DATE OF THE BHiRATA BATTLE eyidently chiefly 49 shall the work of later summarizers. was slain. those existing and those again who listen as I declare the prominent amongst them". Magadhan dynasties. will exist". crar I n ^(ff Ml^jfci I ft^i H w. 2 The narration next runs thus : The dynastic list is " When the Bharata battle took place and Sahadeva G-irivraja .

King Satyajit will enjoy the earth 83 years. Srutanjaya will be for 40 years. His successor Niramitra enjoyed the earth 40 years and went to heaven. Brhatkarman gone after enjoying the earth 50 years. will And enjoy earth 58 years. The account is concluded lists As we mm by* : ?r: \\ ifir*f ^ f^rf^wrPr TOWT 9* gtn: ' f i ? rl of the Kali A g . earth 35 Trinetra DnlhiHcni will next enjoy the kingdom 28 years.50 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY In his lineage Sruta&avas waa for 64 years.j tfo I h*f* f|| ow. imwUijoa . j n th * above have been rcrv r*n fully com pl !r] f r . Vibhu will obtain large of arm. and the total of thmr rule* comes up correctly to 700 years. Ayutayus reigned 26 years. that these 16 Kings are all named in the alxnv form Senajit to Ripunjaya.. will enjoy the earth 28 years.j p wgiliff . great in mind and prowess. King Ksema reigned 23 years. obtain the earth 50 years." Ripuiijaya will Then the Purayic summarizer says J : " These sixteen kings are to be known as future Brhaclrathss. Suksatra obtained 56 years. Mahlnetra will be resplendent 33 years.. will be king 32 years. King Sunetra will enjoy the kingtfom 40 years. will Sunetra enjoy this years. fiwala be 48 years. 28 years Suci will stand in the kingdom 58 years. great in strength. And VWvajit will obtain this earth and be 25 years. Valiant will Suvrata the will obtain the kingdom 64 Nirvrti years. Senajit is also . Their life-time will exceed by twenty years (the life) and their kingdom will last 700 years/ 1 normal span of shall see..

but nowhere we the king On the other hand the SOD of find a clear statement that any one king was named before him or he was the father of the nezt king. we have the introductory statement that these . kings as named above follows.DATE OF THE BH1RATA BATTLE " These future Brhadrathas will last fall will certainly be 32 kings in all. and their kingdom The list made up as thousand years indeed." of these Brhadratha. It may be should be clearly borne in mind that list there are gaps to be filled do not know how to fill up : up in this the gaps which we In the above do list there are named 22 kings in all.

... battle or of the birth according to the Purdnas. 360 1.62 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGt were the chief kings of the line running from Somadhi.000 years. . . (2) Pradyotas of Avanti Sisunugas of .. 967 Bharata battle..498 jears. . 1 wi of tht last Here the collective statement runs thus : u * The Steunagas who were K^atriyas of an inferior class will reign for 360 years/ is 3 Puranas the According to Visntt and Bhagavata total corn** period of Brhadrathas is 138 years and of 1. or that The the list of kings is incomplete from the start to finish. Thus the np to 1.....500 Total 3 Years ... Then carae the accession of the founder of the Mahapadma Nanda who was Nanda dynasty of Magadha which lasted. . sixteen of the * future* Brhadrathas those ' of ' extraordinary is longevity. as worked out from the dynastic lists of the Puranas there was the interval of ^jsrofitf^ift n Sftwf: (sFnr:) ^nfo* Here compare the Vifftiu statement which makeslPulika the minister Brhadratha Bipufijaya.... not possible to arrive at any definite conclusion as to the duration of the kingship of the Brhadratbas from such an incomplete list. named The in the list were only of total number the future Brhadrathas again stated definitely to be 32 and that It is the total duration of their rule would be full 1. We have the series of dynasties as follows Total Years (1) BrLadrathas of Magadha from } the year of . full 100 years* Thus between the year of the Bharata of Parlksit to the accession of Mahapadma Nanda. .000 years and that of the Pradyotas the &s*uaagas 360 years... In order to understand the statements of the Purdnic summarizerfi we however take the incomplete list as complete and see what results we : are led to. 173 (3) Magadha 2 .

.' the birth of Panksit interval is to be to the accession of Mahapadma Nanda.. This is in agreement with the following statement of the Purdnic summarizer : ' From years. according We Puranic summarizer. The very \ t IS \\ The the substance of which is that between Mahapadma and was 836 the years. Pargiter has traced this reading notation in his Dynasties of the Kali Age. 460 854 . > f Andhras . next stanza runs thus The : variant readings are Cf sytf and 2?* irasrat^'.... 100 years Mauryas gungas Kanvas . 58. .. and the interval between Nanda's accession 1 and the end of Andhras =854 years as shown blVs. . 45 .. bMt.. in cejMt.. p. according to his 2 recensions Arvnrdmff to Visnu and Bhaqavata Puraqas the total comes out to be 850 years. the known as one thousand five hundred second should here be very careful to ascertain what the to the half of the second line of the above verse was. . JnMt.... we do not know how long Mahapadma Nanda years as Now the interval between the birth of Parlksit and Nanda's accession = 1500 shown before.DATE OF THE BHARATA BATTLE 53 1500 years nearly.. of extinction of the Andhras the time lists interval total According to the dynastic works out as : the sum durations Nandas ... Total 2 years as Here a difference of 18 years is inexplicable ruled.

Hence it is clear that the true intention of the Puranic Pariksit. Rsis were conjoined with Maghds 100 years in (naksatra) Pariksit's time according to my they will be in the 24th constellation estimate at the end of the Andhras. the Kali Age will have ascendency from the time of Nanda/ 8 These verses cannot be traced either to the Matsya or the (&) * When Vayu in 1 texts. n Pargiters Kali Age. the Great Bear will reach the naksatra Purvasadha. summarizer. is that it was about 1500 5' years and the true reading verse of the second tulf of the second line of the question is undoubtedly '^sf Msd^l'dH^. taken to is This pass over 23 naks>itras and L thus stated in the verse : \ r u * The seven .. the Pargiter's Kali Age. 58-59. the birth of Parlksit and the extinction Andhras becomes according of to tbe Puranic =2354 the reckoning time by the cycle of Rsis. They are at variance with the dynastic lists as given the Visnu and the Bhdgavata Puranas. Even Sridhara. We have now to consider the following Visnu and BMgavata statements that c (a) From the birth of Parlksit to the accession interval is to be of (or Maha1050) padma Nanda the time 2 known as 1015 years. pp. of the great-bear is taken to remain conjoined with one naksatra for hundred years. as to the interval between the birth of and the accession in of Mahapadrna. p *rftifcf .' Here we have a clear statement by the summarizer that between the birth of Pariksifc and the extinction of the Andhras the interval was slightly less than 2400 years. In >23o4 years. 61 .54 above. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Hence the time between of the jears. p. the Rsis constellation Now in the mode (Great Bear) would be reach the 24th naksatra. 2 tr: a i ^4 *re *^' 3 ^3 MWaOtKi n 58.

C.C. I Srldhara's commentary on the Visnu-Purana. "siFlf^ffi I tT^cIt^ el^^H i 1 *rrwrf ^rf^T^^weErm i fa 3ft' ^^*^t.C. the date of the Bharata battle becomes If we are to 1921 B. Maurya the year The but total gives cannot accept as correct these Purdnic statements whether of the dynastic lists or of the Purdnic summarizers. the first king of the Pradyota dynasty in place of Nanda.C. as follows : Interval between Pariksit and Nanda Duration of the Nanda dynasty Accession of Chandra Gupta = = == 1500 years 100 321 B. further there was probably one interregnum between the extinction of the Brhadrathas list is ' the rise of Pradyotas of AvantL * Again if we take that the future Brhadrathas reigned for full 1000 years and the past Brhadrathas for 300 years.DATE OP THE BEABATA BATTLE great commentator of < the Visnu Purdna. and are not at all Gupta and post-Gupta far as historical trustworthy in so the matter is concerned.' l In these Puranas (Visnu and Bhagavata) the summarizes were crazy in their arithmetic. To this period we have to have the year of the Bharata battle. clusive 1 when Cf. and the Purtnas them' selves were written most probably in the periods. All such speculations are valueless or inconto they are based on totally unreliable materials derived from the Puranas. cult and perhaps not any real put any faith in the Purdnic dynasty-lists and the Purdnic summarizes. By way of contrast we have shown already. 1921 B. which would now add 421 to stand at 2321 B. could not reconcile these statements and in the second statement would substitute Pradyota '. the Magadha and dynastic lists would make the interval between the birth of of Parlksit and the accession Nanda 1900 years taking the inter- regnum have lasted 100 years. . The main aim of to inculcate to record pilers of these Puranas was composers or comVaisnavism or the Visnuhistory. The Brhad- we ratha dynastic period of of incomplete.

This is the exposition of the conjunction of the lunar constellations and 1 the Great Bear. p. still at understanding wha* ' the wo have to make some attempt Pumuas say about it* The Puranic Bear runs thus I : description of the movement of the Great The two front stars of when risen at night. The two Majoris. the Great Bear Is to be known as conjoined with that constellation 100 years in the sky. If the Puranic faulty dynastic lists may lead us to 2:257 B. Pargiter's Kali Age. Truuslaliou on p. which are seen constellation which is seen equally the sky. we should true year of more readily and preferably accept 2449 B. 75. To UB the statement that the Gieat Bear remains in one nakuatra for 100 years is meaningless . <x and /? Ursae We : are to draw two great one through each celestial of the pointers and both passing through the pole of the time these circles will cut the ecliptic in two points. as the the Bharata battle. and corroborated by the Vrddha Garga tradition as recorded by Varahamihira. front stars are the two pointers. since it is deduced from the Mahabharata incidental statements. between these two points the naTcsatra in conjunction with the Great Bear be equally distinct. viz. the lunar between them in the Great Bear. Further Puranic Evidences by the of the Great ' (e) Position ' Bear [We now proceed to consider another alleged PnrSmc evidence which states the position of the Great Bear in Parlksit's time.56 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY how astronomical references neatly and directly the Mahabharata lead us to the real year of the Bharata battle. which are more definite and also consistent astronomically. . The Great Bear was conjoined with the Maghas * in Panksit's time 100 years.C.C.. 59. rft The Great f*?f Bear was conjoined with Wft Tjftpft r'u Kali * Age. circles.

j8 Ursae Majoris. through be shown that the summer * solstical colure passed may Maghd (Regulus) in 2350 B. According to the above interpretation the time of Parlksit stands at the neighbourhood of 1400 B. 0. C. that may be sought to be given to this position of the Great Bear as stated in the Purdnas in Pariksit's time. The ecliptic celestial pole moves In a small circle about the pole of the 30'. So according to the Purdnas . y. leaving aside the naksatra division Maghd or the star Regulus. Any other interpretations. . On the other It hand we can find out the time alone with the help of Maghd. of a mean radius of about 23 time of this celestial statement as to have solved this problem and the event comes out to be 371 B. C. the Saptarsi-tinQ passed not only through the middle point of a and /3 Ursai Majoris. y. /uand e Leonis} in Pariksit's time according to the above Purdnic statement. Neugebauer's Stemtafelen (Leipzig. The above alleged We the position of the Great Bear in Pariksit's time is also equivalent to this: that the right ascension of a Leonis was equal to the mean of the right ascensions of a and From Dr. Some say 'cial that Saptarsi or Great Bear here means the solsti- colure . the solstitial colure compiler of the Purdna wants to say that the passed through the middle point of the line joining Ursai Majoris at the time of Parlksit. It is absolutely valueless for our purpose. C.DATE OF THE BHIRATA BATTLE the 57 MayMs (a. but it also passed through the middle point of the naksatra Maghd at the time of Parlksit. the finding of time is not to be done with the help of a and ft Ursai Majoris alone. thus appear that the time indicated by this Purdnic statement.. are not acceptable as they would be mere speculations. belonged neither to Parlksit nor to this Purdnic astronomer. This means that the celestial pole of the time of Parlksit lay on the great circle passing through the central star of the Maghds (a Leonis) and the middle point of the arc joining a and /3 Ursae Majoris. It should 1912) the time for the event becomes about 300 B. But according to the statements of the /3 a and Purdnas. but as the Maghd 1 is at about 40' east of the star middle point of the na'ksatra Regulus. as to the position of the Great Bear in Pariksit's time. 8-4408B . -the time when is According to the division of the ecliptic into nafyatras as now accepted.

The lists of incomplete dynastic preted the Matsya Purdna properly as the year of interbattle. may lead us to 2321 B. C. Even in the Matsya Purdna 2 the dynastic list of the Brhadrathas of Magadba is incomplete in that it states the names of the chief kings only and the durations of their rules. the year of the Bharata battle as determined by us.. C. can never lead to the real truth about the year of the Bharata On the other hand much better data have been derived battle. carefully We have thus most then conies the as historical Vdyu Purdna is matter in sequence of time. C. The year 371 B. We have also that the sean that the Purdnic sumbirth marizers really of Pariksit 3 mean time interval between the and the accession 500 years. We have shown before that the Puranio statement regarding the position of the Great Bear is valueless. very near to 2449 B.C. the it of Mahapadma Nanda was about The Visnu and Bhdgavata summarizers' statement that aa same period was about a thousand years is not reliable contradicts the dynastic lists of these Puranas. C. Bharata Any speculation with such faulty materials as the Purdnas afford. cannot be Purdnas and not acceptable traced to the Matsya and Vdyu even to the great scholiast Sridhara of the Vi-snu Purdna. It would be rather controversial and inconclusive if in interpreting any statement of the Pur anas we take into account only a portion of it.58 the ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY solsticial colure bisected that naksatra division is is which 2398 B. by us from the Mahabharata itself which directly lead us to 2449 B. concerned the Visnu and In so far Bhdgavata Purdnas are not at all trustworthy. obtained from the position of the Great Bear. perhaps Delates to the time when the Matsya and the Vdyu Purdnas began to be compiled. which has no connection with the time of Pariksit. We . examined the Puranio evidences as to the date of the Bharata battle. as the Year of the Bharata battle and this was the zero year of the Judhisthira era according to the Vrddha Garga the most careful consideration hsiive also given tradition. We have established that the oldest Purdnic strata are to be found in the Matsya Parana. We have already said that an exact determination of the time of any past event by the above method IB not possible.

others. C. Dr. Kay in S. as the year of the great battle. Even in the year of the battle (2449 B. these evidences We trust would be found our interpretations of all to be rational and compare 1 favourably with those given by Pargiter. wrong. evidences are all incomplete and inadequate for our purpose. Till then our finding of the year of the to stand. C. may look for epigraphic evidences in this connection but none We have been brought to light as yet. and that 2 3 4 Thus is in the previous chapter viz. when only our. year of the Bharata battle. Bose in his . Bharata battle must be allowed i *T factitious Pargiter's Indian Historical The date of the Bharala baiil4.) this Mahabharata Kaliyuga may have begun from the 15th January. Bose..finding may be finally tested. NOB. we have shown the Arya- bhata tradition. J. In the present chapter we have also established that the Puranic. 2454 B. * 3 * Dov in JRASBL. 3102 B. 1925. as the year of the Bharata battle. This only leads us to the year 371 B. C. prof. C. 3. HKc^S T for the Bengali jear 1340. Dev.BATE OF THE BHAEATA BATTLE to the 53 Puranic description of the position of the Great Bear in Pariksit's time. The Mahabharata references lead us directly to the The Kaliyuga year 2449 B. C. Let us hope ^that such may be discovered at no distant future. C. G. 4 and 5. Bay. which the Mahabharata speaks of beginning from about the year of the Bharata battle truly started from the 10th January. a most hopelessly absurd taken as a whole are Hence the Puranic evidences incomplete and cannot lead us to the real result.

Let us hope vthat such may be discovered at no distant future when only our. Bay in qpflqct for the Bengali jear 1340. Bose in his f^Jf^ in Bengali* . C. C. The Mahabharata references lead incomplete and inadequate for us directly to our the year 2449 B. S.finding may be . We look for epigraphic evidences in this connection but none may have been brought to light as yet. Till then our finding of the year of the Bharata battle must be allowed to stand. The Kaliyuya which the Mahabharata speaks of beginning from about the year of the Bharata battle truly started from the 10th January.) this Maha- bharata Kaliyuga may have begun from the 15th January. Bose. with those given by Pargiter. 2454 B. finally tested. Ray. This only leads us to the year 371 B. C. In the present chapter we have also established that all we have shown purpose. 1 compare 2 1 Dev. The date of the Bliaraia battle. G. C.DATE OF THE BHAHATA RATTLB to the 31 Puranio description of the position of the Great Bear in Pariksit's time. 1925. as the year of the great battle. Puranio evidences are that the Arva3102 B. Even in the year of the battle (2449 B..~ a most hopelessly absurd result. 4 and Thus is in the previous chapter viz. as the year of the Bharata battle. these evidences would be found to be rational and We all favourably others. 1 2 3 * DM tHstorical Traditions Pargiter 's Indian in JEASBL. 3. Prof. ftos. the wrong. 4 and 5. C. bhata tradition. C. Dr. J. Hence the Purdnic evidences taken as a whole are incomplete and cannot lead us to the real trust our interpretations of year of the Bharata battle.

4. ll t .' here finds that with the advent of spring air becomes This was the time pleasant and the water of rivers delightful. for harvesting wheat and barley and he conjures up the herbs to rsi '*nr*r The Taittinya SaAihfta. for Vidya as equivalent to Science of Spring. may the sky-father (Dyauspitr = Jupiter) to us be full of sweetness. 90. Our answer is that Madhu and Madhava were the two months of spring of the Vedic tropical 1 Hence there is some justification for putting Madhuyear. may the dust of the earth be sweet. *ncr : sFssft^n: u u n ' Sweetness . may the sun be full of sweetness. I trust more reasons this rendering into English of the word would be apparent with the development of To every Hindu this chapter the following Rcas are well-known : Bg-veda. * i I. M. as a try to interpret the Madhu-Vidya or the Science of It may be objected at the outset of the Vedic Hindus. Spring that the term Madhu-Vidya may not really mean the Science of step. Spring as here translated.CHAPTER IY yEDIC ANTIQUITY Madhu-Vidya or the Science of Spring . In our enquiry into the antiquity of the Vedas. is blown by the winds and sweetness the herbs be full is discharged by the rivers may of sweetness to us. we first shall. May the uights and twilights be sweet to us. May the trees be full of sweetness to us. may our kine be sweet to us. 4. 6-8.

but it the elements with the coming that the Madhu-vidya or the science of spring was is remembered revealed discovered by Tvastr from whom it passed to Dadhici who the head of this science to the A6vins after they had replaced This story was revealed to the the head of a horse. (4) the nights. (5) the in timely rain. (11) (7) the moou. (3) the herbs. when of acquiring wealth. II. The elements which bring him happiness or sweetness are: (1) the winds. Dadhici with rsi Kakslvan according to the Brhadaranyaka Upanisat. for the sake deed which you performed.. He expects the nights and twilights to lose the dullness of winter and be pleasant to him. In the Brhadaranyaka Upanisat. the self. which is: . (4) the winds. provided by you Atharvan taught you tfie science of Madhu (i. I. (3) fire. The "first verse quoted in this Upanisat is : M. (6) the earth. spring)/ The next verse quoted by the Upanisat is $g*eda. sky.e. (10) the right action. (9) the sun. He expects. (9) thunder.VEDIC ANTIQUITY yield 01 him sweetness in the shape of a bumper crop. 116. M. (7) the kindly sky bringing and (10) the cattle. (12) lightning. (6) the cardinal points of the horizon. 22. the cattle timely rain. (13) humanity. the re. the elements to all beings are elaborated and bringing in sweetness or Madhu enumerated as : (1) the earth. and (14) of spring is quite forgotten. are all to become full of sweetness. Here the connection of truth. (5) (8) the sun. the benign sty would yield him The trees (then bearing flowers). 117. leaders. (2) the rivers. (2) water. the sun. 1 14. 12 and runs as follows < As thunder announces rain. that great the son of with the head of a horse. twilights. and even the dust of the earth is to lose the cold touch of winter. Dadhyafic. 5. I. I proclaim. (8) the trees.

' ' o'f I owe it fco him also that the adjective ^sfrer' Spring-bearing is applied only to the car of the ASvins tnd to the car of no other god in the $ . Sastri.* 2 I am Sanskrit. drawn by three canopied.62 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 'You replaced. indebted to Prof. and true to his promise he revealed to you the science of Madhu (spring) which he had learnt from Tvastr and which was a jealously guarded secret. ' I. three-wheeled and spring-bearing Chariot. The Vedic rsis most probably identified the Asvins with the stars a and Asvini. harbinger of spring (Madhu-Vahana). 34. 157. MM. this much certain that the Asvins were and are even of this naksatra Avirii. some of which are: (i) in several places in the *OT qgpft siffingSt ^^frrer frrreigBw 35 fey wheels the gods of your > M. fyg-Veda. now regarded as the presiding deities /3 The in three stars a. the son of Atbarvan. of the celestial signal for the What that signal was is now the matter for our consideration. Calcutta University. come to our presence and bring prosperity to our people and our cattle. filled with treasure. with the head of a horse. 162. (the head of) Dadhici. Sakalya Sdthhitd> II. -which the swift horses. I.3 is 'May the three-wheeled car of the Asvins. The Asvins are spoken of riding the heavens in their triangular. Asvins. the Head of the Dept. as knew it when you attended (Venus ?) the beloved of Moon/ gsn i wt sfkrat srftRteflg n M. for this and the next reference from the $g-Veda. and every way auspicious. 2 Three are the solid all spring -bearing to be (Madhu- Vdhana) on Vena chariot. /? Arietta tike prominent stars of the nahsaira is Whether this be true or not. The Aiivins are always spoken of and addressed in the dual number. and y Arietis form a * constellation which as is likened to the head of a horse. Vidhu&khara.' These lines from the Rg-veda suggest to us that the science of spring or Madhu-vidyd was nothing but the knowledge coming of spring.

VED1C ANTIQUITY \ 6B M. 118. Nasatyas. * 1.' All speak of the triangular. Nasatyas. /3. 34. Where the three fastening and props (of the awning)? (Wilson) M. The reference directly . X. your spring -bearing chariot which nessed at dawn and set in motion at dawn. which constitute the naksatra Afoini likened to the head of a horse. 2 Come A6vins. * 1. etc. 9 Where. <x Most probably tbe car of the A^vins included one more Arietis formed a stable Triangnlwn. with your three-columned triangular car/ (Wilson) M. 2 Ascend. which with <x and solid triangle as shown in the figure given below.* ' is har- M. tri-columnar. 47. Here the three wheels of the these references car of the Agvins were perhaps the three stars <x. ASvins* A Car The first three references speak of the car third of the A^vins a* or harbinger of spring.41. 2 Come to us with your tri-columnar. star. triangular. are tbe thiee wheels of your triangular ' . three-wheeled car of the A^vins. and 7 Arietis. * I. three-wheeled (Wilson) and well-constructed car.

1. Henoe when the star oc Arietis became first visible at dawn it was the beginning of Indian spring with a celestial longitude of 330 for the sun at a place in the Punjab of which the latitude was the same as that of Kuruksetra (30* N). 6. y. 5. and then rose the sun. 1. Now Thus the when the sun ex 18 below the horizon. These translations . the constellation first Avini consisting of the at dawn. ft. 14. UI. and this was the heliacal rising of the stars <x. 5. dawn/ . 5. M. viz. M. 9 . : ^jft TrfiFTMta: (M.e. ' The ' jealously Science of Spring was thus nothing but the knowledge of the celestial signal for the advent of spring. 10) which meant ' Before t&e dawn even. rise Of these three. 5 M. 1. I 7. This furnishes for this is sufficient data for the calculation of the time astronomical event. I. guarded Madhu-Vidya or the ' Arieiis. 3 and 7 Arietis became visible of spring began at the place of observation shall take to be of the latitude of Kuruksetra in the According to Wilson. stars a. ^ro. .. 6. VII . 4. 1. Hence the Asvins completely when oc Arieiis rises* For the beginning of the Indian spring. oc Arietis rises last. the sun should have the tropical longitude of 330. at the dawn begins time when 18 Arietis reached the eastern horizon with the sun at below the horizon. but we desist from quoting them here as they only tell us that first rose the Asvins. 4. are due to Wilson. M. 9. 2. then came the dawn. 1) c*r shining with clari6ed butter/ i.31. 7 M. tions of at which Soma juice/ with libathey ought to be worshipped There are of course many passages in the Rg-Veda which justify the above statement made by Wilson. 1 The season car of the ' referred to here is that of the heliacal rising of the Asvins which brought in spring.4. Madhu-Vidya was discovered or it was recognised 1 Some * of these references from the Jfg-Veda are noted * below : <*) 3^f4 35 *fK?fa*t WJ ^319 ft (6) S?PF?rftraf*T I (M. 5. rite. othr 5. 4. the praiser awakes to glorify the Advios before the Cf. I. the season which we Punjab. VIII. Inference is here when the car of the A*vins. the A^vins were season ' the precursors of the dawn. references M. Ill.9. M. 1 . Savatri ssnda to bring you to the your wonderful 5.W states ANCIENT INDIAN ' that the car of the in Abvins which * is spring-bearing is harnessed at dtiwn and set irresistible that muthm <// dawn.

we find in Bk.' has been established that when the the east visibility of the Avins in was the signal for the advent of spring. This practice is similar to that of the ancient Egyptians. in the first Chapter on first ' Madhu-Vidya. ordinarily likened to a lion. In the Sirius is called star ' " the summer 9 such a case very probably the first visibility of the star at dawn of beginning of summer in Greece and the position the same star higher up at dawn.C the Vedic Hindus recognized the coming of the Indian the heliacal risings of ex Arietis and spring and of the rains. the beginning of autumn.' summer star and the autumn star in Homer's time. that this star Sirius. 11-U08B . It may be likened to a horse as well. showed the It now appears by the heliacal that the practice of recognizing the seasons other of the bright stars was risings at some or followed by all ancient nations. least thus the translator interprets it. Leonis forming the head of Indra's horse. p. XXII." at Again in Iliad Bk. -V. the line As it I have said before. of reckoning the year by the heliacal rising of <x Canis Majoris or In Homer's Iliad. Indra in his car took his seat a little behind j3 Leonis.VEDIC ANTIQUITY One thing more so-called 81 that strikes us in this connection is that the which is horse of Indra was most probably the constellation Leo. which shines very brightly. by ot Leonis respectively. f which people call star which rises in autumn is mentioned a " the same star Sinus was both It seems that the dog of Orion.C. as in the above diagram: The stars e. Leonis the joining y and 8 Leonis the back. These two Chapters show that about 4000 B. <x and two legs. the time was about 4000 B. j8 Leonis the end of the tail.

CHAPTER YI VEDIC ANTIQUITY Rbhus and Their Awakening by the Dog In the preceding two chapters. we have spoken of the cons" " " the of the Car of the A6vins and of Horse or the In the present chapter tellation EJorses of Indra. and runs as follows having birth. the makers of the above constellations in the earliest Vedic The story of Dadhici will also from what follows." " 2. has been addressed by the sages. 20. were of the race of AOgiras to the the sacrificial portion with the gods of is and the after death they were supposed to be dwellers in the orb sun. the bestower of riches. L This hymn." we shall see who were times. 1 Medhatithi. Here the ' would perhaps be that the two stars may have been taken for India's horses. with their own mouths. describe brilliant appear as mere allegory The Rbhus.* to the (class of) divinities and here the Rsi " 1. have partaken of the sacrifice per* ' formed with holy acts/ horses of Indra may be a single-bodied but & two-headed horse. This interpretation would be in harmony with the Greek tradition of Castor and Pollux An alternative interpretation showi that thia hymn w*s not actually composed by M*dhititW t * . whose deeds wo are going to and wore exceptionally men of those times and whilo living they wore entitled share of here. They wHo created mentally his 1 for Indra the horses that are harnessed at words. while Indra (=Maghavan)' had his seat at ex Lconis (Magha). being represented by the constellation Leonu. The first hymn of is the [Rg-Veda addressed to them : M.

there lies no bright These two stars rise before ex ecliptic star. the seat of Indra. . fl <*.VEDIC ANTIQUITY taking the cc gg Leonfr. they. $bhus have divided unto four the new ladle. acquired immortality and the eons of Sudhaavan.with the ceremonies of the year/ 1 3 \\\\\ M. while uttering unfailing all ex a nd Arietis were symbols 4. Between Leon** and the stars Castor and Pollux. ft and y head of the horse. The next to bear witness to the above great deeds of the m Rbhus was Kutsa 4. tn'#. . a and easy car. and a cow ing yielding milk/' Here the " car of the Agvins " was the the stars <x 3. brilliant as the sun. on whose heliacal rising at Kuruksetra the rains set in in those times. in the hymns M. acts)' endowed with their parents rectitude and succeeding {in pious made young/' they held (a mortal existence) by pious acts they obtained a share of sacrifices with the gods/' This hymn thus narrated the deeds of the Rbhus and the (of sacrifices)'. 4. 110-11. universally mov- star-group formed of of <x. As we are concerned with the deeds of Rbhus we quote only " The 6.. prayers. 110. Offerers honoured position which they attained by those good deeds. and connected . 1. privilege of having the sacrificial portion with the gods. being yet mortals. for the A6vins. : I. the Rbhus. " The Rbhus. became Associated with the priests." " 8. ft and ft and y Arietis together with ex Triangulum. stars Castor They constructed for the Nasatyas. The most sig- nificant rcas are the following " quickly performing the holy rites. Arietis with <x Triangulum formed the stable Arietis the which triangle. The next rcas of the hymn run as follows * : and Pollux as horsemen. the work of the divine Tvastr.

as understood by Dirghatamas and "Vamadeva. doers of good 3 deeds. through the offerings of sacrificial food. with a sharp weapon. as with a laddie.84 ANCIENT INDIAN OHEONOLOGY The above verse shows the great esteem and position which the Ebhus had won while living amongst the men of their time. 110." "To the leaders (of the sacrifice). Brhaspati or Jupiter has been t u *iT*tai*TO % f^4)^: u U. rises when the and that constellation Leonis or Indra' s horse heliacally. who. the rcas 6. ascended * to the region of heaven. " Lauded by the bystanders. 1. Ebhu. x and desiring the firma- to participate of sacrificial food amongst the gods. the sun). to the calf its accompanying mother. the appointed clarified butter and praise with knowledge those Rbhus. like a field 5. and. they they framed the vigorous horses gave youthful existence to their parents car . 161. the Ebhus. 6." Here the Ebhus the are described as have ascended the orb of sun gods. 1. dwelling in ment. . we present. 11 and 13. 161. " Indra has caparisoned nessed their car : his horses : the Agvins have har: Brhaspati has accepted the omniform cow therefore. 5 and 6. meted out the single sacrificial ladle. they gave next pass on to the hymns of Dirghatamas of M. . enjoy your sacrificial portion. constructed for by the merit of having offered the sacrificial food to the We shall have further accounts of their life after death the A6vins a well-built bearing Indra ." 3 We I." Here the import is that' Indra begins to function or that the rains set in. I. Yibhva and Vaja go to the gods. Ill. I. (measured by a rod) 6. . having equalled the velocity of the protector (of the universe. possessed of skill in their work. soliciting the best libations. M. " The Ebhus. M. the rising in the same way of the car of the A6vins brings in spring.

161.e. 1 who awakens us. They . unapprehensible (unconcealable) sun to this office of sending rain? Sun replies * the awakener is the Dog and in the year ' you again to-day light up this world.. 161. great as observers of the heavens who had discovered the celestial signals for the coming of the rains and of spring they had also discovered the planet Jupiter.' "2 M. but that so long as they sleep the sky remains cloudy is and on the high places and water the next verse spread over the low places. . reposing in the solar orb. you have caused the grass to grow upon the high places you have caused the waters to . we are told that the Bbhus are grows In awakened by the first the. formed the summer monsoons. for some time Here Dirghatamas does not of the sky us how long the Bbhus sleep in the orb of the sun. the leaders (of the rains).I. they slept for a while in the orb of the sun with the first bursting in of the Indian of the summer solstice. from the time Here the idea of sleep of the Ebhus at basis of the Puranic Hindu faith that Visnu and other gods sleep during the entire period of the rains At the place of the lasting for four months of the Indian rains. there was a clearing after tell first up bursting of rains. for you have reposed for a promotion of) good works while in the dwelling of the unappre(the : hensible (unconcealable more properly) sun. this time. flow over the low places as . i. " Bbhus. 1.^ VBDIO ANTIQUITY 65 discovered as a wandering body in the sky (here called the omniform cow). first Aryan this settlers.13. so desist not to-day from the discharge of this your function/' l We conclude that the Bbhus were also leaders of the rainy season. you inquire. which we have taken to have been near Kuruksetra. grass Dog " when the clearing up of the~ sky follows the ' bursting of the monsoons. These are indeed great deeds which entitled the Bbhus were to enjoy the sacrificial portion with the gods. ?/bhus. 11* M.

of Sirius to determine. = 6h 42m 6-524 s. reposing for twelve days. that call of the Dog means the heliacal rising of the Dog-star or Canis Majoris.86 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Here the sun is taken to exhort the call of Rbhus reposing in his orb are inclined to to clear up the sky on the this ex the Dog. Dec. at the latitude of Kuruksetra.A.'* appears that Vamadeva's time. Sirius or the Sothis which was the Egyptian name of the star. IV. by 12 that in Vamadeva's time the heliacal rising the dog-star took place twelve days after the sun reached the summer solstice. u 1C. We take. = 1037'52* Lat.= -1687'13" and the obliquity of the ecliptic <o=:23 26'54" of the co-ordinates. = -3935'24". plants * sprung upon the waste in and waters spread over the low 'From this statement the it places. the heliacal rising Canis Majoris) took place. the star oc-Oam* Majoris had its K. twelve days after the sun had reached the summer solstice. Now on the basis arrived at above. sun Rbhus were taken Hence we conclude to sleep for when of they were awakened days in the orb of the the rising of the dog-star. of this latitude is suppos- ed to remain nearly constant since the time Vamadeva. remained in the hospitality of the unconcealable sun. We next pass on to the following re by Vanaadeva. By transformation we get : Long. So the sun's true longitude was then 90 +12 or 102 nearly (ex At the time we are going and the star came on the eastern horizon when the sun was 18 below it. supposing that he also lived at the latitude of Kuruksetra (30N) . they rendered the fields fertile. they led forth the rivers. . 837. At the epoch 1931-0. we determine the time of Vamadeva as shown below. " When the 5-bhus.

/ following quantities are long. PS+PZ-ZS . Her HPZH' is the observer's Let the above meridian..A. .. . assumed to be about 2700 B..240 (2) In the triangle ySM.. Z and P the .. the above two parts are known and the Hence the and the declination of the sun=SM=2327'N ... Now the . we find the angle MPB 6 J j (7) orthearcME=39 46' - ..C. HOEaH' the horizon. 7&=true the sun=102 (1) is EyS = obliquity of the ecliptic at the required / epoch which . (4) Now in the triangle ZPS... which is 90... point on the horizon where a Cani* Majoris rose at that respectively denote the Zenith and the celestial pole of the observer... x sin ZS+PZ-PS ** . .. g whence we ZZPS=129'46'. (3) R.. . ZS + PS+PZ ... . =yU=>Wy& . ... yEM the celestial equator and yLB the ecliptic. . (5) Subtract from the ZZPE . is S.. The angle ZPS is given by tan ZPS . ZP=60._ xsin on find the it -. PS=6633' and 38=108. ... Agam7E= rM-ME=103'6'-89'46'=63'20' .VEDIC ANTIQUITY 87 figure represent the observer's celestial sphere at the latitude of Kuruksetra (30N). of known: . indicates the sun's position at 18 below the horizon and a time....

*... angle. in 1931'0 at .\OL=40 9'C'. = 6423 . . .. HenoeyO=7854/'6 Again from the same triangle Sin (8) yOE = 1 sin 68 2Q/ sin x sin i20 7855' . yL=98*46' = longitude at the Long. ... 35' f where aL = 39 4 (latitude of the afc star) ZaOL=523' end the angle Hence sin OL=tan aL x cot aOL L is a rt. yE=632<y.'.. . = cot6320'xcos768'-5 C cos 52 8'*5 .. So the Lastly ZyOE=52 3'.. As a first approximation the the star longitude of indicates above increase in the celestial a lapse of 4636 years up to 1931 A. cot 7 x sin 63*20' cos 528''5 . . . So the other arc yO is found from cotyO x sin 6320'=cos 24 x cos 6320'-tan 30 X sin 24 . yO=7854''6 OL=409'5 . n cot vU * . required time.68 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY Now in the triangle yEO.IX . AJX=103 8' the epoch= 3845' Increase in the celestial long. (10) Now from the results (8) and (10) we can thus : easily find the longitude of the star at the required epoch. (9) we come to the triangle aLO....-.. ... .

" In the first of these three verses. collecting to himself the . have the words ruha and praruha which must mean respectively the northern and southern limits of the sun's ascent as estimated on the meridian. In the second verse we.VEDIC ANTIQUITY him the atmosphere.C. do thou 3 watch over the people in the kingdom of the ruddy one." * " 8. What ascents (ruha) fore-ascents (praruha) thou hast. (praruha) and the ascents (ruha) having ascended the sky with great greatness. Hence our finding the date of the earliest Vedic culture as 4000 recorded in B. were interested principally in the determination of the solstitial colures of and not much so in finding the equinoxial colures. (2) naka. and by the sun. the spaces (rajas) were measured out him the gods discovered immortality. with the brahman. Here by the word svar is meant the part of the celestial sphere between the two tropics and the remaining portion was named naka. and perhaps also into (3) the atmosphere. 97 by The ruddy one examined fore-ascents (vi-mrS) the all formed. the Rbhus. with the milk of them increasing. . the atmosphere. it is stated that the spaces were measured out. let anoint thy kingdom with milk. what on-ascents (druha) thou hast with which thou fillest the sky. the heavens are divided into (1) svar. the above-mentioned Vedic clearly that the earliest of the Vedic Hindus. finds a most unexpected corroboration from the tradition It shows literature. All these *' considerations lead us to think that the " line of Brahma of the Atharva Veda and the Taittiriya Brdhmana was undoubtedly the winter solstitial colure passing through the star a Pegasi. The mention Rohim as the first star in the Mahabharata and the mention f ffa TOW TOST 13^4083 . with ghee/' 2 him "9.

S. and differ in as these stars Krttikd (r\ Tauri) and Maghd Leonis) longitude by alraost exactly 90 degrees. the verses 13-15 1 run as follows "' Indra.foupd further confirmation of this finding of itself. ef: i i a^raqre OTT for nl a I I am idebted to Mrs." " Wishing head hidden in the mountains.C. he light of Tvastr found it at Saryanavat. A. mine has also been from the Rg-Veda : Tn M J.JX Maunder. with a that the (Vedic) determination of difference of exactly 180 of longitude. /? and y Arietis. 85.C .C. I have shown. The Mahabharata again speaks of the full moons at the Krttikds and the (a MagMs. F.S. but this interpretation was found impossible astronomically. with the bones of Dadhyanc. speaks of the Krttikds as the first naksatra. slew for the horse's ninety times nine Vrtras. about 2449 B. The . suggests the vernal equinox by the ancient Hindus could #ot have happened before 3050 B. .R. conjoined with Rohim.A.. In the Chapter on " Madhu-Vidya or the Science of Spring/' I have demonstrated that the Science of Spring was the knowledge that spring set in near about Kuruksetra with the heliacal rising of the Afoini group of stars.C. drawing my attention to these verses. I tried to interpret the Atharva reference quoted above in terms of the heliacal rising of Pogasi with the sun at vernal equinox.98 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Taittirlya of the two Rohinis in the Samhitd and the Taittirlya Brdhmana. comes out to be 4000 B. the above statement points accurately of the V." (Wilson). Equinox and the summer although perhaps determined to the positions respectively solstice of the date 2350 B. viz the stars a. the date of the Bharata as it battle which was also the date of the Taittirlya Samhitd." " The (solar rays) found on this occasion the verily concealed in the mansion of the moving moon. The date from this condition.

and ancient rsi. parson Djiihyanc. It must be admitted that a question new-moon night same data is star or star group. who is adored by many.C. the It must be admitted that in the Rg-Vcda we have 2 mention of the constellations Mesa (Aries) and Vrsabha (Bull)..C. as determined in a previous chapter. in which it is narrated. Indra is called mesa (the M. Wilson refers to a legend. Indra slew his enemies called Vrtras (i. M." Wilson. Indra. the " " in place of last verse should first begin with The (solar rays). that Indra came in the form of ram to the sacrifice solemnized by Medhatithi and drank the Soma juice. who is gratified' by hymns and is an ocean of wealth.e. In the third verse the occasion or the time of observation was when Tvastr (=the sun) was found (or rather inferred to be) at the expected place of the moon or the night in was of a new-moon. the best for observing the heliacal rising of a It is almost needless to repeat that I used the the for arriving at date 4000 B. hence the sacrifice began by Medhatithi must mean jear the heliacal rising of Aries (rather the Asvinl cluster at the of the Earn) at the beginning of spring. in the chapter on Madhu-Vidya. 51.18* . In another place ram) of the l : Rg-Veda. much anterior to Varaadeva who flourished about 2760 B.I. . thunderbolt made of the bone of the fictitious as Clouds) with the the tradition from the Paranas says.116." The verse says that . head This is therefore easily Medhatithi must be a very interpreted by the Madhu-Vidya. In the second verse Indra discovered that spring had just begun with the heliacal rising of the horse's head or Agvim cluster when he observed it from the lake Saryanavat which was near Kuruksetra according to the commentator.1 runs thus "Animate with praise that Earn. In explaining why Indra is called a ram (mesa). 1.VEDIC ANTIQUITY " QCJ He In Wilson's translation. Now the sacrificial Indra's coming to began with spring generally.

the of some other old constellations in the later Vedangas and the Mahabharata. Vedic literature. the dropping already pointed out formed ia those days. I ha\re established that the earliest date perhaps unmistakably 4000 B. disused in the later Vedic times have not got the names of the not all other signs of Zodiac in the Rg-Veda perhaps they were .loo ANCIENT INDIAN CHKONOLOGY or I which were quite forgotten and also in the Vedangas.C. for the Vedic Hindu culture must be about It is .

with the assistance there that were references sun in the to four eclipses of the 33. 4.* V the 40 first 5-9. all V. th time which was the undoubtedly that of the 40 5-9.Fb. *. JJj. first l who was author of the this V date of attempt at finding the event was made by Ludwig in May. Eclipse in the Rgveda to find the time of the In the present chapter we propose solar eclipse described in the Rg-Veda. 4.{ &'iea<* .CHAPTER IX VEDIC ANTIQUITY The Solar and the date o/ Atri. 1*. Ludwig of 1885. in bitz u y he ichte of tbe jsoneum*"- * * . imagined the Viennese astronomer Oppolzer. I * only examined these references and my view is that reference describes a real eclipse of the sun the n w-n in Mid iOMi 7*6 n b- Paper published in 1885. The hymn m Atri. 138. X. 3a and X.

. : When O spread (rather beheld like one bewildered not knowing his place. Eclipse du Soliel par Svarbhanu. 40 and its Buddhist parallel in Festscrifo Roth 187. chronology by a reference to a solar eclipse is a very no easy-going researches can be of any value. 10. overthee with darkness. Svarbhanu which were fourth 'rescued') Indra. Svarbhanu. 40. the worlds were 'struck') The ** second line perhaps is more correctly translated as. parallel Samyukta Nikdya. further before Without making attempts made attempt at other tracing all the different by researchers. II.102 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY on Rgveda V. Svarbhdnu means simply "sky-light. cited in Louis Benou's Bibliographie Vedique." Surya. interpret the Rgveda reference V.** what interests us here is the phrase turlyeya brahmana. 5-9. thou wast dissipating those illusions of spread below the sun. the son of asura. can only say that such similarity of statements as to solar eclipses in the two works cannot establish that the Atri tradition We was contemporary with the Samyukta Nikaya event." " 6. as transSome say that this means a lated by Wilson after Sayaija. 1. When." Whitney explains Whatever that may " that be. by his sacred prayer (turiyena brahmana). To settle difficult matter. discovered (rather the sun concealed by the darkness impeding his functions. the worlds shone lustreless like a confounded tactless person. then Atri." "by the fourth sacred prayer". rca's are : i The proceed to original Sanskrit we 1 ^ i is I Wilson's translation runs as follows **5.

through fKurya speaks] me who am thine hanger. which we use of the graduated circle. and adoring them with ." sun from spoken of as having saved the The verse is perhaps an example of Then the Brahmana with stones together." year.' we may fourth take this of to interpretation.). the summer solstice day. Atri. the ([. as meaning throwing no light on any circumstance As Wilson following Sayana translates the fourth phrase " by the sacred * prayer. "Brahman" thus means the longest day of brahmadivastina. . is Mahilvrata In the Sfolkhdyana Iranyaka (Keith's " This day is spoken of as day is 'Brahman' " Brahman II. In the Jaiminiya Brdhmana." to to suggest total that the eclipse so at in although apprehended Atri is here observer. : Varuna both protect verse seems Thi me. disappearance. or power after the event. Let not the violater. 400-10. the part of eclipse in solstice question was over in the fourth the summer brahmand turiyena Mlena (Mere "turiyena day itself. most likely interpret that the we eclipse in question was finished in the fourth part of the day. this day" ( 1. (Atri). swallow with fearful (darkness) do thou and the royal thuti art Mttra whose wealth is truth "7.D. we have 2) and which means that the maktivrata ceremony used to be performed on the Vixuvant or the summer solstice day* We thus under4t stand that turiyena brahtnand" means "by the fourth part of the nnmmer solstice day-" In other words. translation). applying the propitiating the gods praise. . 18). As the belonged to the fourth part of prayer the day. brahmand. ' Again the phrase 'turiyena. fourth of The a graduated circle. Further the event belonged it is a barren of the eclipse.VEDIC ANTIQUITY quadrant or cannot take the to 103 part be correct. which seems quite natural). or its fourth part in Vedic times was an impossibility of we could admit the validity to the interpretation if Brahmagupta's time (628 A. be the only correct the day. .' may also be interThe word ' brahman itself may mean preted in a different way. again the same day is thus referred to. total be was not the place of question the "wisdom "8.

. . The sun. the sons of Atri subsequently no others were able (to effect bis release). They smote away the darkness behind. the'Kaufitaki Brdhmana. are the 1 Svarasamans. They (apas- rescued prnv&ta) sun from the darknesss therefore. with Coxnxndntary. placed the eye of Stir y a (sun) in the sky he dissipated the the delusions of Svarbhanu. Calcutta University Publication of Khandakhadyaha. (seventeen) of it . stoma." Here Atri of eclipse is alleged to have found out the instant of end continued by counting stones together a practice which was 1 even up to the time of Prfchudaka (864 A. an Asura.'* recovered . (xxiv. whom the asura Svarbhanu enveloped (rather 'struck') with darkness. with saptadasa . . it. declared in a re. pierced with darkness the sun the Atris were fain to smite away its darkness they performed.104 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY . away evil from by them the . page 16.> the 159* V Keith translates the passage as follows : "Svarbhanu. both Atris worlds. day of the year on which this eclipse took place. this three-day with the Saptadaa stoma on both sides of the Visuvant. verily those sacrificers smite call them the Svarasdmans the . 3. This tfce is they rescued.I). Atri's placing 'the eye of Surya in the sky shows that the end of the eclipse'was visible or the eclpse finished before sunset. this set of three days. reverence. "9. in that <?/. 4) throws clearer light: As t.). before the Visuvant. in front that settled they performed the same three day rite after the Visuvant they sniote away the darkness behind (rite) Those who perform knowing thus.

Now the word eclipse happened wa=t Kausitaki and the to the Aitareya Visuvant. H_1408B . other could do so. ths day on which the gods raised up the sun to the highest point in the heavens. The arguments may be summarised thus : the Visuvant and the According to the Aitareya Brahmana. 6-7 VII.) of the VedfiAgas* the vernal or the autumnal equinox day.C. 1. 1. None darkness. 9 .C. we should take the of it given by summer solstice day only. 1. which of these three meanings should interpretation of this The question to settle is we accept for the correct in interpreting Rgvedic reference.4. I. 8 . became the day when the sun's longitude became 150. EkavirhSa day was the same day. reached months. and that side by a period of 10 day the sun being held on either he went over these worlds. 5 23. 71. . 6 . In the days of the Taittiriya8amhit& 2446 B. . 116. as I gather from 9 We passage that the * elsewhere. 119. as this is the meaning that needs be clarified the Rgveda Brahmanas. Veda Brahmanas the Visuvant day meant the day only. 68. there are many references in the Rgveda We shall use the : 51. i. according have set forth Brahmanas. Finally the same word of the Indian autumn. northward Kausitaki Brahmana also says that the sun starting on this from the winter the solstice Visuvant after six on the new^moon day of Magha. Hence word Visuvant as the a Rgveda reference. VII. Thus according these two Bjfs. Yajusa Jyautisam." this day on which the the Visuvant day.e.180. I. 112.VEDIC ANTIQUITY " The sun which Svarbhanu 105 The Asura pierced with The Atris found it. Another point of his observation at the rough time of Atri and the place is to get of this eclipse. 5. s. the word Visuvant came to mean <tt it the middle day of the sacrificial year begun from spring. Rgveda references alone.. 139.5. 7 . 3 . meant the summer solstbe day.C. the beginning to came mean about the fcima (1400 B.183. and the Tandya Brahmana (about 1700 B. days (Virdj) did not waver though The Or that the Visuvant was the true summer solstice day. 73. 1. As I to Atri. 1 V.).

7 . 36. 112. 1-8 cited X. to Atri. 51. addressed by Parucchepa to Agni. 150. 5 ^sisFfft *t*[$ ^ffs^ffro: ftrfr?t ^nsffs^rf^ft^f^?^ ^p^P'ft n 8 . 139. Avins. Atri "5 and Manu have known my birth (/) I. addressed to the Advins the blazing flames (that with food-supported supplied him encompassed Atri). VIII. Some and when (a) I. 7 addressed to the Agvins " You rendered the scorching heat pleasurable (c) I. 73. 35. Kagva. VIII. . showing the high antiquity in which Atri lived. quenched with snow (Uimena) for Atri." 2 119. when. X. and restored him kind of welfare. 8. Angiras. from "You quenched with cold (himena). and the dark cavern into strength . 9 X. VIII. who vexes his adversaries by a hundred doors. 4 to the ASvins as soothing as sweet butter to Atri. 9. of 39.'* (e) 4 to every I. 5. 5 . " The ancient Dadhyane. Atri recognized your benevolence with a of grateful mind on account the relief you afforded him. 6-7 to the Advins 6 " Leaders (of rites). them are below as evidence to show where Atri lived. which he had been thrown headlong. . 3 addressed to Indra "Thou hast shown l the way to Atri. VIII. 7 . 6 addressed to the A^vins 3 "You heat/' (d) I. 143. 42." : " You rendered the heat (0}V.106 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY . you extricated him. 181. the scorching 116. 37. VII. 19 62. Priyamedha. 3-8 ." (b) I.

attributed solstice to Atri. cave was situated. to understand either the true S.V&DIC ANTIQUITY Nasatyas. Augiras." l fci 10? the fiery heat From in these quotations it a cave with a hundred would appear that Atri took shelter doors or openings. . the fourth part of the day of the meridian of Kuruketra. day. Kanva and Manu. For this B. day was estimated from an observational determination of it one year day would tend to fall on the day Hence we have to understand that following the true S. the Sun's longitude comes out to about 8 days after the the year ice. the estimated B. Next we suppose that as the Yedic year was of 306 days. was probably one of the first batch of Aryans the (e). this the bottom of which we gather th?it quotation was a contemporary of Dadhyanc. Now the Visuvanl day as correctly ascertained would be I. the B. which was allayed by a thaw at from the snow-capped top of the mountain peak. From Atri to is pour into the Punjab. simmer the which was quite favourable that Atri lived about for the thaw of the Himalayan then We may conclude the time a 4000 B.S. where he felt of ice scorching heat. Priyamedba.C. he found innocuous. by the word Visiwanl. through his praise of you." Atri was rescued by your acts.S. happened on correctly the Visumint or the summer in day either ascertained or estimated.C. the true its summer solstice day. as we have reasons to believe that if ascertainment was possible for the Vedic people. at the latitude of to which was correct time or part of Kurukaetra. in a cave of hundred openings at the bottom of snow-capped peak either of the Himalayas or of the Karakoram Hence the eclipse of the sun spoken of in the hymn range.. The favour of the AiSvins which Atri alleged to have received was at the time perhaps of the rising at the of a Arictifi in the east astronomical event at about 4000 end of evening twilight.S. have been 97 solstice 54'. we arc before.

D. W. Solstice day from an accurate determination of the W. W. again if we suppose that the W. 'Hence the estimated S. solstice days were truly determined by the Vedic calendar makers of those times. the so-called Then S.C.C. Solstice day. the 4003 B.. the the Aitareya many variants. Solstice.S. Solstice day. If about S. 187 186-75 days 178'24 178' 49 days 3000 A. This possible apogee has the longitude of 90 variation is shown below : or -270. and the summer solstice day was always estimated. 1000 A. 186*10 185-20 179'14 " 180*04 The following interpretations may : consequently be put on the Visuvant day of Vedic literature ^a) If the eclipse happened about 4000 B. under the (tropical). Solstice in 21 years (tropical) the number of days would correctly be = 917 or even 918 days: whereas according to the Vedic calendais the same period would comprise 915 days only. Solstice to Solstice to S. on the estimated S. Half year from S. Solstice. day of those tincns would have Kausltaki Brahmana. . Hence the estimated S.. if Solstice day or the day following we suppose that both the winter and summer 2. only In the actual case the when the sun s Half year from Year. 4000 A.D. Solstice day would be day on a Magrfoa-new-mdon day. Solstice day was correctly ascertained by observation as a new-moon day of Macjha. the eclipse happened on the estimated same system of reckoning for 7$ years and in the number of days in this period =2744 days correct Vedic calendar there would be 2745 days instead.108 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY it. The and the Brahmana to 3 Veddngas take sun's northerly is and southerly courses be of equal durations.D. 2 or 3 dqys *(b) before the true date. 2000 A.D. Solstice day would be the day fallowing the true S.

the summer solstice day. (4) must have happened It must have been observed from either a cave at the foot of a of the snow capped peak Kange. in The Vedic month did of Mtujlia came the year 1927 B. We get at a central solar eclipse happening on the 21st July. proceed to determine the central solar eclipse which must satisfy all the conditions enumerated above. we must take it to mean either the true summer solstice day or the day following it.C. It It must have been a central solar eclipse. but it was the Vedic standard month of Mdgha. however. and 1935. yield the central solar eclipse on the 21st July. 1932 and 1935. or rather ended in the fourth part of the day for the meridian of Kuruksetra. tried the months of Mdgha of the years 1924.C. I been shown in another place. turned north on ordinary month of Mdgha as it comes every year.C.VEDIO ANTIQUITY Hence in looking for the 109 solar eclipse on the Visuvant day as interpreted in 1 and 2 (b) above... 3146 B. Solstice day. when the word Visuvant had its oldest (6) It must meaning.C. have happened between 4000 to 2400 B. (5) of the Himalayas or the Karakoram That at the place of Atri. 1932. in this case we would be content on pointing out the suitable eclipse or eclipses. eclipse did not reach the totality. We now The Kausltaki Brdhmana says that the sun This Mdgha is not an the new moon of Mdgha. must satisfy the following conditions: (1) It must have happened on the summer is solstice day or on the day following and no other date (2) (3. admissible. . as has but these did not lead as it to a central solar eclipse. viz. 1927. neither earlier nor later. which "came in our times in the years 1924. 3146 B. In the case 2 (a) we shall have to look for the 2 or 3 eclipse days before the true S. solar eclipse we \*ant to find the date of .. We for begin with former cases which are the more important many reasons Hence the set forth before. The detailed study will be made in the other case only..

20. 21...D. Node=90 18' 14"'37 Moon's Perigee=250 46' 42'/ '07 . a was =90 total in determine.N. on which Gk M. 1929. and as 1939. be=70 3 . . the Vedic standard month of Mdgha lasted from February. =3146 B.M. noon.. 3146 B. the sun's mean longitude from Newcomb's equation comes out to have been 162 8' 33".. on the 3rd September.N. of the sun's orbit equation for was ='01858 nearly.110 . July. G..N. viz.D. and on July. Ignoring the sun's equation I assumed as a first at the year step that this longitude was =90 determine. 160 and 19 years are lunisolar cycles.D. 3929. 20. This shows a total shifting of the Now we want solstices to by representing a lapse of 5227 years till 1929 A. 20. the Julian date arrived at = -3145 Now on A. *2 to March. July. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY* solstice on the day following the summer day in tbe following way : In the year 1927 A.D.C. The result 160 3' for 1929 A.N. July. 1929 A.. This equation is applied to the mean longitude of the sun at G.D. 3.D.C. This gives to shifting the year we want to of the solstice up to lapse of 5074 years. the mean longitude of 90 was -2 Hence the 5' sun's 9" nearly. Now 5074 sidereal years =1853311 days years = 5074 Julian Hence or + 82'5 days. nearly.M. does not require any change to make the year arrived at similar to 1929 A. G-. indicating a Now since 5074 =1939 x*2 + 160x7 + 19x4. The eccentricity 72 8' 33". to 162 8' 32".D. it may be inferred that the number of elapsed years till 1929 A. (2) Mean Suo=9151' 48'/'42 Mean Moon=80l' 41"'45 Moon's Node=27021' 25* '00 Moon's Perigee =25039' 1"*02 Mean Sun=92 50' 56"*75 Mean Moon =93 12' 16"'45 Moan's D.D. half the Vedic lustrum or full 31 lunations after this date 1929 A. From which we get that the longitude of the sun's apogee was 12 36' 48" at 51'98 centuries before 3900 A.M.C.D. day the came the 3rd of September. new moon happened at about on the 3rd September. 3146 B. (1) G.M.

29'5305088 days The moan motion of the moon's node at this epoch = 696S6"'659C per tropical year.C. (2) in the 4th part of the day on the meridian of Kuruksetra. respectively. eclipses of the sun which of the happened on the same tropical year. Punjab. / v * Tropical year ^jo* " 12 | JL Synodic month* 2+ "l+ 25 37 a .. respectively. 305 -2425084 days The moan synodic month 3146 B. there was an annular eclipse of the sun. 19. The figures in column (2) show that on fehe 21st July. We take this eclipse as the starting point for further calculations. 31. the summer solstice) Now.C. same epoch = 18*61 127 The tropical revolution of the moon's perigee at the epoch = 8 '84527 tropical years. we cannot use the Chaldean saros as an exact nntnber of tropical years.VBDIO ANTIQUITY The sua and the 111 moon's elemaiits have been calculated back from the equations given by Newcomb and Brown. and cannot be accepted as This eclipse took place (1) on the day following the summer solstice. but this was not visible from the northern giving us Atri's time.353 '" 'Ihuconvc^ntHim-: T * g Tr The and important luni-solar cycles in tropical years are 8. .46 B. the lunations in them being 99.G.g > 2+ > L 1+ 136 > -JL L1+ 18+ 235 4366 jg . up to the modern times. 235 and 4366.. follows : does to not contain We have proceed as We want to find only those central <lay (&/#. 136. The tropical revolution of tho node for the tropical years. 353. ff We find that : The mean tropical year at 3140 B. which have been taken as correct from 4500 B.C. 11. In our calculations both backward and forward from it this epoch.

) 763 y ears = (335 x 2 + 930) years=41 revols. 456 years=(335 + 121) = (853 +19x5 + 8) (1) . (2) 391 years=(335 + 2 x 28) years = (36 + 6) =21 nodal half revolutions nodal revols. Aga'n 456 years = 166551 days and 6640 lunations=166552'6 days. of Node =5640 lunations very nearly. + 7332' of motion of Perigee . Again 763 years=278680 dajs and 9437 lunations =278680 From these we readily get the = new set of Cycles : 4601 lunations re vol. + 310' of motion of Sode = 44 revol. clays. 456 years=_4i revols.112 (b) ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY The convergents to tropical semi-revolutions of the node in tropical years __ 1 28 ' ' 3 93 10 121 ' ' 13 335 36 ' Now from these last set of canvergents we get. years. = (353+19x2) Again 391 years =142810 days and 4836 lunations = 142810 days. + 20 of motion of Perigee = 4836 391 tropical years \ lunations =21 revol. of Node = (353 x 2+ 19 x 3) years =9437 lunations nearly. (3. 372 tropical years = 20 = 401' of motion of the Node 42 re vol.*. years.

. 90 29' 58" 8' 90 34' 54" 8' 58" 58* -2 .. 90 .VEBIC ANTIQUITY Longitudes of Sun 121 A Mean Sun Sun's apogee B 0" G 92 1 92 1 21' 92 1 25' 55" S3' 51" 55 25' 8' 57 3'' 55 57 55 57 g = Sua'san:>inaly(Iadian)= 90 -128''977Siag + l'-512Sin 2g = -2 = ... per hour 1" 90 Longitude of Moon MEAN ARGUMENTS A Moon's Inequalities A + 22640 Sin + 769 Sin 2? + 4586...Sin (2D-Z) I B -125 Sin D + 2370 -. Sin 2D = = = = = - + + + + + 669 Sin V = +206Sin(2D-Z-Z') = + 192'Sin(2D+Z) = + 165Sm(2D-Z') + 312Sin (2D-2Z) 16-1408B + . 58" -2 90 -1 12' -2 l& 55" 21' 51" 2' 27"'5 Mean L Apparent Sun Var.

M.122 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY A + 148Sin(Z-Z') -110Sin(Z + Z') -85Sin(2F-Z) B -I- C + 59Sin(2D-2JF) + 39Sm(4D-7) -ves = = = = = = + + - + + 143-7 107-2 0'7 8'8 + 31 + + 144'3 107'7 2'4 8'6 + + + 144'8 + 1081 4'0 8'4 51 71 + VBB Total -5866-0 +2105-6 -53281 +2180-2 -8147*9 -4787'8 +2254'! -2533'7 _ -3760.0 -l2'40"'4 90 7 45'4 89 5' -052'27"'9 91 13 38'3 -0 92 91 42' 13"*7 Mean Moon Moon on A.e.. 50 mins. orbit = = = 19 31'2 37' Node (O) 276 37 o>0 271 90 21' 10"'9 276 37 11'2 173 43' 59"'2 17'5 276 36 55'4 175 0' P^M-O 2F X . i. or 2 hrs. Mean variation per hour 37' 54*1 Instant of conjunction is 9'8 mins.. P.172 = 344 = -15 = +0 = 89 89 27' 37"'9 22"! 44'2 55 15'8 4' 847 27 58'4 350 44" -12 32' 2" -9 +0" 91 91 59' 16" -417Sin2F l Moon on orbit Apparent Moon 1' 48'5 5'0 +0 90 90 1 30'5 1' 12"'3 5 21 10'4 22' 40'9 37 17'5 38' 29'"8 6 58'5 . 58 mins. G. 9 hrs.T.M. A. before B.M. k?etra time Kuru- Arguments for Latitude of T 2D-2F F 1 +2D + 2F V = = = ** ABC Moon 173 8 182 48' 59" 172 27' 38* F at 1 I _Z/ +V _Z _2Z = = = = = = ~ =346 8 181 270 262 82 T +2D-2F-Z' F!+2D-1F+Z' F +2D-2F-Z y F J 185 199 270 91 194 32 56 84 25 3 2 35 52 41 31 42 55 56 24 14 35 31 25 37 22 82 6 31 270 29 58 263 84 347 186 198 271 14 37 1 175 8 183 0' 22" 12 8" 12 30 13 57 1 270 264 85 348 186 197 34 25 35 42 54 28 15 21 6 29 36 92 36 58 57 33 29 272 93 194 18 1 35 40 37 86 47 24 2952 1942930 30 9 .

parallax*86W'4=61' 1V4 42"*4 1"*4 Moon's Semi-diameter.VfcDlC ANTIQUITY Moon 123 Latitude of Mean variation per hour = 3' 29""6 Moon's horizontal parallax P=3422-''7 + 186"'6 cos Z + 10^'2 cos 2Z + 34"'3 cos (2D-Z) + 280-3 cos 2D + 3"*1 cos(2D + Z) B + 186-6 + cos Z= +182*3 10-2 cos 2Z=* + 9-3 + 34-3 cos (2D-Zj=+ + 33 '8 28-3 + 28'3ooscD= Constant =3422-7 Hor.16' Sun f s Semi-diameter = 16' .

P. dist. = = + ll'll'"8 40'45"'5 + 17'18"'9 + 27' 6"'0 Moon Corrected latitude = + 29'33"'7 Z. of cul. = 10 36' 13' 49" 17 71 16' 55' 35" 36" 28 50' 42" 23" = = 82 23" 66 19' nonagesimal 1 27' 9" 25" 5 30' 50' 40" 5" 12 28' 32' 19" Culminating point * 107 46' 136 168 . of culminating pt. ABC 0'' Mean Long. of cul. angle with meri- dian (0i) = 82 13' 23" 11" 71 55' 36" 25'' G6 19' 39' 23" 18" Dec.M. =+33 pt. Local in degrees It. of cul.= ZC V Cul. dist. pt. 47 77 A. dist.M. Loca] time of Sun =92 21' 92 25' 55" 92 0-8 30' 51" = =17 1-8 P. of nonagesimal =ZN = ABO + 16'28"'l 33'47"'0 26'46"'9 0'19"'l - 10 31' 9 r/ 16 23' 58" 26 13' 1 8" Z.M. of ecliptic = 107 46' 25'' 136 5" 168 32' 16" Eclip. 3-8 P. point =+22 53' 30' +16 18' + 4 <-33 Lat. pt.124 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY Calculation of the eclipse for longitude of Kuruksvtra and latitude = 33 i North. of lat. of meridian or Sidereal time =109 21' 01' 139 25 55 169 30' 51" Obliquity of the ecliptic = 24 & 50' 15" Long.= 0" +88 8<X 0" 80' 0" ZC = 10 36' 49" 17 16' 35" 28 50' 42" Z. of Nonagesitnal =ZN - 10 31' 9" 16 23' 58" 26 13' 18" Parallax in Lat. of place Z. dist.

M. of Moon Moon = = - 6 53*5 50' 9"*1 90' 22' 40'9 38' . Sun 90 12 21' 1 90 16 32' 55 52" 90 ? 21 )Istdiff. + 10' Where t is measured from B in units of 2 hrs. 29* -8 Corrected 89 44' 3 fft 3 90 48 21""4 51 App. = -1 = == 52" -0" 0" +0 26' 80" +49' +59' 22" 22" 2nd diflc . of Semi-diameters = 41" (M-S) Kuruksetra 3-8 mean time. 10 81' 23' 26 18" = 89 88 16' 44"*4 - 38' 37"'6 91 8"*4 Long. = -3' 41" '6 a Corrected latitude =16' 28"'1-(14' 56"'4)t-(l' of Semi-diameters =1964" 50"'8)f =^ Sum (M+S) Difi. in = 7' 15* 9" 2' 30" 58" 42' 18' 50' = Long. 1 ' -1140 -269 +757 +512 1369 -791 578 +311 +1692 4-38 5-8 +640 +1390 +2577 +254 689 + 901 -19 -305 1590 5-38 2595 . X ^ +988" 2206" v'^+^ -837 2 P. Sun 90 ltt 12' 90 41 16 1C' 55" 90 65 21' 31* G" N-@ ZN Parall.8 o . Corrected latitude IsbdiS. -1972* 3-38 4. = + 29' = 33"'7 + 16' 28* '1 -0' 19"*1 -13>5"-6 -Iff 47^2 2nd diff.VEDIC ANTIQUITY V Nonagesimal =tf= j= ABC 16" 1* l3 js 106 10' 131 19' W 156 D 3' 57" App.

+ 11 mins.V JOH" HO" j-4 'J' 10" US'' ^ Dec.'!' =+22r>8 IP +10 =+35 30' 0" 4-35 12 13' l8 /r ao' ^ 85" 4-H:* 8^ J' (>" of =ZC cuL pt :V 29' 44V 10 10' *> 42 /r Z.-M) mins. pt. ia lat.. -h 18' 10''1 -f *h 10' 14"'7 -h Moon's lat. dist. of nonagesimal *ZN 12 ay' 44" 18 17' 25* 28* iiU* . =^-17 P. 12 3ti' 4w ff iu" io' r*o' 42" a.wr of cul. at 4*49 P. ending=5 hrs. 4<X 45^3 JW47*'0 14' Wit <)"H Corrected Z. The same Calculations for lui. 1 =3 Time of hrs. Lat.126 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Nearest approach of the centres of the Sun and the Moon occurs 37 x30 mins after 4-8 P.M.pt. + ^ ~ 4 ^. Sun = s 100 21" I" 130 88' 10' 12' 90* 12' 15 50' 90 W 04 21' .V lli(V J fllK . dist.ofcul. of nonagesimul =ZN = =* 12 ii" 18 17' 2a" #4 W 2K' V *J' a> -t7'''7 Parall.1 lOOt) x 30 mtn*. Time of beginning=3 8 mins.>." Cul. 8 mins. = 82 #*" 71" . B h = 107 46' 13' f 2.1" = 82 13' 23" 71 .V IU' . = 107 4ff 2' a3 ff 3 8U" r>5" 1UH i.*!'' Nonagesinal-Sun * a 20" JO" 21' JJH" ax IK I0 n Z. P. dist.c W win*. Minimum Mag.V 8W 2. =zc y pt.ofcul. =5 hrs.M.-f 8 mias. 8 mins. dist. lat.M.W 11' 5IK 3(V 19' CuL pfc.e.M.-nonagesimal =CN * l* 44/ 4// ec 1^30 32" 18' W JfcJ' '.. -h 27' 2i)"'4 8^*3 :jv . i. A Long. [ndian units. of place Z.^ hr*.pt. of />/Cf = &"> i A".*5 10* 7" Nonagesimal App. distance =521" of eclipse = *73o=8'8 hrs.

. + 602" )--* lat.VEDIC ANTIQUITY Horizontal parallax of (Moon Parallax in long 127 Sun) =3670'' '6 37'36"'9 22' 40"'9 = = 89 16'18"'l 6' 90 91 48' 53"! Long. -777 -993 2nd Corrected lat. -216 s +872" -885 t-108t of . = -1 21' 26" = -4886" = +2975" =* -0 +0 -1911" +3577" +1666" 2nd /. diff. = / = Sum Diff. from B. 1* 55" 51" 21 27' 51 46" )1st diff.. Semi-diameters =1964"(M + S) 41"(M-S) + 306 + 427 . diff. 32" Corrected = + + 27' 29" + 14' - 2' 1" 1649" +872" -121" 1st diff.191 1" + 32772 + 301 t 2 measured whrere t is in units of 2 hrs. of Moon Long 53*5 38' 29"'8 Corrected = 88 50' 35"*4 12' 8 90 45' 16' 31' 4"-0 90 90 49' 36"'7 Sun 90 .

C. A method now occurs to me which shows that a cbronologist need not -depend upon any such chance..M. As shown in 'the -body of the paper a centr.M. Time of endmg= 1964 167 7 o02 *15 mins.C.e. at 5-17 P.M. 3146 B. We equations for sun's elements and Brown's for those of the moon. after 5-8 P. obtained by a pure chance formed^ the starting poinfc for farther calculations. July.128 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Time of beginning^ ^ 2101 7* 964 4r. 361* at 4-18 P.C.C. considered unnecessary on the score of the labour in the light of the elegant method presented in this note. = 8*79 mips i. was B.M.1200 B. up to. = 4*87 mins. of astronomical constants the should be it now entails. Mag ot ejlipse=0*792=9'5 Indian APPENDIX A Note on of a III . Neiresfc approash of the. which have Hence Oppolzer '_s great work has become national astronomers. within the range 4000 B.M. . To undertake another great work like that of Oppolzer with the most up to date system. Newcomb's have now to use more or less valueless. after 8-8 P.il eclipse happening on the~'2l8t. to 2400 solar tofin3 a central solar eclipse jm the summer.a x 15 mins. The elements used by Oppolzer were those equations . visible in the northern Punjab.for the moon's been thrown away by intergiven by Hanen. centre* .. Method Finding a Central Solar eclipse near a Past Date The problem of the chapter to which thisJis an appendix. 4 mins. unils. Further he need not also depend on a book like Oppolzer's in which all eclipses are calculates from . /. the modern times. at 3-13 P... Duration o eclipse = 2 hrs.. solstice day.

we find that new-moon on the 15th September. Hence the elapsed years 5940. (b) there was a (<5) looking up the nautical almanacs.N. to be increased by 37 years 5977=1939x3 + 160.e. say 1940 A. would 1940. The year Calculation of the eclipse on the arrived at is 3928 B. the number of years Now on elapsed -5940. to the present time. and arrive at the date (d) We 4042 B. 129 the date To find a central solar eclrpse near 4000 B. Again from 4001 B.. July. 26. 15th September. then apply 5977 sidereal years or 2183137 days backward to the date. from (a) We first work out the shifting of the equinoxes 4001 B. happening on the from the northern Punjab. to 1940 A. use We now We want 275 c to reduce the longitude of 321 43' of the node to about 43' which comprises 732' six times nearly..D. summer in solstice day of this year may now proceed that as shown years body of the paper.C. 1936. remembering (tropical) there are 41638 days K the 17 in 114 H08B .VEDIC ANTIQUITY Problem 1. i. The correct luni-solar cycles in sidereal years are 1939 and 160 years Now 5940=1939 x 3 + 123. become 172 27' 23" in The sun has this longitude now about the 16th September. summer solstice day and visible Here we are to remember that the longitude of the ascending node should be about 85 or that of if 95. This works out to have been 82 27 23" nearly.. on the day of the eclipse the descending node about this is to be visible from the northern Punjab. Hence what was 90 of the 7 longitude of the sun in 4001 B.C.. ascending (e) (/) On this date of the moon's the eclipse cycle of 19 tropical years in which the node's position is decreased by 7 32' nearly.D.C. by 46 Hence we have to come down 19 x 6 or 114 years. 1936. have and we have.C. the longitude node was=321 42/ 36-82. OKM.C.C..

N.C. 3379 sidereal the date 1449 B. and arrive at October. years or 1234201 days backward. apply to the 10th November. the (e) On this date G. 19 x 4 4.C. equinoxes becomes 46 of the sun in 1401 B. On the autumnal equinox day the sun attains the longitude of 180. We have 170 54' by a further coming down by the eclipse cycle of from 372 years.C. (/) longitude of the ascending node at have to reduce this longitude of the node to 175 Now by our cycle of 19 nearly by using our eclipse cycles. 1931 A JX. There is thus no necessity for finding the solar eclipses from so far back a date as 4000 up to our modern times. was=201 2' 23*.180 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Problem 2. of our times.D.C. 10 that a On looking up nautical almanacs we can find till new- moon happened on November.C. 8' to 170 it by 30 repeated four times. In order thai the eclipse may be visible in the northern Punjab. Now the elapsed years 3340.Q. the ascending node should have a longitude of about 175 or the descending node 185 nearly.372 =448 tropical Altogether we had to come down by years. as in Oppolzer's finding.C. we can find near about any past date. 3379=1939+160x9. to 175 15' nearly for the autumnal equinox day of the year 1001 B. (d) We 5. any sort of solar eclipse we have any record of. we have increase by 39 years. the shifting of the (a) From Hence what was 180 of the 17' 26". 54' We now to raise it by coming down to 1373 B.. 1931 A. (c) 10. to 1940 it A JX need be adjusted a little as before. has become 226" 17' 26" in longitude present times. however vague all it may be. 1401 B.M. Hence by the method thus illustrated. To find the central solar eclipse which happened Punjab and on the autumnal equinox day visible in the northern near about the year 1400 B. we can reduce years.D. till 1940 A. and we have. . B. (&) This corresponds to the date of November.

VEDIC ANTIQUITY
I
trust

131

the attention of astronomers and chronologists all over the world, will be drawn to the method presented here for would further finding an eclipse of a back date, and hope they
develop
it

and remove from

it

any flaws that they may

discover.

VEDIC ANTIQUITY
Heliacal Rising of X and v Scorpionis in Atharva Ved*

In the Atharva Veda

1

the

heliacal
II,

rising

of

the two
7.

stars

A and
the

v Scorpionis is

mentioned in

8 and III,

We

quote
It is

first

verse as

translated
is

and annotated by Whitney,

almost the same verse that

repeated in the two hymns which 1 were used in incantations for relief from the disease Ksetriya.

"
let

Arisen are the two blessed stars called imfasteners (Vicrta)

;

them unfasten (Vimuc)

of the Ksetriya the lowest, the highest

fetter."

Whitney's note runs as follows
*

:

The

disease Ksetriya

(lit'ly,

of the field) is treated elsewhere,
ii.

especially

in

iii,

7

^mentioned also in
defines
it

10

;

14*5

;

iv. 18*7).

The commentator
disorder, of

apparently an infectious in a whole family or perhaps various forms, appearing
here
as

endemic.
later

The name

Vicrtau,

'the two unfastners'
sting
of

to

the two stars in the

is given the Scorpion (A and v

Scorpionis), and there seems to be no good reasons

to

doubt that

two so they are the ones here intended ; the inconspicuous stars is not any more .strange than the appeal to stars at all ; the commentator identifies them with Mula, which
selection of
is

the asterism composed of the scorpion's tail." " Whitney concludes by Their (the two stars)

healing virtue

would doubtless be connected with the meteorological conditions of the time at which their heliacal rising takes place ".*

A. V, II,

8, 1.

A. y.

m, 7, 4,

VEDIC ANTIQUITY
According to Sayana, ksetriya diseases are Phthisis, Leprosy, Epilepsy, Hysteria and the like. We feel that the
included

diseases

under this name Ksetriya are those skin and lung diseases which are aggravated by rainy weather and are relieved by the dry atmospheric conditions which follow the rainy season. The sore toes which the cultivators have in the season
rainy

are

perhaps also included under the name Ksetriya. The seasonbeginning indicated by the heliacal rising of A and v Scorpionis

was that

of

Hemanta

or the
,

dewy season.

In Indian astronomy there are recognised six seasons in the twelve months of the year, commencing from the winter solstice

day and they are named winter, spring, summer, rains, autumn and Hemanta or the dewy season. The seasons, rains and

autumn

comprise

four

months
called

which are
the

called

Varsika in

Sanskrit literature, during which

gods are supposed to sleep.
(rainy)

These four months are

Varsika

months

in the

Ramayana*. Thus the sun's celestial longitude at these four months becomes 210, when the sky
'released'

the end of
is

finally

from

the clouds

according

to

the estimate of

the

Sanskrit authors.

That the true
is

meant

is

and v Scorpionis seen from the following verses with Whitney's comheliacal
rising of the stars
A,

mentary.

"Let
fade

this
;

night

fade

away

(apa-vas)

;

lot

the bewitchers

the let away 1 Ksetriya away/* " In the out
9

Jfseinya-effacing (-natiana) plant fade the

of the asterisms, in the fading out of the fading dawns also, from us fade out all that is of evil nature, fade out

the Ksetriya.

"

*

Burgess* S&ryasiddMnta,

VHI,

9,

notes on the

Uula

'junction star.*

A. y. II,

8. 2.

184

ANCIENT INDIAN CfiBONOLOGtf
Whitney's note
:

"The

night

at

the

time of dawn

is

meant, says the Com-

mentator (doubtless correctly) According to Kau the hymn a dousing with prepared water outside the house ; accompanies with this verse it is to be done at the end of the night."

Thus
stars

there
v

A and

no doubt that the true heliacal rising of the Scorpionis is meant. Although the two stars are
is

inconspicuous according to "Whitney, the position of the two stars at the end of the tail of Scorpionis is remarkable to any

watcher of the heavens, as they are very close together, marking the end of the tail. The astronomical data is now that there was
a time in the Vedic (Atharvan)
rising of

Hindu

culture

A Scorpionis marked the coining of with the sun having the celestial longitude of 210. take Kuruksetra, as before, for the place of observation, which
season

when the heliacal Hemanta or the Dew-

We

has a latitude of

30N>

star A Scorpionis had its ascension 17 hrs. 29 mins. 7*437 sees., and the mean right = 37 3' 26"*59 sees., while the obliquity of the ecliptic, declination

For 1934, the

Mean

=

<BT

=

23

26' 52"*33.

Hence
The
24
=

for 1934, the celestial longitude of the star
celestial latitude

=

263

39' 50"

and the
3'

= -13

46' 46*.

obliquity of the ecliptic for 3400 B.C., our
42".

assumed

date,

was

Now when
207
C

the sun's longitude was 210

the right ascension was
45' 46".

47'

6V, and the declination

was. -11

YEDIC ANTIQUITY
Let the above
at Kuruksetra,
position of the
figure represent the celestial

135

HPZH'
sun
at 18
is

the

sphere of the observer meridian, H'AKEH the horizon; S the below the horizon, P the celestial and
pole

Z the

zenith.

A

Scorpwni* rose.
arcs of great

the point of the east horizon where the star A Here rNKS is the ecliptic. Join Z8 and PS

circles,

From A draw AN
determine

cutting the celestial equator at the point M, perpendicular to the ecliptic. want to

PS

by

We

Now ZP =
30% S-M
ia
rt

<>0

,

ZS

108, PS
/ KEflb

=
-

90

=

+8 =

101

45' 46",

^-S

27

47' 61*,

colatitude

=

60

and

AN =
are

40'40".

0) In the triangle ZPS, the three sides ZP, ZS and PS known. Hence the angle ZPS comes out to be = 104 8' 16"
and the
the arc

ZZPE
*

is

90
18*

degrees

EM
rE

14

8'

Now

^M as found already
/.

27 47' 51*
13
39' 45".

(2)

In the triangle

R-^K,

the four consecutive parts are
39' 45",

:

/ KK-a- ~ 60, E-^a 13

L

E^K =

24

3' 42'/

and
Hcntio we find A*K
aiwlu
(3;

rK.

11

52' 44"

and the

K

88

29' 23".

Now

from the triangle ANK, we find
that

KN B
f;K

1

30' 13".

Finally

11

y 44"
IV
31".
V

NK *
.\

rS6'18",
10

^N

Hence date was
or the

celestial

longitude of A

IHO*

10' 31".
in
tJie

Now

the required past in 1934, the same was = 263 39' 50"
Scorpionia
at

increase
28' l
ff

celestial

longitude of the star A Scorpionis

-

7

.

The moan

precesaion rate of

49"'6761.
till

Hence the number
3385 B.C,

years elapsed

19*'J4

A.

D.=

5318,

star. ignoring the proper motion of the

Thus

the

date becomes

136

ANCIENT INDIAN OHEONOLOGY

We have here

worked out the date for a tradition about the
:

but we beginning of autumn at the latitude of Kuruksetra cannot say that this was the da e of the entire Atharva Veda
f

Further we are not sure
If

if

the observer's place was

30N

latitude.

was made at about 2oN, suppose the date arrived at would not lower it by more than a hundred Hence the Atharva Veda in some of its portions was years.

we

that

the observation

begun about 3400 B.C.
later

Although

this

Veda

is

traditionally

Rg-Veda, some portions of it are undoubtedly earlier than the tenth Mandala of the Rg veda and must be dated
than the
at about 2449 B.C., the date of the Bharata battle.

CHAPTER XI VEDIC ANTIQUITY Varna and his Two Dogs of the Pitrs (the The Vedic god Yama was the Lord Fathers) and son of Vivasvant (Sun). Barhisads and the Ijyapas.). Havismanta. Saumyas and the Agnisvattas only. In the Rgveda. the 'world of the 99 l gods' and the 'world of the Fathers' (Pitrs). however. the son of Vivanghat (Vendiad. 1. On this point the Satapatha : abode Brahman says worlds in truth there are. manes were or are the souls of the departed and according to a Hindu's daily ceremony of libation offering to his is he The Pitrs or forefathers are classed Saumyas. 2 etc. Ajyapas and the Saukalins. Saukalins. 7. According to Wilson in Manu they are also termed Agnisvattas. We and are here concerned with the faith about their place of their Lord Yama." . If the order of the Pitrs be the lower. XIT. the upper and the intermediate. " ' Two " The world of the gods is 2 in the north and the world of the Fathers (Pitrs) in the south. the addition being the orders Havismantas f Usmapas. Saumyas and Agnisvattas (Rg-Veda) in a-days the orders of tire same order. -J&M. Now- the Pitrs has been increased into seven. Jt does not interest us for the present to enquire when these additions were made in the Hindu of faith. are invoked by the are libation offerers as protectors. Saumyas. J8-WQ8B . Fargard II. Barhisads and the These Pitrs into Agnisvattas. their names perhaps Barhisads. 3> 7. we get the names of the Fathers as Barhisads. Usmapds.* they say. departed literature In the Avestic Yima.

and when they go back.: has to turn to the south " Our and invoke them by the following verse the Saumyas and the Agnisvdttas come by the sacrifice Devayana route (northward direction) be delighted at the offering by enjoying our protect us. May they There are the two routes spoken of in the Hindu sacred lore. The Sanskrit word 'Yamya' meaning the south. and is stationed in the south. Vanaparva. do follow according to the Hindu faith the Devayana they follow according to Hindu faith the Pitrydna route or the southern direction. it is of Satyavan went southward. Here we have from Tilak who in the -book Orion would interpret that Devayana route is the part of the ..' In the Mahdbhdrata." 1 ' (Svadhd) and bless us. the lord of the south. In this . His interpretation appears Fathers to be unjustifiable and incorrect. In a modern Sanskrit Dictionary. in said that 'Yama having bound the soul In another lord of Sanskrit Dictionary Yama Hence is defined as 'the the southern direction/ his subjects. Yama is defined to be 'a god appointed by the Supreme Lord for deciding the destinies of departed souls according to their good or bad deeds in this world of ours.' the story of Savitri. the former the northward direction and -to differ the southward direction. both is . as the who corne from the south route. consequently their Lord Yama must also be a dweller of the south. according. respectively the route of the gods and the route of the the Fathers. When men . the one is -the Devayana and the other the Pitrydna. lay two dogs which were both ** spotted four-eyed die T: fwc*.ecliptic lying north of the -celestial equator the Pitrydna route. is derived from Yama. route When route. they come by -the Devayana. to-the Hindu faith both Yama and the Pitrs. route to the abode of Yama.138 ANCIENT INDIAN OHHONOLOGY Thus the Pitrs live in the south. offering libations to his fathers. the part of the ecliptic south of - and the celestial equator. the Fathers come.routes may on the same meridian. are dwellers of the south. certainly. The Hmdu when fathers. they follow lie Pitrydna latter the Thus the.

brindled dogs of Sarama. Yama.veda verses addressed run thus 1 : the souls of men Pass by a secure path beyond the two spotted four-eyed dogs. renowned by men." ' paet the two four-eyed.. IUH i ?TWT- ^ tf% UH \\i\\\ $g-Veda." (Wilson) In the Athana Veda also the 2 verses are corresponding " Bun thou : surround him . at that time these two stars crossed the meridian or had simultaneously they the same right ascension." " What two' defending dogs thou has. do thou " Entrust him. King. sitting by the road. . king.11. a happy road . x. *F 1F XVHI. and grant him prosperity and health. four eyed. have been the two astronomical stars a Cam's The interpretation becomes that there was a time. men watching. the progeny of Sarama. | ^T Veda. 14. and join the wise Pitrs who rejoice fully with Yama. 10. guardians of the road.VEDIC ANTIQUITY dogs/' m to The ' just departed Eg. Yama. to thy two dogs. when these two stars pointed to the south celestial pole. We now investigate this problem of determining this past time astronmically. Vedic or pre-Vedic. 2. i. with them." (Whitney) These two dogs we take minoris and a Cam's majoris. which are thy the four-eyed protectors. assign to him well-being and freedom to from disease.e. then go to the by beneficent Fathers.D are given as follows in the Nautical Almanac. The places of these stars for 1931 A. who revel in common revelry with Yama.

P the celestial pole and figure of solstice in O 2 the summer 1931 A. we get: In the above ecliptic. ovr=90 -f3935 24 90H-160'24" aroj /.140 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOOY 54" in 1931 AJD. Let <r x and o.2 the four consecutive parts are / i Ztr^Tr. . = ovr l5r x sin ll42 8' cos 11 42' 8" xsin 39 / / 85' 24* -tan 16 0' 24" x cos 39 35' 24". we cot get. Z. circle Let o-j and <r be joined by an arc of a great celestial pole in P'. JT the celestial sphere.D.r<r z o.2 be the positions of a Canis Majoris and a Canis Minoris in 1931. the required time. The mean obliquity of the ecliptic was 23 26' Hence by transformation of co-ordinates. the solstices. (1) Then P was The angle P*rp cutting the path of the the pole of the equator at represents] the shifting of In the triangle . // . let yC^ be the the pole of the ecliptic. 0-^0-3 == 11 42'8''.

1 = sin 6 x cot 24 7' 32" x cot 39 85' 24" jrP'=17 47' 0" + 55 33' 5" = 73 20' 5" The celestial longitude of a Cams 7' = Hence the 103 Majoris (1931 A. O-^TT = 26 42' 55". get. A. 103 + 73 20' 5" = 176 27' 57". The four consecutive parts are 7 : Z Povr = 26 42' L o-^P'. o. We get = readily. (2) 24 Again in the triangle o-^P'. * ^ tan 16 sin 11 x sin 23 IS' 41" 42' 8" x sin 16 19' 43" . 176 27' 57" -90 ~ 86 27' 57". 1931 Second Method. = . 7' 32". cot 26 sin 39 Put cot then 9 = 42/ 55// 36' 24" = get. Hence we sin (ovrP'-0) /. IK^ = 90 +39 35' 24".D. sin o-jjrP x cot 26 42' 55" -cos cr^P' x sin 39 6 35' 24" cot 24 8' 42" x cos 39? 32' 24". and the required dale be 6280 years therefore.D.'.'. We when a Canis can follow a second method to determine the past time Majoris and <* Corns Minoris had the same right . till The elapsed time thus coixies out to is.D.) 52" celestial longitude of P' for 7' 52" 1931 A. . dP = 24 55". the value of dP was very nearly 7 32" about 4350 B. the the L P?rP' or the shifting of summer solstitial point up to 1931 A.C.D.C. 4350 B. 17 47' 0".VFDIC ANTIQUITY Now put Hence we t 2 141 eot f - ^^ffag 0' 24" /. f = 16 19' 43".

this be subtracted from the celestial longitudes of the stare 1931 A. at about 4557 B. as it is based on the elements of these stars determined in recent times. Hence the difference between the right ascensions of the two stars would vanish i. tabulate the right extending from 4000 B.e.D.D. we get their position in for 4000 B. downwards. to 1931 A..556 years before -4000. is the more correct. Neugebauer's Sterntafelen. Hence the^ . at the rate of 0*16 per hundred years.C. : by using more accurate instruments Another What must have point that needs be considered here is this been the initial error of observation in this connection.D.C. 4350 B. There is thus a difference of about 200 years in the two . = 8142'50''.C. Now epoch let us see what could have been the initial error if the for the observation total shifting be taken as 4000 B. A.D.142 ascension. determinations of the time of the event by the two methods but I trust the date obtained before viz. We ascenisons of these two stars from -3600 to -4000 A.C.C. the equinoxes during the interval of If The of 5930 years between 4000 B. 89 16 x 100 years or . From a comparison of the second differences we find that these become steady from -3700 A. ANCIENT INDIAN CHKONOLOGY In Dr.C.D. the right ascen- sions and declinations of stars are given at intervals of 100 years.

C. .C. Hence by transformation : the star represent the position of at the latitude of KuruCorn's Majoris when on the meridian of the other star ksetra (30 N) in 4000 B. the NMS of a great circle and produce it to meet the horizon at M.C. Join B pole of the celestial equator. i-24 we get 6'35". are as follows : (supposing the latitude to remain the same throughout) In 4000 B.VEDIC ANTIQUITY celestial 143 co-ordinates of the stars in 4000 B. the obliquity of the ecliptic was of the co-ordinates. and B the position the eastern horizon. to P. Join AB by an arc * In the above figure let A Canis Minoris.

.63. 10. there the gods won moved about in the sky . AN = AP + 30 = 5V Z MAN = 1 16' 37" and L MNA = Now tan MN = sin AN.2 ^foff \\\*\\ . the flower of immortality. of golden tackle. 40 47".C. through the two the transit of <x Canis Majoris. 4.. the safe-sheltering expansive heaven. the four consecutive parts are 28*. we 147 have 28" a rt.C. we have down also thus shown that the date to may as well be there brought 4000 B.C.144 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY the triangle Now in ABP. 2 the Kustha." (Wilson) also says : The Atharva Veda " A golden ship. Further Yama and his two dogs was perhaps the or boat in the same for the Hindus." (Whitney) A. replete with happiness. tn. tan MAN. Kuruksetra.C.. exempt from evil. the Greeks and the Parsis. By solution of the triangle.V. exalted and for " May we right directing. as shown before. at the time of for the The mean date of these stars the equality of the right ascensions being 4350 B. There was thus not much azimuth at error even at 4000 B. 4 and VI. Therefore MN is found to be 7 angle. : /BAP. unyielding divine vessel. defectless. V. to 4700 B. The Rg-Veda also speaks of the divine Vessel following terms * . 95.. AP = 90 + 27 50' andPB = 90 + 2 8' 48*. the L APB == 35' 15" L BAP is found to be 1 16' 37" Now in the triangle ANM. Equally strong reasons may be for raising the date the mythology as to by 350 years. if observer took the great circle passing stars as lying on the meridian. our well-being ascend the well-oared.

thence was born the Kustha. 9 (24). 80 (98) 3 .. is crossed by a ferry boat.. 7. IV: pages also page 160. All these considerations lead us to .* In the Parsi legend these two dogs 'keep the Kinvat Bridge* In the as imagined to have been made over the milky way. The names of the two dogs Yama are preserved in the Zendavesta. See also Intro- duction to the same. XIX. belongs to the date of about 4700 B. F. F. V.C. 19. Ixxxvii 4. F." (Whitney) departed souls going southward by the road guarded by the two dogs. the Greek legend the milky way $". e. a Ganis Minoris and a Ganis Majoris. Sacred Books of the Bast The Zend-Avesta. V. While in Hindu called literature these constellations for names. A. 3. moved about sky: 2 tha sight of immortality . two dogs and the Argo-Navis Vedas. 145 well-oared ship of the gods. 39. in may the we. the constellations were and other are still used and so of named in western astronomy. but also in Greek and the All these constellations viz. by forgotten Ganis Majoris by Lubdhaka (the Hunter) and Canis example Minoris by a star of the naksatra Punarvasu and the Argonavis is quite lost sight of in the later Hindu literature. that the ^ay in the world of Yama. Vol. p. 6. 190. XIII. Argonavis. 6 (14). J9-1408B . VII. the are to be found not only in the the Par&i Mythology. may ascend the divine boat Argo-Navis and enjoy blissful expeditions in the heavenly river the milky is." " there A is golden ship of golden tackle. think that the tradition about Yama' s Dogs. and before the time when the Aryan peoples migrated to different Iff irrt ?8ftawnnft ^rere^n^r ft \\ A.VEDIG ANTIQUITY "The guiltless. pftge 213. Here the wish perhaps. embark in order to well-being. 1 unleaking.

shown before. above constellations This ancient tradition in survived in to the the Vedas and with the western immigrants. These Aryan peoples probably lived near about the Central Asian mountain range running east west from the Mediterranean Sea to th Pacific Ocean. in the chapter on "the antelope's head. .146 countries relation ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY from their ancient homes." cites this tradition as was a confirmation of his finding that the vernal equinox for the time at the Antelope's Head* which according to him was the cluster. Here I have to difi'er from late Tilak v who in his book 'Orion'. Mrga&ra's as I have The tradition belongs to the pre-Vedic age.

they found him not among one another. the gods said. The most forms they brought together in one place. ' ' Prajapati here hath done ' a deed unknown pierce him. The gods saw him. We 36 or ch. He chose this therefore does his the over-lord-ship of cattle name boon. name r ftf . .CHAPTER XII VEDIC ANTIQUITY Legend In the legend is of Prajapati l and Roliini Aitareya Brdhmana thus stated. A deed unknown Prajapati now does. 13.' being pierced he flew up upwards The Tfie piercer of the deer is he of that name (Mrgavyddha) of his.' * Be it so he replied. own daughter.' Rich in cattle he becomes who teows . 9. contain the word 'cattle. the above qoiote below the translation by (iii. thus this Having aimed at him. * one to punish him dread . thus his name. . 'Let me choose a boon from you/ Choose' (they said). become a stag he 'approached her in the Having form of a deer (who had also become a deer). To him . therefore is his Brought together they became this deity here name containing (the word) Bhuta he prospers who knows . .' They sought Prajapati love for his Keith in his Rg-Veda Brdhmanas: " felt Usds others. . the sky some say. he pierced him him they call 'the deer.

another place The Muhabhiirata where the pame legend !></</ ittated without any obscenity as found in the #0. X. S. Another A'tiM/d t'/vo it* reference is Tandya is JBr. 2. and the . Aittirt'yti Brahmana. later It is possible. it was found slightly upon the higU place .148 ANCIENT INDIAN CHKONOLOGV is female deer Eohinu of Prajapati outpoured ran pointed arrow (trikanda). This legend has been noticed by Tilak in his Or/. legend IH than the one recorded in the Vedic speaks the ignoring of literature. Prajapati were a real person. while the *U. 13-14. 1J. Jyotihdfttra. understand that the astronomical /it?. Br. but the correct astronomical interpretation has not yet been found. S.n the proxuuity they the . of sacrifice/' (Wilson) ." an Keith 8. Diksita in his Bharatiya. 7. Tilak and Diksita would phenomenon referred to in the time when the vernal equinox wan at the passage indicates the cluster or A. however. = a lake ?). I. 1 .]/. 19. states. the Vedic people were more so. seed fall and the daughter coming together. we can only imagine how he would have treated those people who ware his worshippers and who indulged in such an obscene and vulgar allegory about himself. legend in a refers to by the godn of the share of iludra hi sacrifice. " When the deed was done of the father working his will. The Vedic tth legetfi the birth of Budra. 5-9." it became a pond (Saras The three The seed pointed arrow i* the thre fc . let in mid-hcaw. 4. The phenomenon is of Prajipati as ineeiuig stated 1 in the $g-Vcdu tp luive daughter (iohiiu happened in nud-hi*avn in thus. The Aitareya Brahmana passage "for the is concluded by the as it aentenre gods are lovers of mystery were/' We would add here that not only were the gods lovera of mystery but that If again their worshippers. parva> 18. ^ and fa Orioni*. But our interpretation Mrgasii For the legend we have also to compare would be different. that the tth. 61.

D. .VEDIC ANTIQUITY The or on 149 in mid-heaven have a star called astronomical phenomenon was observed the meridian of the observer. then *born and stationed at the star Sirius pierced Prajapati probably the line Auriga. of divested allegory is that the stars 8 Auriga Tauri or Aldebaran were observed to cross the meridian and almost together. which have almost the same celestial through Again the star Sirius. and the god Eudra. (8 A urig a). We have also the Mrgavyadha (or (Sirius) of which another Vedic name was Svan is of the Dog). the three stars at Orion's belt longitude. and a Tauri or Aldebaran are very nearly in the same line. perhaps having joints. and Eudra would be a bad for piercing either Prajapati or Eoliini. with 8 Aurigae. This was understood by the gods as the most o- The legend improper conduct on ^the part of Prajapati. his three-pointed /3 arrow was most and 8 Here Eudra's three-pointed line arrow may ' also ' mean this latter through Orion are & belt. and his identifica- faultless. viii 20. We have thus to look for the time when Prajapati or 8 Auriga and a Tauri or Aldebaran had almost the same right ascension. and Rohinl course the star Aldebaran. The word trikdnda does not really mean the three pointed. In 1935 A. it would 8 but three not reach Prajapati or Auriga. If meaning for the arrow of Kudra. which is identified by Burgess tion is his translation. the follows : celestial positions of these stars were as and obliquity of the ecliptic = -23" 26' 5F'86. 6. Prajdpati in Surya Siddhanta. joints seen latter we take the marksman. the in We . just as on a bamboo pole or in a sugar cane.

26 34/ 54*. Now Thus exactly from * drav? ?rPQ perpendicular to the arc KB atar then ffQ becomes there - extended.D. *B~ 59 39* and the angle EW3=20 Hence the angle jrRB becomes 9' 45* = 26 47*. PF celestial sphere. lot . In the following calculations the latitudes of stars are supposed to remain constant throughout. the positions of the stars a Tauri and 8 Auriga respectively in the year 1935 A. any past or future as TrP can never be equal to or greater than 26 34 .150 INDIAN After transformation of the co-ordiaates.T bo the polo of the pith of the celestial polo round R ami B . the arc 7' -R90-f 5 4vJ> 28' 19 ff . we have the following : celestial longitudes and latitudes for the year 1935 A. the was or is no possibility of same right ascension at these two to have date. (1) In the triangle ?rRB.D. 5i" .D. In the above figure of the the ecliptic. The in difference in their celestial longitudes was thus dO 7' 45* the 1935 A.

C. in which the right ascension of Rohinl was almost equal to that of 8 Auriga or right Prajdpati and the ascensions of the two stars were also zero near* about the same time. In 1935 the longitude of 8 Auriga was 89 0' 35''. The right ascensions of these stars at these two dates are tabulated below : . its = -2 27' V (- = 24 30 of star till Hence the 1935 increase in the celestial longitude 19' 5 1// representing a lapse of A. This was thus celestial longitude of a Tauri = = 92 44' 50" + 6. Tauri longitude was was the = 0. The above two dates. Similarly when the right ascension of a. or the year was about 3395 B. its The time Vhen longitude was of 8 Auriga had taking right ascension of = 0. 3395 B. = 71 about 5167 years and the date was thus 3233 B. find the angle En-Q We readily = 92 Hence tbe longitude of summer solstitial colure of the date in 44' 50* plus the questipn was 92 for the ye&r 1935 A. = 73 31' 55'/.C. so the increase in the celestial longitude of the star till 1935 A.C.D.C. 151 their We At nearest this time the position of the summer 44' 50" solstitial colure was the arc jrPQC. which represents a lapse of about 5829 years.C. viz.8 161 37' 40* 52' 50" The shifting of the solstices thus was 71 37' 40" from which the number of years elapsed till 1935 becomes 5177 and the year or the a date Tauri or was thus 3243 B..VEDIC ANTIQUITY can thus determine only the time of approach to an equality of their right ascensions. had between them an interval of 162 years.D. the valus the obliquity the ecliptic to be 24 5'. and 3233 B.D. its 15 28' 40''.

3243 B. In the rains when the thus described in the Kausltaki harvest has come. being about the time when the equinoxial colure passed through the star a Tatm. night which coincides with that time." (Keith) We which have not any interest in discussing the small inaccuracies may be found in Keith* s translation.152 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY There are two more points in this connection which have viz. or why we did not take the . full-moon of Bhadra oscillates between Sept.. he gives orders to pluck millet. he should half of the month look out for a naksatra and offer under the naksatra which he desires. 15. 1. The Sydmaka (lunar sasya or the millet is reaped in the month of Bhadra new-moon and the ending). . " Next as to A gray ana. He who desires proper food 2 sacrifice with the Igrayana. 19 to Sept. the question now arises what had the Vedic Hindus to do with the position of the equinoctial colure in their sacrificial of year and (2) why have we identified the star 8 Auriga 4th magnitude with Prajapati. which may begin from August. but we take is that the rendering substantially correct. a Auriga called which is a star of the or the Brahmahrdaya 1st magqitule and which "heart of Brahma. 2 and Oct. If he is a full- he should If sacrifice with this and then offer the full-moon the sacrifice. on * it should he sacrifice and then offer this sacrifice. first again he desires a naksatra. 12. to be considered : (1) The time determined. It is thus quite possible for the full-moon of Bhadra to fall on the i vrf ^nrt 3 The rains last for four months commencing from the day of summer solstice in .^orth India." is regard to the first point raised above we can say that the Vedic Hindus had a special sacrifice which was called With Sydmdka Hgrayana the first millet harvest sacrifice which is Brdhmana* IV. should millet The new moon moon in sacrificer.C.

the and a Tauri. f nil-moon was such a Harvest Moon. about the simultaneously were observed to cross the date found here at the place of the Auriga. viii.C. Hence the full-moon o Sept. full-moon at 82. in solar system has been sweeping through space towards either the constellation Hercules 1 Surya~SiddMnta. it The star may no* be one of the fourth magniin those was perhaps not so inconspicuous the third millennium B. t?fe. 8 Auriga one day.C. and the autumnal equinoctial day is more in evidence than the vernal equinoctial day..riga> and Again was not improbable own times.VEDIC ANTIQUITY 23rd of 153 September as it did in the year 1934 A. cj>0 1408B . literature. the Krttikas . 36-37 .D. The astronomical phenomenon was that at the full-moon. I would say that it is this 1 star that is called so in the Stirya-Siddhanla which has I trust 8 As to the second point why we have taken faithfully brought 8 down the tradition to our it Auriga represents the head of Ait.e. 46). it fell on 25 in 1923. the date becomes nearly the saare'15345 B. ber the shifting of From the the 23rd of September at the rate to the 2nd of Decem- number of days =70... what is illustrated "as the Ha/rvesfc moon in astronomy and the SyamaJta Agrayanu. It was on such" a full-moon night when the sun "was at the autumnal equinox. and of 74 years for the time equinoxes by elapsed becomes 5180 years. on Sept. a star of the 4tH magnitude for Prajdpati. If the whole days. (vide M. This Agrayana fall-moon or the harvest moon is also mentioned in the Mahabhdrata* as the 82. that the conjunction of Prajdpati and Rohinl (i. when the vernal equinox colure passed almost straight through the star a Tauri.C. 84. of 8 Auriga and a TCLIITI) by the almost simultaneous crossing of the meridian line was observed. to appears that the Vedic Hindus had use the autumnal equinoctial day in thair sacrificial calendar. It 31-32 . Vana. Bh. 22 in 1926. 30. almost meridian observe?. The date as we have ascertained was about 3245 B. 51-52 AnuSasana. Bhadra is. that this same const 3lla>tion used to be called Brahma in the Vedic tude. Now-a-days a full-moon near the star Rohinl (Aldebaran) happens on the 2nd December. 25.

equal to 62 .164 ANCIENT INDIAN CEBONOLOGY or Lyra.' and the Mahabharata " Eudra then the heart of pierced Yajna (Prajapati) fled ?). being followed by Eudra. quite unintelligible. Equinox at Mrgafiras** was suppbsad by Tilak in his Orion. \\ . 20 et. The legend of 1 M. Bli. 13-14 : . no astronomical interpretation legend is possible and the Mahabharata and Prajapati Rohini astronomically interpreted does not yield the Y. millennium B. seq. and Yajna (or the therefrom in the form of a deer with Agni That Yajna (Sacrifice or Prajapati) in that form reached the heavens and shone there." 1 Tauri Here Rohini or Aldebaran does not coine in. and the stars in the constellation Auriga being almost diametrically opposite have been steadily growing less and less Hence 8 Auriga was not so inconspicuous before the third bright. We have to consider the case of the two stars which have ^almost the same celestial and these were for longitude 61 50' respectively of /5 Tauri . pp. 32/ and and a latitudes were 6 22' N and 22 52' is N. The tradition preserved in the modern Sfirya-Siddhanta that Prajapati itself is the star 8 Auriga cannot thus be ignored. C.D. Sacrifice) (ft with a dire (raudra) arrow. 560 A. Again the star a Auriga is called in 9 the Surya-Siddhdnta Brahmahrdaya legend tells or the us that "Heart of Brahma. their celestial Auriga This is rather confusing. t Sauptika Parvan. 18.

CHAPTER Xllf VEDIC ANTIQUITY Solstice Days in Vedio Literature and Yajurveda Antiquity In the present chapter it is proposed to extnine first if the Vedic Hindus knew of any method for determining the day of the winter or of his summer solstice. lS t rjiuted by S. 18. and secondly to interpret the various statements as to the solstice days as found in the Kausitaki Brahmana. Diksita ia Ins p. . B. 47. days in Vedio Literature. The method days is Vedic Hindus for determining the the solstice thus expressed in the following passage from : Aitareya Brahmana * \ if Sayana has ed with 1 failed in his exposition of this passage which is relates to observational astronomy. (I) The method of the of finding the solstice. the Yajurveda and the Mahdbharata and to settle the approximate dates in Vedic chronology as indicated by these statements. this and no one who branch of science can possibly bring out unacquaintany sense Aitareya Brahmana.

him with three worlds of heaven . form above they propped up the Stomas are the three worlds of heaven (diurnal circles in (diurnal the heavens) the heavens) ^seventeen).e. three below are the middle is saptadasas three above in the the Ekavimsa on both Therefore he going between these Svarasdmans over these worlds does not waver. (eleventh) day *was certainly the day of the summer * solstice hence the worlds. period It is certainly established in the (the Therefoie he going between afraid two periods of 10 days) over these worlds. in the interval either side. indeed. For this reason this sun (as raised up) is viz. on the 'day following the winter solstice. sun going over these periods of 10 days on .' ' The gods were of this Aditya (the sun) falling from . Thus . ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Keith generally with in the translation which is given below follow : ' We some modifications of They perform the Ekavimsa day. Hence the Visuvdn or the middle day of the year was the summer solstice day.' The Vedic year-long sacrifices were begun in the earliest times supported by sides Soarasdmans.. . does not waver. of his -falling circles away upward in . The above passage shows that the sun was observed by the Vedic Hindus to remain stationary. the zenith). . in the middle the year by this Ekavimsa day the gods raised up the sun . towards the world of heaven (the highest region of the heavens.. the ten days before are ordained for the hymns to be chanted during the . day the . without any change in the 1 meridian zenith distance for 21 days near the summer solstice. ten lies Of this Ekavimsa sun (or the day). i. established on both sides in the Viraj Virdj. after are also ordained in the same way in middle (a the of Ekavimsa ten days). did not between the two waver/ Thus from a rough observation. the days.156 of it. he must have had 10 days of northerly motion. this world of heaven (the highest place in the heavens) him with three worlds (diurnal circles) of heaven (in the heavens) from below they propped up the Stomas are the three worlds of heaven (diurnal circles in the heavens) They were also afraid . and the for 21 days of middle . 10 southerly motion. The argument was this that if the sun remained stationary days. the Visuvdn. (called) Ekavimsa.

they could the noon-shadow of about in. came the three days of the three Stomas or days before and after the solstice day were respectively styled Abhijit and Visvajit days. was. - 6*93 in. the length of the noon-shadow (c) When the 7*44 in. quoted) were set apart for a Sadaha extra day and then . say. 27. of course. Hence by . the length of the noon- shadow = 7*44 (b) the sun had 6*98 in. latitude of Euruksetra (about 30 N) and when the 1 obliquity of the ecliptic was about 24 6 ft. 15'. the length of the noonin. be Question or 31 days.~0'05 in. 8. but a difference of '05 impossible of perception with discern in measuring rods. 80. Another method possible for the Vedic people this was to observe to the sun's amplitude near about the for 21 days. 157 Hindu could find the real day of the summer or winter (not first The next passage from the Aitareya Brdhmana 10=6 + 1 + 3 the divides the Virdj of 10 days thus : . This depended on the degree of accuracy of observaHindus by their methods of possible for the Vedic measurement.. Solstice day. 29. then (a) When When the sun had a longitude of in. sun had a longitude of 90.using any a of perhaps easily change half an inch. = 0*51 sort in. 6 days followed by an atirdtra or period. and was found remain stationary . a longitude of 87.VEDIC ANTIQUITY the Vedic solstice. shadow =6*93 Now - 6*93 in. vertical at the They probably observed the noon shadow of a If we assume that the observation was made pole. could thus infer quite that They the sun remained stationary at the summer solstice for 7 days when they used any measuring rods and when they used rougher 1 them. It may thus be inferred that the Vedic Hindus by more accurate observa- Svarasamuns The atirdtra tion found later on solstice for 7 that the sun remained stationary at the summer and not 21 days. : and the height of the pole was taken equal to. tion may now asked how could they observe that for the sun remained stationary for 21 days and not 23. and 6'98 in.

Gbap. .. and 8 ft. . Vedic Hindu stated his day of the winter to consider the Some of these statements are solstice in successive ages. the corresponding lengths of the noon- shadow would be 8 respectively. . 4'84 in.. and O'lO in.e. the true solstice the 4th day as the real solstice day. SaMita 1 The other metbod of determining the : solstice day is described in Brliat of Varahamihira. fur 21 days near the It does not appear solstices. last quarter of .. -. . 8 ft... The first method described by Varihamihira readily led to the observation of the heliacal rising of stars in different seasons as has been found in the Vedas. If the Vedic Hindus followed stationary. ... (d) (0) *> . (b) (c) . or by the marks of entrance or exit of the tip of the shadow of a gnomon in a large horizontal circle (having for its centre the foot of the gnomon)/ in the first of * Here two methods are described by Varahamihira which the sun's amplitude at sunrise or sunset is to be observed. Hindus to determine the knew how they solstice summer or the winter solstice day. one day before full-moon of Magha.. At the winter solstice. they took for 21 days.. respectively.. ft.. Magha. for determining the solstice days may be compared. 1 on We now pass part of this chapter. The changes in the length of the shadow were consequently 1*38 in. this method.. In this connection the method followed by the Druids of the ancient Britons. ... they could perhaps observe the sun to remain without any appreciable change of amplitude. .158 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY methods they could conclude that the sun remained stationary for 21 days at the summer solstice. When found fcbat the sun apparently remained stationary at the day was the llth and when they found that the sun remained stationary for 7 days. of Magha ended. . .. This finishes the first how the following (a) : The sun turned north on the new-moon . 4'94 in. . 3 The solstice day may he determined by observing the coincidence of the sun at the time of rising or setting with a distant sign-post. probable that the second method was followed by the Yedic Hindus. 3 '46 in. full-moon of Magha. It should thus be clear that the Vedic. on the new-moon of Magha begun. Ill. . i. as are seen in the Salisbury plains in England.. with heir cromlechs (stone circles.

every year) luni-solar to fix the Vedic to cycle. and they beginning or the end of the five-yearly stated the solstice days in moon of such a month of Mdgha. sidereal came every year.) say ' When the sun.C. .VEDIO ANTIQUITY As wo the shall see later on..e.ddmgas starting the Vedic five-yearly cycles : (1400 B. If they had could state the solstice days by they exact days of such a calendar. Meaning of the Month of Mdgha for Vedic Cycles for As to the beginning of the month of Mdgha which was used the Jyantisa Vr. was the beginning of the Vedio five-yearly day or Yugas and Sdmvatsara or year-long Vedic sacrifices cycles were begun in the earliest times also from the day of the winter reference the phase of the The winter solstice solstice* It is thus necessary for of : of its this peculiar month Mdgha how us to find the true meaning it began and what were characteristics. considered the above : We have very carefully and we may state our finding in the following" way The Vedic Hindus did not have a sidereal reckoning of they followed a reckoning by lunar months of which 12 year . in their reckoning the month of Mdgha. the Dhanisthds (Delphinis] the beginning of the Yuga (i. a did not begin in the it same part of the in also. month of Mdgha as referred to in the above statements? Why should the sun's turning north of such a phase of the moon movable month be connected with a particular ? Unless and until satisfactorily. the moon and it is Ascend the heaven together. we can answer the above questions to interpret we cannot hope questions any of the above statements. Unfortunately this they had not. these solstice 159 statements as to the literature. day of of winter occur in Vedic The month Mdgha (lunar) may begin now-a-days from the loth of January What then is the meaning of this to the llth of February. found out a particular lunar month of Mdgha (not occurring They or the tropical year as does not begin now use sidereal calendar. the or 13 as formed the year it .

"Lady Abhijit *Lyra). Bh. I arn thus confounded at this incident as one naksatra has been deflected from heavens. the first of winter.160 ANCIENT INDIAN OHBONOLOG-Y Inni-solai cycle). please find this time in consultation with of her. as it were. (i. Vana. As to the time when the use of this month of accepted for making the Yedic calendar. and Rohini (a Tauri or Aldebaran) became the first star. 230. the younger to the forest to sister of Rohini. 9 or Tapas of the this light half and of the sun's northerly month begin with the time the Magha as used for starting new-moon afc Delphinis. passage from the Mahabharata : Magha was we have the following *MT * I) IT 3 ^^ M. and the Krttikds rose very probably at the east. Hence Skanda.e.. 8-11. who started the reckoning of time from the new-moon at the Delphinis. In this way the number of naksatras became proper (Sarnd). Here we have the time when the exactly Ve^ic which the presiding deity is . and it still shines as the one of Agni (Fire). has Brahma/* Then Brahma fixed the time. beginning from the Dhanisthas. In the Jyautisa Vedaihga day of the very beginning of a such a Magha was the of Hence the Vedic cycles must day of the winter solstice and thu^ it marked the beginning of the tropical month of Tapas. five-yearly of the month of Magha course. being jealous gone perform austerities with the desire of attaining the position of the elder. a person of very high antiquity whose name was forgotten.' The passage quoted above shows that it was Brahma.. when Rohini beca-me the first star. the Krttikas flew to the heavens as the naksatra (star group) with seven heads. When Indra thus spoke to Skanda.

VEDIC ANTIQUITY five-yearly luni-solar cycles 161 came to be started witb reference to the month of Mdgha. full-moon could perhaps of Aldebaran with the only be by their simultaneous meridian passages on the equinoxial day in the Vedic The celestial pole of the time was very near to a. 9 Rohinl their 2 proper (Aldebaran) or Jyesthd (Antares). 81 1 19. This was the approximate date when the month of Mdgha with its beginning with a new-moon at Delphinis was agreed upon as the standard month with reference to which the fiveyearly Vedic luni-solar cycles were started loere and intercalary months determined. afc aad about respectively 3 longitudes of and 180 3050 B. at the Maghd mean or Regulus. pass that rate. viii. p. In both th se the B. to our and 248 48 according .' new-moon near We have the it Delphinis. oiz. Another feature which follows from this the full-moon near the star takes is that should have as the /? moon about 14*7 days. Hence had these stars differ in longitude by almost 180 the degrees. to from Delphinis to a Leonis or Maghd.C. method of observing the conjunction of the full-moon with Aldebaran on the equinoxial a day was by joining the pole star with the moon and Aldebaran. up to now settled that one feature of this standard month of Mdgha was that it should begin with B. longitudes were 68 49' For 1931 AJD. Draconis. here not necessary for us to by rejecting Abhijit attempt an explana- tion of the rivalry between either of the Rohinis and Abhijit. 21--I408B . (lunar It is na'ksatras was about mansions) was It this time that the number of fixed at 27 (aLyra). The third feature of this standard month of its Mdgha was at last quarter (astakd). 2 229 44' According to Burgess these stars had the celestial longitudes of 49 45' and Translation of the Surya Siddhanta. calculation. 3 The conjunction observed times. Calcutta University in 560 A. Jyesthd or Antdres as the should be conjoined with 4 Apastamba Grhya Sutra says: the moon 1 Taittiriya Samhita. which was really taken equal to Zero. 10. 4. 243.C. Now in Vedic literature Rohim means two 1 stars. Apastamba Grhya Sutra. A. 4. and the elate for methods it was that comes out 4 iib be 3233 B.D. The other possible Reprint.

of 48' a standard Magha A. the conclusion that the Vedic standard to pass to Magha.162 * ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY The VyastaM which comes after the full-moon at Magha (Regulus). and shall henceforth call thin Last quarter at Antares.. does not corue every This month of Magha did not and year. has its eighth day (of the dark half) or last quarter with the moon at the star Jyesthd or Antares that is called . should have the full-moon about the 18th February. a Lconis 148" a Scorpionis Antares 248 should nearly. also We of month the Vedic Standard month Magha. (2) had three characters. viz. Ekastaka. to All points considered in our we in are inclined take that this Magha happened time 1924 A. Full-moon at Regulus. This shall use as our gauge year and month .D. in our If it we look for such : a month coming own times. cycles in reference started luni-solar were which the Vedic five-yearly and winter . (1) (3) New-moon at Delphinis.. year and this month we from the 5th February till the 5th March. For 1931 Delphinis had a longitude 315 23'.solstice days in successive ages were determined and stated. we had as shown below The Vedic standard month unique in its of Magha is thus noi strictly position in the sidereal year.D.' The moon takes at the mean rate 7 '545 days or roughly a quarter of a synodic month to Thus we come month of from Regulus to Antares. in Present The Vedic Standard Month of Magha Times We /} can or now ascertain occurred may or occur in how and when such our own times. 5'J'. Hence this standard begin about the 5th February. and the last quarter of month Magha about the 28th February.

(ii) Statements of Solstice Days in Vedic Literature are going to state and explain the references from the Brdhmanas and other works which -either directly state or indicate periods. of whicb the lab day of of MagUa was the epoch of the Paitamaha Siddhanta of the PancasiddhantiM 7 =673532 -73 da and 22808 lunations \ 'arahamibira. thus for the first time they obtain him introductory atimtra that is why the on him they lay hold with the caturtiimsa . The interval of 1844 sidereal years =673533 65 da. these also . 3. northwards. (A) it We now the winter solstice day of the successive Vedic The first first reference is : from the Kausltaki Brdhmana. VEDIG ANTIQUITY different 168 of 1 in interpreting the statements the days of the winter solstice as occurring in Vedic literature. being about io turn being about to sacrifice with the .D. The year 1924 A. D. xix. The difference is only about a day. 1 2 Kau^taki Brahmaya. is aiso similar to the year 80 A. . and was found by Weber tH 1 t** ST ci Hu*u^ij<^5v{wil few This passage has thus been translated by Keith in his Rg-Veda Brdhmanas ' : On the new-moon of Mag ha rest.. he rests.

D. thus for the . With regard to this. 1924. the year is in three ways arranged. not shivering they come out from the final bath. day . He goes north for six months him follow with six-day periods in forward arrangement. He goes south they follow him with six-day periods in reverse for six order. on the the new-moon of Mdgha 1 This new-moon is without the sun reached the winter solstice.. is the rule'. For six months he goes north. Verily it serves to obtain the year. . Having gone south months he stands still. G. true anniversary of this determination of the winter solstice. the sun's mean longitude was 342 842 57' 46" 58' to the nearest minute. . and they about to sacrifice with the Mahavrata day obtain him for the third time. was the. noon. This longitude was near tion of 1 to It 270 in the year of this determina- the is solstice day. Ordaining the days and nights. being about to sacrifice with the Visuvant . They should consecrate themselves one day after the new-moon of Gaitra the corn has come. Having they gone for six months he stands still. Therefore that . hold has its name. Lite a cunning spider. Now on = = the 5th March. In that they obtain him thrice. the days are short. six south. shows a shifting of the solstices by This perhaps the oldest tradition of the solstice day as recorded in this Brahmaiia. For six north the sun goeih. the days are long. that new-moon with which Mdgha ended. it is Here definitely skated that any doubt definition or before. M. 1924 A. being about to turn southwards these also rest. this sacrificial verse is sung. For six months south constantly. They should not consecrate themselves at this time the corn has not arrived.164 laying ANCIENT INDIAN CHfiONOLOGi* . for six months second time they obtain him. at this time. shivering they come out from the final bath Therefore they should not consecrate themselves (avabhrtha) . The meaning of this month of Magha has been found This statement shows that the 5th of March.

1939. as 5440 from which the required year The sun then turned north in 3517 B. ' Now * 5444 = (1939 x 2 + 160 x 9 + 19 x 6 + 8) +4 . 19.\ElXLC AiSTlQUriY about 72 58'. 1924. or the date of this determinalapse tion of the solstice becomes near to 3521 B. iG5 A in D. of this determination of the winter solstice day. of mean longitude 270 *- was. 1 Generally this year is stated Chapter 1.268 years. 27.C.444 years till 1924 A.D. how could solstice day. . the date arrived at requires a 1 adjustment. continued exhausted. etc.. when not checked by actual observation. The result obtained. was was still within their limit of almost always in error.D.C.. 8. till 1924 But we have yet to allow for the sun's equation. 160. Now centuries 52*44 before 1900 A. This equation of applied to the mean longitude of the sun on the 5th March. 11 or returned.. but perhaps however. as regards the moon's phases little in relation the fixed stars. the longitude of the sun's solar apogee was = 11 30' nearly and the eccentricity of the Hence the sun's equation for the orbit was about '018951. the years winter solstice. 345 6 was equal to 270 in the year S' is f now . Now as we want the year similar to 1924 to A.. years in which the moon's phases near to fixed stars repeat themselves. till the five-yearly cycle of 62 lunar months was the same type of Magha They then thought that their reckoning in 3. . . Hence elapsed years must now be taken comes out to be 3517 B. 2 + 2 8' nearly. noon. We have already obtained the luni-solar cycles of 8. came to have 366 days be asked how the Vedic year It may or 12 lunar months + 32 nights. Hence the total 6' nearly this indicates a shifting of the solstices becomes 75 of 5. or they might check Hence their predicted day of 19 by actual observation. were always correct. M. viz. 342 58 .' They counted full 366 days they find the next winter estimated that the or 12 months and 12 nights after which they This sort of reckoning sun would reach the winter solstice. p. viz.D. on the new-moon day of Magha and the first from the said new-moon day. representing a lapse of about 5. year of the luni-solar cycle ' commenced The question now is. at G. 5.C.. 21 days Their observed solstice days.

the ordinary 180 days + 2 atirdtra days.long sacrifices with the time was unsuitable on the ground of its being extremely cold. when Spring ' or as the text says.' One point more we want to settle is that year was taken to begin. The Vedic ytar had thus 366 days or 12 lunations x + 12 'nights. the first atirdtra day was the Visvajit day and the other had a suitable name. One day after the nfew moon of sacrifices.166 in. Then rule was made to" begin these set in. The answer is Vedic year normally began on the day following the winter solstice. as the beginning the year." it connection that the atiratra days were not reckoned in the sacrificial calendar. winter solstice day but full or exactly 60 days later. D. not from the Thus the first season. There was next felt when the Vedic The now easy. Our date is Of. Similarly in the sun's southerly course. spring in later reckoning (sacrificial year) though winter formerly. Jyautisa 28. as it was the non-harvesting time and as the days were then very short. therefore. became and winter then became the sun turned north on the last season of the year. by taking the standard month of Mdgha as the one which happened from the the 5th of March. Winter . .was thus the first season of the year. We have found out the year oth of February till when the new-moon'of Mdgha to have been 3517 B. the middle day of the year which belonged to neither half and then came the other half with 180 days +. this In a half year there were . and winter then began and lasted for two months. Of the two atirdtras of the northerly course. should be remembered Tn it there are five seasons and two courses In this the sun). In all. How is. the first was the Prdyanlya and the second the Abhijit day. ANCIENT INDIAN CHKONOLOOY many places to to consist of discrepancy be explained ? 360 days only. two months and one day Caitra. then came the Visuvdn. the difficulty of winter solstice day. there were in the year 2(180 + 2) +2 or 366 days.C. 1924 A. 2 atirdtra days and lastly came the Mahdvrata day. t " A year is three (of hundred with sixty six of days.

connection with the solstice days must have a definite meaning. 44-45 and runs as follows (B) : Orion on 3* ^rfo* 1 before. 0. literature. As to the full-moon ending Mdyha. A question may 9 yet be raised. also Tdndya Bralimana. * This reference was quoted by Tilak in his 2 pp. In the Jyautisa Veddmgas we get the new-moon ending months alone not a single verse in them can be interpreted to mean the fullmoon ending months. must mean more or less a unique synodic month not occurring every year. VII. 1 We ' now pass on to our next reference. S. It is perhaps needless to point out that unless like we no can find out a correct interpretation of passages determination of time would be possible. . In the case of the new-moon ending Magha. a Further the fnll-moon ending Magha cannot include the Ekastaku d&y as defined This is a serious defect of the full-moon ending months. the newphrase the full-moon ending ' pointed out and that such a month of Mdgha was associated with ihe winter solstice day and the starting of the Vedic five-yearly cycle or Yuga.. above. This amount of possible shifting must be considered negligible at such a remote age. The word Mdgha as used in already 7*. we have are not yet discovered any unique meaning either from the Jyautisa or Veddmgas so from other Vedic Thus while we much month are in doubt as to the characters of of a unique full-moon ending of Mdgha.VEDIC ANTIQUITY 167 perhaps liable to shifting of about one or two centuries either way if we took the gauge year to be 1927 or 1932 A. V. Taittiriya Samhita. if of the moon of Mdgha. We of thus consider it fruitless speculate upon the characters to interpret the a Vedic full-moon ending like unique Mdgha references the above.D. we have established three distinctive peculiarities as . the word Mdgha means month of Mdgha. e. Our answer is that we have taken the month of Mdgha as the new-moon ending not without any reason. 4. the characters clear the new-moon ending Mdgha very to and well-pronounced.

. the her for this night. as is the season (winter) which reckoned the last of the year. should consecrate themselves at the full-moon near They Citrd \Spica or a Virginis). After them rises the good fame that these sacrifices have prospered. Their rise rise months (monthly (finish) in the first sacrifices) fall in the first They plants half. They thus begin the yearly (year-long. ' The Tandya 9 may the same passage with slight alterabe seen from Tilak's quotation in his Orion. of no consequence)). lives year what is called Ekdstakd and he. Their Kraya (i. - is the wife of the ID year. also We translate the above passage following him generally thus : * Those who want to consecrate themselves for the yearly This (year-long)" sacrifice should do so OQ the Ekdstakd day. Their Sutyd (i. Thereby they do not render the Ekdstakd void (i. half. purchase of Soma) falls on the Ekdstakd (here the last quarter of Caitra). it is as the beginning of the year.e*.e. (the middle day of the year) falls in the rainy season.168 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY **: This passage BraJimana bas tions as is from the almost T ait tiny a Samhita. They should consecrate themselves four days before the full-moon (near Citra). sacrifices but it has one defect that the Visuvdn from the very mouth . On all their rising. herbs and after them.. Thus those should that consecrate on the as it Ekdstakd do so in the reversed order marks the last season of the year. thus begin the sacrifice Of this time there is no fault whatsoever. extraction of Soma juice) falls in the first (light) half of the month.e. Thereon piosper/ . consecrate on the full-moon at the Phalgus as it of They is the mouth the year. from the very mouth of the They year. Those that consecrate on the it is Ekdstakd truly do so in a distressed condition.

As for in the Kausltaki Brdhmana here is expressed a dislike beginning the yearly sacrifices with the beginning of winter.^ considered unsuitable for the was beginning of winter.C. Gavamayana The ^nnnentator Savara for elucidation.VEDIC ANTIQUITY The solstice. The centuries before the time. quotes the Toft** * ** * T ^* **** 23 lAOflfc . of the Standard month of Mdglia on on which the moon was conjoined with Antares. corresponded with the 27th February of Hence the date for this position of the winter solstice as obtained observation comes out to have been 2934 B. had preceded by nearly 8 days and fell the day. traditional days for the quotes the following The Puna MAnMffl. by It fices was about should Ekdstakd. of the full-moon at the Phalgus. 169 Taittiriya the first Samhitd here records three days of the winter two of which were traditional and the last belonged to one are: most likely the date of this book. that the day tion. season to the extreme cold nature of purpose chiefly owing out of the water which made the sacrificer shiver on coming to think that People then came after the bath of avabhrtha. of the last quarter. the day This day had been was the first day of the year. of the winter solstice time when this many was the position if of at the this solstices was about there 4550 B We cannot be sure high antiquity was anything i like the standard month of Mdglia agreed upon. be begun from sacri^ this time taken as a rule that the year-long But as this of the day the to an older tradithe yearly sacrifices should be begun according of the full-moon night near the Phalgus fc. Some centuries later than the tradition recorded in the it Kausltaki Brdhmana.. These (1) (2) (3) The Day The Day The Day of Ekastaka. was observed that the winter solstice i. preceding the full-inoon of Magha. This day on the Ekdstakd day. 1924 A J>.e. it was the. of our time..

and 2934 B. and the year in which the winter 1 The was 2454 B. 1924 A. solstice When last full day the day following the Caitri EMstaka or the last quarter of In its place the Taittinya Samhita recommends tbat Caitra. page 32. In the Mahabharata. day. than the year^tz.on the full-moon day of Magha time indicated by the rule of the Taittinya Samhita 'becomes about 2446 B. that would happen |tH of a month or 22 days later. should be begun from the full-moon yearly (year-long) sacrifices day of Gaitra or Gitrd Paurnamasi day. full two solar months or two lunar (synodic) months the sacrificial plus one day later.170 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY But the sacrifices who thought that "the EMstaka "day was calculated unsuitable 'for beginning the full-moon at the Phalgus the yearly sacrifices. and that the middle day of the year wduld happen 22 days after the sun crossed the summer solstice a day Hence if which was almost at the middle of the rainy season* they began the yearly (year-long) sacrifices at the beginning of spring i. 2446 B. on the day of the would begin quarter of the standard month of Magha. there are (c) several passages which at indicate that the nights of the full directly or indirectly moons the KrttiMs and the Maghas.C.e. the date of the Taittinya Samhita should be about 2446 B. spring consequently th? two synodic months plus one day later most suitable for beginning the yearly sacrifices would be the -sun reached the winter .C was the year in which This has beep fufly discussed o& sacrifice.C..C. the winter solstice day was one day -before the full-moon day of the standard month of Magha. Judged by this latest tradition recorded in it. the Visuvdn or the middle day of be year would be the first day of autumn and there would no inconvenience due to rainy weather on that. of which the former. This being the beginning of spring. is of doubtful value.. .C.C. day fell.. The other two traditions which it contains were true for about 4550 B.D. were respectively the a'utumnal * ' * Eight yars after 2454 B.. respectively.C. the full Viator splstice day. Incur 6nding this Yudhiftbira began the Afoamed'bQ moon of Magha fell one day later. This full-moon day of Magha corresponded with the 20th solstice February.

. Bh. 82. Vana.. Bh. 31-32. 46. (3) ^laNti^taiPi M^fs ^e-itci^mi I * At Prayaga (the confluence of the Ganges and the Jamuna) ten thousand full-moon at the Maghas. Bh. gets the blessed Puskara specially at the full-moon worlds for all times at the house of Brahma.j Vana. 25.VEDIC ANTIQUITY 17i equinox and the winter solstice days and thus particularly auspicious for the performance of some religious observances : - (i) 'The at man who goes to the Krttikas. Bh. M.. $1-52.. according to Sastric rules with a devoted or prayerful mind. .' (2) ' A person reaching a holy bathing place at full-moons at the (Pleiades) Krttikas and the MagMs (Regulus). Anutasana. " etc. holy waters meet/ (4) at the three crores and U ' On the full-moon at Krttikas. 84. 25. gets the ' merit of having performed respectively the Agnisioftia and^the AtirStra sacrifices/ ' - Here it is significant -that the difference in celestial longitudes is of Pleiades and Regulus very nearly equal to 90 degrees. M.he would get the religious merit of having per- formed the PunAanka sacrifice/ 1 8 3 M. Anutasana. 35-36. if a man should go to the bathing place called TTrvafi and bathe in the Lauhitya (the river Brahmaputra). M.

so these two ends of the year are connected/ (Keith) on proceed to find the time indicated by the above passage the hypothesis that this reference states the day of winter solstice and not the o spring. 1 day The Mahabharata references quoted above show that the old observers could of of the standard month ascertain that at this Krttikas time the vernal equinox was near to the (Pleiades) and the summer solstice at the MagMs (or near to the star Regulus). 1. Kausitaki Brahmaqa. . Kaliyuga t pp. 40-42. " Next as the to the four-monthly sacrifices He who for on .e. sort of statement.C. already ascertained the time when the fall-moon Magha was also the winter solstice it was the the year 2454 B. not connected with the month of Magha from the Brdhmanas as to the beginning of the year expressed in terms* of the fullness of the moon near to the Phalgus : prepares the full-moon four-monthly sacrifices. beginning We Winter Solstitial Point and Deduced Date the exact indication of the winter We solsticial have now to settle moon point from the above Brdhmanas reference.. This position of the equinoxes and the solstices was perhaps regarded as correct till up to 2350 B. Just as the two ends of what is round (viz. while the full-moon 1 Phalgus the first night of the next 2 Chapter II Mahabharata. The full-moon night of the Phalgunls is the beginning of the the latter two (uttare) Phalgus year are the beginning and the former two (Purve) the end (i.C. *> (D) We now come to a different . 5. the circle) may unite. .ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGY We have day . f . at the Purva Phalgus was the last night of the at the Uttara The fuli- year. begins night of the Phalgunls. puccha or the tail).

etc. = 170 . On the other hand. the first of which was the Anumati Paurnamdsl and 1 These two full-moon the second was the Rdkd Paurnamdsi. . M. = 166 32' Now 12 hrs. Gr. 1928. on the 6th March. 11. that the beginning of this class of literature and of the religious ceremonies prescribed in them began from 1 Aitareye Brahma^a t xxvii. from such we arrive at the year 3293 B. The date approximation. which we understand to be literature earliest date for the inception of Brdhmana as deduced from the above statement. nights were consecutive. the Vcdic full-moon nights were not one but two in a lunar month. be r longitude of 345 From which the total shifting of the solstices becomes 75 40' as a first comes out to about 3550 B. Now.D. If the full-moon the beginning of Indian day of Phdlguna be distinctly indicated as spring. T. in any of the Brdhmanas.D. Now and the the celestial longitude of B Leonis for 1931 A.D. Here is produced a difference of about 700 years. =162 celestial longitude of (3 24' Leonis for 1931 A.C.C. as will be set forth later on. take if we we take that the sun in opposition to to ft Leonis marked the winter solstice.'. references. a full-moon happened at 34 mio.C. noon had the 40 nearly. Conclusion We in have thus shown from the direct statements as found the Brdhmanas. M. the work limit in question must belong to a date of which the superior would go down to about 625 B. If 173 the meaning that the sun reached the winter solstice at the full-moon at the Purva Phalgus.VBDIC ANTIQUITY year. occurring somewhere Hence we should day of this take the full-moon ft midway between the stars and Leonis as indicative of the winter solstice Brdhmana period.C.. 41' The mean of the longitudes of these stars for 1931 A. and the sun at G. the date comes out be 3980 B.

and we have found out a of dates extending from 3550 B.the references which use the month of Magha for .174 ANCIENT INDIAN CSBONOLOGt The actual about 3560 B. This would tend to lower some of the dates as connected with Magha by solstice days. as has been established in Chapters I-III. in the we have shown that the Vedic Hindus knew The reference (A) would indicate the 1 when Rohini became the first star/ first date of which a method of of In finding the solstice day of either description of any year. the second half we have established that there was a standard month of Magha in their statements of the solstice days in set successive ages. cannot be all of the Bbarata battle falls within this range and was the year 2449 B. As to . The year Brahmaiias.D.C. - .C. nearly This chapter is divided into two parts.C. 841. to 2350 B. say if the Vedic Hindus did not sometimes use tbe type of Magha which happened this year..C. and we cannot. Vana. Blu. . ' 3308 B. 230. quoted before. dates arrived at are tabulated! below : The above classed dates indicated in the as mere traditions.C. during which some sort of Sanskrit literature known as the Brdhmanas began to be formed. the about 200 years. stating the gauge year could as well be 1927 A.

VI. 3928 B. <4. . In these leferences stated that Svarbhdnu struck the sun with darkness. Diksita "would take the word 'Devas' the meaning of references 'mean the ""sun's 9 rays. to a solar in the Brahmana. VI. 6. eclipse He had tfatapatha a reference 3. 6. IV.C. there are references to solar are 11. 16. sequent writers. it is 1445. 2 . and understood also found as such by Diksita. 5. it is Whatever" clear that the dispelled the solar eclipse the word 'Dems may which speak of Atri darkness that lay on the sun's described as the person disc. V. V. xxiii. Br. in (1st.CHAPTER XIT BKIHMANA CHBONOLOGY Solar Eclipse in the Tdndya Brdhmnna Asnoticed by page late Sankara Balakrsna Diksita. 2. 8 and XIV. 2. 0>) . (5." be. (1) eclipses in five places in the Tdndya Brdhmana which (3) all IV.his 63 edn. 8 . 2. 2 and which has been often quoted by subthree references of the Tdndya Brdhmana : The as to this special eclipse are the following " (a) T. Of these five references. 6. who speak of the as in the Rg~Veda. (2) IV. 14-15. the time of which has been already ascertained in Chapter IX as the 26th July. in the two.). It is proposed in the present chapter to determine the date of this another eclipse of the sun as mentioned in the Tandy a* Brahmana. it is said that it was in Atri who is the remaining destroyed the darkness from the front of the sun .. 13 . viz. 40. 11. and 5. three references the removal of darkness from to the sun ascribed to the Devas or gx>ds. XIV.

on the day on which the sun's tropical longitude was about 150 degrees. XXm. 16. To be more precise. e. By the rays " (c) Svarbhanu.. the Asura. begun rains ended and the Indian autumn began. the Asura. for the gods wanted to purify him and they got these Svarasdmans I by these they removed the darkness from the sun..e. J3r. the three sacrificial calendar. Whatever are known as Dwakwtyas. (i. to -1296 A-P- exploring the period from with the help of the eclipse cycles By . These passages (a) may be translated as follows : " Svarbhanu born of Asura. struck the sun with darkness . Br. this darkness the sun with darkness. (c) T.. there were Visuvant. 13. i. The gods removed by singing the These Divdklrtya songs are the rays alone the snn is truly begun/' of the sun. which means according to the " the middle day of the sacrificial year Taittiriya Samhitd as " It meant the day on which the Indian from spring. 2553 A I). 12. 6. struck the sun with darkness. are (the agents) for the destruction of darkness. Svarasdmans are for the rescue of the sun struck " (b) Svarbhanu.176 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY T. IV. days after the Visuoant) the Viwwmt. which was dispelled by the gods with Svaras (hymns) hence the " . must be a in the event only. On What is here said peculiar solar eclipse tradition of a past Tdndya Brahmana about such a "happening on the Visuvant day. Divakirtya songs songs sung during the day time)." this These passages all indicate that the solar eclipse in question happened on the Visuvant day.. We thus infer that Divakirtya songs the solar eclipse happened on the Visuvant day. these and three Svarasdman seven days (including the were sung. it meant the day on which the sun's According to the Vedic Sv&rasarn&n days before the tropical longitude became 150.

. on which at GK M. the lunisolar elements were : Mean Sun . = = == 152 12' 22"*35 Moon 148 102 32 16*30 Lunar Perigee A.M. we find after a few trials that a solar eclipse took place in the year -2450 A JX on Sept. . 14. 1297 The eclipse began almost with the sunrise. 2 IV. .C. Time of Sunrise = 5-32 A. 13 and XXIII. . and are no other solar eclipse period with the visible at sun's longitude at 150 this happened nearly and which was in Kuruksetra.e. (i.M.T. T. 3. Date : September. .) Sun and Moon = 150 18' nearly the solar eclipse = 5-27 A. satisfied that to B.. Time. = 7-4 . its references in IV. ending nearest approach of centres = 6-4 ..C.M. Magnitude of the eclipse = 0*41 = 5 Indian units . therefore records the solar . z . 2451 B.M.... Duration of eclipse = 1 hr. We have carefully examined the period from 2554 B... 6 hrs or Kuruksetra Mean Time 11-8 A.. -2450 A. We can not.BEAHMANA CHRONOLOGY deduced in 177 Chapter IX on the " Solar Eclipse in the Rgveda. also It is not unlikely that the Satapatha Brdhmana in V. The Tdndya Brdhmana the eclipse 6.M. to however. K.. by this finding settle if the Tdndya Brdhmana is be dated earlier than the Satapatha Brdhmana. K. 37 m. 5. 14. Longitude of conjunction of Time . : We briefly summarise them for the station Kuruksetra.D. 2.C. It will be shown later on that the Jaiminlya Brdhmana and the Tdndya Brdhmana 23 indicate a common date of about 1600 B. of beginning of . on Visuva\t day in 12.C. 1408B . 16.. Node 50 51 1 30*85 1'82 = = 143 27 Sun's apogee 51'86 Sun's eccentricity = 0*018331. 2 records the same traditional eclipse. The are set full calculations of the circumstances of this solar eclipse in the forth Appendix.

M.M. Noon. Node Sun's apogee = = = = = 152 12' 22"*35 148 32 50 51 1 16'80 102 143 30'85 1'82 27 51*86 Solar eccentricity - 0'018331 Gr.T.. A = B = 151 57' 35"'28 152 152 2 7 A = B = C 145 14' 37"'54 30'46 146 147 20 26 23'38 Moon's Perigee At A = B = = 102 48' 50^*59 102 102 49 49 24'01 57'43 Sun's apogee = 27 1' 51'86 A.. 2 >? A.G.. Perigee A.T. T. or 5-8 A. 826452...M. 6 A.e. 51 33-08 = 143 51 17'20 Sun's eccentricity (e) = 0*018331 /4 (2) radians ** 125 745 [2'0994901] (fe) radians ==_ 1''487 [Q-1575563] . ?> or 7-8 > ^ V'O ...M. i. Node At A = 143 143 51' 48^*96 B.D.) Mean Luni-solar elements Mean Sun Mean Moon L. 43*49 J. C. 1.178 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY APPENDIX Calculation o/ the Solar eclipse mentioned in the Tdndya Brahmana Date September. midnight M.. G. Mean Sun Mean Moon At 30-97 26'66 . (2451 B.M. and 97 days before Jan.) Kuruksetra Epoch (i.. 142450 A. G% 11-8 A.C. Mean Time 1900..e. Let A represent the epoch hr. M. : Julian day No. Kuruksetra time B ^ At .| .M.

BBIHMAETA CHRONOLOGY Longitude of Sun 179 At A 151 57' 35 At B 2' At C 31" Mean Sun Total equation = 152 152 7' 27" = -1 4426 -1 4420 150 -1 44 14 150 23' 13" Apparent Sun = 150 13' 9" l& 11" Longitude of Moon Instant of New moon ^ 8-3 Kuruksetra Mean Time. Latitude of Moon +2312-"! + 528-3 sin -86-0 sin -25*0 (Fi-gO = -22-1 -17-6 -14-1 +23'8sin(F 1 + gO +23'2sin (F 1 -g) = - -23'6sin(F 1 -2g) = = = +23'4 + 22-1 sin (F 1 +2D\ Total + 15-8 +1397-4 +23' 17" '4 + 1808-2 + 3(X8"-2 +2211-5 +36'51"'5 Latitude .

Long. = 30 N) A R. 51 30 2" 79 58' 2" 107 24' 49" Decli. = CQ = pt. and 6 18 32' 28" 23 34' 59" 34' 13" 22 47' 20" Angle bet. and Lat. = 5* 8W East. of culminating pt.A00 * ^ 103 -4*52"* ^ ^ -2* 52 WI Converted into degrees A n etc.180 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Moon's Horizontal Parallax P = 3422'"7+ 186*6 cosg + 34*3 cos (2D-g) + 28'3 cos 2D For 'B' + 34-3 cos = = (2D-g) + 28'3 cos 2D = = Const. Moon's semi-diameter Sun's Sun's Horizontal Parallax = = = 16' 22" *4 17' 10"'9 8"*9 Calculation of the Eclipse for Kuruksetra ( Long. J -73 43 Obliquity of the ecliptic -. of cul. of Zenith = 11 2' 18" 6 23' 52^ 7 8' 40" ON = 7N = yC + ON 3 5' 43" 029'40" ' -057'26" - 54 35' 45" 80 27' 42" 106 27' 23" . of Mean Sun Local mean time (from 12 noon) B 152 2' ' c 31" = 151 57' 35" 152 7' 27" = -6A 52wl 1 . + 186'6 cosg + 185*'8 +19-7 17*7 8422-7 3605"'4 = 60' 5" '4 H. A. of the ecliptic = yC = ABc = 23 58' 24" . ecliptic meridian = = 74 13' 38" 85 Tr-82 21' 1" ZNalat. Parallax.

of of Zenith 54 35 45 80 27 42 69 106 27 23 43 55 50 (yO-yN) Parallax in Long. -2436" +1483" +4677" X = Istdiff.-0 40' 36" +0 Y 24' 43" +117'57'' the corrected X represent Moon. diff. = - +8919 +8194 2nddiff.= +1483" + 3556'/ 5t-362''-5< 2 where t is measured from the instant B and is in units of two hours. /. ~ 725 i X. . in lat. of Sun = 150 13 9 150 18 11 150 23 13 Moon -Sun Let . of Moon - 32 33 150 42 54 41 10 Long.BEIHMANA CHRONOLOGY = ABO -6'40"'7 -7' 27" '4 18i Parall.'. yN=Long. of Corrected lab. -11' 28" "6 +23' 17'4 Lat.= . = = <= 95 37 24 50 29 55' + 58' 33" + 65" + 41' 16" Long. y = +709" 1st. diff. of Moon Moon Sun = +308'2 + 3651'5 +29'24"'l 150 23' 13'' = + 11'48"'8 = = 150 13' 9" + 23'27"'5 150 18' 11" y=Long. +1408" +1764" = +699 -343 +356 2nd. Y = +1408" + 527-"5*-171"'5 I* Sum of the semi-diameters of ss 32' Sun and Moon 33" '3 = 1953" nearly.Sun. and represent latitude of Moon. of Moon 148 34 149 149 46 59 150 59 54 151 Corrected long.

182 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGt y + 709* 2587* + 815 +916 2074 -410 1664 I -322 + 1011 1342 ! -175 + 1101 + 1186 1167 + ) 1190 23 +373 + 198 + 1265 1388 I +303 + 1339 + 1408 Time of beginning 1691 '+354 2045 5-27 7-4 = 5 h 23 wl +4w = A. The eclipse began almost with sunrise. Time of ending _= 6*-53 w +ll m = l^-37 m A.M.Upper limb of 5^ 35W 20* 5^ 32W A. .M. (corrected 5-30 for refraction) Sun visible at A.M.M. Minimum distance i= 1154'' eclipse Magnitude of the = 799 = 0'41 = 5 Indian units.M. (without correcting O 8 A. Duration of the eclipse = Time of nearest approach of centres = 6* 8TO +6OT = 6-14 A. 2 x 971 Time of sunrise in Kuruksetra mean time for refraction) = = .M.

Sitarama Sastrl and finally Vidhu&khara i Sastri. Mm. Dr. practically the same ai that of the Jaiminiya Brahmaya quoted . 'who : the opened (mouth) to-day goes on a journey by passing beyond The YajMyajniya of the Dolphin (i. 6. Caland translates 8 tbia as follows : say has been thrown on the sacrifice's path?" ' 9 Now ' By eajri g oy saying by j is the Yajnavajffiya (Mman). 176. the Tandya BraJimana.ayu. which runs thus w& IKH to used A Brabmana. northerly.CHAPTER XY BE1HMANA CHEONOLOGY A Time-Reference from the Jaiminiya Brahmana In the present chapter we propose to interpret the following astronomical reference from the Jaiminiya Brdhmana : J". Mm.e the DhanistM cluster)'? . 8-9.e. 6. the dolphin rtrowa on the sacrificed path the ndgat T swallows himself. KuSamba ibe son of S. 8-9.a above. her mouth opposite (the is this Dolphin which stands opening Of that it is verily the food sun) in one (i. This passage may be translated as follows " This was settled by the Brahmanas of former times. that will today be swallowed by the dolphin nboot this chant:'" Who forsooth. one passes safely/' oblation by hiding which from her mouth -done by consulting Profs* The above translation has been Prof. G. a Lata^ya (by gotra). the It appears that this reference from T*t4. : Cf.." on hymn theriby hymn j moa. 1. R. via. Brffima V a i. B'-a^mana. Basak. course. vm. the Head of the Department of Sanskrit.

times by observing the heliacal rising of the Delphinis The food cluster. the ancient Hindus had the constellations the two Dogs. 63. The DelpKinis the winter solstice t or the Dhanistha cluster always ries north of the east point. Loc. Calcutta Post Graduate Teaching in Arts. 49. : named Agni.e. in the chapter on Yarna and his S Dogs. was settled by the Brahmanas of are ' We unable to accept l ' prosy ate can not mean * * ' . 1 This meaning has been rejected for the following reasons : have seen before that in the Vedas. Two Ibid . 7. 2 star) these four stars of the Stiumara do not set they are ftgveda. X. X. by him. xviii. 1112. are the four stars. 20." Caland 's version. Mahendra.. cit. Hence the Delphinis is spoken of as staying opposite the sun/ Here the word Sim&uman has been taken to mean the Dhanistha or the Delphinis group of stars. and also -At/iarta Veda. 2. 63 and XIP.. also Atharva Veda. 2 viz. the heavenly boat or the Argonams 3 . The word Sim6umara literally means a dolphin. Kasyapa (i. Visnupu rana II . The word swim away/ neither can ekdyane' mean * the current* nor apidhaya mean by putting. as also . oblation former was poured into the proper fire when the day began with the sunrise and the Delphinis ceased to be visible.184 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY University.' The passage is allegorical which means the time for beginning the sacrifice called Yajndyajniya. and DJiruva (the pole circumpolar). fygveda. VII. the Canis Major and the Canis 1 We Minor. An English version of the German translation of the above passage by Caland is given below for comparison " Thus who is to decided the Brahmanas in earlier times : c : swim away to-day against the gaping jaw of the 1 Dolphin? The yajnayaJTilya is the Dolphin who lies in ambush at the narrow entrance with jaws opened against the current he puts the food in the mouth so that he can have a narrow escape as he passes . 14. 10 11. 12. ' At the tail of the iSisumara. The Puranas interpret the word 8isumara as the star group Little Bear. with which began the sun's northerly course. while the sun at rises ' south of the same point.

nearly as before. and we have consequently followed the same method. In this chapter we could not use the naksatra divisions as used by Aryabhata I.C. be rash to say that this Upanisat was composed at this 85 U08B . but it would Hence date.C. division of the ecliptic into 27 naksatras was earliest equal which Brahmagupta and as given in the modern was very nearly true for about made point at the time of the Veddngas and this began with the first of the Dhanistha division fixed by the luni-solar method.BBiHMANA CHRONOLOGY = 193 270 in the year we want to find out.C. or 1800 B. The year arrived at becomes 1799 B.D. The history of Hindu astronomy shows that the 499 A. Surya SiddMnta.. the traditional position of the solstices as stated in the Maitrl Upanisat was true for about 1800 B.

" the The year. hence in such a new moon the fires are to be set up again. The new- moon which comes are obtained. we have the following time-reference HT " People ask. the summer solstice visibility of the stars a and ]3 day was marked by the heliacal Geminorum or Castor and Pollux. 3. again * in what season should men is that.CHAPTER XYII BRAEMANA CHRONOLOGY Sdmkhdyana Brakmana ID this Brahmana : in Chapter I. try to ascertain the date when the first heliacal visibility of Pollux or ft Geminorum took . after the full moon near the two stars of Punarvasu Asadhds. therefore.it is set up the fires V One opinion the rains that are favourable for all people for attaining their desires. the Geminorum). first part of the passage implies that the middle of i. We. happens In the rains all the desirables at the when the rains set in the Punarvasus are visible . The concluding portion is a makeshift arrangement. Hence be for the realisation of all the desirable things the fires should set up again at the middle of the year of the ( inan^f the )." "But there at this time of observation of first (light) may not be the half of month. by which even the light half of the month is not obtained for setting up the fires again. two stars of naksatra by observing the heliacal visibility Punarvasu (viz. Br. a and /3 the heliacal visibility...e.

. 50' 0" K=46 54' 43" .-. The 50' 0" approximation. latitude). (D ( 2) and ^ y EK=iaO.D. the angle '' PZ=60 ZS=108 ZPS= 130 1CK 32".=112 24' 8" the increase in celestial longitude =41 8' 44" in the intervening p nod -Hence the date arrived at is about -1022 A. u=23 7K=6458'2". date the longitude of Pollux at the reqd. yL is "' (4) (6) Therefore the arc found from the results and (6) to have been =71 15' 24". Heliacal Rising of Pollux on the Summer Solstice Day at Kuruksetra In 1941-0.D. the time of the event as the ecliptic at the remote date of obliquity was=28 (=) PS =66 /. VE . jjj (5) A ain . and LE>46 54' 43" . E p S= 40 .10' 32" = 49 49' 23".-.C. past = 71 15' 24" The same in 1941 A. the station selected being 195 assumed as Euruksetra (30N. LB=6 40 48" and angle 1 ' KL=617'22". Longitude Latitude of Pollux=112 24' 8" =+6 first 40' 48" Let us assume. 10' 0". as a 1100 B. . . "' - NowvB=49 49' 28"'.BBIHMANA GHEONOLOGY on the summer solstice day.

3. the year as is great as this thirteenth (Keith. and On Aug. and the moon neared the star Pollux in the previous night at about 8 P. Now on Feb.e....270 0" the difference 41 44' 19" of the solstices up to 1938 A. shows the amount of the shifting It is further not very difficult to^find a corroboration fires of the date arrived at.) month in it verily the whole year The Vedic standard month i. which does not differ much from the date. 2.D. we have a^Rrerrcr new''They fahould con serrate them selves on one day after the moon of Taisa or of Mdgha they say both of these views are 9 ..M. Calcutta mean time. Brdhmana.3 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGY Again i in the Samkhayana Brdhmana. 1938 at Calcutta Mean Noon. between Feb. in 1938. The date arrived at becomes. This was 90 in the time the . 3.. current. but that as to Taisa is the more current as it were. from the rule of setting up the again on the Asddha new-moon day as stated in reference to) quoted before. viz. month .D. 1940 A. one month after 30 lunations. Three years later came the month of Mdgha extend- ing from January 31 to a lunar March 2. the conjunction took place in the naksatra Pusya. such a new-moon happened on Aug... 1. 3 and March 5. From the mode of intercalating month as found in Vedic literature.D. the sun's longitude was at - Calcutta of mean noon Samkhdyana ~13044'17".D.19. This day therefore represents in our time what was the winter solstice day in the time of the Samkhayana 1. . 1022 A. after 37 lunations of Mdgha came in our time in the year 1935 A. XIX. 1056 AD. arrived at before. 1938. we readily recognise that the day following the newmoon of the month of Taisa or Pousa mentioned in this Brdhmana is correctly represented in our times by the date Feb.. 44' 19" 0' the sun had the celestial longitude =311 We deduct Hence from it . is They obtain obtained/ 1 this thirteenth additional .

BEAHMANA CHEONOLOGY Brdhwana showing =40 44 17".C.D.D. date arrived at becomes. of the SavikMyana. The . Brdhmam works out as . Hence the date about 1000 B. 197 a shifting of the solstices till 1940 A. 995 A.

beginning of the) on the day of the last quarter of year Mdgha (Ekastaka. 4. XVI. Bengal.CHAPTER XYIH BRAHMAN A CHEONOLOGY Time Indications in the Baudhdyana Srauta Sutra ID the Baudhdyana Srauta Sutra. S. of Phdlguna or the day of Caitra . they want to know the (i. The author of the 1 ." slightly modified extract from the Taittmya Samhitd (vii.e. either the fullfull-moon moon day purchase of half. " consecrate themselves without year.D. here recommends the following of the 1 Edited by Caland. published by the B.e. 9). They consecrate themselves four days before the full-moon day Mdgha thus their purchase of Soma falls on the day of the last quarter (Ekastaka). All this reads like a Baudhdyana Srauta Sutra.e. 18. A. when the first should consecrate themselves day of the year has already been passed) they four days before. Soma would then fall on the 8th day of the dark this they do not make the last By quarter (Ekastaka) void. their Their (i. extraction of Soma juice) falls in the first half month. knowing the (beginning of the) Jf.e. 1 the rules for beginning : the year-long sacrifices are stated in the following terms BaudTiayana &rauta Sutra. 8) or from the Tdndya Brdhmana has been quoted and (V. 1901-1913 A. and the (sacrificial) light half) of the months begin in the first (or light) half. . however. Sutya (i. i. which explained in Chapter 'Solstice Days in Vedic Literature XIII. This would be the rule if they of ..

4. 10. that the sun reached the winter solstice on the earliest possible day of the full-moon of Mdgha. Now-a-days the winter solstice day is the 22nd of December. of Clearly day then he does not mean giving his rule. V. (b) <Sn*n$r qwuwirat l^a or of the Maitrdyanl tffftgft qqt fefcw 6 which mean. This work does not say that the Krttikds (Pleiades) are We Mdgha. the was already over the in his time. K. Vana. 3 3 Mahabharata. is sacrifices four that near the the oldest days before full-moon can be traced in the Brahmanas. Kaiha Samhita (a) swmtNf that of the Kapisthala (n Tauri) . and that the winter-solstice day was inevitably over on the last quarter following Mdgha. shall Sutra speaks of a time of about 900 B>C. VI. 199 The beginning these Phalgunls. to say that on the day of the last quarter year-beginning or Magha. about the time when the sun reached the winter solstice the on the full-moon Baudhayana seems of day of the Vedic standard month of Magha. 51-52. could be near to the winter not be wrong to assume that this Srauta of first of 1 the naksatras. 'the Krttikas are Samhita.C. Nor does as speak simultaneouly of the full-moon days at the 2 a statement which is very significant KrttiMs and the Maghds the Pleiades difference in ments like and the star Regulus (Magha) have a We miss here statelongitude of very nearly 90. about when. By a full-moon day of a precession of the solstice-day by 39 days. Satfihit&. and 4 Kap. sacrifices four The alternative rule for beginning these year-long days before the full-moon day of Magha. 4. IV. winter solstice the Vedic standard month Magha when His idea perhaps was.D. 6. he probably means a day like the 30th of January.e. it as we find enumerated in the Taittinya Samhita. 1934 A. was true for for time of the Taittirlya Samhita or of the Pdndavas. (c) SRmfaft !OTTOt 3 4 i Taittinya SamUta. 6. 84. This would show it. it would indicate a time of about 953 B. . i. and not solstice day. Samhita. the day of the last quarter of the month of Paiisa. and at the rate of one day of precession in 74 years.BB1HMANA CHEONOLOGY former rules by the performers of the year-long rule of sacrifices.

C. If the it again come out to have been about 1100 B. Vol.C. according to this recorded tradition. . TV. according to our interpretation. would become like 1927 A.. - This Srauta Sutra has no statements of the type quoted 85).C.D. Vol.D.C. which KausltaU Brdhmana (XIX.D. the date when If Baudhayana. 1932 A. that sacrifices are to be made on the full-moon or new-moon day and that Prajapati is the day of the All these statements full-moon at the vernal equinox (dgrayam). 3).200 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY the head of Prajdpati (year). mean a time about a hundred 3? ears before or after the year 2350 9 B. corresponded with the full-moon day of April 20. The new-moon day which preceded this full-moon happened on the 6th April. 1.. date would the tradition would be about 886 B. page Baudhayana lays down the following rule for beginning the Rdjasuya sacrifices: iit!Hii 5wt^[T^u^ I being religiously served with the Rdjasuya of clarified sacrifice. 1930 A. 1932 A. 2446 B. 9 is difficult to see what season of the year is taken to begin of on the new-moon which Phdlguna or of Caitra. for the Asvamedha sacrifice on The Mahdbhdrata indicates.C. i the date of In any case JRASBL. on which the new-moon in question happened on April 2. If the Baudhayana rule indicates that spring began this was true.D. above. page 42g. precedes the full-moon either The former of of these new-moons simply is means 6f an older the new moon l tradition of the but a repetition winter-solstice day as stated in the Magha. he consecrates himself by making oblations the full-moon day butter. In another place (XII. Caland's Edn. that Yudhisthira was consecrated the full-moon day of Caitra of of in the year 2446 B. on the new-moon day which precedes ' When a prince is either of It Phdlguna or of Caitra.C. 1938 . means a year about 1400 B.D. was a new-moon of the type of March 30. II. it The Vedic standard month similar to that of "our time of Mdgha as came and the full-moon day of Caitra that year was 1932 A.

BBAHMAIST A CHRONOLOGY
we do
not

201
this reference.

We

shall,

any however,
get

clear indication of lime
later

from

on

find

the

day

for

starting

tbe

Rdjasnya

saurifice in the year

836 B.C.
is

A more

definite
:

indica-

tion of the date oi this Srauta Sutra

furnished by the

Baudhayana Rule

for Naksatresti Sacrifices
it

The

part

of

the

work where
1

gives the time for beginning
:

the Nctkftttrcsli sacrifices,

ruus as follows

"

Wo now
for

proceed
f

to

explain

the

rule

for pert'oiiniug the

Naksalrexli sacrifice^.
food
the
L
>

Agui wished,
riiiM

M

would be tbe partaker of
set forth by the

yuds/
J,
cl
.

has

been

Bnllimam

(T. Dr. Hi,

scq.

which occurs near the
once
iu

JIH found by Calandj. The full-moon Viinkhas has its preceding new-nioon
;
1

the

year

hi
fch-j

the Bharanl division

this

new-jnoon

is

the day for

B<.firtini>

NakMitwsli sacrifice/
"

A

little lalct* I|MJ rui^s

run ap ollows

:

/' Wefcihali

ow\'Xplaiii
(of

t!io

spocial rnJey
light

:

Prajapati

the

sun

becoiuos
luiifs)

Uplihxn
yiatiiiy

wnbdueti

due

to

the starting of the
all

on

at the

ASlwl

division.

Heuce

baile/ corns

become Kanunhliu
to

ibark-y

powder mixed with

-aird)

which are

bo mixed with

clarified buCter for oblation/*
t

Heie ovidiuitly the ,un is said to reach the vernal equinox on thontw.uioon which jince Jed the full-moon in the Viiakha
1

divishiii

or ii^ar
rare

liic

ViMtklul 'juncliou

stars.

Such a new-tnoon
to turu south at

was

oi

occurrence.
tin-

Alwu

the

sun seemed'
ila

the bt^iijiiiug of
it

division

A&lvm, an J not*at
:

middle.

True

hsthut this Hrmila tinim

^fiys*"'

\

rtua
2

ft

ra

til

a tfulra

XXYIIf,

-4.

ilid.,

X

26

110HP.

202

AXCIEXT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY
"

In the month

ot

ilivMon DhnHiti ftj,

Matjha the sun on getting at the Naksatra turns to the north and at the middle of the
to the

AMcsa division aims
are the

south in the

month

of Sravana,

These

two limits

to the sun's north-south

motion."

of

This position This i> evidently borrowed from the Veddngas. the solstice? was not true for the time of il e Baudhdyana

Xrauta Sutra.

We
iuit.oi"

understand

that

at

the

time indicated
solstice

by Naksatresti
at the beginning

Fmiidhi] iiana,
Ablest!
at

the

summer
that

was

of

the

dhision,

the
first

vernal

equinox

was

cor>ujut?nth
illusion,
division.

the

end of

the

quarter of the Bharanl

and the winter

solstice

was

at the

middle of the Sravana

New
position
division.

the oldest division of the ecliptic began with cf

the ecliptic

8-Delphinis

as

the

first

point

of

the

Dhanisthd

The iuigitude ot ft-JDelphinis in 1935 Deduct half naksatra ...
/.

A JX
...

= =
=

315

26' 5"

6 40

the longitude of the middle of Sravand divn.
x4gain deduct
...
...

-

308 46' 5# 270
=

Hence the
of

long*

of the

end

of the 1st quarter
...
...

_

Bharanl division
longitude of

38 46' 5"

Now
April SO,

the

the

sun at Calcutta

Mean noon on
14' 34//.

1938 A JX, a new-moon day,

ms

=

39

the longitude of the last point of the 1st quarter of the Bharanl division obtained above.

This fairly agrees with

Here a
indicates

shifting of the equinoxes

a

lapse of
If

891 B.C.

we

till 1931 A.D. of 39 14' 34/7 1828 years and the date arrived at becomes want to get at a year near to this date and

similar to 1938 A.D., that year

This date appears to be
rule of the

the!

becomes 886 B.C. or -885 A.D. time indicated by the Naksatresti

Baudhdyana Srauta Sutra.
Sacrifices

THE BAUDHAYANA RULE FOB THE Pancasdradlya
In another

ptoe

the

following rule for beginning the Pancasdradlya lasted for 5 years and were with the

Baudhdyana Srauta Sutra lays down the These sacrifices. begun advent of the Indian

BE1HMANA CHBONOLOQY
season of

208

Hemanta

or of the dews and

ended with the Indian
beginning

season of Sarat or autumn,

Hence on

the day for the

of this PailcaSaradlya sacrifices, the desired celestial

longitude of

the sun

was about 210. The Baudhdyana

rule runs as follows:

B. S.

Sutra.,

XVIII, 11

"
he

When

a person

is

selects seventeen he-calves

being served by tbe five-yearly sacrifice, which are more than 8 days old

and of not exceeding one year in age. He makes the sacrifice with oblations of clarified butter on the new-moon which precedes l the full-moon at tbe star group Mrgasiras (i.e., A, ^, aud 2
,

Orionis)

and secures seventeen she-calves

of

which

the -presiding

deities are the

The

Maruts or wind gods/* practice was to release 17 he-calces and 17 she-calves

for freely

roaming about

in the fields or forests

in

tbe

1st

year,

17 she-calves in the 2nd year, 17 she-calves in the 3rd year, and 17 she-calves in the fourth year were also set afc libeity. It is
not clear
if

in the fifth year also the

same

practice

was continued.

The day

beginning the sacrifice was of the new-moon preceding Orionis) group. the full-moon at the Mrgasiras (i.e., A, 1( Now in the year 1929 A.D., the full-moon near A Qrionis fell and the preceding new-moon happened on on December 16
for
;

December
by 60
in

1.

We

assume here that the sun's longitude increased

two lunations very nearly. Hence the sun reached the winter solstice on the day which correspond with the new-moon on the 29th January, 1930 A,D.

On

this day, i.e.,

January, 29, 1930,

at

6

M.N.

the

sun's

apparent longitude was

=308
270

53/ 1"

Deduct
1

O'O",

CJ.

Apastamba

GrJiya Sutra,

XIX,

9.3-2,

which records a tradition

of

the

beginning of

Hemanta

on the Mrgasiras full-moon day which corresponds to a mean

date of aboat 2000 B,C,

203

ANCIENT INDIAN' CHRONOLOGY
to the

new-moous answering

above description

will as the following calculation year 834 B.C.,

happened show :-

in

the

Vtidkhd division

182

59' to
59' to 14'

19619'
76
19'

Punarvasu division

Long,

of Pollux

= =

62
78

It is evident that such

new-rnoons came in also in tHe year

8 years before the date 887 B.C. arrived at before. The Satapatlia Brahmana 1 lays down the rule that fires should be
895 B.C.,
i.e.

set

up, on

the

day

of

the

new-moon with which the lunar
new-moon, either at the These rules for setting up fires

Vaiakha ended, meaning
Krttikds or the

of course the

Hyadcs (Rohims).

by a householder have nothing to do with the beginning of any season of the year and do not indicate the date of the Baudhdyana
Sutra, nor of the 8atapatha
of the kind.

Brdhmana, nor
that

of

any other work
for

We are
887-16 B.C.

thus

led

to

conclude
sacrifices

the

mean date
as

the

Baudhayana

rules

for

should

be taken

the

year

1

Satapatha
,

Brahmana, XI,
130 (1st
Bda.)

1.

1.

7

;

cited

by

S. B,

Dlkfita in his

Page

BKAJIiYiAWA
Again
,

HEOKOLOGY
qr, of

20D

in this year,
iliG

880 A.D.,
of
pfc.
,,
;

the longitude of
,, >,
,

uud
1st

he Ibt
of the

o
,>
,,

V

Bharayl
,,
,,

scikha division

,,
,.

Mrgntiras mid-pomfc of the 8'Civana
<

= = = =

359
182 36

3Q/
59'

19'
39'

269

Thus the
by

yenr

Q 87-8fi

15. C.

appears

to

be the

mean

date indicated

the linnclluiynuu rulo- for beghming the Naksatresti, the This date however, Ptttlcttxtlnuiiijn nnd the Rtljatsuya sacrifices.
linbie to
bt-in^

is

lowered

by

7G years or

by
for

even

a

greater

Juni-soiar period.

We now
by the
ausj>icioii,-

ink*;

up the Baitdhayana rules

Petting

up
with

fires

Loiui'lioltlrr.
(fji
p

The

rules in quest-ion stale

the

suitable

or
the

>K

i'or

the purpose and have nothing to do

bogiiu in^s of the ^ensons.

The

auspicious days are tbe new-moon

diys
(5^

jit (1)
.

A>//i7iV7^,(ij tiohhjlft, (H)

U

PluilyiiHtti

and

^ (Hint.

Punarvaws, (4) P. Phalgttnls, A Brahmin is to set up his fires
a

in spring, a

K's.-itriyu. in

.suniuior,

car-mrtkiT

in

ihr

1

niirr^.

Vaisya in autumn and a [n this connection it is said:

\

*

Th

iievv-nionu

which follows the full-moon
in a

in in

the
the

Visakhd

division,

onn

i

happeiiB
is

division, that

the
1

<iu t v

year with on which the
1

the
fires

moon

Rohinl

are to be set up.'

This
to fcut

rule* stati *
f

when

>

get nl the

day of a

new-moon

in

the

lloliini NahtitilrtL
tit

l*heri! is another rule given for settling when a nt'w-niuon near the Punaroasus (Castor and Pollux).

which precedes the full-moon in the Naksatra on rare occasions) happens Jtgtitlln't (here the [7. J,sW/i</;,onc'e (re., iu a yrar with tho ujoon nuar the Puna roam (Castor and Pollux)
4

Tim

lii'W-uioon

;

the tires should

l>u

set

up on

this

day."

Tlu'se arc purely

luui-solar-slellar

phenomena which
the

repeat

roughly
*

in 8,

I

J

or 19

years.

The Rohini and

Punarvasu

Bautlba.vami
Ibid, III,
J,
:

6.

Sutra, 11, 12.
iu

2

this

also repeated in

3CXV,

18.

205

ANCIENT INDIAN' CHRONOLOGY
to the

new-moons answering

above description

year 884 B.C., as the following calculation will

happened show:

iu

the

ViSdJchd division

Punarvasu division

Long, of Pollux
It
is

= = =

182
62 73

59' to

19619'
76
19'

59' to
14'

evident that such
i.e.

895 B.C.,

new-moons came in also in the year 8 years before the date 887 B.C. arrived at before.

The
set

tfatapatha

Brahmana 1

lays

up, on

the day of the

down the rule that fires should be new-moon with which the lunar

setting up by a householder have nothing to do with the beginning of any season of the year and do not indicate the date of the BaudMyana

Vatfakha ended, meaning of course the new-moon, either at the KrttiMs or tbe Hyadcs '(Rohinis). These rules for fires

Sutra, nor of the tfatapatha of the kind,

Brahmana, nor
that

of

any other work
date for
the

We are
887-16 B.C.

thus led
rules

to

conclude
sacrifices

the

mean

Baudhayana

for

should

be

taken as the year

1

Satapatha Brahmana,
130 (1st
R

XI,

1.

1.

7

;

cited

by

S.

B. Dlksita in his

Eda.)

Nirukta. time of the Baudhdyana Srauta ' Sutra (900. p.BBiHMANA CHKONOLOGY One point 207 here is more that we want to notice that the Baudhdyana Srauia Sutra mentions the name Panini in the Pravara section 3 (Vol. Ill.C. 27. a matter that cannot be settled astrono' True it is that the word Yavandnl as found ic Pariini it means the "written alphabet be far from of the Ionian Greeks. mically. B. nearly). but would to rational to conclude that the Yavauas did not come India before the limes of Alexander or cf Darius. 418) and also the name Kaulasva Yaska of in XVI. . Whether these statements author the place the dales of the celebrated grammarian and the before is the Vedic lexicon.

13. 4. spring alone. spring alone. Here we notice a clear statement that the ful moon is at day of Phalguna was the beginning of spring. page.. as spring is This should begun in the season for the it makes the sacrifice begins is Hence this sacrifice That beginning takes Phalyus. the sacrifice for the Ksatriyas alone. set in at the full-rnoon th6 Indian near the Phalgus full- or spring that the sun Bad the tropical longitude of 330 of Phalguna. at night priests the are Six or seven days before come the who adhvaryu. hotr. Although * this shown in the next Brahmana records <* . etci In this passage we get the indication that at this period. 979. as is summer the season the Ksatriyas and the Avamedha be . . * Sattpatha Br&hmwa. by being a be begun with the place on the full-moon to it-. "which chapter as about i 65 B. and the tyne was about 4600 B.C. has been The -date. udgdtr. brahmd. on the full-njoon* day of- In the . 1/2 to 4.earliest Vedic times the moon day Phalguna was the winter solstice* day.C. the end of this transitional age. Weber^j Edn.CHAPTER XIX BRAHMAN A CEBONOLOGY The Satapatha and the Taittiriya Brahmanas The time wben the Satapatlia Bralmana came 1 : Juto its present indicated by the loiiuwing passage : i m fc< In this connection they say 'in what season ?' is the beginning in to be made is Some ' say for it should be begun summer. Brahmanas whoever BraMnana 'as *it were.

what is spring is the first season One who sets up fire in spring. of the up his fire in spring... In the Taittirlya Brdhmana also we have evidence 1 : of this new meaning of the Phdlguni full-moon day 3T sntp^TCTcP i I i gtsf 5H *3353?t *ns*w 'ft g^sfamnar^ i * * * * <1 A Brahtnana should the season for year..... a man the Purva Phdlguriis year what is the full-moon at .. 7-8. 8. Spring is the Brahmaiia . about full-moon is also recorded by the Apastamba and Kdtydyana Srauta Sutras.. as meaning cannot be much earlier than new meaning forth in i the next chapter. Fire should be set up Leonis and another small star near to it) .... *.C.. 2.. Taitiiriya Brahmana.. A Vai^ya (Ksatriya). Summer is the season for the Rajanya should set up his fire in autumn and aotumn is the season for the Vai^yas.BRAHMANA OHBONOLOGY the traditions 209 Yajnavalkya and Janaka of Mithila.. " Fire should not be set up on the day of full-moon at the It is the last night of the P&rva Phdlgunls ( 8 and Leonw). the present recension of it cannot be much earlier than what has This change in the meaning of the Phdlguni been stated above. A man (of becomes wealthy by making * * from the very beginning the year)/' also Thus for is in the Taittirlya Brdhtnana of the we have a clear indi- cation of this this set Phdlguni full-moon. sinner fire for the ( j8 is the first night of the year the full-moon night at the two fire Uttara Phdlgunls. becomes fag end. . 1. a Phdlgunls it the at year by making in the full-moon at the U tiara. The date about 625 B. becomes a chief set among men ..

6. 1945 which happened on March A. the 'junction star of to the that naksatra. Noon. i. at about also A M. as the following calculations will show : go up to 757 hr. Sun = 89 265 1' 54". *W 3lfa whicb most gnificant. later. the last reference has 4.T.D. or KM. 8cb. Appt. 12-13 a . Moon = and B Leonia 10' nearly. 1. If the occurrence Bnlhmanas. Uttarasadha.e. a full-moon as On June. 3. the date may of the second Phalguna as B C. 30. 2.M A.210 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY The question whether the superior limit the to the date when the beginning of Phdlgunis marked is a very knotty he raided higher than this 625 B. 762 A. folstice This full-moon was similar to that which happened on July. 4. and this was summer. 2 Is ch.1V the Again as Satapatha 1 ( Brahmana which has the references to Asadha vntfi ) 9 means that very frequent full-moon at at the naksatra. On Feb. Moon - 5' 44" nearly The full-moon happened about 12 5-8 hrs. mean time of July. 31. indicates The Satapatha Brahmana full-moon at solstice that the asadhl or the the naksatra asadha was in some years the summer day and in some Cf. we understand the full-moon this naksatra in Fome years u arked the summer : solstice day.M. 27. Now we had on July 1. 5.M. Cf also 11 ch. at G. 762 A. = 133 21' The full-moon happened 4 hours 5 later. Apparent sun 5-8 = 330 148 0' 8". 1 . .. we have...D at G.D.. T 756 AD. 5 and c. not j8 Lconis.. spring can time of these can be established that at the it lull-moon at Vttara one. . of Kuruksetra day. very far from Uttara Phalgunl.C. 1939 A. This full-moon was similar 28. .. Satapatha Brahmana. the calendar makers could discover an intercalary month.

Appt. N. 625 B.<\ for the Phalguni full-moon marking the advent of spring We had on Feb. Noon Caiira Appt. M. G.D. 28..BRAHMANA CHRONOLOGY years yll the full-moon ofepring.D.. Sun = 330 24' 56" Moon = "l44 ft 59' 50" 22' 48". M. Sun = 89 49' 22" 3' Moon = 269 and Altair orl SravancL 33" = 2610 ft. Leonis = 131 This full-moon coiresponds to that on 31st March. 1921 A. the same at the Vttara Phalgnni marked the cciunp These two phenomena.moon's phases near to the fixed stars. of couise cannot happen in year. .C. 900 A. the date cannot be raised beyond calary months. If the rule-givers or calendar-makers could discover the second as an intercalary month. It must be said OD the other hand that Veddnga calendar Isadha and the second Pausa as interrecognises only the second On this basis. in The on which corresponding dsddhi at fell on the 2nd of July. 906 A JX G. the date may go up to 'JO I B. 1U34 respect of the. 2g// j It The full-moon happened in about 14 hrtk the was similar to the full-moon on August 1.

l t i.CHAPTER XX BE1HMANA CHRONOLOGY Time References froln the Kdtydyana and the Apastamba Srauta Sutras In thi> chapter we propose to interpret as far as possible the first from the Kdtydyana Srauta Sutra ako consider those from . II. month of ZM M collects in the light half thirty-four animals proper to the priests. The second is the five-yearly or the Pancasdracliya One who is being served by this sacrifice of the " sacrifice. I. I. " The day for being consecrated for the Sdrasvata sacrifice is the seventh day of the light half (of Caitra).half of VaisdWia or of Caitra. 1.the Apastamba Srauta Sutra." Pt. xxxi. Those from the first. xiv.2. ( i. 17 bull-calves and 37 cow-calves) which are sacred to the Maruts to be liberated in honour of the Vaisvadevas with the sacrificial fees ." . 4. -The four monthly sacrifices to be begun' on the full-moon day of Phalguna. 34. v. " The Turayana sacrifice is to be made on the 5th day (tithi ?/ of the light. work are following time references shall and : Pt." IIBJI %Jk: cn^rr^N: Pt." Pt. 5..e. II. 30. ii.

BR1HMAXA CHRONOLOGY
;

u

" The Varunapraghnsa ceremony
full-moon day of Asddha ...... ,., "
(/")

1

.

3,

is

to

j

je

p-rur^o.l on

ti,*

^
who wants

l<

The

sacri6cer

a

by performing the SumSirlya on the day of the first visibility

sacrifice of

year-long ?aTifrv ^i<v,M with Souia or au
the crescent
to

beforr

*he

full-

moon day

of
'

Pkdlgiina
-

;

the

sacrifices

continue

fiom

the

full-moon day
"
(s)

Pt.

II.sx,!.!

.

The king who wants

all

his
:

desires to be

satisfied

*hould

he should get consecrated for perform the Asvamedha sacrifice it on the eighth or the ninth day or titlii of the Mght half of
PJialguna."

\

Pt, II, xv, 1,

4.

" A king should consecrate himself for
in the light half of

tl^e

Rlja*fiyi

sacrifice

Magha."

(i)

Pt.II, xiv. 1, 1

" The Vdjapeya

sacrifice is to

be

done

in

autumn by

people

other than Vaigyas, i.e., by the Brahrnartas and the Ivsairiyas." Of the 9 references quoted above the most striking are the references (d) and (e) which tend to show that the full-moon

the beginning of sprin- and day of Phalguna was regarded as solstice that the full-moon of Asddha was taken as the summer
day or the advent of the rains according
different
to

the
that

nature of
both

years

of

the time.

It

is

evident

such

of spring and of the full-moon days as indicative of the starting in the same year as four lunations rains, cannot be -comprised

214

ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLO&Y
118
nearly and the two seasons roughly

=

=

122 days.

This

latter period is affected

Originally in

the

earlier

by the position of the sun's apse line. Vedic period the full -moon day
solstice

of

Phdlguna, meant the winter
of

day,

when

the

new- moon

Mdgha

ended, also meant the same

day of the tropical year.

came at intervals of four years as 1461 days nearly and 49'5 lunations = 1460 days approximately and the moon's perigee playing an important part may contribute to the equality of the two periods.
These

phenomena

4 tropical years

=

Now
spring.

coming down
is

the same

time of the Katyayana Srauta Sutra, or indicated as the beginning of day spoken We are thus led to a period when the full-moon day
to the

of

of Phdlguna

came

to be interpreted

differently.

We

accordingly

day of PMlguna of the Katyayana Srauta Sutra to be a day like the 26th of March, 1937, the latest possible day in our time for this lunar phase according to the Vedahga,
take tbe full-moon
calendar, which was taken
for the

beginning of apring at the

time of

this

Srauta Sutra.

Now

on March 26,

longitude was
this tfrauta

=5

V&

the sun's apparent nearly, and this longitude at the time of

1937 at G.

M. N.,

Sutra was according to our interpretation = 330, Hence the shifting of the solstices was 85 26' up to 1937 A.D.
This indicates a lapse of 2560 years date as, 623 A.D.
Similarly using the latest
possible
till

1937

A D.

and the

moon day according to the 29th July, 1931. On was = 125 23' nearly.
Srauta Sutra was

day for the Isadha fullthe Veddnga calendar in our time waB this day at G.M.N., the Sun's longitude

As

this longitude at the time of this

=

90

for the

summer
till

the shifting of the

solstices

day r we see that 1931 becomes 35 9 23' nearly,
solstice

indicating a lapse of 2560 years

and the date

as,

629 A.D.

Thirdly by considering the reference (6) as to the Turdyana sacrifice day, we take the <lay in question as similar to April 25, 1936 A.D. which was the vernal equinox day of a year at the

time of the Srauta Sutra. on April 25, 1936 A.D. the sun's apparent longitude was~35 l', which represents shifting of the solstices, and the year arrived at becomes, 624 A.D.

Now

BEIHMANA CHRONOLOGY
Fourthly
reference
(c)
it is

possible

to

arrive

at the date,

624 A.D

fiom
5a\
li

from
to

the

question appears

Pancasaradlya have been the Anumati fuli-moun day

sacrifices.

The

of

Afaina.

-The reference

(/)

is

ancf this Srauta Sutra is

an echo from the Satapatha Br'linthnw, a crude follower of an old rule. The nM
present

of

the

references do not

any peculiarly
for

interesting

feature.

A

calendar for,

624 to

623 A.D. and
saorificially

one dav

oi,
itou**

1>29
:

A.D, are shown below, giving the

important

Luni-eolar Elements at G.

M. N.

of Equinoxes from

-624

to 499 A.D.

=

1532'28".

The D^nistM naltsatra

2917'3" extends from 27747'32" to
"

AMni

34427'32 to 35747 32
ff

;

/;

,

>

to

Uttara Phalgunl

26427 32
/

/y

Uttara Asadha

ViiakM

/ 18427'32' to 19747'82"

We

. thu.

M

to

concede ,hs

other evidences,

218

ANCIENT TNTHAN CHRONOLOGY

We

give the translation

by Mrs, "Rhys Davids

1
:

" The Exalted One was once Now at staying at Savatthi. that time Chandima, son of the Devas, was seized by Rahu, lord
of Asuras.

Then Chandima, calling the Exalted One him by this verse invoked O Buddha MIero glory be to thee Thou art wholly set at liberty
:
!

to

mind,

!

!

Lo
Thea

am fallen into dire distress Be thon my refuge and nay hiding
!

I

!

place

!

the Exalted

one addressed

a verse to

Asuras, on behalf of Chandima, son of

Rahu, the Devas
:

lord of

the

To

the Tathagata, the Arahant
for help

Hath Chandima

and refuse gone.
!

O

Rahu, set the moon at liberty The Buddhas take compassion on the world."
:

We
1.

nest cite the section or sutta
10.

Suriyo.

pana Sanaayena Suriyo devaputto Rahuna asurindena gahito hotill Atha Kho Suriyo devaputto Bhagavantatn

Tena kho

anussararaano tayain velayam
2.

imam gatham
!!

abhasi

il

II

Namo

te

Buddha Vjra-tthu
II

Vippatnuttod sabbadhi
bhavati
II

il

Sambadhapatippanno-sini
3.

ta^sa

m^ saranam

II

Atha Kho Rahum asurindara

Bhagava Suriyara devaputtarh arabha
II

gathaya ajjhabhasi Tathagatam arahantam Suriyo saranani gato
II II
II

II

Rahu pamunca Surly am buddha lokanukampakati To andhakare tamasi pabhamkaro
II

II

II

Verocano mandali uggateio

II

Ma Rahu

gilicaram antalikkhe

||

Pajam mama Rahu pamunca

Suriyan-ti
:

II

II

Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation runs as follows " Now at that time, Suriya, son of Devas, was seized by Rahu, lord of Asuras. Suriya, calling the Exalted One to mind, invoked

him by

this verse:

Buddha Hero Glory be to Thou art wholly set at liberty
!

!

thee

!

!

1

The Bpok

of the

Kindred Sayings (Samyntta-Nikayd). pages 71-73

INDIAN ERAS

21ft

am fallen into sore distress. Be thou my refuge and my hidiny-place
Lo! I

!

Then

the Exalted

One addressed

a

verse to Rfiliu
:

.

lord of

Asuras, on behalf of Suriya, son of the Devas

To the Tathagata, the Arahant, Hath Suriya for help and refuge

gone.

O

Kahu,

set the

sun

at liberty

I

take compassion on the world. Nay, BShu, thou that walkest in the sky, Him that thou chokest, darkening the world.

The Bnddhas

Swallow him not, the craftsman

of the light,

The

My

the fiery heat, shining being of the disc, '." kin Eahu, set free the kith and

Mm

was closely understand that the eclipse of the moon at a very short followed by an eclipse of the sun, and apparently ten* Ifho pan* summjen.i as the phrase interval, viz., of a fortnight, the two events happened i.e., *mfcr) indicates,

We

(If*

g 3*

in the short period of

time of the Buddha's stay at Sravasil. of the moon Now the mere happening of two eclipses, one on. of the sun, is not quite followed only a fortnight later by more want one our problem. adequate for settling the lunar month in wh.ch circumstance of the eclipses, .,*., The D ,,. visible at Sravast, these two eclipses were ,ate two in all, of which

We.

,

contains

ten

suttas

one each

to

Jftgfcc,,

Mifgudha. D.nnam
All

Kanu^
these
a,e

and Surio.

or

eng
number.
1

to

the

Hindu
eleven

They

are

the eight

7am,

Rudras,

twehe

^'S^Mtbe^sidL
deity
of

-y

be .dentined

,Uh

the five-yearly

The twelve mtyas

are the twelve

220
is

ANCIENT INDIAN GHBONOLOGY
Magha Devaputta
it is

spoken of here as

in

the

Saniyukta Nikaya.
to

In the Devapntta snlta the Buddha, then came
as

came Kassapa> and tbeu came the rest. Magha
said that first

meet

So far

we cm understand 'of the allegory underlying these suttas, the winter solstice day marking the advent of Kassapa or Prajapati came first, then came the full-moon ending month of Magha a Devaputta with the fall-mxm near the naksatra Pusya. The
t

Devaputtas of the section are probably some other gods either of the Hindu or of the Buddhist tradition.

The two consecutive

eclipses

spoken of in the
:

Saniyukta

Nikaya most probably happened, in the following order
(1)
(3)
'

Kassapa or the winter

solstice

day came
it

first.
'

An

eclipse
1

of

moon

followed

at about the

junction

star
(8)

S-Cancraj.

An

eclipse of the sun
solar

came

a fortnight later. in

Thus the

eclipse

happened
the

the

middle of the
its

full;

moon ending Magha aud
both the astronomical

lunar eclipse at events were observable

beginning

from

SravaslI

where the Buddha was staying at the time. Now on looking up the work Canon der Finsternisse* we
find that in the period of

time from

580 A.D. to

483 A.D., the

only eclipses
of
of a

first

of the

moon and then

of the sun at

as interval
at the

fortnight, of

which the

the

full-moon ending

happened Mayha, and both the
:

solar eclipse

middle

eclipses

were

visible
(1)

from Sravasti, were

A

lunar eclipse on

December 29,
Full

moon

559 A.D. (560 B.C.). happened at 17 hrs. 30
of the eclipse

Julian day no. = 1517246. in. G-.M.T. or 23 hrs. m.

LS.T. Magnitude

=

6*8 Indian units.

Duration of the eclipse

=

2 hrs. 40 mius.

vime a full moon at about 3* behind S-cancra gave the For on December 27, 576 B C. at G M. Noon App. Sun = 270 17', App. Moon = 95 57' and $-canGr& = 93 nearly, Full moon happened I.S.T. and $un reached the winter solstice at about 10-45 A.M. about 5-12 A.M.
1

At

this period of

winter solstice day.

I.S,T.
3

The freat book on

eclipses by Oppolzer, Vienna, 1887*

really the true . the year 483 B. becomes 76 years later finding of the Nirvana year of the eclipses is than the year of the eclipses. i. -543 A. -558 A. 544 B. the as referred to in the eclipses in question before Samyutta Nikaya. Ceylon-Burma viz. If the tradition month of their happening be true and our interpretation of the for the Buddha's Nirvana is inadmiscorrect.. The &un had reached the winter solstice 18 dajs before the day of the solar eclipse.C. = 151720d. B and C having ion^mi^ ami Station Long. If we or accept that the Buddha's Nirvana happened that date.' 80 Lat. in 544 B.C.D.D at B Cj. of conjunction of Sun and Moon = 28S G *40l. Both these of eclipses were from Sravasti in the di.-triu Rae Barelli.ij..C. tradition as to the N/rra>t-year..T. or l'2hiv.T. ^21 solar eclipse on (559 January 14. New moon Longitude happened line 6hr?.e. happened 15 years The other as 483 B. 38 G. the first was a partial eclipse of the moon ami the second though an annular eclipse was a partial one at Sravasti. no.Mr. on the 27th December. Lncatiwi of Station A B 80 119 E E E 85 31 C N 150 miles west of Cyprus of the Hininiayns 57 N N Nanda Devi Peak A visible place in East Siberia. Julian day in.C.EEAS (2) A. l. is date of the great event. 560 B. Here the sible. .M.. annular eclipse pa^ed ihrouuh the the following The three latitudes central of the places : A.C.

to A and B. . Konow has come to the conclusion that " the inscriptions fall-moon day day of the month. those iu Gronp B use the era or the regnal years of to ascertain the era in this latter Kaniska. The month that is called Vaiakha in this inscription would be called the full-moon endin* list). In this chaptei we propose Of the dates used in this second Group t?f. while The dates used in Group A belong an earlier era. the moon's nalcsatra was PurvsatldhTi. pp. 35 Und. Saiii 61 cctrasa mahasa divasa athami Ksunami Purvdsadlie.CHftPTER XXII INDIAN EEAS Kaniska's Era The them eras used in the Kharosthl inscriptions are still a matter of for controversy. These instances state 8 ise that in ( the eleventh year of king Kaniska on the 20ih day of lunar Asadha. Di\ Sten Konow in his celebrated edition in the Corpus Jxxxii-ixxxiii. saw 11 Asddhasa masasa di 20 Utaraphagune di Ksunami marodasa marjhakasa Kaniskhasa. on the Prom some examples of date in the Kharosthl day of caitra. Here there is no room for a difference of opinion Konow. Group A of first must be the example being that the first of Konow's with Dr." the chief Vai^akha was taken as the day full-moon day of Vaistikha (samvatsare tiSatime 103 vesakliasa dwase prathamime di atra punapakse No* 10. is'a 26 Zeda. the moon joined with the iiaksutnt Uttaraphalguni. 26 and 35 ^ive us some clue the era used. II. rajemi. Dr. of 8fch was conthe year Kaniska. has collected together 36 instances of dates from these inscriptions and hai divided them into two groups. Vol. B group only those which are as to found in Nos. But T have to say that this system of reckonit ing the fnll-moon ending lunar months is not Indian. and that in 61.. may be Greek or it may be Babylonian. Inscriptionum Indicarwn.

But the iih calendars as April. the meaning day ot spoken Sravana and the 8th day of Caitm i-* <le >th new-moo-i ending diitp* as: day of the dark half of Caitra. and it U. Hence we have the of as the 20th of Asadha.INDIAN ERAS 223 lunar Jyaistha tv* l\ according to the Indian rerkonii. D. 8 :- . of Phalgm<< the 8th day of the dark half standard month of that the Vedic may no pie- tog**. of 5th titlri of li^ht half Smvana."/:.. Year 61.. of was the day A. the moon's mksatra (a) In 1925 Phalgiml. Oh.. intercalary month would be reckoned those da } I Mm. of our times in respect to luni-solar stellar aspects waA. Asddhd. month .D. 3 to March in 5.D. MM> Now that is accepting the reckoning of the full-moon endinu moitK* it clear ihat :lu* is as reckoned in the inscriptions. Uttaraphahinni. also we have "the full-moon near the . is shown in modem Hindu It be observed. of came in the year 1935 from Feb.. 5th day. AtvameMa.D. Purmlstidlw is of Dr.. 1937 A. 85. the 5th da v (0 iii) Year 11. and that .Snivana. the moon's nateatn was P. month Caitra. fb) In 1937 on April 4.. Fleet opinion that the well-known Saka pra iiiJ ilie Kaniskaera are but one and the same era." 1 of Mtiglia is al>o draw in. Now and and 61 of the Saka era are similar to the years IJhio the year* 11 1937 and A.. Mnha'bharuta i- about to come and the month close. 23rd day. however. on July 26.

of the remaining years. now show that we may from years of Kaniska to have been started the regnal this year 2 of the take Saka kings. epoch used is the year 2 of the Saka kings 3 : " Deduct 2 from the year of the Saka kings. Ibid. of and 1836 = 160 x 11 + 19 x 4 is Hence the 20th day Isadha of the inscription similar to Tuesday.D. and the year in our time similar to 141 A.D. of 550 years ' 1 2 i." We can. On this hypothesis. is similar to the 1927 A.D.D. . while his regnal year of his coronation.e. On this at years or era were started hypothesis a very short Kaniska's interval from 78A. the year 11 of Kaniska =91 A..'. 7. we have. The for the year 91 A. D. and 1 B. of years = lapsed 1836. divide the result by 5. 1927 A.D.D. likely that the the years It seems cessor of Kaniska whose real accession to Saka era was started with the death of the predethe throne came in the years -were year 78 A.D.. In the Paitdmaha Sidclhanta as summarised by Varahamihira in his Pajicasiddhantikd the . is readily seen to be 1939 A.D.224 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY " Brahmagupta says Kali year** were :>179 (elapsed) at. the year 2 of Saka kings=80 A.the death of the Saka king/* " the years Again Brahmagupta calls the years of the Saka era as of the Saka kings when (^rayrrtT^ HI wijt^w * ^Ta WlfotciW*. ." Hence the Saka kings had elapsed). No. Again the year 61 of Kaniska=141 A. 2. XXIY. of our time . the regnal years of king Kaniska may not be the same as of the Saka era as used by the Hindu astronomers.D. the 2nd August.. 2 3 PpficasiddMntilia. his reckoned from the regnal. i. Splnitasiddhanta. xii. find the ahargaya from the beginning of the light half of Mdgha readily starting from tHe sunrise of that day. 26.

Appfc. Thus on Dec* 4 hours before Gs M. D. the dates mentioned and 61 of Kaniska. M.D. 121 Mean Moon = 94 L. why the lunar months were reckoned from the full-moon day verify.D.INDIAN ERAS that the date of the inscription corresponds to April. and (fit) to of the years 11 With regard to the first point. 1939 A. was year also before that of iryabhata I We we may reasonably assume that originally the Saka was begun from the winter solstice day. in the Vedanga period in Vedic times day or solstice was begun from the winter (499 A... in 50 the moon's phases near to the fixed also do' repeat in which repeat years 12 years. on which at G. full-moon happened about N. solstice day. On applying these days backward to Dec.D. also. by back calculation.).D.D.. Noon Hence on Dec. the interval between 1939 A. itself. 56' 21"'ll 15' 31"'75 22. and the sun reached the winter solstice 74 A.D. we arrive at the date Dec.D.. 225 Tuesday. = 231 39' 49" '94 = 69 58' 35"*32 '01747191.M.D. Perigee Appt. the in about 7 hours. assume further that the winter solstice day was correctly determined 5 years before the Saka year 2 or 80 A.. the llth 1927 A. The number of tropical years between 75 A. = 12 61 Now years. = 1825.D.. we know that the year was taken to begin from the winter from the day following. which comprise 666576 days nearly. It now remains (fl to determine to how and when (ii) the year of the Saka kings was taken begin initially. and whereas between the year 31 is and as the year of Kaniska the interval 50 years. 89 1408B . It is therefore quite consistent to take king Kaniska's regnal years to have been reckoned from the year 2 of the Sak* king?. stars Now 50=19x2 + 12.N. 74 A. and 1900 A.D. -22. Mean Sun = 270 Mean Sun 268 58' 4"'45 54' 21"'69 Moon = Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . 1899 A. at G. the year As the time when the Saka era came to be reckoned. 24.. Eccentricity = 231 Sun = 269 Moon = 91 26' 27" '83 38' 44' nearly. 74 A. 22.

i.226 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY This elucidates the points ff) t". 15.. . Moon = 146 41' 8* '90 37' 5"*67 Sun = 103 142 7' Lunar Perigee = 184 Moon = 36' Sun's Apogee =*70 Eccentricity 15' 34"*87 and the "junction star" U. UttaraphalEvidently the date was similar to Aug.-85^ 31' 11"'93 12' 54*53 30' 5"'64 Mean Sun = Hence Apparent Sun Moon = 256 Luaar Perigee = 85 0' = 182 Moon' = 261 . 91 A.D. and arrive 7. 670611 days nearly.e. di 20. 1927 A. = 144 46'. Asddha mdsa.D. which comprise guni. and on July 91 A. 104 M. at G.e.. A . 14' 60* '20 HenceAppt. = '017466. Having thus shown why the era of Kaniska may be taken to have been started from the 26th December.. 22.D. about 8928'. that the Sdka year was initially taken to begin froni the winter solstice day.D. 75 AJX. N. also show later on that the Saifwat months were also full moon ending. N. 91 A D. 2. Phalgunl date. the mean longitude of moon at opposition on Dec..IX This agrees with the day statement of the inscription that the Vaifakha masa had the first day on the day of the full-moon near the VisaWins. 79 A. on our hypothesis.D. We apply these at the date..D. M. days backward to Aug. and the day in our times to that which happened on Jan. Pollux 74 A. The actual start-ing of the era of Kaniska may have taken 26 of 79 place. July 8.. on June 19.i'. . and why In t?e months were reckoned from the full-moon day itself. nearly the had the longitude of : about 3 was that of the fnll-moon of Pausa. Mean Sun = . from the full-moon day of Dec... we now turn to determine the date for Sam 11. and similar ahead of the star Pollux. 1927 A.. 2. 1930. and between these years tie interval was 1836 years."We shall as the first of lunar Pausa. jnd A'O. was 8631'. Again 19 days before this at a..

.. Mean Sun = 353 44' 43"'00 15' Hence Appt. of our time..D. was 1798. hence Thus we see that the hypothesis that the era of King Kaniska was started from Dec.D. 141 A.D.D. this day got conjoined with /3 Lconis or Uttarttpkalguai the evening. of Dr. satisfies all the conditions that arise from the dates given in the Kharosthi inscriptions. on which at G. N. April 11. The . or from the year 2 of the gdka era. 141 A. and it has been made clear this \ D moon on in that' 'the 91A. . and 1939 A. This was the full-moon day and the 1st day the 17th March was the 8th day of the month. of Caitra . The day in question was of the 7th tithi according to the siddhantas. at G. (8 Sagittarii) Here the conjunction of the moon with 8 sagittarii on thia day was estimated in the previous night. 1939 A. = = 46 71 46' 56"' 27 6' Moon = P. 1939 A. and was the first day of the month. Group B. Moon = Lunar Perigee 258 1'12 Sun = 355 1254 41' 14'. and the day of the last quarter was the day following day of the month. Aqadha and Sun's Apogee 27" 69 = 248 43' Eccentricity = w '017447. = 46 V 9" '50. 91 was the 20th day of Asadha.D. earlier. 25 of 79 A. M. The number of Next years between 141 A. was conjoined with the naksatra PurvasddM. The date of the inscription was thus Jnlti 8 * ' as to the year 61 of Kaniska = Saka year 63=141 A. Hence tha 8th of July.D.D. N. bat this day was the 8th For on the 10th March. These days applied backward April 11. and in 1798 sidereal to years there are 656731 days.D. Mean Sun = 846 50' 44* '70 Hence the full-moon Moon = Lunar Perigee 166 0' 55" '92 had happened about 3 hrs. The day in question was similar to..D . M. Konow.INDIAN EEAS li7 thus the full-moon happened about 8 hours later. lead us to the date-- March 17. the moon on the 8th day of the dark half of (Jaitra..

D. which cannot be dated earlier than 499 A. When this solution of the problem is possible. It as actually seems that Dr. Van Wijk has done disservice to himself. Konow. a view which. <c are also " days " and not tithis star clusters " and not equal divisions of the I have taken the data from the inscriptions observed astronomical events.D. Van Wijk.D. It has been For these reasons I have used the The shown that the days of the month and naksatras mean ecliptic. and would identify the regnal year 11 of Kaniska with 139 A. Ska (6) era and Kaniska's regnal years which were of the cannot be applicable to the early years prior to 499 A. to a very improbable d$te of about 128 A. as to beginning.D.D. Fleet. In our opinion he should have made a thorough study of the history its of Indian for astronomy before making any chronological calculations any date prior to 499 A.228 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY present investigation shows that the Sdka emperor Kaniska lived at the beginning of the Saka era.D. Konow and to history by lowering the era of Kaniska. beginning of Kaniska's regnal years. luni-solar periods used in this investigation are also most accurate and deduced from the constants as given by Newcornb and Brown. The word " day is not to month " means simply a day and be confounded with a tithi as used in the modern Surya " naksatra" siddhanta. (c) The word meant very probably ecliptic* " star clusters mentioned in these inscriptions " and n&t ^Vth part of the most accurate or up-to-date equations for finding the sun ard the moon's mean elements instead of following the Surya siddhdnta.. Without examining his calculations we can say that his findings are vitiated by the following grounds : The Gaitra suklddi reckoning of the year as found (a) in the modern Surya of siddlianta. would be endorsed by all right-micded historians and it would not go against Dr. we need not try to find others leading to other dates for the . to Dr. . I hope. Dr. He based his calculation on the modern Surya siddhdnta. the astonomical assistant to Dr. has tried to show that the era of Kaniska was started from 128 A.

Pausa. In the to We present chapter we shall try to ascertain the era or era*. In the Taxila copper plate Panemos is used and stated of the year 78. and that his regnal years or his own era was slatted froin 80 A. all these instances as belonging ing fact is as 399. Konow's list (A) in his Inseriptionum Indicarum. as the Greek month "Panemasa masa". It is for the inscriptions record years serially whether it would be rational to take archeologists to pronounce One outstandto the same era. tH 1940 B. that the year on the full-moon Further the months are taken to begin its first day the Vaiiakha ntSta had near the Ftffifchfla. the s of the equinoxes and 320 B C Again the shifting Hence what was becomes about 31" 24' nearly.. of course. day on the day of the in the strictly full- moon Such a month Indian not calendar would be called Jyaistha (and Pausa of these inscripfcons began Hence the month of endinoand ended on the day before the on the full-moon day of Pan* as of these inscriptions began full-moon of Mdgha. These 23 from 58 to 399. of the instances of dates of the earlier Kharosthi This list contains 23 dates of the inscriptions . 23rd states the year as 23. used iu Dr. the inscriptions.CHAPTER XXIII INDIAN ERAS Earlier Era of the Kharosthl Inscriijtioi. mentioned is the statement in No.C. AsadJi^t masasa divase 22. different of these were. would in 270= iu the year 320 ftitttto) full-moon m Tow AD tnelltdeonhesunof .D. page Ixxxii.the types of Pausa at the year a we arrive deducting 80 from 399.fs ed have in the preceding chapter shown that Kaniska succeedthe throne most probably in the year 78 A. Skara Dheri : Vasa ekunacadu&utime (399). The year full-moon of and Saka eras with the the case of the Malava. 23. D. Vbl I.

Sun = 27048' = 7248'8"'65. M.D.. Hence 2259 sidereal years represent a complete luni-solar was a full-moon on January 23. more. Appt. =8835'38"'90 Mean. 1932. Moon=9236 nearly.D .230 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY year about 194. full-moon day and the This means virtually starting the era from a This year almost synchronised with the year of the Indian expedition of Alexander the Great.C. Mean Sun Mean Moon Lunar Perigee = 26952'7"*16. on which at G. it is considered that the year was started. 329 B.D. Hence Appt. a longitude which the sun has on the 22nd of January nowadays. hrs. of this date which we want to was really started from such a correct determination of the winter solstice day on The 1st day of lunar months would this 26th of Dec. following we find that On Dec. was a full-moon day according to the Indian mode of reckoning of those days.G98. If.M..C.. Sun Mean Moon . 329 B. to 1940 A. On looking up some of the recent calendars we find that there = x = years from 320 B. We apply these days backward to January 23. 26. Moon85l5' nearly. 310 B.NL. Thus Dec. Hence the year could be begun astronomically from this date which was both 1. become 301 24' nearly.C. F. day of winter solstice.0 A. at G. 2259 years and 2259 1939 1 + 160x2. =26945'56"'90. not from the winter solstice day but from the day. SuB7 s Eccentricity =017613 readily see that the full-inoou came in about 9 brs. T. We and era. 25.C.. was the day following the winter solstice.. 310 B. and it was the day of the winter solstice as well. the year 328 B. . 1932 A. Jan. Hence Appt. before. and arrive at the date cycle December 26. Sun Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee = 12556'19*'-55 = 63 26'47* =27041' Appt.. however. hr. about 3^ Sun's Apogee -687'11" Sun's Eccenticity=-0176l3 2e=121'. =9059'59"'31.C.C. had happened before and the sun reached =l / '334 the winter solstice 19 hrs. Now the number of comprising 825114 days. |e 2 M. If the find the beginning.

era. Next we have to consider the interpretation of Dr.. gg.iW/. 202 B.! from about 312 B. If the Kharosthi inscriptions her use the era of Alexander the Great. Hence the actual reckoning of the era waprobably made from the full-moon day of about TV. Konow a true chronological order in making up at been able to era. 118 B./ inscriptions use may in all probability have been this. of beginning an era wa. The archaeologists alone may say if this determination represents the nearest approach to reality. 169 B. who in all probability is referred to as the Maharajatiraja. there would be a slight overlapping of it with the era of Kaniska started from 80 A.D. 95 A. My own view really get his List later A. -'0 " ' the whole this date was mo^t O f the earlier Khmotilii ' 305 B. If Dr.. or 299 was who has opined that the era of Maharajatiraja 292 ..C.D. some of the inscriptions might belong to other eras of beginning. M 80 A.ei..rahl. there would be no independent overlapping with Kaniska's is that Seleucus's era meets all the conditions of the era used in these inscriptions and the slight overlapping with Kaniska's ha* not era is permissible. It would thus appear that the era which the earlier K/i..INDIAN EEAS be a full-moon day.C.C. If we accept the hypothesis that the era used in these inscriptions is really the era of Seleucns Nikator..C. Hence The Kharosthi 58 78 103 136 187 384 399 Inscription year f represents 247 B?C. i. which is permissible.. and was actually started from the jear 305 B.C. 227 B..C. i-. this was probably started from about 827 A.un it from 5 years later.^ The usual practice. as has tfeen said before. Luders.D.D. On for the starting of the era in^np.C. Now we know that Seleucus's c-ra was contemptou-.vo. however.. f.

267 B. Ct Icarya-puwafijali.D. from about. The date shows a quite suitable for the starting of a new era. 1940. Our results of calculation are set forth below : On Dec. Of Kaniska the first regnal forget that the last year recorded in the year can not much move from 78 A. hr.D.. It is again not unlikely that an era may have been started by Ghandragupta Maurya. Van Wijk to kings. Hence Appb. 321 are here dealing with probabilities. 26. Calcutta. Eccentricity Moon=8725 nearly. one and another was a Kusana (Taxila silver scroll of the year The title in its Greek form was very probably first 136). published by the Indian Research Institute. M. page 288- . The real starting of Asoka's regnal years may have been started five years later. We Eharosthi inscription of Skara Dehri was the year 399. Van Wijk is wrong in his calculation.C. but we must not A. that of Afoka's accession to the Maurya peculiar coincidence with Empire.D. was true This would "make the regnal years of Kaniska known and 11 1 possible being started from ?9 A. Lunar Perigee = 64 &.. It is well that such luni-solar pheLomeoa repeat in cycles of both 19 years. 21' 38" '07. the zero year of the Saka The luni-solar phenomenon which led Dr.C. more. / . identify the regnal year 11 of Kaniska with also for the year 90 A. The 49 years which intervene between 139 A J). moon was the day following the winter solstice day. for 139 A.C. as has been shown the preceding chapter. and there should not be much overlapping between the regnal years qf Kaniska. T. Kaniska's era could in not have been started Dr. and the fullThus this date was (of Pausa) came in about 7 hrs. from about Dec..D. The same title may have been assumed by or ascribed to the great Maurya Emperor A&>ka.D. at G. 272 B.232 ANCIENT INDIAN OHBONOLOGY B.. Mean Sun=270 Moon =90 3' 10"'72. 29. from 328 A. Sun 's It = '017613. and this older era of the Kharosthi. 1 really the Parthian era btarted from 248-247 differ We have to from him. * Sun=27057'. inscriptions. There was no one king Kaniska was in these dajs who was styled Maharajarajatiraja. the grandfather of Asoka.D. assumed by Seleucus Nikator.

D. this point I invite the attention of the reader to the finding of Konow " quoted below : We are on safer grounds the months began with' full or of tKe ye. where the first V&tiaklfia. Konow and his astronomical Dr. comprise two cycles of 19 years and one cycle of 11 years. cycles according to tK& Suryasiddhanla are 385 and 648 years. Van Wijk has used the Indian full-moon ending lunar months in place of those whicK are directly indicated in the KharostM inscriptions. From On Dr. 19. mahasa divasea athama di 8. the calendars for these years it is clear that Dr.. There can thus never be any possibility for an absolute fixing of the date of any past event by such luni-s^iar phenomena or events. 8. assistant tradition Van VISijk" Kave shown a total disregard for has depended on a very slender evidence like a simple luni-solar event. The day which' corresponds to Awdha rnvsasa di 80 Uttaraphalgunl of the regnal 11 of Kaniska. 263.D. and 189 A. seems to be the characterised as (puna) paksa. 1935..ar 11 is dated on the 20tK of Asddha.D. 192.INDIAN ERAS 233 and 90 A. Jacobi has kindly informed to me it belongs may occur between the fifth and the eighth day. day the The same result can apparently be derived from Takt-i-Bahi inscription. Dr. Wijk's identifying th'e regnal years 11 ani 61 and 189 A.D.D. was July 18. 1923 while the date Sam 6. in our case the fifth day after the new-moon.D'. and is when we want to ascertain whether TKe Zeda inscription firew^raomi. Prof. Ghetrasa. therefore. we can readily examine the validity thereof in tKe following way : The luni-solar 3. evidently because it was 80 1408B . where half. the twentieth day of the month falls in the beginning of the bright of the fact that tha. corresponds to March 28. year . the full-moon must be the first day of the month. are respectively 1923 A. the naksatra given as Uttaraptialgunl.D.nafe$ara the Sukla paksa. As to Dr. If. This can not but be called irrational latter and tKe and no chronologiat would lend his support to such a finding. We have also to respect tKe tradition and also to depend on the position of the equinoxes or of the solstices if either is discernible or can be settled. Van of Kaniska with 139 A. 1935 A. Hence the Christian years fo in present times whicK were similar and 139 A.

which were taken respectively as July 18.C. was the full-moon day of VaiMkha. accession must be very* hear to the year 78 A. Ixxxiv. however.Parthian era. 1927 and March 28. the era in question may more of Asoka the Great. Vol.months of the Kharosthl inscriptions. inadmissible.C. but started later on from It cannot be. end on the day before the full-moon is SucK a month called in the Hindu calendar. The 11.D. would show that Dr. or may also be that of Aoka the Great. As to Dr. lunar Vaiakha of the Kharosthl inscriptions would of Jyaistha. Van Wijk has misunderstood the meaning of these peculiar lunar .C.C. .234 ANCLE NTT INDIA NT CHRONOLOGY birth-day. corresponding dates in our and the 8th of Gaitra of own times of tEe 20th" Asadha Sam Sam 61 of the inscriptions. but the inscription was made intelligible for we other people. and his regnal the epoch of the years in all probability started from 80 A. " l Konow's Introduction to Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. The be that of Ghandragupta started from the year about it 321 B. L'uders's view on this point can say that the donors of the Mathura inscription of the year 292 may be Greek.. not Vatiakha but Jyaistha. 1935. J>.. II. Too likely be that of Chandragupta or much overlapping of the two eras is. as Kaniska's date of 267 B..We understand that the earlier era of the Kharosthl inscriptions was era really Seleucidean era reckoned may also from the year 311 B. first determined from the year 272 B. the Indian. . Paitamahasiddhanta. The era in question most probably was the Seleacidean era.D. Buddha's which 1 tradition sometimes gives as the full-moon of VatidMia.. fli#.." If the first then what is day of VaiSdkha.

2745'24" nearly. This Gaitra which its is at present better known as the half Vikrama of lunar Samvat. as we have it in Fleet's Gupta* Inscriptions.CHAPTER XXIY INDIAN ERAS The Samvat In this or the Malava Era to chapter it is proposed discuss three : points in relation to the Malava or the Samvat era (i) how it was started initially with the mode of reckoning the year. BO. all of "which are of different dates which cannot be earlier than 499 A. the Indian season of spring is said to have already set in.C..D. (if) why it is called Krta era and (Hi) why in the Malava or the Vikrama Samvat 529. From 58 B. era.C. Plate No. earliest Vedic times. the year was taken . or Phalguna. the . the mean precession rate was total precession of 50"'G370 per year. is now what was 270 of the longitude of the sun about about 29745'27".. which is the sun the present-day longitude of about the 19th of January.C. to begin from the winter solstice day rule. to 1940 A.D. In the preceding chapters. the Veddngas also followed also Tt was perhaps proceed to initially. has treatises year-beginning from the to light according the rule of the scientific siddhantas or on astronomy. 1997 . the equinoxes and solstices has been ^Hence 58 B. of year of Samvat era Samvat era = = = 1940-41 of the Christian era 57 of the Christian era 58 B. it has been shown that from the the same initially. . 18. with Christian this era We now era discover how Malava or the Samvat winter was started day. on this hypothesis.*. from the solstice Initial Starting of the Era Now. on the second day of the lunar month of Tapasya. and in 1997 years.

and arrive at The date.C.N. It is its the Samvat year reckoning had origin from such a new-moon day.. 25. 53' 89* '16. 20. on which at GKM. this date. 270 55' 29"'86. Here the new-moon on the ... The distinguishing character of ' Pausa was that the full-moon was conjoined Punarvasu (/8 Gemniomm) very nearly.D.C. Moon = 260 Lunar Perigee = 260 10 . 59 B. the lunar months would be reckoned shall to begin from the full-moon day of the lunar Pau$a. Hence days we get an accurate luni. Further 1996 these sidereal years to backward (1) = 729052 days nearly. = Eccentricity = '0175223.. 1997 years = 1939 yrs. try to find the full-moon or the new-moon which this ' happened exactly on the winter (3) solstice day.C. M.solar cycle of 1996 years. N. and not day which was the 24th December. + 19x3 years + 1 yr. 63 B. Dec. 1939 A... 39' 24"'69. but The full-moon no doubt happened on it was the day following the winter solstice. N. however. 67 B. Dec. 90 12' 12*'27. . 26. 54' 57"'65. then by a process similar to that shown above we arrive at The date. 25. (2) Secondly a ull-nioou happened on Jan. Dec. M. 19. 1935 A. 8"*99. We apply Jan.C. on which at G. We go up by 8 years or 99 : lunations from Dec. star with the junction We. : . = 97 67 22' 66"'91. If year-reckoning was started on the basis of the correctly ascertained winter solstice day of this year. as we see later on. as in the Kharosthi inscriptions.- 59 B.236 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Now. Mean Sun = 270 Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . 24. on which at G... Mean Sun '= ..winter unlikely solstice fell on the the 26th December.D. and arrive at : The date.

25. (4) We next go up arrive at : by 8 years or 99 lunations from Dec.C. 63 B. The corresponding date in our time Mean Sun=268 49' 67"'16 42' 46"'21 Mean Moon^271 Lunar Perigee=328 49' 58"*00 Jan. : The date Dec. 1923 of our time ..D.. * Here the full-moon and the sun's reaching the winter solstice fell on the same day.C.. 23. the assumption that the year was begun from the dark half probably. '017524 following. not impossible to infer that the year of the Samvat era used also to be reckoned from the light half of was like the new-moon day of i. this The new-moon happened on the winter solstice.M. Jan. 287 52' 40" '10.C.. Moon= Lunar. and the full-moon was conjoined with the of Punarvasu or /3 Gemniomm. the . 18' 52"*09 J The corresponding date in our time = 294 29' 57" '00. Here the new-moon happened on the day on the 25th Dec. 71 B. This is on return of the similar full-moon near ft Gemniorum.e. and The date Dec. Jan. to intercalate of Pausa. the day after the winter solstice. date in our time 43' 18"'00. on which at G.INDIAN EEAS Mean Sun = 269 Mean Moon = 266 Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . 1927.Perigee = 36' 6"'54. the distinguishing character of this /3 Magha was that its first quarter was conjoined with Arietts. 17..e. 75 B. 19.. (5) winter Lastly to finally examine if the new-moon and the we find that on solstice fell on the same date.M..N. 67 35' 19" ' = Eccentricity = Jan. and this was the junction star ' distinguishing mark of the winter solstice day. 24. from a day which On the whole it is Magha. 17. The corresponding Mean Sun - 269 95 131 50' 53"*49. The practice one lunar month occasionally on the was.N.. 1931. at G. 1923 A. 17. day but it was the day before. i.

59 B.. but are> like the Christian years. also Krta years. from the the Perhaps the Indian half of orthodox reckoning also started light the lunar Maglia of this type. It appears that the Sam vat or rather the Malava era did not actually begin with 58 B. it is the most valued of . and that Sain vat years are not years elapsed. as has been noticed by all the Indian archaeologists from Dr.the Vaitiakha and on a Sunday which was (<?) on which (b) the third day of the of the lunar moon was the The Matsya Purdna says : ** God Visnu caused barley to ripen on the third day of 9 ' the light half of lunar VaUaklia and started the Krtayuga. This will be clear from the next topic dealt with. would earn inexhaustible merit for it and for If this day be the one on which the moon all other good deeds. but most probably from 57 B. Why the Samvat Years are called Krta Years. with the distinguishing feature found in (2) and (4). The winter solstice day which just preceded the year 58 B. the Krtayuga began (1) According to all Indian Calendars. " Those people who have fasted on the third day of the light half of lunar Vaiakha. (a) conjoined with Krttikas or Pleiades according to the Purdnas.. (ti) viz.238 * ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY * junction star of the naksatm Asvinl.C..C. was the 24th Dec. 65. : The same Purdna also says 3 II Ch . while Kharosthl inscriptions have the reckoning from the very full-moon day itself of lunar Pausa... D. We oldest The name of the Sarhvat years was propose to find the reasons thereof in this part of the chapter. Bhandarkar and others of later times. 2-3. The new-moon near this date fell on the 26th. Fleet up to Dr. E.C.C. is conjoined with the Krttikas (Pleiades). the current ones. .

INDIAN EEAS all : 239 the gods.C. N. (1) (a) In this year. was over about 4 p. has been declared by the wise as of unending religious merit.C. M.. .. t 190. to occurred.C. the lunar Cailra ended on March 20. at G. N.. 1 Mbh. 48'45''*69. =67 39' = Appt. therefore. (6) at about 6-30 p. Vana. 90-91. Jupiter and the naksatra tisya (Pusya) would come into one cluster Astronomically speaking.m. On this day.. at G-. but we are here to look for a year near about 57 B. Sun's Apogee . M. the condition for both these aspects happen in one year for the beginning of the Krtayuga. 18' 80"' 76 Moon = 10 Sun =357 17' 48' T lie Ujjayini first tithi of the siddhdntas mean time.m. Hence ." The first signal for the beginning of the Krta era. should be a Sunday and should also be the day on which the moon was conjoined with the Pleiades group..C. of and the crescent moon was visible after sunset most probably. was that the day should be the third of the light half of lu:. Eccentrieity= '017522. Mean Sun =354 Moon=360 Lunar Perigee 54' 48" '57. would not perhaps lead to any single solution. Mean Sun=355 53' 56"'90. 63 B. or whatever be whatever be given away either as charity or as oblations to done by repeating the prayer.. Moon= Lunar Perigee = 13 66 53'20"'72. which both these events That year has come out from my investigation to have in been the year 63 B.ar Vaiakha. of Ujjayini On March . 21. Moon = 3567/ Sun =35649' The new-moon happened mean time. Hence Appt. 63 B. 66 11' 49"'71. The second to the signal for the beginning of the : Krtayuga according Mahdbhdrata and the Purnnas 1 was " The Krtayuga would begin when the sun... moon.

over at According to the astronomy of that time the second day of the lunar VaiSakha was taken to end with the setting of the moon on this Sunday evening. we : have the following well-known passage in the Hitopadeda *n " Friend.C. we have one further aspect to consider. I- Moon =24 Sun =358 37'. D. viz. Sunday.. became visible affcer sunset.C. state of Hi'idu and the cluster Wihen both the moon and the Krttika third day began. . in the signal for the Krtayuga to begin.. 46'.m.N. was perhaps called the beginning of the Krtayuga for the coming of another astronomical event in it. March =356 22.. days But it is clear that the event of the sun's reaching the vernal not be sure of the date of the Hitopadesa. 1 Hence Appt.M. that the weekwere reckoned in the Hindu caleodar about the year 57 B.C. 63 B. the sun reached the Yemal equinox and this was the third day of the light half of Vaisakha. This was probably regarded as the first signal for the beginning of the Krtayuga. The of siddhantic second tithi was time. they were separated by about It could 6 of longitude. Tais *veat was perhaps a more forceful signal for the beginning of the Krtayuga. 25' 11"'81. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee and the Krttika (r\ =27 = 66 58' 4*" 23. Ujjayini mean about 1-20 p. was a later addition. . these strings can I then touch Sunday ?" (of the net) are made of guts how them with my teeth to-day which is a The rule was " No meat on Sundays/' But we can . As to a/ very early use of the days of the week in the Hindu calendar. that on the day following. at G. Secondly this year.240 (c) ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On Sunday. It is thus not quite rational for us to assume equinox on the third day of lunar VaiSdkha would of very special significance for the (2) be regarded as coming of the Krtayuga. overtake the be thus inferred that the moon would Krttikas in about half a day. 63 B. Tauri)-Bl 26' nearly. 9' 56* '75. If we think that the connecting of the day of the week. = 1698493).. *(J.

Krtayuga. = 85 54' 54". Ohr.M. Again on July 16. which might the luni- men that the Krtaynga had begun.C. In this combined signals for the could be observed add estimated year the 24. 39'. N. 19' 3'5"'21. day also the sun.N. is thus established that both and the 63 luni-solar-Jovial-stellar beginning of in the the year B.. Jupiter and the naksatra Pusya were in the same cluster. June 16. of ap?is=88 19'.. Jupiter's Eccentricity= '0443845. Mean Sun Moon . 63 B. Cancri =100 4' nearly. Mean Jupiter as corrected by the equation of apsis. 0' 2" '58. Hence Moon =110 Sun =109 57'. at G. we arrive at July 5. 63 B.C. it On the whole solar.or exactly one synodic month later Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee =110 =109" 79 83 43' 37" '39. 8 19" -20.. 63 B... on which. Mean Jupiter 17' 13"'71. at G. Jupiter as corrected by the eqn.. This day also most probably afforded another signal for the coming of the Krtayuga. The longitude of the oldest first point of the Hindu . sphere was about. moon. viz. badMoon = 80 Sun =81 45' 11' Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee = = = = 81 Hence Appt. -6 in this year and consequently the longitude of the first point of the Jupiter was near to this point.C.C.. If we go forward by 12 lunations from the above date. Here was another combination have persuaded of the planets.. at G. 20' 8"'16. M. Pusya division ^as=8720'. Jupiter had set already and the new-moon happened in the the Jovial year begun was thus Pausa or naksatra Punarvasu Mahdpausa. we 88' 59"'72. . It may thus be inferred that the signal very from Jupiter's position as to the beginning of the Krtaynga was taken to occur on this date. 80 76 67 = 80 52' 26" '87. 2' 21" '48. v Oancri =97 5'.T. Jupiter = 112 47' 44"'98. Appfc. 23'. 4' =100 =100 8' 20"'52..M.INDIAN ERAS 241 On June 16. and the full-moon 311408B . Jupiter this On had become heliacally visible about 10 days before. Jupiter Perihelion =341 34' 32". sun's reaching the winter solstice happened on Dec.C. 62 B.

at the UjjayinI night. The year was reckoned from the fullinoon day of Pausa. and we arrive Feb. Now the Indian spring begins. Malava or the Samvat era was mada 5 years later day of from the full-moon day of about the 28th Dec.D.D... Moon=360 20' nearly. 473 A.529 or 473 A. 46' 14" '81.D. These 9.D. But in the Samvat era.C. The Samvat year 1 was thus almost the same as 57 B.. 43' 28'/ *68. .D. on the 17th Feb. Now the year in our time which was similar to 529 of the Malava era was 1932 A. The actual starting of the Krta. In 499 A. when the sun's longitude becomes 330% which happened about 30 hours later.. which is now a case of a queer combination of opposites. and that the number of the Samvat era represents the current year as in the Christian era. = =326 =355 =233 58' 8*'09. Hence Appt. Malava Samvat 529. 58 B. on which. the Gaitra-Suklddi reckoning was followed according to the rule of iryabhata.. we are told that the lunar months are still reckoned as full-moon ending. or some years later than this date. 76 Eccentricity ='017323. 18. Further the lunar months here are full-moon ending as originally in the Saka era. 1932.* 242 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY Pausa was the day following it.. the Second Day of the Light Half of Phalguna and the Beginning of Spring In Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. Plate No. was=1459 at the date sidereal years = 18046 Elapsed years till this date lunalions= 5320909 days. 15. mean mid- Mean Sun Moon .. We next turn to solve the last problem from the epigraphic source in relation to this era.. it is stated that spring had set in on the second day of the light half of Phalguna of the Malava Samvat . Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . i. 473 A. and the date. as we have seen in the preceding chapters.C. to March 9.e.. days are applied backward to March : 1932 A.D. Sun = 328= 48' 24". 57' 22' '72. The local conditions probably brought iq spring earlier.

viz. Thus Feb. 473 A. as stated in the inscription. that 60 days before this date.e * Mand^r W8-H ^ * * that spring has set in.D. why proceed estimating the beginning of spring. The date and Feb 15 473 A. before. solstice day was thus premature by about the crescent took On this day. cannot be called Vikrama Samvat era came to be Malava answered from any astronomical data. 20' 87*...INDIAN EEAS Again 2*5 348 days before Feb.e. on : We now to consider there has been an error in to an old find We Dec. 472 A.. of spring. Feb.. 15. at Ujjayini mean midday. 15. 0' 55^12. 15 was the second day of the month. Mean Sun Moon =267 =284 Lunar Perigee=226 The estimated winter two days. inscription says .D. i. 26' 46" '04. 48' 4". afc Ujjayinl mean midnight. the 14th Feb. was that of the thorough repair te oUhe In te mP. and the first visibility of the crescent took place on the evening of the next day. have here tried to interpret Note -We the of astronomical statement of the Mandasor stone inscription the Kumara Gupta found here as decora- of inscription and Bandhuvarman.D. 59' 5". era cannot be identiThis inscription shows that the Gupta that why or how the The point fied with the Samvat era. or on the 13th February.. appears that the new-moon had happened about 3J lira. 473 AJX. the first visibility of Henfce the second day of the light half of place in the evening. 60 days Phalguna was the estimated beginning on the 16fch December and later. at Ujjayini mean midday : Mean Sun Mean Moon Lunar Perigee It = 233 =324 =323 30' 47"'25. The new-moon happened the real winter solstice day was the 19th December. which according rule should come 60 days after the winter solstice day. 17. or.

the calendar year. Dlkita. Ill. Mr. page 127. Diksita of Poona. B. and his calculations led Dr. Diksita eras were but one Gupta and Valabhi Of recent years some have even ventured to prove that the Gupta era is to be identified with the Swhvat or Malava era. qnMfa ^fiWTO. page 7 that of the Valabha era. B. Vol. Vol. which is equivalent to this the Saka year. S. II. From the earliest Vedic times and the most unmistakable period. Vol. controversial to Samvat or Malava era are generally taken to begin from the light As has been stated already. it is extremely assume if this was so at the times when these eras were started. the true Gupta : era. verify the dates in those inscriptions he had the assistance of the late Mr.Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. This indefinite statement or inference is not satisfactory. beginning of Dr. try to arrive at a beginning of the definite conclusion on this point. as distinguished from the * was 3 3 IPleet. Fleet in his great book Inscnptionum Indicaram. In order to published a collection of the Gupta inscriptions.. The tradition about this era is recorded by Alberum. the result is the year of the Gupta kings and that the Gupta and Valabhi 3 Now the Saka era and the eras are one and the same era. falls. 1 Fleet to conclude that the Gupta era began from 319-21 A. page 375 (1st Edn. like The epoch of the era Sachau's Alberuni. S.D.CHAPTER XXY INDIAN BEAS The Gupta Era it is proposed "to determine the the era of the Gupta emperors of northern India.). From half of lunar Caitra. Hence it has become necessary to that the 2 was also not able to prove and the same era. has In the present chapter. deduct 241. viz. 241 years later than the " of the G-uptas . we have also from the evidences to sacrificial Vedanga show that year. Ill (Gupta Inscriptions).

at G. On looking up some of the recent calendars we find that (a) In the year 1922.D. Thus what was 270 of the longitude of the sun. 12. or Ujjayim M..M. 20. becomes 1621 years and 1621=160x10+19+2. The so-called Caiira-Suklddi reckoning started year from the vernal equinox day or from the day following it. = 74 7'2516. a new-moon on Jan. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A. : 13. 317 A. 319 A. as an astronomer..D. 32..m. 1937. Sun =26937'. =269 =272 =39 =257 5' 11"'26.. 20. . =119''5016. Node Sun's Apogee . the year of the era was similar to 1938 A. apply the elapsed years 1619 (sidereal) Jan. =50" '0847 the total shifting of the solstices becomes till 1938 AJX = 22 31' 27"'54.INDIAN BRAS started either 245 from the winter solstice day or from the day the following it. .N.D.D. Appt.D. . So far as we can see from a study of the history of Indian astronomy.. than with the Caitra-Suklddi Saka year Now the year 241 of the Saka era is equivalent to 319-20 A. The moon overtook the sun reached the winter solstice in about 9 hours.. The elapsed years of the Gupta era till 1940 A. precession rate from 319 to 1938 A. on which. =1''2981.D. and arrive at the date : We backward to Dec. ..D. The great fame of Aryabhata I. led all the astronomers and in this public start men of later times to follow him respect. . (6) . was a new-moon day and also the day of winter solstice . 44' 29 '88. 1. Eccentricity in 50' 37"'26.D.T.. 317 A.. We Hence the starting Now per mean Hence year. there was a full-moon on Jan.. about 1J hours and the sun Hence Dec. 1937 A.D. We with the hypothesis that the Gupta era was originally started from the winter solstice day and that initially the year of corresponded the era more correctly with the Christian year. Hence 2e 2 fe .. we are led to conclude that this sort of beginning the year was started by Aryabhata I from 499 A. 5-4 p. = '0173808. should now become 291 31' nearly a longitude which the sun now has about the 13th of January. assume that the Gupta era started from the winter solstice day preceding Jan. Moon 26852' nearly. 89' 40* '40..

with that of a Virginis.D.M. Mean Sun Hence 2e Moon Lunar Perigee A.. Q. 484 A. .N.D . 1.. 23' 2'/'80... Fleet in his The 2 First Instance of Gupta Inscription Date Sri The inscription says that the 12th tithi of the light half of lunar Asddha of the Gupta year 165 fell on a Thursday. Hence On June 21. 1924. was that the last quarter of the moon was very nearly conjoined with Citrd (Spica or a Virginis) for In our opinion this character of the month was used the intercalation of a lunar month at the end of a correct * luni-solar cycle. the date of the inscription. page 80. arrive This date was 14*15 Julian centuries + 181 '25 days before We next Jan.. We increase the number of days by 1 and divide it by 7 the remainder is 4. lunar Agrahdyana ended. 14' 51'/'51. 1900 A. viz. C/.D. that the distinguishing character of the lunar Agrahdyana^ with which the year ended at the end of a correct luni-solar cycle. |e 2 = 119''0564.D. Jan.. We now proceed to examine the Gupta Inscriptions as collected great book on the subject.246 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY mode of Indian reckoning. 484 A. which shows that the inscription state- ment of Thursday agrees with the Sunday of July 13. Eran Inscription. We examine (A) this By by both the modern and the Siddhdntic methods. at L.D.D. It and this was the 12th day of lunar Pausa. As this day was similar to Jan. = 91 12' 50"'64. at G. and at the date June 21. 1924 A. =235 =335 =277 7' 53'/'42. 1937 A. similar to the year 1924 years== date =1440 sidereal 525969 days. The elapsed years till this . = 1''290. the dates given in together by Dr.. the longitude of the moon on 4. /. it appears thai the Gupta era was started from about the according to the ordinary 21st Dec. 1937 A. * ^Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. 318 A. must be remembered in this connection. is The year 165 of the Gupta kings A. Node Sun's Apogee Eccentricity 1 = 76 = "0173175.D.D. the Modern Method. 14' 32". 12. apply 525969 days backward to July 13.

. at 30' same mean place* the Hence Ujjayim mean midnight. IL The Second Instance of Gupta Inscription Date Here the Hijn year it Gupta expressed in elapsed years The Valabhi Sariwat 945 is the same as the should be 1321. - 90 =225 =335 =277 45' 41"'78. = 90= 2 f . in which the 13th tithi of the dark half of . Sun .D. 484 A. Now from the mean Khaydakliddyaka ahargana = 218878 which we deduct 3Q 211848. Node .D. 662 shows the Vikrama Sam* at is and as it is now reckoned as 1320 Jyaistha fell on a Sunday. 18' 17'61.. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A. and next (Wednesday). Hence = 91 3 4" t Mean Sun = 22623'17"| Moon . and the Zero year oj the Gupta We are here in agreement with Diksita's era is thus 319 A. . June 21.. 47" '38. Sarhvat 945.' The above two are in fair mean elements for the same instant date of the inscription is agreement. had at sun rise the 12th tithi of the lunar month of Isadha. the Kali ahargana on this Wednesday at the (B) Ujjayini mean midnight was= 1309545. Moon= 219" 47' nearh . Node sets of the =335 =277 42' 56% 35' 17". 17' 7"'08. Thursday. Veraval Inscription. . Hence the finding. 484 4. Ujjayinl midnight of the day before the lUh tithi was current.. page 84.D. mean midnight.INDIAN EEAS From these 247 at we readily find the preceding Ujjayinl On June 20. Thus at the mean According to the method of the Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta. Thursday. Appt. and which we accept as the correct ahargana i is exactly divisible Fleet-Gupta Inscriptions. Lunar Perigee A. day.

Saka year Pausa..T. were at Thus over and 13 hrs. Node = Appt. 29' 53' 1* (with Lalla's correction) Hence.D. the Gupta year being taken to have been reckoned from the light half of lunar i Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions.. on a Monday. Do ) 28 28 21' 57". Moon-Sun =10*29 46' 47" 5 46' 47".248 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 7. In the present case A. we have Mean Sun = 1 s 27 42' 48". The English the date for this On next day. = A. III. Valabhi or Gupta year 945 = 1264 Hence also the Gupta era began from 319 A.D. Moon = Lunar Apogee 0* 27 6* 20 31' 40". Sunday. Do. .D. 1264 A. Thus the current titlii of the next morning of Sunday was also the 13th of tjie dark half of Jyaistha which is called Asddha vadi 13. of the 13th titlii of the dark half of Jyaistha. fell the 2nd titlii of the half of Phalguna The English years date -h becomes 1246 A. The Third Instance of Gupta Inscription Date It is here stated that in the light Gupta or Valabhi year 927. the date of the inscription. Sun = Moon = 9* 29 1* s 4" ( Do. by and which was true era 945. May May 25.D. which was a Saturday.. nearly of it remained.D.M. the date was. 1264 A. page 90. Feb. was 1167 11 months + 2 tithis.. at the Ujjayim mean midnight. 26. for Saturday of Isddha vadi 12 of the Saturday was Gupta 1264 A. 19. and we the are in agreement with Diksita. Veraval Inscription. 25. the midnight (U.D.) of the Saturday ended. From the above apparent dhargana for May. about 11 hrs. 8' 44".

on which. the signal from Jupiter's position as to the beginning of the Krtayuga was taken to occur on this date. Jupiter was very near to this point.C.. at G-..M. 63 B. N..C. This day also most probably afforded another signal for the coming of the Krtayuga. 63 B. June 16. Pusyd were day also the sun. which might the luni- men that the it Krtayuga had begun... Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee Mean Jupiter Jupiter's Perihelion =341 34' 32". 62 B.N.T. 80 20' 8"'16. Here was another combination have persuaded of the planets. v Cancri =97 5'. . = 109" = 79 83 =110 43' 37" '39. 23'. 8 Cancri =100 4' nearly. = 85 54' 54"... 57'. 1408B . 19' 35" '21. 76 0' 2"*58. Jupiter and the naksatra in the same cluster.INDIAN ERAS 241 On June 16.M. viz. could be observed and estimated B. .. at G. of apsis=88 19'. = = = = = 81 38' 59" '72. It may thus be interred that. In this year the sun's reaching the and the full-moon happened on Dec.or Hence Moon = 110 Sim =109 exactly one month later Mean Sun Moon . 67 39'. -6 in this year and consequently the longitude of the first point of the Pusyd division vsas=8720'. arrive at July 5. we hadHence Appfc. 2' 21" '48.C. Appt. 63 B. that On solar. Moon = 80 Sun =81 45' 11' Jupiter as corrected by the equation of apsis. Moon = 1004'19"'20. Jupiter as corrected by the eqn. Again on July synodic 16. Jupiter had set already and the new-moon happened in the naksatra Punarvasu the Jovial year begun was thus Pausa or The longitude of the oldest first point of the Hindu Mahdpausa. M. If we go forward by 12 lunations from the above date. the whole the is thus established both and the of luni-solar-Jovial-stellar combined signals for the beginning in the year 63 winter 31 solstice Krtayuga. 24. Ohr.C. Eccentricity ='0443845.C. Lunar Perigee Mean Jupiter 17' 13"'71. Jupiter = 112 47' 44" '98. Jupiter this On had become heliacally visible about 10 days before. moon. at G. . 80 52' 26"*87. sphere was about.. we Mean Sun =100 8' 20" '52..

to March 9. the Second Day of the Light Half of of Spring Phalguna and the Beginning In Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. Now the Indian spring begins. Eccentricity ='017323. 1 was thus almost the same as 57 B. We next turn in relation Malava Samvat 529. Plate No..D.. which happened about 17th Feb. 43' 28" '68. 58 B.D.C. on which.D. was=1459 at the date sidereal years = 18046 Elapsed years lunations -5320909 days.e. =326 =355 =233 58' 8^09.D.D.. = 57' 22"'72. The year was reckoned from the full- moon day of Pausa. lunar months are still reckoned as full-moon ending. when becomes 330. Hence Appt. on the the . the Caitra-Sukladi reckoning now a case of a queer combination of opposites. 473 A. Mean Sun Moon . 20' 76 46' 14* '81.C.. sun's longitude 30 hours later. till this These days are applied backward to March : 1932 A. Further the lunar full-moon ending as originally in the Saka era. The Samvat year and that the number of the Samvat era represents the current months here are year as in the Christian era. 1932. 18.. In 499 A..242 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY The actual starting day of Pausa was the day following it. Malava or the Samvat era was made 5 years later from the full-moon day of about the 28th Dec. The local conditions probably brought in spring earlier. nearly. it is stated that spring had set in on the second day of the light half of Phalguna Now the year in our of the Malava Samvat 529 or 473 A. 473 A. which is date. time which was similar to 529 of the Malava era was 1932 AJX. i. 9.. we are told that the rule of Aryabhata.. at the Ujjayin! mean midnight. of the Krta. 15. date and the date. or some years later than this was followed according to the But in the Samvat era. as we have seen in the preceding chapters. Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . Sun =328 Moon=360 48' 24'. to solve the last problem from the epigraphic source to this era. and we arrive Feb.

Feb.. 17. the real winter solstice day was identithe Gupta era cannot be This inscription shows that or how the era. answered from any astronomical Tot. on: Dec. and the first visibility of the the the evening second day of the month. The new-moon happened the 19th December. that spring nas inscription says . the 14th Feb. We now proceed to consider why there has been an estimating the beginning rule should come 60 days after the winter solstice day. hr$... 0' 2t>' = 233 55"T2. 473 A. new-nioon had happened about 3| crescent took place on before. 48' 4".INDIAN ERAS 248 Again 2'5 days before Feb. The estimated winter two days. 473 A. Thus Feb. The point that why fied with the Sa**at Malava era came to be called Vikrama &.D.c.D. 46" '04....* the cannot be data. 15 was error in to an old find We Mean Sun =267 =284 Lunar Perigee=226 Moon 20' 87*. at Ujjayiui mean midday : Mean Sun Mean Moon Lunar Perigee It appears that the =324 =323 30' 47"'25.. of spring. 15. 59' 5". at TJjjayini mean midday. 60 days Phalquna was the estimated beginning on the 16th December and later. of spring. or on the 13th February. at Ujjayim mean midnight.-We have here tried to interpret t astrononnc 1 set in. solstice day was thus premature by about of On this day. 472 A. i. t>fe. the first visibility the crescent took Hence the second day of the li-ht half of place in the evening. or. which according of the next day. that 60 days before this date.D. 15. as stated in the inscription.

Gupta statement or inference is not satisfactory. era Diksita \vas also not able to prove that the eras were but one and the same era. The tradition about this era equivalent to this: From the year of the Gupta 8 eras are one and the same era. Vol. B. as distinguished from the * was WeeiCorpus S. Vol. Ill (Gupta Inscriptions). Dr. we have the also from the Veddnga evidences to sacrificial show that year. viz. it is extremely controversial to assume this was so at the times . (1st * B. of the verify the dates in those inscriptions he had the assistance late Mr.. Mr. page like that of the Valabha era. 2 Gupta and Valabhi Of recent years some have even ventured to prove that the Gupta era is to be identified with the Samvat or Malava era." 7" . Diksita.D. From the earliest Vedic times and most unmistakable period. has In the In order to published a collection of the Gupta inscriptions. As has been if stated already. page 127. Inscriptionum Indication.). the result is kings and that the Gupta and Valabhi is Now the Saka era and the light Samvat or Malava era are generally taken to begin from the half of lunar Gaitra. II. the calendar year. which is the Saka year. Ill. deduct 241. * and his calculations led Dr. Hence it has become necessary to try to arrive at a definite conclusion on this point. it is proposed to determine beginning of the era of the Gupta emperors of northern India. *TH#ta sstfiwrer. 3 falls. page 375 Edn. 241 years later than the Sakdkala. Fleet to conclude that the This indefinite 1 began from 319-21 A. recorded by Alberuni. Fleet in his great book Inscriptionum Indicaram.CHAPTER XXY INDIAN Eli AS The Gupta Era the present chapter. Diksita of Poona. the true beginning of the Gupta era.when these eras were started.~Vol. S. The epoch of the era of the Guptas Sachau's Alberani.

Sun =26937'. . Hence the starting Now 1938 the mean . Mean Sun Moon . 31' 27"*54. Hence becomes a till A.2G852' nearly . to We apply the elapsed years 1619 (sidereal) Jan. 12.D.. was a new-moon day and also the day of winter solstice . 317 A. and arrive at the date: 5-4 p. Lunar Perigee A. reached the winter solstice in about 9 hours/ Hence Dec... *=269 = 272 5' 11"'26. correctly more the Christian year.. year of the era was similar to 1938 A. .D.D. at G. we are led to conclude that this sort of beginning the year was started by Aryabhata I from 499 A. 1. The great fame of Aryabhata I. Node Sun's Apogee . So far as we can see from a study of the history of Indian astronomy.. =25744/29-88. 1987.D. there was a full-moon on Jan.m.. as an astronomer. We with the hypothesis that the Gupta era was originally started from the winter solstice day and that initially the year of the era corresponded with than with the Caitra-SuMddi Saka year. Moon . Appt. 12. 1937 AJ). The moon overtook the sun about 1 hours and the sun 20. a new-moon on Jan.D. = 22 sun. on which. The elapsed years of the Gupta era till 1940 A. Hence 2e =119''5016.N. . backward Dec.T. = 74 7' 25'16.D. 20. . or Djjaymi M. becomes 1621 years and 1621=160x10+19 + 2.INDIAN ERAS -started either 245 from the winter solstice day or from ^he day the following it. in =39 50' 37"'26.D.M. Thus what was 270 31' of the longitude of the should now become 291 nearly longitude which the sun now has about the 13th of January.D. = Eccentricity '0173808. .. The so-called Caitra-jSuklddi reckoning started year from the vernal equinox day or from the day following it. 50" '0847 the total shifting of the solstices per year. 39'40"'40. Now We the year 241 of the Saka era is equivalent to 319-20 A. up some of the recent calendars we find that : On looking (a) (b) In the year 1922.D. 13. assume that the Gupta era started from the winter solstice day preceding Jan.. 319 A.. = precession rate from 319 to 1938 A. led all the astronomers and in this public start men of later times to follow him respect. .. 317 A.

14' 32". 14' 51 "'51. It and this was the 12th day of lunar Pausa. 1937 A. that the distinguishing character of the lunar Agrahdyana. 1900 A.M.. examine this by both the modern and the Siddhdntic methods. 484 A. This date was 14*15 Julian centuries + 181*25 days before Jan. next apply 525969 days backward to July 13. lunar Agrahdyana ended.. which shows that the inscription state.D . We (A) By the Modern Method. Q. 1.of Thursday agrees with the Sunday of July 13. luni-solar cycle.246 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY mode of Indian reckoning. page 80.D. the 2"'80. Node Sun's Apogee Hence 2e = 119''0564. 484 A. the date of the inscription. 4. We increase the number of days by 1 and divide it by 7 the remainder is 4.D. it appears that the Gupta era was started from about the 21st Dec.. Mean Sun=235 7' 53" '42. = 91 12' 50"'64.N...D. at G. year ended at last quarter of must be remembered in this connection.D. . I.. We now The First Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The inscription says that the 12th titlii of the light half of lunar Isadha of the Gupta year 165 fell on a "Thursday. 1 Cf. according to the ordinary As this day was similar to Jan. 2 fe =l'-290. viz. with that of Fleet's Q-upta Inscriptions. 1924. Moon Lunar Perigee A. with which the the end of a correct luni-solar cycle. Fleet in his great book on the subject.D. 318 A.. at L. and June 21. 1937 A. The year 165 of the Gupta kings is similar to the year 1924 A. moon on Jan. 1924 A. the longitude of gtnif.D. =335 =277 23' = 76 Eccentricity = '0173175. The elapsed years till this date=1440 sidereal years= 525969 days.D. was that the with the moon was very nearly conjoined Citrd (Spica or In our opinion this character of the month was used for the intercalation of a lunar month at the end of a correct a Virginia)^ proceed to examine the dates given in the Gupta Inscriptions as collected together by Dr. Hence arrive at the date We On June 21. ment. Bran Inscription. 12.

in The Valabhi Samvat which the 13th 945 of Gupta Samvat Jyaistha fell the dark half of on a Sunday. "Veraval Inscription. =225 45' 41* '78. the Kali ahargana on this Wednesday at the Hence Ujjayini mean midnight was 1309545. June 21. page 84. D. and next day. 35' 17*. Now from tbe mean Khanda'khadya'ka ahargana = 218878 which we deduct 30 211848.' for the The above two are in fair sets of the mean elements same instant agreement. 484 A. bad at sun rise the 12th tit hi of the lunar month of Isddha. 945.B.INDIAN BRAS From these 247 places at we readily find the preceding Ujjayini mean midnight. . which we 1 accept as the correct ahargana and Pleefc is exactly divisible Gupta Inscriptions. We are here in agreement with Dlksita's finding. and as tithi it is is now reckoned the same as the be 1321. method of the Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta.. =835 =277 Ujjayini 18' 17*61. Node 90 80' 47" '38. (B) According to the Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A. M Moon =219 47' nearly. On June 20. Thus at the mean midnight a of the day before (Wednesday). and the Zero year of the Gupta era is thus 319 A. 17' 7" '08. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A. at Ujjayini same mean Hence the mean midnight. the llthtithi was current. Node = 91 3' 4\ =226 =335 =277 23' 17^ 42' 56". 484 A..D. Hence the date of the inscription is Thursday. IL The Second Instance of Gupta Inscription Date Here the should Hijri year 662 shows the Vikrama Samvat is expressed in elapsed years as it 1320 . Sun = 90 2'. Appt. Thursday.

Feb. May. 1264 A. we have t . by and which was true for Saturday of Asadha vadi 12 of the for this Gupta era 945. the 2nd being taken to have been reckoned from the light half of lunar Pausa. Do ) 21' 57". Mean Sun = 1* 27 42' 48". The English date the Saturday was the date was. Do.Sun =10*29 46' 47" = Thus abouL at 27 tithis + 5 46' 47". Phalguna fell on a Monday.D Djjayim mean midnight.D. Moon = 0*27 Lunar Apogee = 6' 20 A. 1264 A.D.M.. the date of the inscription.D.. 25. 11 hrs. Appt. Sun = 1' 28 Moon = 0'28 81' 40".T.. 1264 A.) of the Saturday ended. Thus the current tithi of ttte nest morning of Sunday was also the 13th of the dark half of Jyaistha which is called Isddha vadi 13. 26.D. nearly of it remained. Moon. The English date becomes 1246 A. and we are in agreement with Diksita. From the above apparent aharguna for at the which was a Saturday.248 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 7. 8' 44". On May May 25. A. Saka year was 1167 years + 11 months + 2 tithis. the Gupta year tithi of the light half of l Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. III.D. 19. 29' 53' 1" (with Lalla's correction) 4" ( Do. Node = 9' 29 Hence. Veraval Inscription. page 90. In the present case the Valabhi or Gupta year 945 = 1264 Hence also the Gupta era began from 319 A. Sunday. of the 13th tithi of the dark half of Jyaistha were over and 13 hrs. . The Third Instance of Gupta Inscription Date It is here stated that in the Gupta or Valabhi year 927. the midnight (U. nest day.

56' 51".. It should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half of Pausa persists inspite of Aiyabhata I's rule of reckoning of it from the light half of Caitra.. SC 3 IS' 52" A PP<" Sun = hr ..T. 11.INDIAN ERAS The Ujjayini true 249 KhandakhaJijka ahargana becomes = 212179 at mean midnight of monday. Ujjayini M. Caitra-Hukladi Saka era would Agraliayana* be 570 years + Khandakhddyaka of Brahmagupta. = 1246 A. . But this explanation appears unsatisfactory. i. the We agreement with Dlksita.". = M Mean Moon = T A Lunar Apogee = Sun's Apogee TV/T 2< 17 0' 0". The Fourth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date This states that the Gupta year 330 had at its end the second Agrahdyana. A. ] oc . the I ttthi was the second sun's of solar of the light half of unar Phalguna. when Mean Sun = 10* 24 43' 44". the Gupta year 330. Moon = 11* 24 26' 37". M n= ' 2 "> . &J140SB .*.D. Node Hence on the same date = 2* 1 59' 40". 11* ixo oo. Moon -Sun = 16 57/25" 57 . ~ 325 59 ' 41". On this Monday. page 92. ' S4 2 Ojlft . Here ako 927 the Gupta Era Zero year of the Gupta Era IV.e. 13S3 exact intercalary months by the mean rate. Mean Sun = 10 * 28 59' 23". in which we get 1383^ intercalary months. Lunar Apogee = 6* 3 '20' 53".. the Kaira <2245'N. 7245'E) Grunt. 25". In this case also calculation by modern methods is unnecessary as the time was later than of Brahmagupta. wlrch tends to show that there was a se?ond lunar Agrahayana at this time. 14 33' -. at 6 a.'. the total 570 of Saka elapsed + 9 months = days up 1349910. .D. ** 6* lhus __ .. up to the time by the 9 months. Here. while the longitude shows that are the here Bengali date in was the 24th Phdlguna.m. = 319 A. If we follow the According to the Kali-solar to 1 Fleet Gupta Inscriptions.

on which the new-moon happened with which the lunar Agrahdyana ended this year. From these calculations it follows that the last this lunar month of the year. it We have then to examine north.D. being the second day of the second Agrahdyana. Length of Agialiajana=ZQda. Siddlianta. the moon was conjoined with Gitrd or night. 2 1 * 1 33 IV (Burgess 50v.D. before Jan. 20. 20. was the date Dec. 20.. Hence applying 120898 days forward to this date. 317 A. 46' 40"'79.i-solar cycle. Sun -265 8'.. The year 330 of the year which ended Dec. 8). a Virginis. was the 22nd oj November. S. Gupta era was thus the 648 A. Length Lunar month =29da. we arrive at the date Dec.. S4v. of which the length as found by 2 We have also Warren is less than that of a lunar month.D. 31n. and the number of lur.D. there was a new-moon with which the lunar Agrahdyana ended and the sun turned could not happen. of a Virgini s = 185 neaily 10'.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOQY of the Siddhdntas. comprised 120898 days. On Dec. was that the The Gupta era was later than this date. Moon =179 Long. M. to xiv.318A.. = = 79 : 32' 34"'17. was the second Agrahdyana as month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years. in the latter part of the On this day. from the 20th Dec. 20 of the year 317 A. Again 577825 days 1900 A. The date of the inscription. D. . 5e 2 =204 =180 =188 0"*47.. The character started of this lunar Agrahdyana Citra or last quarter was conjoined with one year about a Virginis. there can be no intercalary month in the Bolar month of Agrahayana.D. we had 57' Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee 2e=118''7. years elapsed was =331 = 160 x 2 + 1 1 Thus 331 years was a fairly complete and 1. 30n.. With 8 this second Agrahdyana which of Solar ended on the 20th Dec.D. at G. Now on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astaM which fell on the 13th Dec. examined it carefully and found that in the present case this method another way. N. the Khan<}akhadyaka) t . 64$ A. Hence Apparent 14' 22* '10. 648 A...D. 6 I1[ i 53 (ace. 648 A.

. . V. reckoned not ** era=8-26ofthe Caitra-M Zero year of the ^ it. **-**** Jj -^ ^ ^te' and the of the elaijsed Dikita did actually find . Caitra-tfukladi reckoning is has been tead or as u'tia In this case also Anjalhatti Vs not followed. happened on the execution cf the plate A. To Dr Now year 7th May.'. ^ho mistook 585 of the the ^ I according to Aryabhata s rule. of the Gupta . on of a solar eclipse. 251 era ended. the two solar ebbp*.D.D.o C s+o ays two lunations. s.D. ^ beforeah and 8 lunat. in question that the solar eclipse Fleet.INDIAN ERAS 648 A.D. . the copper plate executed. it the year 330 of the as Gupta it admitted that the inscription executed was slightly defective. era = 649 A. date Although there happened had been a pit-fall for find the date of this copper plate. 904 A. Zero of the =319 A. Mom Copper Plate Inscription u the 5th tithi of the This inscription says that on the day of the king of of lunar Phalguna of the Gupta year 585. 20. which happened in question. light half 70 53' B) made a gift at the time the place Morvi (22 49' N and some time before this date. 905 A. 5 days before at the*.D.D.. It niu*>l It. was which the deed of gift. and the date of Gopta should be 904 We looked for the solar echp** should be Feb. Here 330 .

1 904 A. Node =231 =246 31"10. 1. the ahargana becomes 826 Saka era + 8 lanations=87528. N. if we use the for Kliandakliadyaka. which was the the day of the 3rd iithi of the hght half of Kdrtika. 1 Duration was about 1 hr. Tbe difference is centuries +253 days. the Kh6h Grant. magnitude of the eclipse as visible at the place was The beginning of the eclipse took place at 11-35 a. page 104.A. the about *075. 44' 56".D. time.N. on which. Node =155 Lunar Perigee 18' 5*. M. and Julian days on Jan. 27' 36". =1894552. The new-moon happened at mean noon Morvi time. 2 Gupta Inscriptions.252 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 10. of constants. 9' 18"'32. at G-. at the same day. 1 520469 days which comprise 14"24 Julian We incrf-ase 520469 day by 12*25 days and of The above circumstances Fleet the eclipse have beeu calculated by my collaborator. thereto. year styled the Malid-vaisakJia year.D. Morvi Mean Sun Sun's Apogee =234 22' 29"'34. Morvi time. the inscription records the date as Now 156 of the Gupta era =475 A. Lunar Perigee. become: corrections Mean Sun Moon =228 =224 =239 D.162 10' 10"'68.m.m. 7' = 83 MeanMoou D. or 4-44 Nov.M. The gift made by tbis copper plate was probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. the end came about 12-45 noon Morvi mean time. of tbe VI. 10 niin. 475 A.N. Jovial. It appears that this eclipse could be predicted by the method Khandakhadyaha.M. Mr. 1' 21"*80. Lahiri. p. 1900 A. at Hence the mean places with Lalla's G. Secondly. Tlie Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date Hl 2 I In the year 156 of the Guptas. C. .D.D.. 69' 47". =2415021.

20. 475 A.T. on which.M..T.M. equal in 6 hrs. Here on the day was in the naksatra first of the heliacal visibility. 475 A. G. 20..D. 58' 16* '"45.m.D. XIV. or 11-4 a..as 3 40' behind the of point of the naksatra division. but Jupiter w. i. Mean Sun Henoe we nearly equal calculate that = 269 mean 47' 1F.57.D. It is thus seen that the mean places would become almost places.D. G.66. 475 A. For the above mean 45' 2"-70. Appt... on the 17th September. G.D. the equations of apsis for Jupiter and Sun were respectively -2 6' 4* -01 and : -1 Hence their apparent places became as follows Appt. Jupiter Sun = = 192 49' 30"'41. Jupiter and mean Sun became A. at 289 days later. .INDIAN ERAS arrive at the date. 475 A. the sun Vi&Skha.D. 473 A. more. 88' 19"*15. the Vernal Equinox the year being taken as the first point of the Hindu sphere.T. 18. 475 Mean Jupiter Mean Sun = = 194 194 55' 34" '42. 18 and hrs.m. on the new-moon prior to October 18. it was sun's naksatra.. when Sun Jupiter =208 =196 20' nearly. 6 a. 253 at 474 A.M. Mean Jupiter =170 54' 6". G.T. The actual date of the inscription was Oct. heliacal rising of Jupiter becomes the 2nd October.T. to very nearly in conjunction at 6 hrs.. Dec. on the 17th September.. . Brahmagupta.D.e. Ujjayim M. This takes place Hence the date for the at 45'. 192 Thus they were According getting at the in 15'5 days. Jupiter rises on the east on anomaly of con junction of 14. the date of the . According to the rule of naming Jupiter's years as given in the modern Surya Siddhanta.6 hrs... 16-17. however.M.Thus Jupiter was heliacally visible about Oct.

vaisdklia This inscription also shows that the Gupta era began from 319 A. Jupiter's heliacal setting is yet 30 days. 482 A..N.. there are 532909 days. 482 A. 15-1(5 of the year. Thus the heliacal setting of Jupiter took place in two days more according to Brahmagupta'e rule on the 9th April. 2nd tithi of the light half of Gaitra. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY which took place on Oct.D. page 110. was similar to the 1941 A. 482 A.M. 482 A. come in about Mean Jupiter = Sun = 32 27' 46"'22.D. Hence on April 7. and the date to March 30. the Kb&b Grant II . we bad- Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 347 58' 12' 8'/'24.N. The sun would reach the naksatra Anurddh a. 482 A.. But the tentative . On G.. 1941 A. and we arrive at the tentative date of the inscription as this date. and the year begun was consequently Mahd year of Jupiter. 482 AJD. 1941 A. Hence the come got its name Atvayuga year..D.D which was 21 days before the new-nioon on about the oth April.D. 46' 57"'02 at 16 G. This needs elucidation. to Here. In 1459 year sidereal years The (1941-482 = 1459).M. when the sun was in the naksatra Bharani. The Seventh Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The kings. ' l Fieetr-Gupta Inscriptions.D.D. which are applied backward to the 30th March. gave the name of the year. VII. afc March 8..254 inscription.D.D. inscription records the date as the year 163 of the Gupta year called Malid Atvayuja. Jovial the the day of the year 163 of the Gupta era or 482 A.D. 47*11. and the new-moon happened on the 5th April. year to date of the inscription was obtained as March 8.

later Aryabhata I. the date.. But in the year 482 A. the calendar formation rule was last quarter got conjoined In our gauge year 1941 A. Hence the Agrahayana in lunar Caitra of 482 A. . when the Hindu scientific siddhantas different.D..D.D. would be similar to the Christian year 1931. The date of this inscription is thus correctly obtained as the 482 4.D.. 499 A.e. i.. This instance also shows that the Zero year 7th April. the Jovial year of Maha-caitra. that is now called Pausa. which comprise 17576 lunations= 519029 days. in 1941 482 A. would be viz. the lunar Agrahayana of the early Gupta Thus the lunar month period ended on the 27th Jan. the Majligavam Grant. was lunar Vaisakha of 1941 A.D. on this hypothesis. and the date of the inscription would 1931 A D. 510 A. correspond March 6.D. the Jovial year begun was a Mahd Asvayuja year. We first work out the date on the hypothesis that the Gupta jear was in this case also reckoned from the light half of lunar Pausa. The elapsed years (sidereal) are 1421.. and we arrive at the date. 1941 A. came into being.INDIAN ERAS 255 Here by coming down by 30 days we arrive at the lunar month of Vaisdklia as it is reckoned now. 12. 1 Fleet Gupta Inscriptions. is now the called A. on the 20th Jan. 1931 A.D.D. the day of the third tithi of the dark half of lunar Magha.D. of Gupta year 319 A.D. These days are applied backward to Feb..D...D.D. page 114. March 6. Now this Gupta year tlan the time of 191-510 A. before sunrise.D.D. The Gupta year with 191. VI IL the era was approximately the same as the Christian The Eighth Instance (l^Ll) of Gupta Inscription Date This inscription records the date. by 11 years. also. as the year 191 of the Gupta emperors. Hence as pointed out before in this gauge year 1941 A. 17 years before the year 499 A. the moon of with Citrd or a Virginis..

(2) We have here gone up by 183*5 days and come down by 15*5 days. and at G. find easily the We in = Mean Sun Mean Jupiter =F If these 142 54' 15'/'50 52' 48*57.. far. and the Jovial year begun would be styled Phdlguna or the Maha-phalguna year. It now appears that after the year 499 A. Theses corrected by the equations of apsis. 1. we would have to go 164 days=5 lunations +17 tithis.#56 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this date. 510 A. This interval we have to up by apply backward to the llth tithi of Mdyha. . 31. or Xryabhata Fa This time. result does not agree with the statement of the inscription. and we arrive at the of Jupiter. the sun's true longitude would be 160 . Feb. thus be Sep. at G..N..D.D. according to Aryabhata 1's rule : \ Kalakriya. For Jupiter 16' 41. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) come in 4 days more.5 days later become For Sun For Jupiter = = = = 158 144 10' 10' 54"'2L 7'"25. become For Sun 156 146 3' 27*. which shows that the sun would reach the Hastd division. On the preceding day of the new-moon. On the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5 Thus on the day of the heliacal visibility lunations -f 21 tithis. than the heliacal visibility would come accorJing to the rule of Brahmagupta about 15*5 days later. came in four days more. Phalgitni.D.M. when. 1*2. 9' nearly. at G. 323 46' 13"*72.jVLT. the reckoning of the years of the Gupta era was changed from the light half of Pausa to the light half of Caitra. the sun would he n the naksatra U.M.. we bad- Mean Jupiter Sun = = 158 8' 3"'87. sun and Jupiter had reached equality aiean longitude in 133*5 days before. 142 were the longitudes as corrected by the equations of apsis. which first The date of the heliacal visibility would day of BMdrapada. 509 A. The mean longitudes 15.N.

The Fourth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date U 55 *W fit^HHi ^ ^ 1 I This states that the Gupta year 330 had at Here. UjjayinI ISThus M. while the sun's longitude shows Bengali date was the 24th of solar Phalgiina. In this case also calculation by the modern methods is unnecessary as the time was later tbaa of Brahmagupta.D. in that are the here We agreement with Dlksita. era would 9 months. 3 16' 52" - Moon = 342 86*51*.e. i. 59' 40". . But 1 this explanation appears unsatisfactory. ' 0' = Mean Moon = Sun's Apngee 0". in which we get 1383^% intercalary months. .. 1383 exact intercalary months by the mean rate.". elapsed + 9 months . the Kaira (2245'N.825 " 59/ 2 "> Lunar Apogee^ . Moon-Sun = 16 57' 25" = ltfc + 4 57/25". Moon = 11* 24 26' 37". the its end the second Agrahayana.D.'. Kali-solar to be 570 According to the Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta the total = days up to 570 of Saka. up Agrahdyana. years -t- Gupta year 330.m. 1349910. Node Hence on the same date = 6* 3 25 1 '20' 53". the tithi On this Monday. 11.INDIAN ERAS The Ujjayini true 249 KhandakhaJyka uhargann becomes = 212179 at mean midnight of monday. = 319 A. It should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half of Pausa persists inspite of light half of Caitra. was the second of the light half of unar Phalguna. the time by the Caitm-Siikladi Saka. Fleet If we follow the Gupta Inscriptions.T M Mean Sun = 10 s 23 2 5 17 59' 28*. wh ch tends to show that there was a second lunar Agrahayana at this time. wheu Mean Sun = 10* 24 43' 44".14' 33' 41". Zero year of the Gupta Era IV. Lunar Apogee A. page 92. 6' Appl Sun . 7245'E> Grant. at 6 a.. Sryabhata I's from the Here also rule of reckoning it 927 of the Gupta Era ' = 1246 A. .

643 A. Bin. being the second day of the second Agrahayana.D.. Hence applying Thus 331 years was a .D.D.. at G.D. comprised 1900 A. 648 A. 317 A. was that the The Gupta started one year later than this date. Again 577825 days before Jan. fairly complete lur. 2 fe =l''398. 648 A.as thus the Dec. there was a new-moon which the lunar Agrahdyana elided and the sun turned with On north. 84*17. With this second Agrahdyana which ended on the 20th Dec.D. on . = 79 46' 40 79.D.which the new-raoon happened with which the lunar Agrahdyana ended this year. in the latter part of the On this day. xiv. was the date Dec. =204 =180 =188 0"'47. 1 14' 22" 10. was the S2nd oj November.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY of the Siddlidntas... we arrive at the date Dec. Now on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astakd which fell on the 13th Dec. 20. was the second Agrahdyana as month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years. The year 330 of the Gupta era w. Hence Apparent Long. N. the moon was conjoined with Ultra night. examined it carefully and found that in the present case ibis method could not happen. there can be no intercalary month in the solar month of Agrahdyana. we had 57' Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee 2e = 118'*7. of which the length as found by 2 We have also Warren is less than that of a lunar month. We have then to examine it another way- Dec. . The date of the inscription. and the number of era was years elapsed was =331 = 160x2 + 11. 32' Sun =265 Moon = 179 8'. of a Virginia = 185* 10'. 30n. to the Kharttfakhadyaka). M. 24v. 8). length Lunar month =29tfo. 1.. 20. 20. from the 20th 318 A.D.i-solar cycle. neatly From these calculations it follows that the last this lunar month of the year.D... /. last The character of this lunar Agrahdyana Citrd or quarter was conjoined with a Virginis.. and 120898 days. Siddhanta. or a Virginis. 648 A. 2 rn 33 IV (Burgess 1 S. 20 of the year 317 A. 2 Length of of Solar AgtaMyana = %Qda. G"i 53 (ace. SOv. 120898 days forward to this date. year which ended about Dec.

D. of the year 585.D. 12. was for To Dr.D. of the Gupta era=649 A. 905 A. page 382.. Antiquary. light half of Caitra Here the year 585 of the Gupta according to Aryabhata I's rule. the king of a gift at the time this date. Now Gupta should be 904 A. 905 A.D. = 12814 lunations =378405 days. Here 3SO . and the date of execution of the plate the year should be Feb.. had been a that pit. or the Zero year of the Gupta era = 319-20 A.. Zero of the . .fall Fleet. It year 330 the of the as Gupta it must be it admitted that inscription lias been read or as was executed was slightly defective. In this case also Iryabhata I's Caitra-Sukladi reckoning is not followed. Morvi Copper Plate Inscription This ins?ription says that OQ the day of the 5th light half of lunar tithi of the the place Morvi (22 of a solar eclipse. on which the deed of executed. B* . We looked for the solar eclipse. and the elapsed inscription corresponds to March 3. -319 A. Nov. find the date of this copper plate. era=826of the Caitra-Sukladi Saka era =904-905 A.. years till this date-1036 years The date of the copper plate works out to have been Feb.. Finally accepted by Fleet did actually find it. 1891. 20.D. the copper plate in question.INDIAN EKAS 648 A.D. who mistook the solar eclipse in question 585 of the happened on the 7th May.. 1 The eclipse referred to Indian in the inscription happened on 8.D. and 8 lunations + 5 days before this date. the date of the 1941 A. they were not visible in India.D. the 251 era ended. Phalguna Gupta 49' N and 70 53' E) made which happened some time before gift. two lunations + 5 days before We find. Although there happened the two solar eclipses at these times. viz. however. that here the but Gupta year from the is reckoned not from the light half of Pausa>.. 901 A.D.'. V.D.

AXCIEJTT INDIAN Nov. The new-moon happened at mean noon Morvi tirae.D. 0. Mean Moon D.. CHRONOLOGY G. of the eclipse as visible at the about 1 hr. thereto.M. Duration was the end came about 12-45 noon Morvi mean time.D. Now Julian days on Jan. of the VI. = 1894552. Lunar Perigee = 162 10' 10"'68. 1 904 A. at the same day.N. =475 A. Node =231 =246 21* '80.A. The gift made by this copper plate was probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. the inscription records the date as the day of the 3rd Lithi of the light half of Kartika. 1 We 520469 days which comprise 14'24 Julian increase 520469 days by 12*25 days and of the eclipse The above circumstances Mr. Fleet Gupta Inscriptions.. time. and 1900 A. =2415021. 44' 56*. Tne difference is centuries 4. . the place was about '075. 27' 36". * have been calculated by my collaborator. the of Saka era + 8 luuations=87528. on which.N. page 104. . Morvi time. Tlit. magnitude The beginning of the eclipse took place at 11-35 a.D. at Hence the mean places with Lalla's corrections G. 9' 7' 7' = 83 18"'32. or 4-44 at p.D.253 days.M. 156 of the Gupta era 1. 59' 47". Morvi Mean Sun Sun's Apogee =234 22' 29* '84. if 1 we use the for ahargana becomes 826 Khatiddkhadyaka constants. appears that this eclipse could be predicted by the method Khandakhddyaka.m. Lahiri. N. 10. Secondly. Node Lunar Perigea =155 It 18' 5". 31"'10. which was the Jovial year styled the Mdlia vaialsha year. the Khdh Grant. M.m. 475 A. become: Mean Sun Moon =228 =224 =239 D. 10 mio. Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date jPn I In the year 156 of the Guptas.

Mean Sun Hence we calculate that =269 4T 11".D.. 475 A. the the Here on the day of sun was in the naksatra VisaWia. 53' 16"'45. heliacal visibility.T. The actual date of the inscription was Oct.T. Jupiter Sun = = 192 49' 30"'41.T. 475 A. G.INDIAN arrive at the date. the da/te of the . on Jupiter rises on the east This takes place getting at the anomaly of conjunction of 14. 475 A.D. Thus Jupiter was heliacally visible about Oct. apparent places became as follows Appt. more.D. 475 A.. 18 Appt. and 20' nearly. 475 A.M. but Jupiter was 3 40' behind the first point of the naksatra division. equal in 6 hrs. 38' 19"'15. on which.. i. G.M. Ujjayim M-T.. in 15'5 days. Jupiter Mean =170 54' 6". it was sun's naksatra .D.6 lu-s.66/ mean Jupiter and mean Sun became nearly equal 289 days later. 16-17. on the ] 7th September. Ell AS at 258 Dec. G.m. Mean = = Mean Sun Jupiter 194 194 55' 34"'42. For the above mean for places. hrs. Hence the date for the heliacal rising of Jupiter According to Brahinagupta. becomes the 2nd October. 20.. 475 A.T.. the Vernal Equinox of the year being taken as the first point of the Hindu sphere.57. 18.. the equations of apsis Jupiter and Sun were respectively their -2 6' 4"'01 and : -145'2"'70. 192 Thus they were very nearly in conjunction at f> hrs. on the new-moon prior to October 18. According to the rule of naming Jupiter's years as given in the modern Surya Siddhdnta. It is thus seen that the mean places would become almost however. 474 A.M.e. at 6 a. XIV. Hence. on the 17th September.D.D..D.. 20. when Sun Jupiter =208 =196 45'. or 11-4 a.M.m. . at G.

at March 8.D. 482 A. to corne in about Mean . But the tentative date of the inscription was obtained as March 8. The Seventh Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The kings. .. In 1459 sidereal years (1941-482 = 1459).. year 163 of the Gupta era or 482 A. Here.D. VII. This needs elucidation. This inscription also shows that the Ghipta era began from 319 A. The sun would reach the naksatra inscription. 482 A. Thus the heliacal setting of Jupiter took place in two days more according to Brahrnagupta's rule on the 9th April.D.N. the ^h6h Grant It .D. Jupiter r = Sun = 32 27' 46"'22.D. Hence on April 7. inscription records the date as the year 163 of the G-upta the Jovial year called Mahd Ifoayuja. and the date to March 30. i Fleet G-npta Inscriptions. 15-lfi of the year. 482 A.D.. Jupiter's heliacal setting is yet 30 days. and we date of the inscription as the tentative this date.D. 46' 57"'02 at 16 G.. page HO.254 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY which took place on Oct.N. Hence the year to come got its name Asvayuga year. 482 A. was similar to the year 1941 A JX. 1941 A. when the sun was in the naksatra Bhamnl. 482 A.D which was 21 days before the new-moon on about the 5th April. and the year begun was consequently Mahd vatidkha year of Jupiter. gave the name of the year. On G.D.M.M. Anuradha. 1941 A..D. there are 532909 days. the day of the 2nd tithi of The the light half of Caitra. and the new-moon happened on the 3th April. which are applied arrive at backward to the 30th March. we bad- Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 58' 8* '24. 347 12' 47" 11. 482 A.

... This- Jovial was a Mahd instance also VIII.. 499 A. year. the moon of last quarter got conjoined Jan. before sunrise with Citrd or a Virginis. when the Hindu scientific siddhantas came into being.D.D. that is now called Paiisa in 1941 A. and the date of the inscription would 1931 A D. But in the year 482 A. 1931 A.D. In our gauge year 1941 A. Now this Gupta year tl later an the time of Aryabhata I. 17 years before the year 499 A.. would be similar to the Christian year 1931. by 11 years. the lunar Agrahayana of the early Gupta Thus the lunar month period ended on the 27th Jan. elapsed years (sidereal) are 1421. The Gupta year 191. 1 PJeet Gupta Inscriptions. These days are applied backward to Feb.e. The date of this inscription April.D. the date. and we arrive at the date..D. i..D. on this hypothesis. 255 Here by coming down by 30 days we arrive at the lunar month of VaiSaklia as it is reckoned now. 1941 A. We first work out the date . which comprise 17576 lunations= 519029 days. would be viz. the Jovial year of Maha-caitra. . 12. 510 The A. the calendar formation rale was different.INDIAN ERAS . March 6.D.D. 15.D. 482 A.. lunar Hence the lunar VaUdkha of 1941 A. correspond with March 191=510 A.D. on the 20th Hence as pointed out before in this gauge year 1941 A. as the year 191 of the Gupta emperors.] the Caitra of 482 A. also.D. was called AgraMyana in 482 A.D.D.on the hypothesis that the Gupta year was in this case also reckoned from the light half of lunar Pausa.D. page 114. is now the is thus correctly obtained as year the Vtli Asvayuja begun shows that the Zero year of the Gupta era was approximately the same as the Christian year 319 A.D. the Majligavta Grant. the day of the third tithi of the dark half of lunar Magha. The Eighth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date 8^1*1^ ^Ttji l i This inscription records the date.

.N. It now appears that after the year 499 A.D.256 - ANCIENT INDIAN CHROSTOLOQ-Y Feb.. This result does not agree with the statement of the inscription.. = l& 41. which shows that the sun would reach the Hastd division. 1. we bad- Mean Sun = = 158 8' 8* '87. and we first we would have to go This interval we have to arrive at the day of Bhadrapada. the sun's true longitude would be 160 9' nearly. 11. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) come in 4 days more. become For Sun For Jupiter 156 14(5 B f 27'. U. On the preceding day of the new-moon. and at fl-. 7'"25. On the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5 by Thus on the day of the heliacal visibility lunations +21 tithis.5 days later become For Sun For Jupiter = = = 158 144 HX 10' 54" '21. - On this date.D. which came in four days more. 509 A. or Aryabhata I's the reckoning 01 the years of the Gupta era was time. changed from the to light half of Paiisa to the light half of Caitra. of Jupiter. then the haliacal visibility would come according to the rule of Brahmagupta aboui 15*5 days later.D. = Mean Sun Mean Jupiter = If these 142 142 54' 15' '50 52' 48*57. the would be n the naksatra U. Phalguni.T. Theses corrected by the equations of apsis. apply backward to the llth tithi of Magha. The date of the heliacal visibility would thus be Sep. at G. . at GLM. .. 510 Jupiter A.N. 828 46' 18* '72. and the Jovial sun year begun would be styled Phalguna or the Maha-phalguna year.M.M. according I's rule : Iryabhata Kdlakriya. We find easily the sun and Jupiter had reached equality in mean' longitude in 133 '5 days before. up by 164 days =5 lunations +17 tithis. were the longitudes as corrected by the equations of apsis. The mean longitudes 15. We have here gone up by 183 '5 days and (2) come down 15*5 days. when. hr.

325 342 ftjft 59' Af 2". = 319 A. Ujjaymi M.T. 11* 14 33' 41". . page 92. the while k was the sun's of solar seconrl of the light half of unar Phalguna. C QC . / .m.'. which tends to show that there was a second luaar Agrahayana at this time. in which Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta the total = up to 570 of Saka elapsed + 9 months we get 1383^ intercalary months. .INDIAN ERAS true KhandakhaJ yka ahargana becomes = 212179 mean midnight of monday. at 6 a. = 1246 A. But this explanation appears unsatisfactory.D. the time by the Caitm-8u'klddi Saka era would be 570 years + 9 months./ o* 6 s 3 15' 52" . US "~ - Mean Sun = 10* 23 2* 17 . 7245'E) Grant. The Fourth Instance 0} Gupta Inscription Date 35 && Giwlte gf? * 1 i This states that the Gupta year 330 had at its end the second Agralwyana.. 0". . the We agreement with DIksita. Appl. when Ujjayim Mean Sun = 10* 24 48' 44". the Kfcira (2245 N. In this case also calculation by modern methods 5s unnecessary as the time was later than of Brahrnagupta. date the longitude shows that are the here was the ^4th Phalguna..'. 59' 40*. the Gupta year 330... Sun f * > = Moon = 57' 25". According to Kali-solar the days 1349910. 59' 23". Moon = II 24 26' 37". 56 51 "- .e. Here also 927 of the Gkipta Bra Zero year of the Gupta Era IV. Node Hence on the same date =6*3 = 2* 1 20' 53". Moon-Sun = tithi 16 57' 25" On Bengali in this Monday. i.. up to Agrahayana. Here. o rt . D. If we follow the 1383 ex ict i Fleet Gupta Inscriptions. It should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half of Pausa persists inspite of Aryabhata I's rule of reckoning it from the light half of Caitra. . intercalary months by the mean rate. 0' = nr Mean Moon = T A Lunar Apogee = Sun's Apogee TV/T _ . 249 at The 4 Lunar Apogee A.

The date of the inscription.. 318 A. being the second day of the second Igrahayana.. was the second Agrahayana month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years. Siddlianta. N. 2 50v.8). Moon.D. this was that the with Oltra later was started one year than The Guptafrom the 20th date. to the Khanfakhadyaha).D. a Virginis. 648 A. . this day. . 648 A. 648 A. we had 0"'47. We have thon to examine another way- On Dec.. 20. 24v.D. Length Lunar month =29da. 20.. the moon was conjoined with Citrd or night. D. on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astaka which fell on the 13th Dec. before Jan. Now in the latter part of the On . Hence applying 120898 days forward to this date. we arrive at the date Dec. Again 577825 days 1900 A. at G. 14' 22" 10.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY method of the Siddhantas there can be no intercalary month in the solar month of Agrahayana of which the length as found by 2 We have also Warren is less than that of a lunar month* t examined it carefully and found thai in the present case ibis it coald not happen. Thus 331 years was a fairly complete lur. v.179 7z>^mis = 185 ' 10'. ' Mean Sun Moon =284 57' = 180 Hence Apparent Long. 20.. 31n 6* 53rr (ace.i-solar cycle. and 1. was the 22nd of November. of a Sun =265 8'. 30. } tture was a new-inoon with which ende-1 and the sun turned The character of north. Lunar Perigee =188 Sun's Apogee = 79 46' 40" '79. 317 A. comprised 120898 days. on which the new-moon happened with which the lunar Agrahayana ended this year. M. last quarter was conjoined era lunar Agrahayana or a Virginis. With this second Agrahfnjana which ended on the 20th Dec. and the number of years elapsed was =331 = 160x2 + 11.D. B2' 84"'17..D. 20 of the year 317 the lunar Agrahayana this A D. neaily From these calculations ife follows that the last as this lunar month of the year. Dec.. 2 Length of of Solar Agiahajana^ZSda. m 33^ ^Burgess 8. was the date Dec. The j ear 330 of the Gupta era was thus the year which ended about Dec. 648 A.D.

years -12814 lunations years till out to have been Feb. and the elapsed =-378405 days.D.. find. admitted that the as it inscription It 251 must be it has been read or as was I' 8 executed was slightly defective. but from the light half of Caitra the year 585 of the Gupta according to Aryabhata I's rule. Zero of the =310 A.D. of the Gupta era = 649 A. 12. of gift..D. page S. Nov.. 905 The date of the copper plate works on referred to in the inscription happened The this clate-1036 A. 382.D. 20.D. Although there happened the two solar eclipses at these times. Antiquary.D. 904 A.. on which the deed executed. 1891.D. find the date of this copper plate. had been a eclipse pit-fall Fleet.D. that here the Gupta year is reckoned not from the light half of Pausa. and 8 lunations* 5 days before this date. and the should be Feb. Dlkit& did actually . i eclipse Finally accepted by Fleet-Indian find it. We date of execution of the plate looked for the solar eclipse.D. Here 330 . Morvi Copper Plate Inscription r WTRT This inscription says that on the day light half of lunar of the 5th tithi of the Phdlguna of the Gupta year 585. We Zero year of the Gupta era = 319-20 to inscription corresponds A. the king of the place Morvi (22 49' N and 70 53' E) made a gift at the time of a solar eclipse. Here or the era =826 of the Caitra-Sukladi Saka era =904-905 A. viz. the date of the March 3.. Caitra-Sukladi reckoning is In this case also Aryabhata not followed.INDIAN E1UB 648 A. two lunations + 5 days before" however. V. who mistook that the solar in happened on the 7th May. 905 A. which happenei =?ooie time before this date. Now the year question 585 of the Gapta should be 904 A. they were not visible in India. B. 1941 A. was for To Dr. the copper plate in question. the year 330 of the Gupta era ended.D.'.

1. Morvi time. Hence the mean places with Lalla's corrections G-. Mr. of the VI. 904 A. Mean Sun Sun's Apogee =234 22' 29"'34. 69' 47".AXOIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 1 Nov.. the inscription records the date as the day of the 3rd lithi of the light half of Kdrtika. Node =231 =246 Lunar Perigee =162 at Mean Moon 3F10.M. . . 10' 10" '68.D. 44' 56".m. the end came about 12-45 noon Morvi mean time. at G. The new-moon happened magnitude of the eclipse as mean visible at noon Morvi time.. appears that this eclipse could be predicted by the method Khandakhadyaka. =2415021.. N. the the place was about '075. The Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date ^n i In the year 156 of the Guptas. 520469 days which comprise 14*'24 Julian centuries +253 days. 10 inin.D.m.D. the 826 of Saka era + 8 lunations = 87528. =1894552. D. the thereto. become : at Mean Sun Moon D. 156 of the Gupta era Julian days on Jan. The gift made by this copper plate was probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. Now =475 A. page 104. if 1 about 1 hr.D. 10. 9' 1' 7' = 83 18* '82. 21"'80. at the same day.M. 0. 2 Gupta Inscriptions. Lahiri. Morvi time. Node Lunar Perigee It =228 =224 =239 =155 18' 5". 475 A. the Kh6h Grant.N.. Secondly. . on which. Duration was The beginning of the eclipse took place at 11-85 a.We incrr-ase 520469 days by 12'25 days and difference is 1 The The above circumstances Pleet of the eclipse have been calculated by my collaborator.N. we use for ahargana becomes Khandakhadyaka constants. 27' 86". which was the Jovial year styled the Maha-vaU'dkha year. or 4-44 p. M*A. and 1900 A.

38' 19" 15. Thus conjunction at hrs. however. Ujjayim M-.D.m.M. the equations of apsis For the above mean places.D was Oct 18.D. Mean Jupiter =170 54' 6''. -2 6' 4//f 01 and as follows -1 : Hence their apparent places became Appt.D. Jupiter = 192 49' 30"'4L Sun = 192 53' 16" '45. G. or 11-4 a.. whenbecomes the 2nd October. 14.T. Dec. at6a. f i.T. 478 A.M. Jupiter rises on the east of conjunction of getting at the anomaly of Jupiter Hence the date for ihe heliacal rising in 15-5 days. 474 A. G. 20. It is thus seen that the mean places would become almost equal in 6 hrs.57. . 475 A.T* on According to Brahniagupta. 475 A A. 475 A. 475 A..T. the modern Surya on the new-moon ^anta^.D.. on the 17th September. Henoe we calculate that mean Jupiter and mean Sun became nearly equal 289 days later. Mean Sun =269 47' IF. for Jupiter and Sun were respectively 45 2"'70.e. This takes place Appt. Mean = = Mean Sun Jupiter 194 194 55' 34" '42. and 20' nearly.M. Thus The Jupiter was heliacally actual date of the inscription visible about Oct. more.no.T. Sun Jupiter =208 =196 45'.. at G.INDIAN ERAS arrive at the date. the date of the .D. 475 A. 6 br*.D. 18 hrs. prior to i8 4/0 October 1. at 25B G. 66. on in they were very nearly the 17th September. on which.M. 20.

. Jupiter's heliacal setting is yet 30 days.. 46' 57"*02 at 16 G. to Here.' of the The year 163 sidereal years Gupta or 482 A.D which was 21 days before the new-moon on about the 5th April. Hence on April 7. 482 A. 1941 A.D. the day of the 2nd titlii of the light half of Caitra. and the new-moon happened on the 5ih April. VII.3 of the Gupta the Jovial year called Maha era- Asvayuja.D. gave The sun would reach the naksatra the name of the year. Inscriptions. come in about Mean Jupiter = Sun = 32 27' 46"'22. 30.D. page 110. and the year begun was consequently year of Jupiter.M.N. there are 532909 days. was similar to the year 1941 A. Hence the year to come got its name Asvayuga year. M alia vaisakha This inscription also shows that the Gupta era began from 319 A... Anuradha. 347 12'47"*11. which took place on Oct.D. at G. . 482 A. the Kh&h Grant II . On this date. 482 A. and the date to March 1941 A-D. This weeds elucidation. two days more according to Brahrnagupta's rule on the 9th April. 482 A.D.D..N..34 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY inscription. But the tentative date of the inscription was obtained as March 8. 482 A. and we applied arrive at the tentative date of the inscription as March 8. heliacal setting of Jupiter Thus the took place in when the sun was in the naksatra Bharatil.D. which backward to the SOth March. The Seventh Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The kings. inscription records the date as the year 16.2. - i- Fleet Gupta. 482 AJ).D. we bad58' Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 8"*24.M. In 1459 are (1941-482=1459). 15-lfi of the year.

work out the date on the hypothesis that the Gupta reckoned from the light Lalf of lunar The Gupta year 191. Hence as pointed out before in this gauge year 1941 A. 510 March 6.D. 12.D. 17 years before the year 499 A. and we arrive at the date.INDIAN BRAS - 255 Here by coming down by 30 days we arrive at the lunar month of Vaisaklia as it is reckoned now... Feb. also. that is Gupta month now called Pawja thv> in 1941 482 A. the calendar formation rale last In our gauge year 1941 A. 409 A. 1931 A D< Now this Gupta year 191 = 510 A.D. the era was approximately the same as the Christian The Eighth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date This inscription records the date.. which comprise 17576 The lunation s = 519029 days. the day of the dark half of lunar Magha.D. by 11 jeans elapsed years (sidereal) are 1421. the moon of quarter got conjoined with Gitrd or a Virginia. year VIII. Hence Agrahayana in lunar Caitra of 482 A.D. would be later il.D. But in the year 482 A. the Jovial year begun was a Mahd Isvayuja year. A.D. 1 FJeet Guptd Inscriptions. the Jovial year third tithi of the We first of Mahd-caitra. as the year 191 of the Gupta emperors. is now the called A .D. the date. page 114. the lunar Agrahdyana of the early Thus the lunar period ended on the 27th Jan.e.. to the Christian year 1931. The date of this inscription is thus correctly obtained as the 482 A... when the Hindu scientific siddhantas different.D...D. on the 20th was fc Jan. This instance also shows tuat the Zero year 7th April.D.D. i. and the date of the inscription would jear was in this case also correspond with March 6. These days are applied backward to 1931 A. before sunrise.D. would be similar Paiisa. 1941 A. came into being. the Majhgav&m Graufc.D.D. on this hypothesis. of Gupta 319 A.an the time of Aryabhata I.. viz. was lunar Vaisdkha of 1941 A. .

The mean longitudes 15.D.D. and at G. 31.5 days later become For Sun For Jupiter = = = 158 144 10' Iff 54"'2L 7"'2o. were the longitudes as corrected by the equations of then the haliacal visibility would come according to the apsis. These.M. the the Hastd division. and the Jovial year begun would be styled PMlguna or the Maha-phalguna year. become^ For Sun For Jupiter 156 3' 27*. 510 A. 46'13"'72.T. This result does not agree with the statement of the inscription. at G. 509 A. the sun's true longitude thus would be 160 9' nearly. We have gone up by days and (2) come down the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5 by 15'5 days.. = 140 16' 41. rule of Brahmagupta abouu 15" 5 days later. . the reckoning of ihe years of the Gupta era was changed from the to light half of I's rule Pausa : to the light half of Gaitra. be Sep.D. On Thus on the day of the heliacal visibility lunations +21 tithis. 12. This interval we have fco up by backward to the llth tithi of Mdgha. corrected by the equations of apsis. which in four days first came The date of the heliacal visibility would day of BMdrapada.N. we would have to go 164 days=5 lunations +17 tithis.ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this date.. when. according Iryabhata Kdlakriyd. we Jupiter bad- Mean Sun = = * 158 323 8' 3"*87. or iryabha-ta I's time.M. which shows that the sun would reach the preceding day of the new-moon. Feb. Plialguni. On sun would be in the naltsatra U.. 1. in We mean find easily the sun longitude in 133 '5 and Jupiter had reached equality far. here 183*5 more..M. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) coine in 4 days more. and we arrive at the apply of Jupiter. .N. It now appears that after the year 499 A.Mean Sun Mean If these Jupiter = = 142 142 54' 15'/'50 52' 48'57.256 . days before. at G.

'. Here also 927 of the Gupta Bra of = 1246 A.D.D. Zero year of the Gupta Era IV. But this explanation appears unsatisfactory. 38' 41".. The Fourth Instance 1 t of Gupta Inscription Date \\* 38 *nra fgFnwft gf^ ^ This states that the Gupta year 330 had at its end the second Agralidyana. 342 56/ 51 "' Moon -Sim = 16 57' 25" On this Monday. 7245'E) Grant. the Gupta year 330. &!~ 1408B .T. which tends to 570 of Saka Brahmagupta the total elapsed + 9 months = show that there was a second lunar Agrahdyana at this time. 249 at Lunar Apogee A.INDIAN ERAS The Ujjayini true KhandakhaJyka ahargana becomes = 212179 mean midnight of rnonday.. Ujjayini M. the tithi was the second of the light half of unar Phalgnna. at 6 a. If we follow the 1 FleetGupta Inscriptions. 15' 52" Appl. 0' = Mean Moon = Lunar Apogee = Sun's Apogee . 1383 exuct intercalary months by the mean rate.. Mean Sun = - 10* 23 2 s 17 11* 14 6* 59' 23". Node Hence on the same date = = 6* 3 2s 1 20' 53". In this case also calculation as by the modern methods is was later than of Brahmagupta..m. while the sun's longitude shows that the We are here Bengali date was the ^4th of solar Phalguna. i. the Kaira (2245'N. up to Agrahdyana. 0". page 92. It unnecessary should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half the time Pausa persists inspite of Iryabliata I's rule of reckoning it from the light half of Caitra.'. in agreement with DIksita. Sun 3 - = Moon = 57' 25". Here. the time by the Caitra-^uUddi Saka era would be 570 years + 9 months. Moon = 11* 24 26' 37". .e. According to the Kali-solar Khandakhddyaka to of days up 1349910. = 319 A. 59' 40". 325 59' ' 2". in which we get 1383^ intercalary months. when Mean Sun = 10* 24 43' 44".

30. 24v 2 ZII 33iv (Burgess =29da.. Mpon=179 Virginia = 1QB* 10'.D. 46' 40"' 79. being the second day of the second Agrahayana.. 6 Iir 53*v (ace. in the latter part of the On this day. 14' 22" '10.. before Jan. Length Lunar coontli 50v. 648 A. to the j . 8). examined it carefully and found that in the present case this it could not happen. from the 20th Dec. we had 57' 0"'47. the moon was conjoined with Citra or night.. at G. 20 of the year 317 AD. xiv. was the date Dec. th^re was a new-moon with which the lunar Agmhayana eiidel and the sun turned The character of this lunar Agraliayana was that the north. M.. 317 A.D.. era was started one year than this date. 648 A. #. We have then to examine another way- On Dec. Again 577825 days 1900 A. comprised 120898 days. 20. N. year 330 of the Gupta era was thus the year which ended about Dec. 64S A. of a Sun -265 8'.D. there can be no intercalary month in the solar month of Agrahayuna. we arrive at che date Dec.i-solar cycle. Hence applying 120898 days forward to this date. Thus 381 years was a fairly complete lur. last quarter was conjoine \ with Gitra later or a Virginia.D. The Gupta.. The date of the inscription.D. and 1. of which the length as found by 2 We have also Warren is less than that of a lunar month. 2 Length of of Solar AgiaMyana-^Qda. neaily From these calculations it follows that the last this of the year. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee = =264 =180 =188 79 Hence Apparent Long. a Virginia. 32' 84"'17. Now on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astakd which fell on the 13th Dec.D. 648 A. y on which the new-moon happened with which the lunar Agraliayana ended this year. With this second Agrahayana which ended on the 20th Dec. was the second AgroJidyana as lunar month month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY method of the Siddhantas.318A. was the 22nd of November. Siddhanta.D. and the number of years elapsed The was =331 = 160x2*11. 20. 31?i. 20.

If must bt admitted that the inscription as it has been tead ot as it icas executed was slightly defective.tall for find the date of this copper plate.INDIAN EitAS 5tti 648 A. who mistook that the the A.on Dr Fleet. the year 330 of the Gupta era ended. had been a pit. was which the deed of gift. Zero of the =319 A. . Morvi Copper Plate Inscription u This inscription says that on the day of of lunar PMlguna of the Gupta year 585. In this case also Anjalhcda I\s Caitra-tfukladi reckoning is not followed. We find however. the copper plate executed. the king light half of s 53' E) made a gift at the time the place Morvi (22 49' N and 70 some time before this date.D. on of a solar eclipse. V.D. . they were his and 8 lunations+5 days before two lunations + 5 days before solar eclipses at the^e there happened the two visible in India.D. Here 330 . is 20. the 5th tithi of the .. and the date of To Gupta should should be Feb. that here the Gupta year reckoned not = did actually find it.D. viz. 904 A. of the Gupta era = 649 A. Now the year 585 of happened on the 7th May/905 the plate execution be 904 A. We looked for the solar echpse.D. solar eclipse in quest. a Although not times.-..D. which happened m question. . date.

904 time. Mean Moon D. 9' = 83 18"'82.. The new-moon happened magnitude of the eclipse as the end at mean noon Morvi place time. visible at the t was about The beginning of the eclipse took place at 11-35 a.D.N. Node =231 =246 I 1 21"'80. on Mean Sun Sun's Apogee 1 Nov. Lahiri. at the same day. the Kh6h Grant.252 AXOIBNT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY AJX. Duration was Secondly.m. 7' 31"'10. 475 A. M. 1 520469 days which comprise 14'24 Julian We increase 520469 days by 12 '25 days and of the eclipse The above circumstances Fleet have been calculated by my collaborator. N.M.A. 69' 47". Lunar Perigee = 162 10' 10"'68. D. and 1900 AJD. The gift made by this copper plate was probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. The difference is centuries + 253 days. at G. the ahargana becomes 826 Saka era + 8 lunations=87528. become: Mean Sun Moon ..D. 10. we use the for Khandakhddyaka of constants. page* 104. 10 inin. the inscription records the date as the day of the 3rd tithi of the light half of Kdrtika. thereto. Morvi time. . =2416021. C. which was the Jovial year styled the Mahd-vaisdkha year. =1894552. . if 1 about 1 hr.M. came about 12-45 noon Morvi mean time. 156 of the Gupta era 1. Node Lunar Perigee It =228 =224 =239 =155 18' 5*. or 4-44 p. appears that this eclipse could be predicted by the method Khandakhddyaka. =475 A. the '075.m. 27' 36".N. which. Mr. at Hence the mean places with Lalla's corrections Q-. a Gupta Inscriptions. 44' 56". of the VL The Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date In the year 156 of the Guptas. Now Julian days on Jan. Morvi =234 22' 29"'34.

Sun were respectively their equations of apsis for Jupiter and -26'4"'01 and -145'2"'70.T. =269 mean 47' 11".M. the modern Equinox of of the Hindu sphere.e. the more. 474 A. Thus they were very nearly in conjunction at 6 hrs.D. became as follows : Hence apparent places Appt. Mean Jupiter Mean = Sun = 194 194 55' 34" '42. 20. Ujjayiiri ]VLT. The actual date of the inscription was Oct. on on the 17th September... 475 A. mean Sun became on the 17th September..M. 475 A. Mean Jupiter =170 54' 6". According to Brahrnagupta... mean places would become almost For the above mean places. Surya on the new-moon prior to October 18.D. Dec. 475 A. 475 A. but Jupiter was 3 40' behind the first point of the noksatra division. 18. the Vernal the year being taken as the first point as given in According to the rule of naming Jupiter's years Siddhanta.INDIAN ERAS arrive at the date. when Sun Jupiter =208 =196 45'. however.. G. it was sun's naksatra.m. the date of the . This takes place Hence the date for Lhe heliacal rising of Jupiter at becomes the 2nd October. calculate that Jupiter and 289 days later.D. Jupiter = '== 192 49' 30"*41. Sun 192 53' 16"'45. 20. 475 A.57.T..66.T.D. at 6 a. the sun heliacal the visibility. 18 and hrs.D. It is thus seen that the equal in 6 hrs. or 11-4 a. G. i. 38' 19"'15. on which. Here on the day of waw in the naksatra Visakhd.M. Appfc. Mean Sun Hence we nearly equal . rises on the east anomaly of conjunction of 14. G.D. 16-17. . 6 hrs. XIV.. 475 A. at 253 GUf.m.T. Thus Jupiter was heliacally visible about Oct. Jupiter getting at the in 15"5 days.D. 20' nearly.

at March 8. is come in about Hence on April 7. * - Flesfc G-apta. which was 21 days before the new-moon on about the 5th April. gav the year.D. 482 A. 482 A. Mahd vaisdkha This inscription also shows that the Gupta era began 319 A. 482 A. Hence the year to come got its name Asvayuga year. 482 A. the day of the 2nd tithi of The year 163 the light half of Caitra..D . to there are are applied backward at the 30th March.D. inscription records the date as the year 163 of the Gupta the Jovial year called Mahd Afvayuja. On G. But the tentative date of the inscription was obtained as March 8.D. 482 A.D. and we arrive the tentative date of the inscription as this date. Insor ipt-ions. the Kb6h Grant II . 32 27' 46"*22. the name of Anuradlid. we bad- Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 58' 12' 8* '24. of the Gupta era or 482 A. was similar to the 1941 A. 46' 57"'02 at Mean Jupiter = Sun = 16 GKM.D. 482 A J). which -482 = 1459). from The Seventh Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The kings... This needs elucidation.. and the new-moon happened on the oth April. 847 47*11.D. 1941 A. In 1459 532909 days.N. page 110. and the year begun was consequently year of Jupiter. when the sun was in the naksatra Bharatil... Thus the heliacal setting of Jupiter took place in two days more according to Brabmagupta's rule on the 9th April. VII.D.D. and the date to sidereal years (1941 March 30.254 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY which took place on OcL 15-10 of the year. yet to Here. The sun would reach the naksatra inscription. year 1941 A.N. Jupiter's heliacal setting 30 days..D.M.

came into being. later an the time of Aryabhata 499 A. Now th. i%> now the lunar VaiSdkha of 1941 A.s Gupta year I. 12. also. would be viz. 6. of the year began was a Maha This instance also shows tuat the Zero year Gupta era was approximately the same as the Christian 482 A. Afoayuja year.ar Pausa... Gupta Inscriptions. 1931 tl A D.. as the year 191 of the s Gupta emperors. when the Hindu year as it is scientific siddhdntas different. Hence the lunar Caiira of 482 A.. and the date of the inscription would correspond with March 191 = 510 A.D.D.D.D. Thus the lunar month that is now called Pausa in 1941 A. the ('ay of t! o We year first work out the date on the hypothesis reckoned fiom the light that Lulf the oi Gupta lunar was in this case also The Gupta year 191. was called Acjrdhaywa in 482 A. VIII.D. are 14^1 which comprise 17576 lunation s= 519029 days. and we arrive at the date. page 114..D.D. the lunar Agrahdyana of the early Gupta period ended on the. But in the year 4M 17 years before the 499 A. by 11 jears . 1 FJeet Grant.27th Jan.D. March 6. the calendar formation In our gauge year 1941 A.D. Feb. 510 A..D. third tithi of the dark half of Inner Magha. the Jovial year 319 A.INDIAN ERAS 2 :>5 Here by coming down by month of VaisaMa A. the Jovial year of Mahd-caitra. These days are applied backward to the date. The Eighth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date This inscription records the date. on the >20th Jan. 1941 A. before sunrise Hence as pointed out before in this gauge year 1941 A.D.D. rale i. 30 days we arrive at the lunar reckoned now. was The date of this inscription is thus correctly obtained as the 7th April.D.. 1931 A. to the Christian jear 1931... the Majbgavam . would be simi.D.e. The elapsed years (sidereal.D. on this hypothesis. the moon of last quarter got conjoined with Citra or a Virgini*.

256 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this date. Iff 7'"25.D. = Mean Sun Mean Jupiter = If these 142 142 54' 15"*50 52' 48*57. Feb. The mean longitudes 15. the sun would ba in the naksatra U. The dafce of the heliacal visibility would thus be Sep. and we arrive at the of Jupiter. were the longitudes as corrected by the equations of then the hsliacal visibility would come according to the apsis. On the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5 Thus on the day of the heliacal visibility lunations +21 tithis. 46' 13"'72.... 140 16' 41. we would have to go 164 days=5 lunations +17 tithis.. On the preceding day of the new-moon. corrected by the equations of apsis. we bad8' Mean Sun = = 158 323 8"'87. These. at G. the reckoning of the years of the Gupta era was changed from the to light half of I's rule : Pausa to the light half of Caitra. . 12. Phalguni. We mean find easily the sun and Jupiter had reached equality in longitude in 133'5 days before.M.T. first day of Bhddrapada. 510 A. according Aryabhata Kdlakriyd.D. We have here come down (2) gone up by by 15*5 days. This result does not agree with the statement of the inscription. hr.M. the sun's true longitude would be 160 9' nearly.M. Jupiter at G. rale of Brahmagupta about 15*5 days later.5 days later become For Sun For Jupiter ~~ = = = = 158 144 Iff 54"*21. and the Jovial year begun would be styled Phdlguna or the Mahd-phdlguna year. It now appears that after the year 499 A. which shows that the sun would reach the Hastd division.D. or Aryabhata Fs time. 509 A. 31. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) come in 4 days more.N. 183*5 days and which came in four days more. when. 1. and at G.N. This interval we have to up by apply backward to the llth tithi of Maglia. become- For Sun For Jupiter 156 3' 27".

at 6 a.m. the Kaira (2245'N. Phalguna.T.INDIAN ERAS The Ujjayini true 249 Khandakhddyka ahargana becomes = 212179 at mean midnight of rnonday.'. Ujjayini M. Lunar Apogee A. up to Agrahayana. If we follow the 1 Fleet 8-2 Gupta Inscriptions. 59' 40". Here. On unar this Monday. Mean Sun = Sun's Apogee = Mean Moon Lunar Apogee = .. Here aleo 927 of the Gupta Era = 1246 A. 7245'E) Grant. 10* 23 2' 17- 59' 23". which tends According to the to show that there was a second lunar Agrahayana at this time. Moon -Sun = = 16 57' 25" 1 tft&i+4 57' 25". the Gupta year 330. when Mean Sun = 10* 24 43' 44". The Fourth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date 39 This states that the Gupta year 330 had at its end the second Agrahayana.D. = 319 A. 11 6* 14 3 33 4 15' 52" * = 3230 = ..D. in which we get 1383-^ intercalary months. 0' mi Thus PP (F . the while Wf/ii was the second of the light half of longitude date was the 24th of solar Phalguna. /.. i. page 92. Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta the total = Kali-solar days up to 570 of Saka elapsed + 9 months 1349910. Node Hence On the same date = 6 s = 2' 3 1 #)' 53". the time by the Gaitra-iSukladi Saka era would be 570 years + 9 months. Bengali in agreement with Dlksita. Moon = II 24 26' 37". But this explanation appears unsatisfactory. It should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half Pansa persists inspite of iryabhata I's rule of reckoning it from the light half of Caitra. 5 . 1383 ex ict intercalary months by the mean rate. Zero year of the Gupta Era IV.. the sun's shows that are the here We In this case also unnecessary of calculation by the modern methods is as the time was later than of Brahmagupta..e. 1408B .

With this second Agnthdyana which ended on the 20th Dec. 2 Length of Solar AgiaMjana = %$da. 648 A. and the number of was =331 = 160x2 + 11. 643 A.. We have then to examine it another way.8). N.D.'6* . 82' 84"'17. being the second day of the second Igrahayana. the moon was conjoined with Citrd or night. Sin. was the 22nd of November.. 20. 648 A. to the 8. 317 A.. 20. from the 20th Dec.318A.D.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY intercalary month in of Agrahayana. The date of the inscription.D. on which the new-moon happened with which the lunar Agrahayana ended this year. of which the length as found by is leas than that of a lunax month. 46'" 40"*79. 618 A.i-solar cycle. was the date Dec. From these calculations ifc follows that the last lunar this month of the year. 2 have also . we had 57' 0"*47. The Gupta this later than this date. 24v. comprised 120898 days. and 1. before Jan. SiddMnta. 20 of the year 317 with which the lunar Agralwyana north.D. examined this On Dec. a Virginis..D.. in the latter part of the On this day. eiidel th*-re was a -new-moon and the sun turned The character of ] quarter era was conjoine was started one year lunar Agrahayana was that the with Cltrd or a Virginis. Mean Sun Moon . Hence applying 120898 days forward to this date. M. last AD. xiv. was the second Agrahdyana as month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years. 2 1 " 33 IV (Burgess 53 (ace. at G.. Length of Lunar month =29da. we arrive at the date Dec. of a 7z>0zm's = 185 neaily 10'. Again 577825 days 1900 A. Luaar Perigee Sun's Apogee = =264 =180 =188 79 Hence Apparent Sun =265 Moon =179 8'.. year which years elapsed The j ear 330 of the Gupta era was thus the ended about Dec. method of the Siddhantas there can be no the solar month it Warren We carefully and found that in the present case could not happen.D. 20. Long.D. 14' 22"'10... 30n. 50v. Now on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astaka which fell on the 13th Dec. Thus 331 years was a fairly complete lur.

. viz. 904 A. - ^ < A^D ud pin al ly &d accepte actually find . executed. in question Dr. admitted that the inscription as it has been read executed was slightly defective. who mistook that the solar eclipse the 905 A. Now the year 535 of happened on the 7th May.D. that here the Gupta year is reckoned not P*. the king of light half of lunar Phalguna and 70 53' E> made a gift at the tirae the place Morvi (22 49' N before this date.INDIAN EHAS 648 A. according to Aryabhata I's or he aka era=904-905 of light half We find. the plate To Gupta should be 904 A. Morm Copper Plate Inscription wii 'TOT This inscription says that on the day of the 5th tithi of the of the Gupta year 583. had been a pit-fall for find the date of this copper plate.D. however.-.. era Here 330 . and should be Feb. = 649 A. D.D.D.D. they were not date. the year 330 of the Gupta era ended. Fleet. 8 lunations + 5 days before this lunations + 5 days before and at these there happened the two solar eclipses visible in India. the copper plate in question. the date of execution . r=826of Jcaitr^umdi of Zero year the ^ it. which happened rame time was which the deed of gift. is 11 must it or a* In this cane also Arijabltatti 1's Caitra-SiMndi reckoning not followed. =320 A. of the Gupta. We from the oi Crt but from the light half 080 of the Gupta Here the year rule. Zero of the V. two Although times. looked for the solar eclipse. 20. on of a solar eclipse.

252 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY AJX. at G. the Kh6h Grant.m. 44' 56". which. 10 min.. at G. page 104. 1 We 520469 days which comprise 14*24 Julian increase 520469 days by 12*25 days and of the eclipse The above circumstances Fleet have beeu calculated by my collaborator. =475 A. The beginning of the eclipse took place at 11-35 a. about 1 hr. on Mean Sun Sun's 1 Nov. Lunar Perigee = 162 The new-moon happened magnitude of the eclipse as at mean visible at noon Morvi time. M. Node Lunar Perigee =228 =224 =289 =155 18' 5". VI. become: Mean Sun Moon D. C. the + 8 lunations-87528. Lahiri. 904 time. 10. =1894552. The difference is centuries + 253 days.m.N. * Gupta Inscriptions. at the same day. . Morvi =234 83 22' 29"'34. 27' 36". It appears that this eclipse could be predicted by the method The gift made by this copper flate was of the Khandakliadyaka. and 1900 A. Now 156 of the Gupta era Julian days on Jan. Duration was the end came about 12-45 noon Morvi mean time. 1.M. 7'31"'10. 10' 10"*68. Node =231 =246 21"*80. probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. or 4-44 p.N. 9' 18'/'32. 7' Apogee = Mean Moon D. N. if 1 we use the Khandakhadyaka constants. Morvi time.IX =2416021. Secondly. 475 A.M. the the place was about '075. Mr. The Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date In the year 156 of the Guptas. which was the Jovial year the date as styled the Maha-vaisaklia year.A.D. the inscription records the day of the 3rd tithi of the light hgilf of Kdrtika.D. 69' 47". ahargana becomes for 826 of Saka era Hence the mean places with Lalla's corrections thereto.

on the new -moon prior to October 18.. and 20' nearly.D. 18 hrs. 253 Dec.. at 6 a. 475 A.. 475 Mean = = Mean Sun Jupiter 194 194 55' 34"'42. at G. Hence their apparent places became as follows : Appt. when Sun Jupiter =208 =196 45'. Brahmagupta. equal in 6 hrs.M. on the 17th September.M.. Jupiter and mean Sun became i.D. on which. 38' 19"'15.D.T. . the Here on the day of was in the naksatra Viakha. XIV.T. Appt.INDIAN BE AS arrive at the date.T. or 11-4 a. takes place Hence the date for the heliacal rising of Jupiter becomes the 2nd October. GKM.e. the Vernal Equinox of the year being taken as the first point of the Hindu sphere.. Mean Jupiter =170 54' 6". 16-17. however.D.. The actual date of the inscription was Oct. the date of the . 474 A. 475 A.D. A. According to the rule of naming Jupiter's years as given in the modern Surya Siddhanta.6 hrs. on the 17th September. Jupiter rises on the east This on anomaly of conjunction of 14. It is thus seen that. 53' 16"''45.m. Thus Jupiter was heliacally visible about Oct. 475 A. more. 18.. 475 A. but Jupiter was 3 40' behind the first point of the naksatra division.D.57. 475 A. it was sun's naksatra.. the mean places would become almost For the above mean places..D. the sun heliacal visibility.m. mean nearly equal 289 days later. 20.T. at G-. Ujjayini M>T. to conjunction at 6 hrs. Mean Sun Hence we calculate that =269 47' IV M. G. the equations of apsis for Jupiter and Sun were respectively -26'4"'01 and -1 45' 2 //4 70.M. 192 in Thus they were very nearly According getting at the in 15'5 days. Jupiter Sun = = 192 49' 30"'41. 20.

482 A.D. and the new-moon happened on the oth April. 1941 A..D. 482 A. The Seventh Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The kings. was obtained as March 8. 1941 A.M. come in about Mean Jupiter = Sun = 32 27' 4V' 22. days 16 46' 57" -02 at Thus the heliacal setting of Jupiter 1 took place in two more according to Brahxnagupta's rule on the 9th April. GKM..D. inscription records the date as the year 163 of the Gupta the Jovial year called Maha Asvayuja. year 163 of the Gupta era or 482 A. This inscription also shows that the Gupta era began from 319 A.254 inscription. (1941-482 = 1459). the name of year of Jupiter. Jupiter's heliacal setting is yet 30 days.N.. D.D . Hence on April 7. when the sun was in the naksatra BharanL Hence the year to But year. 482 A. and the year begun was consequently Mahd vai&aklia. was similar to the year 1941 A.. which backward to the 30th March. which was 5th April. arrive the tentative date of the inscription as March this date.N. 15-lfi of the year. In 1459 are applied at 532909 days. and the date to sidereal years March 30. The sun would reach the naksatra Anuradha.. gave the year.D.. On G.D.D. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY which took place on Oct. the inscription 21 days before the new-moon on about come got- its name Afoayuga the 48*2 tiie tentative date of A.D. VII. at 482 A. the Kbdh Grant II . 347 12' 47" '11. and we there are 8.D. to. we had Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 58' 8" '24. Here. 482 A .D. This needs elucidation. the day of the 2nd tithi of The the light half of Caitra. l Fleet Gupta Inscriptions* page 110.

D.. on this hypothesis. also..D. TJie Eighth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date This inscription records the date. as the year 191 of the Gupta emperors. the calendar formation A.D. rale was different. Now this Gupta year clan the time of later Aryabhata I. on the 20th Jan. the date. would be viz. of Jovial year begun was a Maha This instance also shows taafc the Zero year the Gupta era was approximately the same as the Christian year 319 A.D.D. Hence as pointed out before in this gauge 1941 A.. i. last quarter got conjoined In our gauge year 1941 A..D. the Majhgavam Grant..D. the moon of with Gitra or a Virginis. by 11 13.. would be similar to the Christian jear 3931. 482 A.D. when the Hindu scientific siddhdntas came into being. But in the year 482 17 years before the year 499 A. and the date of the inscription would 1931 A D. that is now called Pausa in 1941 A. 1931 A. 12.D. was 482 A. correspond with March 191=510 A. . the lunar Agrahdyana of the early Gupta year Thus the lunar month period ended on the 27th Jan. the Jovial year of Mahd-caitra. VIII. before sunrise.. the Asvayuja year.. page 114. 1 FJeet Gupta Inscriptions.e. is now the called lunar Vaisdkha of 1941 A..D. which comprise 17576 These days are applied backward to lunation s= 519029 dnys. Hence the Agrahdyana in lunar Caitra of 482 A. the c?ay of the third tithi of the dark half of lunar Magha. March 6.D..D. and we arrive at the date.D. 499 A. 1941 A. 3 ears The elapsed years (sidereal) are 1431.INDIAN BE AS 255 Here by coming down by 30 days we arrive at the lunar month of Vaifdkha as it is reckoned now.D. The Gupta year 191. We first work out the date on the hypothesis that the Gupta year was in this case also reckoned from the light half of lunar Pausa. Feb. 510 A.D. The date of this inscription is thus correctly obtained as the 7th April.

This result does not agree with the statement of the inscription. = Mean Sun Mean Jupiter = If these 142 54? 15"'50 142 52' 48'57.M. longitudes For Jupiter = = 158 144 10' 10' These. which came in four days more. and the Jovial year On begun would be styled Phalguna or the Maha-phdlguna year. at G. when. 509 A. we bad8' Mean Jupiter Sun = = 158 323 3"*87. Thus on the day of toe heliacal visibility lunations +21 tithis. 46' 13"'72. 9' The date of the heliacal visibility would thus be Sep. and we arrive at the first. 1. (2) couae down gone up by the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5.. become For Sun 156 3' 27*. 510 A. longitude in 133'5 days before. at G. by 15*5 days.N.M. 7"*25. the Hastd division. according from the light half of Pausa to to the light half of Aryabhata Ts rule : Kdlakriya. and at would be 160 the sun's true longitude nearly.D. or Aryabhata Fs time. were the longitudes as corrected by the equations of then the heliacal visibility would coine according to the rule of 15. the sun would be in the naksatra U. . corrected by the equations of apsis. we would have to go up by 164 days=5 lunations +17ttt7w>. II. day of Bhadrapada.D. the preceding day of the new-moon. the reckoning of the years of the Gupta era was changed Caitra.. This interval we have to apply backward to the llth tithi of Magha.D. 12.N. which shows that the sun would reach G.T.. Feb. apsis. The mean 54^21. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) come in 4 days more. Phalgunl.2 56 t ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this dale.M..5 days later Brahmagupta about become For Sun 15*5 days later. For Jupiter = 140 16' 41. It now appears that after the year 499 A. We have here 183'5 days and On of Jupiter. We mean find easily the sun and Jupiter had reached equality in hr.

.N. in the Jupiter had set already and the rew-moon happened was thus Pausa or the Jovial year begun naksatra Punarvasu The longitude of the oldest first point of the Hindu MaMpausa. Ohr.maed san s reaohing the . June 16. ^8^ winter solstice happened on Dec. moon. Appt. Sun =81 11' Jupiter as corrected by the equation of apsis.. visible we =100 8' 20" '52. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee = = = = Mean = Jupiter Jupiter's Perihelion =341 34' 32".or exactly one Again on July 16. If we go forward by 12 lunations at G. had become heliacally about 10 days before. which might men that the Kflayuga had begun is thus established that both he lun..INDIAN ERAS 241 On June 16. in this year and consequently the longitude Jupiter \\as of the first point of the Pusyd division ^as=87"20'. v Cancn =97 5'. synodic month later Mean Sun n Moon Lunar Perigee =110 =109* 43' 37"'39. the Jupiter as corrected by of apsis = 88 19'. N. * the and the of luni-solar-Jovial-stelkr combined be g innin TegLing in the the year 63 Krtayuga.C. 62 B. near to this point. 80 52' 26" '87. sphere was about. = 85 54' 54"..C. 63 B. Jupiter cluster. from the above date.T. .C. on which. =100 Here was another combination have persuaded On the whole Bolar it of the planets. 63 B. M. . = Eccentricity '0443845.M. 17' 18* '71.t. the naksatra Pusyd were same This day also of the most probably Jupiter afforded another signal for the coming Krtayuga. It may thus be inferred that the signal -6 very from Jupiter's position as to the beginning of the Krtayuga was taken to occur on this date. viz.M. 23>. On this day also in the the and sun. 4' nearly. we badHence Appt. . Mean Jupiter - 79 83 2'21"'48.. Mean Sun Moon =1004'19"'20. 67 39'. 80 20' 8"'16.. 63 B. In tniB y be ^ observed and e. 19' 35" '21. Hence Moon = 110 Sun =109 67'. 76 0' 2" '58. M.. at G. could B.C. arrive at July 5. 81 38' 59"'72.C. eqn. at Gr. S Jupiter Cancri = 112 47' 44"'98..

at the DjjayinI mean mid- Mean . or some years later than this date. nearly.. 1932. at the date : Feb.. Elapsed years till this date was-1459 sidereal years* 18046 luoations.D. moon day of Paiisa. 473 night. Plate No. ^830 9 ^ D BPriDg be8i ' 18 ' Wll6n 8 lhe ' S S lon itude .5320909 days.D.. These days are applied backward to March 9.C.. ) 473 A.. Sun =328 75 4$ Moon =360 48' 24".. the The Samvat year 1 was thus almost and that the number of the Samvat era year as in the Christian era. Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee . 18. we are told that the lunar months are still a case of a queer combination of opposites. Now the year in our time which was similar to 529 of the Malava era was 1932 A. now reckoned as full-moon ending. =233 = S7/22//-72. The local editions probably brought fo J M . =326 =3550 58' Moon 8" '09 1 Hence Appt. and the date. 43' 28"*68. Sun. Day of the Light Half of Phalguna and the Beginning of Spring In Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. The actual starting Malava or the Samvat era was made 5 years later from the full-moon day of about the 28th Dec.C. In 499 A. 1932 and we arrive A. represents the current Further the lunar months here are full-moon ending as originally in the Safca era. as we have seen in the preceding The year was reckoned from the fullchapters. spring earlier. But in the Samvat era. 20' 140-81' Eccentricity ='017323. on which.D. which is We next turn in relation Mahva Samvat 529 the Second . day of Pausa was the day following it.D.242 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOQY of the Krta. same as 57 B. it is stated that spring had set in on the second day of the light half of Phalguna of the Malava Samvat 529 or 473 A. to solve the last problem from the epigraphic source to this era..D. 58 B. the Gaitra-Sukladi reckoning was followed according to the rule of Iryabhata. A.. 15.D. to March 9.

and the first visibility of the crescent took place on the evening of the next day. We have here tried to interpret the Note. 472 A. appears that the new-moon had happened about 3J hrs.. 15 was the second day of the month. was that of the thorough repair The (>24'3'N and 75*S'E). which according to an old We find rule should come 60 days after the winter solstice day. 17. . 59' 5". or on the 13th February. 473 A. viz.D.. Mean Sun Moon - =267 =284 20' 87*. The date and decora473 A.. the 14-th Feb.. turn of ie sun temple at Mandasor Feb 15 that spring inscription says lists set in. 15. Lunar Perigee=226 solstice The estimated winter two days... 473 A.INDIAN ERAS Again 2*5 248 Feb. Hence the second day of the light half of beginning of spring. on : We now Dec. Thus Feb. at Ujjayini mean midday.D. astronomical of Kumara Gupta statement of the Mandasor stone inscription of the inscription found here as and Bandhuvarman. Feb. proceed to consider why there has been an error in estimating the beginning of spring. This inscription shows that the Gupta era cannot be identified or how the with the Savhvat era. 0' 55"'12.D. 60 days The new-moon happened on 16th December and the real winter solstice day was the 19th December. the i. The point that why cannot be Malava era came to be called Vikrama Suhvat answered from any astronomical data. as stated in the inscription. that 60 days before this date. Phdlguna was the estimated later. at Ujjayini mean days before midday : Mean Sun Mean Moon Lunar Perigee It = 233 =324 =328 30' 47'/'25. day was thus premature by about of the On this day.e. at Ujjayini mean midnight. the first visibility crescent took place in the evening. D. 26' 46" '04. 15. or. 48' 4". before.

.CHAPTER XXY INDIAN EEAS The Gupta Era the present chapter. Samvat or Malava era are generally taken to begin from the light As has been stated already. Diksita. like Sachau's Alberuni. II. and his calculations led Dr. it." . is extremely half of lunar Caitra.*TO t Corpus Inscriptionum Indica-raw. which is is equivalent to this From the Saka year. controversial to assume if this was so at the times when these eras were started. as distinguished from the sacrificial year. beginning of the Dr. page 375 (Isl Edn. statement or inference is not satisfactory.D. Vol. B. Fleet in his great book Inscriptionum I ndi car am. Mr. he had the assistance of the verify the dales in those inscriptions late Mr. it is proposed to determine era of the Gupta emperors of northern India.). viz. {alls. the true Gupta : era. try to arrive at a beginning of the definite conclusion on this point. 241 years later than the SakaMla. Vol. Ill (Gupta Inscriptions). has In the In order to published a collection of the Gupta inscriptions. page 7*' The epoch of the era of the Guptas that of the Valabha era. Ill. S. the result the year of the Gupta kings and that the Gupta and Valabhi 8 Now the Saka era and the eras are one and the same era. From the earliest Vedic times and period. Diksita of Poona. we have the most unmistakable also evidences to from the Veddnga show that the calendar year. deduct 241. Gupta and Valabhi Of recent years some have even ventured to prove that the Gupta era is to be identified with the Samvat or Malava era. Fleet to conclude that the This indefinite Diksita 1 Gupta era began from 319-21 A. Vol. page 127. B. The tradition about this era is recorded by Alberuni. i was Fleet 3 3 S. *TTC^te 5^tfif. Hence it has become necessary to also not able to prove was that the 2 eras were but one and the same era.

The moon reaped 317 the AD wa tars and the snn overwok to sun in about Hence Dec 20.m.t. We assume that the Gupta era started from the winter solstice The elapsed years of the Gupta 319 A. Hence 20 2 =119'*5016. 1. we year of are led to conclude thai this sort of beginning the was Aryabhata The great fame started by Aryabhata I from 499 A. 9 to*r solstice in . 44' 29"88.D. from 319 to 1938 AJX=50'0847 precession rate till Hence the total shifting of the solstices becomes 31' 1938 A.D. of later times to public start men follow him in this respect.. at G.. Hence the starting year Now the mean per year.D. (t>) : 13. 1937. led all the astronomers and I.M. and 1621=160x104-194-2. era till 1940 A. '54. following it. Thus what was 270 of the longitude of the 291 31' nearly-a longitude "sun.lout the da.D. (a) In the year 1922.? . 5-4 p. 1937 A.D.D.. 1G19 < sidereal) ela P* ed apply at the date Jan 12.D.D. than with the Caitra Suklddi Saka year. f-e Appt.T. of wrnter sol.. =1'2981. 20. on which. and arrive or Ujjayim Dec. Moon=2G852' nearly. becomes 1621 years of the era was similar to 1938 A. We ^ .INDIAN EEAS started either from the 245 winter solstice day or from the day the .N. .. -H9 ""257 50 37 / // '25. should now become of January. W* backwald to : M. 12. . =22 27 /.. The so-called Caiira-8iikladi reckoning started it year from the vernal equinox day or from the day following So far as we can see from a study of the history of Indian astronomy. a new-moon on Jan. Sun =26937'. C e a new-moon da. and ate U ho.. We originally Gupta with the winter solstice day and that initially the year of started from the era more correctly corresponded with the Christian year. . the hypothesis that the era was Now the year 241 of the Saka era is equivalent to 319-20 A. On looking which the sun now has about the 13th recent calendars we find that up some of the there was a full-moon on Jan. as an astronomer. day preceding Jan.317 A.

We increase the number of days by 1 and divide it by 7 .D. 80. era viz. it to Jan.... 14' 32". at G. HenceMean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A.. 12. 1937 A.. 28' 2-80. 14' 51>/'51.arrive at the date June 21. 484 A. 4. Hence On June 21. lunar Agrahdyana from about tlie Gupta 21st Dec. the date of the inscription. page Eran Inscription. was that the last quarter of the moon was very nearly conjoined with Citrd (Spica or In our opinion this character of the month was used for the intercalation of a lunar month at the end of a correct luni-solar cycle. next apply 525969 days backward to July 13. together by Dr.D. which shows that the inscription state- ment We Thursday agrees with the Sunday of July 13. 484 A. 1924. As this day was similar ended. =235 =835 =277 V 53^42. that the distinguishing appears thai the started was character of the lunar Agrahdyana. and this was the 12th day of lunar Pausa. It must be remembered in this connection. . The year 165 of the Gupta kings is similar to the year 1924 A.D. Fleet in his The First Instance of Gupta Inscription Date The inscription says that the 12th tithi of the light half of lunar Isddha of the Gupta year 165 fell on a Thursday.D. 318 A. I. = 91 12' 50"'64..D. a Virginis). with that of Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. at L. examine this by both the modern and the Siddhdntic methods. Eccentricity = 76 = '0173175.. the longitude of the ints* moon on Jan. 1937 A. 1 We now proceed to examine the dates given in the Gupta Inscriptions as collected great book on the subject. with which the year ended at the end of a correct luni-solar cycle. . i Cj.D. The elapsed years till this date = 1440 sidereal years= 525969 days. 1924 A.D.. 1900 A.246 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY mode of Indian according to the ordinary reckoning. This date was 14'15 Julian centuries + 181'25 days before Jan. 1. Q. Node Sun's Apogee .N.M.D. the remainder of is 4. and . We (A) By the Modern Method.

20. (B) According the to the method of the this Khandakhddyaka of at Brahmagupta. and next day. June era is agreement.ZX. is it expressed in elapsed years as 1320 The Valabhi Samvat 945 should be 1321.. at Thus the had at sun rise the 12th tithi of the lunar month of Ssadlia. Ujjayini Kali ahargana on mean midnight was =1309545. 18' 17*61. . 17' 7* '08. it and as is now reckoned is the same as the half of Gupta Samval 945. page 84.INDIAN EEAS 247 at From these we readily find the preceding Ujjayim mean midnight. and the Zero year of the Gupta We are here in agreement with D'iksiia's thus 319 A. in which the 13th Jyaistha fell on a Sunday. tithi of the dark Now from the mean Khandaklmdyaka ahargana = 218878 which we deduct 30 211848. Thursday. = 91 Mean Sun =226 Moon Lunar Perigee A. 484 4. Veraval Inscription. Node = 90 = 225 =335 =277 30' 47" '38. II. Hence date of the finding. The Second Instance of Gupta Inscription Date Here the Hijrl year 662 shows the Vikrama Samvat . which we accept as the correct ahargana and * is exactly divisible Fleet Gupta Inscriptions. 45' 41" '78.. M Moon =219 47' nearly. same mean places Hence the On June . Appt. Sun = 90 2'. inscription is 21. (Wednesday). Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee A. Ujjayini mean midnight of the day before the llth tithi was current.' for the The above two are in fair sets of the mean elements the same instant Thursday. at Ujjayini mean midnight. 484 A.D. Node Wednesday Hence 4"A the 3' 23' =335 =277 17^ 42' 56" y 35' 17".D.

D. . at the Ujjayini mean midnight.M. A. Appt. fell on a Monday! date becomes 1246 A.D. Sunday. May 26. 11 hrs.T. i Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions. of the 13th tithi of tip-dark half of Jyaistha were over and 13 hrs. for Saturday of Asddha vadi 12 of the Gupta The English the next date for this Saturday was May 25.. Node = 9' 29 53' 4* Do. nearly of it remained. On day.D. which was a Saturday. Thus the current tithi of the next morning of Sunday was also the 13th of the dark half of Jyaistha which is called Asddha vadi 13. Do. = 6* 20 29' F (with Lalla's A.) of the Saturday ended. Moon = Lunar Apogee 0* 27 31' 40". Veraval Inscription. From the above apparent ahargana for May. the date of the inscription. 1264 A..248 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGY 7. 1264 AJD. The English Gupta or Valabhi year 927.D. . 19. by and which was true era 945. the date was.. the In the present case Hence also III. ( correction) Do ) Thus about at the midnight (U. Valabhi or Gupta year 945 = 1264 the Gupta era began from 319 A.. Sun = 1* 28 21' 57". Feb.Sun = 10*29 46' 47" Moon = 27 tithis + 5 46' 47". and we are in agreement with DIksita.D. The Third Instance of Gupta Inscription Date It is here stated that in the ttthi the 2nd of the light half of Phdlguna Saka year was 1167 years + 11 months + 2 tithis. 25. 1264 A. Moon = 0* 28 8' 44". Hence. the Gupta year being taken to have been reckoned from the light half of lunar Pausa. we have Mean Sun = P 27 42' 48*. page 90.

to show that there was a sejond luaar Agrahdyana But 1 this explanation appears unsatisfactory. this Monday.'. Here also 927 the Gupta Bra Zero year IF. Agrahdyana. If we follow the Fleet-Gupta Grant. of The Fourth Instance Gupta Inscription Date This states that the Gupta year 330 had at its end the second to Agrahayana. Bengali date was the ^4th of in while the longitude shows that are the solar Phalguna. the tit hi was the second sun's of the light half of Phalguna. in which we get 1383^ intercalary mean rate. . the Kaira (M'45'N. AppL Sm " .INDIAN ERAS The true 249 KhandakhaJ yka Ujjayim mean midnight of Mean Sun .Moon = 57' 25" ^ 342 59 ' 2 "' S6/ 51". wlrch tends 1383 exact intercalary months by the at this time. Mean Sun = 10* 28 59' 23". i. Mean Moon = 11* 14 33' 4V. Here..T. 73'45'Bj Inscriptions. ahaigam becomes = 212179 monday. up Saka era would be 570 years + the time by the Gait-ra^ukladi 9 months. Node Hence on the same date = 6*3 = 2* 1 53". of the Gupta Era = 319 A. Ujjayini M. .D. 26' 37". Sun's Apogee = 2M7 0' 0".D. In this case also calculation as the time by modern methods is than of Brahrnagupta. when 10* 24 11< 24 43' 44". It unnecessary should be noted that the old year-reckoning from the light half later was of P&usa persists inspite of Iryabhata I's rule of of reckoning it from the light half of Oaitra. of Brahmagupta the total According to the Khandakhadyaka = of Saka elapsed + 9 months Kali-solar days up to 570 months. at 6 a.m.e.*. the We here agreement with Dlksita. Lunar Apogee^ 6* 3 15' 52" Moon -Sun = 16 . 1349010.. 59' 40". '20' at = Moon = Lunar Apogee A. page 92.. = 1246 A.. = On ifnar ltitfci +4 57' 25". the Gupta year 330.

64$ A. fairly complete lur. D. era was started one year later than this date. With this second Agrahayana which ended on the 0th Dec. 20.. night. 32' 34"17. was the date Dec. and the number of years elapsed was =331=160x2 + 11. 648 A. 24v. 20. 6 53iv ( acc .D. there can be no intercalary month in the solar month of Agrahayana. 50v. at'G.. 1. 317 A.. comprised 1900 A. Siddhanto xiv.D. The date of the inscription.. we arrive at the date Dec. Length Lunar month =29<to. 648 A. M. the moon was conjoined with Citra or a Virginis. to the J .D.. The year 330 of the G-upta era ^as thus the north. Hence applying Thus 331 years was a 120898 days forward to this date. We and found that in the present case have then to examine it another way. was the second Agrahayana lunar month month completed the luni-solar cycle of 331 years. we had Hence Apparent Long.i-solar cycle.D. 3). this Dec. there was a new-moon which the lunar Agrahayana ended and the sun turned with On The character of this lunar Agrahayana was that the The Gupta quarter was conjoined with Citra or a Virginis. from the 20th Dec. 26118''7 fe 2 =l''398. 2 ni 33 IV (Burgess S. on which the new-moon happened with which the lunar Agrahayana ended this year. 20. From these calculations it follows that the last as this of the year. 14' 22" '10.D. N. 318 A. 31n.D. Now on the day of the last quarter of this month or the astaka which fell on the 13th Dec. 648 A.D... examined it carefully could not happen. 20 of the year 317 A.250 ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY method of the SiddMntas. last year which ended about Dec. and 120898 days. being the second day of the second Agrahayana. Again 577825 days before Jan. in the latter part of the On this day. of a VirginiB = l8S neaily Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee I = =264 =180 =188 79 57' 0"'47. 46' 40"'79. was the 22nd of November. of which the length as found by 2 We have also Warren is less than that of a lunar month. 2 Length of of Solar Agidliayana = %$da. 10'. Sun =265 Moon = 179 Qf.. 30/i.

N and 70 year 585. had been a that pit-fall for Fleet.D. era =826 of the Caitra-Suklddi Saka era=904-905 light half of Gaitra. find the date of this copper plate. that here the G-upta year We is reckoned not from the light half of Pausa. this date=1036 years till years The date of the copper plate works out to have been Feb. 20.D. Nov. 905 A. Although there happened the two solar eclipses at these times. We looked for the solar eclipse. the year 585 of the Gupta A. Morvi Copper Plate Inscription ^ f[ (I H \ This inscription says that oa the day of the 5ih light half of lunar tithi of the Phdlguna 49' of the G-upta the place Morvi (22 of a solar eclipse.D. 905 A. and the elapsed inscription corresponds to March 3.D.D.INDIAN EEAS 648 A. V. the copper plate in question. S. page 382. D. they were not visible in India.D.D. on which the deed of gift. In this case also Sryabhata I's Gaitra-3ukladi reckoning is not followed. who mistook the solar eclipse in question happened on the 7th May. Now the year 585 of the Gupta should be 904 A.D. viz. Here 330 /. 1891.as it has been read or as it was executed was slightly defective.D. or the Zero year of the Gupta era= 319-20 A. The eclipse referred to in the inscription happened on 1 Finally accepted by Fleet it. the 251 era ended. the date of the 1941 A. and the date of execution of the plate should be Feb. = 12814 lunations =378405 days. B. . however. 904 A. find. of the Gupta era... It year 330 of the Gupta must be admitted that the inscription.649 A.. To Dr. two lunations + 5 days before and 8 lunations + 5 days before this date. but from the Here according to Sryabhata I's rule. Indian Antiquary.. Dlk?ita did actually find .. the king of 53' B) made a gift at the time which happened some time before this date. Zero of the =319 A. was executed.. 12.

904 A. 475 A. Lunar Perigee = 162 noon Morvi time. at Henee the mean places with Lalla's G. thereto. Duration was about 1 hr. 1 We increase 520469 days by 12*25 days and have been calculated by Mr. or 4-44 p. Node =231 =246 21" '80. Node Lunar Perigee =155 18' 5". 9' 18"'32. 7' = 83 Mean Moon D. if we use the for Khandakhddyaka of constants.D. VI. The gift made by tbis copper plate was probably a reward to the calculator of the eclipse. Gupta of the eclipse my collaborator. =1894552. Sixth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date In the year 156 of the Guptas. 27' 36".M. N5 The above circumstances C.M.D. 1 at G. become: corrections Mean Sun Moon =228 -224 =239 D. It the method appears that this eclipse could be predicted by of the Khandakhadyaka. 1. 69' 47". Toe difference is 5*20469 days which comprise 14*24 Julian centuries + 253 days. 10' 10"'68. the the place was about '075. at the same day. Secondly. Lahin. on which. 44' 56". . Morvi Mean Sun Sun's Apogee =234 22' 29" '34.N. the inscription records the date as the day of the 3rd tithi of the light half of Kdrtika. and 1900 A. 10 min. which was the Jovial year styled the Mahd vaiaklia year. Fleet Inscriptions. Morvi time.A. The The new-moon happened at mean the end beginning came about 12-45 noon Morvi 1 mean time. 7'31"'10. Nov. Now =475 AJD. =2415021. page 104. M.D.m. 156 of the Gupfea era Julian days on Jan.. magnitude of the eclipse as visible at of the eclipse took place at 11-35 a.N. time. The.252 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 10.m. the Khoh Grant. the ahargana becomes 826 Saka era 4-8 luuations= 87528.

at 6a. 289 days later. Thus they were very nearly in conjunction at hrs.57. 475 A. became as follows : Hence apparent places Appt. mean Jupiter and mean Sun became i. Jupiter rises on the east anomaly of conjunction of 14. The actual date of the inscription was Oct. Ujjayim M T. 475 A. According to the rule of naming Jupiter's years as given in the modern Surya Siddhanta. 476 A.M. According to Brahmagupta. G.D. the Vernal Equinox of the year being taken as the first point of the Hindu sphei'e. but Jupiter was 3 40' behind the first point of the naksatra division. or 11-4 a. the equations of apsis for Jupiter and Sun were their respectively -26'4"*01 and -145'2"'70.M.D. Jupiter Mean =170 54' 6'/. on which. . For the above mean however. 6 hrs.e.D. the sun the heliacal Here on the day of visibility.D..M. it was sun's naksatra. Mean Mean Sun = Jupiter 194 194 55' 84* '42.T. was in the naksatra ViSakha. getting at the in 15 '5 days. 473 A.. more.. Appfe. on the 17th September. 475 A. equal in 6 hrs.. XIV.D. when Sun =208 and Jupiter =>196 20 nearly. 16-17. 20. Jupiter Sun = = 192 192 49' 30'/'41.INDIAN EKAS arrive at the date. G.D. Mean Sun Hence we nearly equal calculate that =269 47' IV M.. 53' 16>/'45. Dec..m. 45'. 88' 19" 15. G.T. 20 ? 474 253 at A. r the date of the . 18.. on on the 17th September. on the new-moon prior to October 18.m.D.T. at G-. 475 A. It is thus seen that the mean places would become almost places.. This takes place rising of Hence the date for the heliacal Jupiter becomes the 2nd October. Thus Jupiter was heliacally visible about Oqt.T.M. 7 18 hrs.

.D.D. Jupiter's heliacal setting is yet 30 days. was similar to the March 30..D. ab G. . 482 A.N. This inscription also shows that the Gupta era began from 319 A. Thus the heliacal setting of Jupiter took place in two days more according to Brahrnagupta's rule on the 9th April. The Seventh Instance oj Gupta Inscription Date STfTSfter^^r tf 4jHt IS ^. we bad Mean Jupiter = Sun = 29 58' 8" '24.D.. Here. the day of the kings.D.D.254 inscription. 1941 A. In 1459 (1941-482 = 1459). The The year 163 sidereal years of the year 1941 A.D. On this date.M. D. 46' 57"'02 at G.Hence on April 7. the Kh6h Grant II .JTI t b*t^id ($\\) ^^li^jycBt inscription records the date as the year 163 of the Gupta the Jovial year called Mahd Asvayuja. D. VII. 1941 A.D 21 days before the new-moon on about the 5th April. 482 A.. 482 A. 347 12' 47" '11.. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY which took place on Oct. i FleetGupta Inscriptions.N. and the new-moon happened on the 5ih April. 482 A.D. 2nd tithi of the light half of Caitra. 482 A. p&ge 110. there are 532909 days. Hence the year to come got its name Igvayuga year. gave the name of the year. to come in about Mean Jupiter = Sun = 32 16 27' 46" '22. and the date to Gupta era or 482 A. 482 A. This needs elucidation. which backward to the 30th March.M. 15-16 of the year. and we are applied arrive at the tentative date of the inscription as March 8.. when the sun was in the naksatra Bharanl. The suii would reach the naksatra and the year begun was consequently Mahd vaiakha Anuradha. year-of Jupiter. But the tentative date of which was the inscription was obtained as March 8.

before sunrise Hence as pointed out before in this gau-e 1941 A.D. waa called 482 A.D. the moon of last quarter got conjoined with Citrd or a Virginia. A.\ the thus correctly obtained as the Jovial year begun was a Malia is This. which comprise 17576 These days are applied backward to lunations =519029 days. the toy of the third tithi of the dark half of lunar Maglia* We Pausa. would be similar the Christian year 1931. would be later tlan the time of Aryabhata I. 12. the calendar formation In our gauge year 1941 A.. 1 Fleet Gupta Inscriptions. 17 years before the year 499 scientific siddhantas came into rule arrive at 255 the lunar But in the year 482 A.. viz.D. the date.D..D. the lunar year of the different.. Now this Gupta year 191 = 510 A. 1931 A D. The date 7th April. and we arrive at the date. is now the lunar VaMaJcha of 1941 A. was Agrahayana early Gupta period ended on the 27th Jan. 1931 A. D by 11 jears.D. A. Thus the lunar month that is now called Pausa in 1941 A.D.D. . year of the Gupta era was approximately the same as the Chiistian year 319 A. as the year 191 of the Gupta emperors. Hence the lunar Agrahayana in Caitra of 482 A. 510 March 6.D. 499 A. Feb. of this inscription 482 A.D. The Eighth Instance of Gupta Inscription Date This inscription records the date.INDIAN EEAS Here by coming down by 30 days we month of VaiSaMa as it is reckoned now. on this hypothesis. when the Hindu being.t. The elapsed years (sidereal) are 1421. the Jovial year of Maha-eaitra.D.c. and the date of the inscription would to correspond with March 0... also. VIII. page 114.instance also shows that the Zero Itvayuja^ year. 1941 A..D. first work out the date on the hypothesis that the Gupta lunar year was in this case also reckoned from the light half of The Gupta year 191.D. on the -20th Jan.D. the Majligavam Grant.

N.. T2. This result does not agree with the statement of the inscription. KX 7'"25. were the longitudes as corrected by the equations fche of apsis.. . or iryabhata I's time. find easily the We = Meau Sun Mean Jupiter = If these 142 54' 15'/*50 142 52' 48*57. hr. at G. then heliacal visibility would coine according to the rule of 15.M. Thes^. and we arrive at the of Jupiter. and at G. 323 46'13'/'72.D. we bad8' Mean .256 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this date. the sun's true longitude would be 160 9' nearly. we would have to go 164 days=5 lunations +ntithis. in sun and Jupiter had reached equality mean longitude in 133*5 days before. corrected by th? equations of apsis.. 510 A.T. first day of BMdrapada. which shows that the sun would rtach the preceding day of the new-moon. It now appears that alter the year 499 A. according to begun would be styled Phdlguna or the Aryabhata I's rule: Edhkriyd. days and (2) couie down gone up by by 15*5 days..M. Tha mean longitudes = = = 158 144 10' 54" '21. On Maha-phalguna year. This interval we have to up by apply backward to the llth tithi of Mdyha. Feb.D. the the Hasta sun would be in the naksatm U. On the whole we have gone up by 168 days or 5 Thus on the day of the heliacal visibility lunations + 21 t it h is. and the Jovial year division.D. Sun = = 158 3"'87.N.M. 11. the reckoning 01 the years of the Gupta era was changed from the light half of Paasa to the light half of Caitra. The date of the heliacal visibility would thus be Sep. 509 A..5 days later Brahmagupta about* 15 "5 -days become For Sun For Jupiter later. when. become For Sun For Jupiter 156 3' 27". 1. We have here 183*5 which came in lour days more. Plialguni. Hence the true heliacal visibility would (1) coine in 4 days more. = 146 16' 41. Jupiter at G.

we have somecompare it to the present-day Saka year and not to the . The date for it works out to of have been 194 24' 51* Oct. the year beginning was shifted forward by 3 lunations. which followed the of previous heliacal setting of Jupiter.D.M. 528 A.. Christian year. of times later than 499 A. 8814088 .D.e. Gupta era = the year 432 of the Saka In our times the Saka year 1853 is similar to the G-upta 191 and the date of the inscription corresponds to Feb.D. 511 A.D.D. Gupta era. The next heliacal rising would take place 399 days or The 13*6 lunations later. At the preceding new -moon. all the Indian eras slowly changed their year reckoning from the winter solstice day to the next vernal equinox day.D. the sun had the longitude about 179^. as it is styled in the In the present case the year 191 of the Gupta emperors =432 Thus the year Zero of the of the Saka emperors =510-11 A. 2. We have to apply 1402 our time is the llth The April. sidereal 17341 lunations =512090 days years or more correctly thus arrive at backward to this date of April 11. 509 A. year. Hence in finding in our own time a year similar to the times to Gupta year. which applied backward lead t:> the date of the inscription as Feb. 1930 A.INDIAN BE AS " 257 The yuga.D.D. = 241 of the Saka emperors = 319-20 A. and was in the naksatra Citrii or the Jovial year begun was Caitra inscription.N.D.D. or the Mahd-caitra year. March 19.. 5. date of the heliacal rising arrived at before was Sept. date =1421*= 5 19029 days. Gupta emperors IX. 1. 1930 A. 24." After the year 499 A. the day of the 13th tithi the corresponding date in Following the Caitm-gukladi reckoning..D. the date of the We inscription. 510 A. this inscription is 209 of the year and date as given in of the light half of Caitra. Hence the year 191 of the era. i. and the sun at had the longitude G. month and the' first day of the year started simultaneously from the beginning of the light half of Gaitra. year The number of sidereal years elapsed up to this 1932 A.

the is stated day of the first titlii have been. of the Gupta era=528 A.. 4'.. 5'. = 347 19'. nearly. . arrive at the date.M. Mean Moon L. the moon wasin the to naksatra division Rohinl and the 8th part (mithilrta) of the day.D.=:year of 241 of Saka era. 58' 52"'27. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee 1 = = 54' 10" '97. 705 A. Eccentricity Jupiter 's Eccentricity = *046 175.. This = 322 39' 15* '02 95 f Perigee = 48 49'34 *04.D.M. equivalent years are 627 of Saka era = 705 A.. at On April 29.. we readily see that the corresponding day in our own time was. Ohr. ='017301.T.'.288 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY On this day. 386 of the (Gupta) of lunar Jyaisilia. we had =347 37' 23 = 358 *09.D.M.D. 43'.. at about 8 hours and the Jovial The sun was year begun was Kfoaynga of or the Malta Asvayuja year as the inscription says. For on that date. 77 42' 56". i. at G. // Hence Jupiter as corrected by the equation of apsis Jupiter's Perihelion =350 -= IT 51' 21"'61. 705 40 62 A. Sun -349 . The We (2) Now on April 30.. April 30.e. Appt. X. page inscription does peculiar feature* .D. 42' 66*.N. hr.T.D. 322 32' 33" '97 not present Fleet Gupta Inscriptions. 52R A. The Tenth Instance Gupta Inscription Date The Nepal Inscription Here the date era. // 9" '07. =year 450 Saka era the Zero year of the Gupta era =319 A. The new-moon happened in the naksatra Revati. . at G. Hence Mean Sun . Moon =*343 5' 27"'90..M. 1939. Mean Sun = 39 55' 2 // '64. Lunar Perigee Sun's Apogee =313 = 57' 86* '84. 705 A. 0' G. It Appt. Sun=358 appears that the heliacal rising of Jupiter would happen 3 days later and the preceding new -moon happened 13 days before. May 20. Moon =345 later.N. on the 6th March. Mean Jupiter Mean Sun Sun's Apogee at G. Here the year 209 .. we had =346 5' 8'9B.D.

we have to take the aliargana the = 4 min.T. The date of the inscription is thus April 28.M. t seq. 705 A. . 21 of 1939 A.INDIAN ERAS Thus on April 29. The date of the inscription 705 A. 50 44' 30".. 53 was the previous day. l "VIII. the of lunar day of the lOlh titlii to Nov.M. hr. of our times. of in the time. XI.D. To the Khandakhddyaka mean places. 0' 0".In midnight (mean) of Ujjayim of April 28 have the mean places at the G. at 250 hr..D. and April. Hence on the 29th Ujjayim mean naksatra KrttiM and the 'April first at G.D. the 28th April.T. Olir.D. the sun was moon to in the naksatra division Bo/iim. Zero = Saka year 627 705 A. 254 Mpigraphica Jndioa. 705 A.. Gupta = Saka year 241 of = 319 A.D. 386 year. According at to the to deduct about 3 Khandakhddyaka calculations the aliargana- 14617. = Moon = 38 16' 23". 41 53 12' 50'. we have applied Lalla's corrections which are well-known in Hindu Astronomy. The mean places are = Mean Moon = Sun's Apogee = Lunar Perigee Mean Sun Note : 36 52' 12".m. at the stated hour. year. which corresponds date . the tithi was over.M.D.T. as has been shown before. pp. 3' the first tithi was from these longitudes (mean) to allow for the shifting of the equinoxes from 499 A. Now Gupta /.D. Hence Apparent Sun 45 77 318 43' 58". . of 29th order to = 14647 days + 5 hrs. the" is the Gupta year 199. G. Vol.. this day. KflrMfca. Apparent Sun = Moon = Hence on over we have . 56' 2".1421 .17576 lunations The elapsed siderial years to this Mahd-marga Jovial *= 519029 days. which extends from 40 20' of the Hindu longitudes. = 5-4 a. The Eleventh Example Gupta Inscription Date The date of the inscription year.

Tkus the Gupta year.D.D. A.e. = = 518 A.. 518 A..D. Thus the new-moon came on the day following.M. . 518 A. at G. for Sun and these are gupta's i. 518 A. = 62 219 332 34' 9'/'59.. * was 518 A. 67 The Navagrara Grant of Maharaja Hastin [ The year 198 of the Gupta era or 517 A. the true longitudes May 13. VoL 21.M. at U.260 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY Hence the date of the Inscription was Oct. Node .D.'. Mean Jupiter = = = 280 2 14 58' 2Q'/ '27. 55' 1' 0^42. Gupta year. Now were on 169 days before Oct. 52 55' 15". Bhandarkar.. Oct. 319 A. D. 199 . Jupiter 32' 20* '47. We 6 hrs. K. Moon = U. 29.M. * Tioelfth Instance o] Gupta Inscription Date Epigraphica Indica. division Mrgasiras ( 53 23' to 66 40' of longitude) . VoL VJIT* p^ge 290. = 58o'16'". 15 or * Zielhorn's approximate date phies Indica.... Plate No.. the longitude of 50 40' 6". at G.D. Jupiter But on May 24.. is called Mahdfind that on April 7. Jupiter Mean . the sun having a small positive equation. and the Jovial year begun was Mdrga or the Malia-m&rga year as the inscription says.D. 58' 46^85. 29.M.N. Zero XII. Mean Sun Moon Lunar Perigee . dtvayuja year.. September 15 Epigra- Commuijicated by Prof. 517 A. mean sun had. 29. rule on May Hence according to Brahtnashould rise heliacally 15*5 days later.T. The ne^-moon-sun was in the the naksatra.. S18 A. 16 15 51' 25" '67.N. at 6 hrs.T.D.D. SO'^O..D On this date. the longitude of 63 22' 54" and the mean moon at the same hour. Sun & 50*' 17. . practically equal.

-2<:1 was the day of the new-moon with Jupiter at the very near to conjunction The new-moon happened and consequently in the nnksatm of heliacal B/ZKJW/I. Inscriptions. Hence the year is called the jtfahd-dsvayuja year. when began the Zero year of the era i'rom the day of the winter solstice. reckoning began from the light year to Prom some which was different for different of localities after 499 A. that (1) The Gupta and It Valabhi eras were but one and the same era. Zero=319 A. in 'indian called in calendar reform. have here proved.D. of . Plate 18. XL This change has been noticed in Nos as V VIII.D. conformably from the Vernal Equinox day. (3) The date from which the Gupta era was started was Dec. This of beginning the year " produced. That the Gupta era agrees with the Christian era from (4) 319 A. One year a year of confusion..D. was most probable that the era in question had been and was given nuw originally started by the Gupta emperors name by the Valabhi princes who were vassals of the Gupta (2) 1 emperors. Here also the Gupta year. the beginning the year was lifted Solstice day to forward from the light half Pausa or the Winter to Aryabhata I's dictum the light half of Centra. the meet-Gupta and Bandhuvarman discussed ia Chapter Mandasor Stone Inuripiioo XXIV on the Sa>n*at era." as it is of the Gupta era and 420 of as consisting of 15 or 16 lunathe gaka era were thus reckoned dealt with as This is evident from the inscriptions tions. up half ol Pansa.INDIAN E1US This position setting.D. i where Aryabhata I's reputation had been unquestionably foremost Indian astronomer more la such cases the Gupta years correspond No. 318 A. till which the year (5) about 499 A.. .. from 12 or 11 which have used concrete statements found either the Gupta or the Valabhi era.D. 20. X and the inscriptions of those localities the accepted. calendars. Conclusion We in the inscriptions. the date of Aryabhafa I.

and in times later than 499 A..D. . era.262 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY to the Caitra-Suklddi is conformably year of the Gupta emperors is the same as the Christian year 319-20 A. To sum up The Zero year of the Gupta era was originally the same as the year 319 A.D.D.D. It Further the is Gupta and Valabhi eras were further the same would hoped that speculations as to this era be considered inadmissible. this Zero year was in some cases taken as equivalent to Si&huli) which : Saka years and that the Zero taken as the Saka year 241 (Caitra- 319"*20 A.

definite epigraphic evidence about the date of Kalidasa such differences of opinion are quite natural. as we shall see.' Vol. J. Btngal. the original name of this Sam vat era was this identification. On the Date of Kahdasa Compare " by Chatter joe.CHAPTER XXYI TIME-INDICATIONS IN KILIDI8A As to the date of Kalidasa. 2. point of view will probably we have tried to show thafc the great poet In this chapter was thoroughly conversant with the Hindu Siddhdntic astronomical literature. Sten Konow. from a new and any attempt to throw fresh light on the problem be welcomed by scholars. Macdonell. a tradition be of very doubtful value. 380-415 A. Then again Prof. Kalidasa lived about the middle of the sixth cientury A. known to have is assumed the title of Vikramaditya (ca. According to Maxmiiller. on epigraphic evidence. P. Chatterjee and other Sanskritists Sathvat. But so far as I am aware. the greatest of our Sanskrit poets. 1908. On the other hand. 1926. against epigraphic and other evidences are. II. (scientific) such references being found scattered and dramatical works.R.8. appears 1 Bay. correctly interpreted by i Prof S Bay's paper. of the old school have identified the now known Vikrama with the era alleged to have been started by Vikramaditya of Ujjyaim and have tried to assign to the poet the first century B. .C.) This of course on the assumption that Kalidasa adorned the court of a king to which S. These references throughout his poetical his many have not been. named Vikramaditya of Djjayini. B. Vincent Smith and A. most divergent views have been held by different researchers.A.D.D. Sastri. 'Age of Kalidasa. as 'Malavabcla* or even Krta era. Fergusson and H.. the is first Indian monarch who. < also the Allahabad University Studies. the name of the era was changed Samvat As no is forthcoming. Keith have held that the poet flourished about the time of the G-upta Emperor Chandragupta. original We do not into yet know when era.

Here the word recognised c tar agr alia' is a Hindu astronomical term not by Maliinatha. VI. Pancathe Kryabhatlya. Venus. the passages ( and thus by their failure in this respect. accompanied Aja for three the nights. The first reference is Naksalra-taragraha-samkula-pi jyolismati candramasaiva ratrih Bagho. . Mercury.). 48 Modern siddhantika. Go/a. etc. compound word as 'naksatra' + tara' + < > graha .264 ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY including commentators Maliinatha. This sort of the poet. (c) we have the expressions 9 are newly risen lord of the osadhis and newly We have further in Kalidasa Tisrastri-lokiprathitena Rardhamajena marge vasat Irusitva Tasmadapavartata Kundinesah parvafcyaye soma ivosnara^meh* Eaghu. astronomers throughout maintain this classification (cf. It means 'star-like planets/ viz. VI. have only darkened counsel by their words in their commentaries. just as the moon. We ' take these references one correctly (a) by one . NidarsSayamasa vi^esadr^yain indurh navottltanamivendwnatyai Raghu. 73. . II. In these Instances equivalent to "the risen moon'. 22. These commentators were primarily rhetoricians and not experts in astronomy hence they failed fco get at the propsr meaning of . 33. 1. Mars. unwilling company of him as if it were. VII. The reason is obvious. XVIII. VII. as unwilling to part company of . Jupiter and Saturn in contradistinction to the Sun and the Moon which possess discs the Hindu scientific . Here the poet says that to part in Aja's return journey to the city of Ayodhya. the prince of Vidarbha (his brother-in-law).. first of "interpretation is apparently against the (6) meaning of That Ealidasa was a keen observer is the visibility of crescent (f J evidenced by Netraih papus trptimanapnuvadbhir Navodayam ndthamivausadhinam (ii) Baghu. we shall try to interpret them and ascertain their chronological significance. whicb 'to 31. 61 Here Maliinatha splits up the Sfirya Siddhanta.

as quoted by Bhattotpala (966 A. This interpretation makes the figure a purnopunid or a complete similitude. lovely il one.' with the liquid bodied. (e) Another very important astronoaiical passage in Kalida-s^ is Agastyacihnadayanat samlpaiii diguttara bhasvati sannivrtte Ananda^Itamivavaspavrstim liimaprutim haimavatim sasarjn. liquid-bodied. seen shining by being illumined by the rays of the sun. the first one means any one of the several 'stars' with which the moon of gets conjoined in her course a sidereal month. Raghu. the planets and p. and used the word 'tdrala- vimbayd* in the strict Siddhdntic sense. junction-star' Here we have the two words 'yogatdrd* and 'taralavimbaya'. A verse of the Stirya Siddlidnta. runs thus : Tejasaih golakah suryo graharksanyambugolakah Prabhavanto Li dryante sfiryarasmividlpitah Brhatsamhita. 84 44.TIME-INDICATIONS IN KILIDISA 265 sun at the conjunction. 179). 'The sun spheres of a sphere of are water. is ' getting conjoined of this night. 'This Moon.) in the commentary on the Brhatsanilntd of Varahamihira. yogataraya ynjyate taralavimbaya Sasf Kumara. VIII. Hence Kalidasa was also an observer of the fact that the moon's maximum here period of invisibility lasts for three nights. (d) Again \*e have the line Esa carumukhi. (first cited by Diksita. Mallinatha fails to interpret the simile in Kalidasa. H08B .D. remains invisible for the maximum period of three nights and then separates from him. XVI.' This evidence shows that Siddhanta as known to the poet had studied the Siirya Bhattotpala. 'sailing' through the sky in the Mallinatha makes a muddle of the whole thing when he says star that in all the moon is always accompanied by a particular yujyale sd yogatdrd). IV. in his is work Bharatiya Jyotihsastra. they stars are energy. and not- nights (pratyahaihyaya Again the word 'tarala-viwbaya* means as Mallinatha expounds it. 73.

(550 A. S 77 S 80 appears that same school of it' 87 From the above 'polar' longitudes of Canopus both Varaha and Kalidasa Siddhantic teaching.D. which was like a delightfully cold shower of rain.) . 6: Nabhafearairgltayjadah sa lebhe nabliastalasyamatanum tanujam . I. As to in question undoubtedly means (Canopus) : the Agastya's 'polar' longitude and latitude the astronomical siddhdntas say In Modern Surya Siddlidnta (VIII.D ) as recorded by Alberuni (India VoJ. From the above and other works we learn of Ganopus' s place as - Modern BQrya Biddhanta Paftcasiddh&ntiTcS. cannot but mean the ecliptic place. owing to ignorance of Siddhantic to interpret the phrase 'Agastya cihna. ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 'when the sun neared the solstice (summer solstice) which was the place of Canopus. North caused a.D. reaching the first of the rainy season.D. The phrase the summer solstice..) Lalla (748 A. It may even be about 560 A. aay. .tadeva . Polar longitude 90 Polar latitude ' S 80 90 87 S 75 20' Brahmagupta (628 A. and not earlier. . . belonged to the The date of the earliest form of the Modern Surya Siddhanta is most uncertain. about 510 A. The poet says in Ragliu.. (427 Saka year or 505 A. the date may go up to.of Ganopus. p. His meaning of also 9 Here fails The the phrase is the southern solstice (the winter solstice). 1).. Khyatam nabhahfiabdamayena namna kantarh nabhomasaniiva prajanam. 10) we have 'Karkatadyat'.. and was only 60 distant from the * ' summer solstice. which astronomy.. XIV..* Hima- Mallinatha..D. 1 XVIII.266 or.D. is almost enamoured of the event of the sun's (/) The poet the summer solstice when the tropical month of Nabhas. In Paficasiddhantika (XIV. poet in the very preceding stanza speaks of the advent of summer at the beginning of which the sun had already left the winter solstice four months before.. 10) we have * Agastyo Mithunantagah'. began. 1 If ib was recast first into the modern form by La. flow of ice from the layas.) . as estimated by Burgess.

first of these time-indications is derived from the The stanzas in Part ' I. or last day of Isadha addressed the cloud messenger on the first ' are the two variants of the text. as they stood before the people of the city of Videha. place is be very wrong to assume that We shall not.D. Kalidasa was well astronomy of this time. Kalidasa has again in Racjlni. say that the exiled McghaYaksa . of the tired As they their drank with their eyes the beautiful forms princes. was that the sun reached the summer solstice at a place near it a that their to them. 1-4. whose fame was sung by the denizeijs of the sky. In the first reached the star Castor's by annual course. as pleasing as month (g) of Nablias.' To the poets why the stars Castor and Pollux were so charming. was himself a keen observer of the Heavens and specially of the moon's Siddhantic motion amongst the ecliptic stars. 'The princes. and the bursting of the monsoons took place. got a son of the same colour as the sky who became known by the name the of Nabhas and was first to his people. It remains yet solstitial colure passed through it was 546 A. to examined how far Enough has been shown to be trained in the it indicates the date of that the poet. Kama and Laksinana. the of the rainy season. establish. XI. and ' prasama prathama' the commentator In the edition of the Meghaduta by Eullzsch. appeared stars as charming as the two Castor and Pollux of the naksatm Punarvasu. and discard* Vallabhadeva accepts the reading pratamadtom . We now proceed to consider the other Lime-references in Kalidasa's works. therefore. the poet indicates that the summer solstice of his time lay very The time when the summer near to the place of this star. I trust. the sun. 36 Tau videhanagarmivasinaiii gam gataviva divah punarvasu Manyate-sma pivatam vilocanaih paksmapatamapi vaftcanaiii vuanah. Other Time-References in Kalidasa The data. mind took fell eyelids disappointment preventing a continuous vision.TIME-INDICATIONS IN KILID1SA 267 'The king (Nala).

is the correct reading. side/ The next day itself was the first day of Ndbhas. and Mallinalba on the other prathamadivaxe and rejects the other. day was the true day for the bursting of the monsoons. As this day can never be the first or the last Isadha.dutth. * e appearance of clouds. and as this day can never fall on the first day of solar Asddha the real reading of the text is P-rasamadivase and not Prathauiadiuase. for sesanmasan event being garaaya the day it caturo. 63. the With the summer solstice learned Sanskrit authors. (2j day of solar Asadha. as this was the day for the summer monsoons marked by the first Here Kalidasa says that a huge clouds hanging from the side of the developed elephant. The poet says that this month was imminent or pratyasanne Nabhasi when the Yaksa ' ' addressed the cloud. of the (3) The day bursting of the summer solstice. when Sesa would arise from bed serpent ('Sapanto rne bhujagaj5ayana. the We Visnu learn II.'). Asddha. The date of lunar tithi this last the llth Lithi Kurttika. is Thus the day on which the Yaksa made (1) to address the cloud messenger was The day The last of the llth tithi of lunar Asadha. We from have Part to settle which 49. of etc.fully burying its tusks on the nieghamaslista-sanurn vaprakridaparinata-gajVpreksaijiiyaih'dadarsa/ as the poet has it. * 3 ' ' and never the lunar. St.208 ANCIENT INDIAN OHEOXOLOGY hand accepts the reading the other. four lunations before of lunar was the day of the llth Hence the day on which the Yaksa is said to have addressed the cloud messenger was that of ^the llth tithi of lunar Asddlia. poet here in the Meghaduta "has recorded a notable astronomical event of his time. 14-16. Oh. have already seen that he has indicated the position of the summer solstitial colure The We .' the month -being the solar. mass hill of the first -rain looking like a hill .ite sjlrngapanan. the first month of the rainy season. day of the lunar Asddha. On this point c/ t the Ramayana> IT. verse in that Yaksa's period of exile would end hi a four of mouths the more.

D. other class fall" the Iryabhatlya.D. and the day of Kablias was the next day.D. on which. pan.. in which he Varaha. 541 A. at about 8 a..). was the true last day of the solar Isadha. Noon or the 54 Klianrlakluld} aka ** Moderns 227 90" 2' True Moon True Sun = = 220 1' 89 38' V Note. and that this date of June 20. in.M. D. but without mentioning in any way the source he 1 is a borrower from. Abhijnana6akuntala VII.D. To to the former class belongs also the the Modern Surya Siddliwita. Translation of Uie Kliaydakhadyaka. 541 A. which not very different from A. C Sengupta.D. .obtained before.. was over about nine hours first before. as the true day of the summer 546 This reference thus indicates the time of is Kalidasa as about 541 A. we find that the day on which the : three conditions tabled above were satisfied was The 20th June. .. Calcutta University Press. the d-nlharatrika and the audayila. of these time-indications is derived The second from our poet's drama. at Ci. The sun's longitude according to the modern constants shows the day solstice of the year.of Lalla (74S A. according the eleventh tithi to HbeKhanda'khddyuka Moon 9 Sun =13623 f. in astronomy as taught by Iryabhata 1.e.) the I.. Ujjayim mean time. The Khandakluldyalia dated of is an ashonomical compendium sets forth the by Brahmagupta. from his Suryasiddhdnta. has borrowed wholesale Iryabhata I.TIME-INDZCATLONS IN KALIDASA as 26U almost passing through the star Castor. There are indeed only two systems of the Hindu Siddhantic astronomy.. drdliardtrika sybtem 665 A. Now examining the period from 541 to 571 A.D. / . 1934 A. that this time was about 546 A. SiddlidntaitMi&ra Srlpati and the Siddhdntasiromuni of Bhaskara Here. in the morning.D.D. the introduction. 91.D. the Sisyadlritrddhida . the 5 Brdhmaspliutaof siddlianta of Brahmagupta (628 A. Here Ealidasa employs 1 P.

the star Rohinl has yot conjoined "with the moon at the end of a total eclipse.270 ANCIENT INDIAN CHBONOLOGY simile to an astronomical with Saktwtaln. The . noticeable astronomical our poet again uses another specially event of his time for a simile. 542 A. ' It is by a piece of good lack.. ends have to be shifted forward by 19 minutes. 4816 to / 41 //1 48 3" * Thus the according Moon ~ Sun = same 12' 8". Newcomb and Brown . although not based on the constants. G. describe the final union of : Dusyanta The prince thus speaks to his consort Prije. This has been. and ended at hour 20 minutes a.' stand before me whose gloom of delusion has been broken So far as we can see.. that you by a return of memory. As magnitude and the half durations.D..m. according to Oppolzer's authorities difference of 9' 25" would be gained the most very favourable for the observation 1 Corrected by 12 principal equations.M. my lovely darling. Oppolzer's book is totality correct. authorities for his most up-to-date astronomical longitudes were Leverrier very correct- and Hansen thus the beginnings and ends are not : as set forth below On November we have Apparent Sun Apparent 8. at a time the middle and the by the 2' 43*.. * Leverrier and Hansen 228" 28' 49" 228 28' 46" 26' Moon .. as it were. A total eclipse of the moon happened according to Oppolzer's Cannon der Findcmesse on November 8. while Consequently the beginnings. 542 A. . The moon in 19 minutes more.. = up-to-date authorities.M. with the middle of the hours 9 eclipse at 17 hours 5 *22 minutes : mioutes of G. m. Smrtibhinnamohatamaso Distya pratnukhe sthitasi sumukhi Uparagante sasina Samupagata Rohhil yogam. The eclipse thus began most conveniently 'at 8-36 p. I trust.T..T. or the Ujjayim mean time the half durations for the whole eclipse and the to the were 112 minutes and 51 minutes respectively. D. at 17 hours 5 minutes. of the Ujjayini mean time on November 9.

D. The events thus tend to place Ivalidasa in the middle of the sixth century A.. runs from 541 to 546 A.D.. .. . Ujjayinl mean midday. The which Kalidasa in all probability observed these three astronomical events. 542 A. -5 28' 17" The moon be estimated at the eclipse at the end of the eclipse had almost complete or equality in longitude with the star Aldcbciran line of the Rohim. 8-9 Nov. .. which the planetary mean places almost all (or even apparent places) are longitudes is equal to the tropical mean as -the calculated sole test from the most modern astronomical constants... period in obtained before.TIME-INDICATIONS IN K1LIDISA of the conjunction of the an 1 at this instant- 271 moon with the star Rohim (Aldelaran). The date of this peculiar lunar eclipse. The March 21.600 years after the Kali epoch 24 hours 01 February 18. and 541 A. and not of the month This interpretation makes the date of the poet later than the date of the starting of the Hindu Siddhantic astronomy.D. which he has recorded in his work in his own way. Apparent mSon . date and hour we arrive at is of 3102 B.. Aryabhatal indeed makes his epoch 3... 1 : The mean longitudes are shown in the following table Compare also the Table on page 38. as could by producing the moon's cusps formed some time before its end. 6 hours of Ujjayim mean time.D.. by which it can be ascertained. In the previous reference ( from the ' Meghaduta) we have shown before... . ..... . viz.D. 499 A. I have not as yet come across any mention of solar months in Indian That the Hindu siddhdntas date from that epoch at epigraphy. . Feb. 17.as confirms the dates 516 A. that in is the to the word 'Asddha' 'lunar' Asddhasya prahmadivase.' phrase be taken in the sense of the 'solar' of Asadha..C.. 49 49 31' 10" 30' 11* Longitude of Rohiril (Aldebaran) Latitude of Rohlni (Aldebaian) . D.

The next in great difference of +51' occurs almost all other cases the not be any doubt as calculations to the date from which the Siddhantio were started that date must be March 21. 499 A. Jyolihsastm. The planetary error is position as in in cols. 1944. Time.ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY The mean as taught by of the e ' planets of the ardharatrika system are Stiryasiddhanta. 1st edn. . and also my 'Hindu Astronomy in the journal Science and Culture 1 The reader may on for June. where the nearly in the above two of systems.. this point page 24). page 200. compare Dlksita's work. the same date Varaha in his so-called The Modern Surya Siddhanta put at as judged by a similar test is 1091 A. (2). excepting thai respectively -3 and +3 C Mercury. which cannot be set aside as un- acceptable (Calcutta Univer&ity reprint of Burgess's translation.D. the Bharatiya article. Hence there should . (3) and (5) are in general agreement. or The Hindu 3 rule for calculating what is called Ayanam$a> the The Modern Surya SiddJwta longitudes are for 12 hours 33'6 minutes of 0. place of Saturn in the" mean Hindu mean places (or more correctly Aryabhata's) are almost the same as calculated from the most modern constants. by Bentley.D. M.

so far as waB not poFsible come to learn from my stu4y of Hindu astronomy this science for more in the than three decades. Saka era or 522 A. 441 of points were coincident. Secondly. y:ir.D. the ristronomical event of the combin tion of the polptitial colnre of his time almost straight last c1?iy Asfidliu day ha-* solar Astldha. he as pet forth above. and that it may even he Inter than 52 A D. March 21. Idhasya phrase earlier than 499 A.D. As first to the date of Kalidi?a.TIME-INDICATIONS IN KILID1SA distance* 273 the vernal ! of tbe Iss point of the Hindu :-pWe from equinox of date. tie date of of (he total lunar eclipse.. ancients puch an expres?ion. also accept.D. praiamadtvase. to da'-e the star Rolrini "9. we have. June 90 Thirdly.. poeiR the dnte of all the extant Hindu scientific also *howw tlmt ns sitld'nrnitas cannot he be.vluiie that In as * Kalidapa of AstJlia ciirmct . iVjm which . or .Ul-51t5 the use of a solar month. the fonn of transits the sun from one sign of the zodiac to thp next.D.D.as he u-c-s the phrase.* his date As.this as tiia date \vli3n t ie two TiK-re is ano:"i2' -l:te al-'o. the time-indication in which passed hints that the summer through the star Castor.he A.D. also the Ayanlmsa means the sohr rnont eve'i 52:2 is calculated.. called the Bhar:. the day of the llth titlii of lunar and the day of the summer solstice falling on tlie Fame siven us Ih3 date 541 A. the da*e of Kalidasa cannot but ' A.ed to came he calculated of the Hindu calendar. Jyotisa was amorphous state. The Vedamga calendar litis a tradition 35-1 10RB .. but mean the last Ast Idhasya pra&amadwase. earlier than 499 A.D. indicating I have before the time of Iryabhata I. e/s. being conjoined with end. wliich was most favourable for the observation of at the its (Aldclnran) so closely moon..' which cannot Even by the learned date 'of the solar month of Xstldlia. It wa from alnut these date? that the Hjnlu and solar months in for the different signs of the zodiac signs of the zodiac ia were for p. i Thus we be cr.D.D. these findings at finally the of Sanskrit We have about the mid-lie of the pixth century A.D. Before 499 A. about .. for which the date has been worked out as 546 A. All converging fix the of preceding the greatest dates. has led to the data Nov.. the 542 A.

274 that ANCIENT INDIAN CHEONOLOGY the fiye-yearly Vedic calendar was evidence five started from about 1400 B.re known to us. The Mr. but we have to show that this calculation late was never extended beyond years. half lunations and even days It is a in trying to follow pity that record when arose occasions being made and how these wise men failed to show for to nothing is on such adjustments the find J9 years or the 14J years as the more correct luni-solar cycles by these signs processes. we have an indicaof crystalline and the existence of state of Hindu astronomy We have followed the Khantlakhadyaka of Bra'uiiagnpta in the calculations as no better or more reliable ancient works a. S Bn Diksita. 1 . the fi^jp-yearly luni-soiar cycle. in his Bharatiya Jyotihsdstra. 301. verse from the Mahdbharata. $anti> page 125. of In these calculations there was no use of the the zodiac moon. has quoted a Ch.. 40-47.C. in which we find that the calendar-makers or the wise men ' found ' omitted years. tion of When no other planets except the sun and the Ealidasa uses the solar month. months.

In the list of total eclipses of the star moon visible in India and the happening near Cannon COO *der Oppolzer's Aldebaran as given in the period from 400 AD. to Finstcrnesse during only the following: AD. For settling this point. of a repetition of the Mtgliadtlia astioexplore the possibilities nomical event in the peri -. months by the epigraphic evidence as to the use of tLe solar So far as I learned Indians before the time of Srjabhala I.D. months any epigraphic statements: the dates are invaiiably If we want to stated in terms of the lunar months alone... reasons even present no good arrived at. apears from to the June 20.D. There are. there should be forthcoming 499 A. from a pure astronomical finding singly. as this was the true 21.. winch dales from March 21. we have As October 27.5-11 A. Siddhdntic calculations is are really first and the mean vernal equinox of 'he date the true point of the It Hindu s-phere. Lave eeen.D.TIME-INDICATIONS IN KALIDISA of 215 the time of Aryabbata finally I. as the above calculations will show : We vernal refer the tropical equinox of March fiom which the Hindu date started the mean longitudes of the sun to 499 AD. as explained fo/tbie small shifting of the date already a consideration of It becomes quite inadmissible on already. however..D. to the eclipse of date 459 moon with the be any conjunction of the A. at our last reference in the same way. may be raised by the -hort interval of 57 years taken date 481 AD. June '20.D. the above calculations that the date ^541 A.. that the only previous date for its occurrence was 484 A.D. in I have not come across any earlier use of solar . we find .] from 188 A. there cannot star Rohim (Aldebaran) .

D. As and the says 550 A. the time..D. the verse which records the tradition. taken together the date of Kalidata about the middle of the sixth June 541 century A. 54-2 A.D. 477 A. Hence the two of the 'nine gems' all tradition to they belonged be wholly wrong. M. it would end.D . 587 A.e. iu i. eclipse As regards the of November 6. 126 the by :2. but that court of the King VikramS'Utja may to As far as I have been able : ascertain. the mean time longitude of 6 h:<urs 16 minutes.D. and the sun's turning south on thus fixes A.) by name himself mentioned by Bralrnngupti (6i28 A. the may be contemporary. end of the eclipse He. have also pointed out already that Kalidasa indicates that the summer We solstitial -colure of his time passed through the sfar Castor for which the date becomes 546 A. is Yaraha's date. The sunrise works out as hoars 27 minutes of to '* would have b* shifted fo"<w:l U. Kiilidasa e-aild mean this eclipse in Irs simile in the jSakimtala.. in the naxt day a'.. the eclipse did not end before the sunribe oa not possibly day question. and this leads to the conclusion that the great poet and the ablronomer Varaha were contemporary. But as the his authority for the the moon was Hanseii. Amaraja. occms fir-4 of all in the last chapter of the a.) minutes end of the eclipse wo'ild be :it G h mrs 30 minutes of the Ojjiyini mean time. Ujjayini accoiding to Oppolzer's CumoH.. as both the date anl the hour are unfavourable.D.).D.D. 20.4rul^ical work by another KalUasa.D.276 at its ANOIEN1 INDIA S CMRONOLOJY 1 end.. m%> Dhanvantan-KsapanakamarasimghasaitkuVetalablialta-Ghatakarpara-Kalidasah Khyato Vaiahamihiro nrpateh sabhayain Hatnani vai Vararuci-r-nava Vikramasya. who was an . to commentator that of the in Varaha died of the Khandukhadyaka of Brahmagupta. The peculiar lunar eclipse on 89 November. we know that he flourished ahout as he mentions Aryabhata I (199 A.

as it is his In this work in the last the f. Hi-: rjle finding the distance the origin of the Hindu pphor-3 fro n the vernal equinox shows that this elapsed.ila year A. This also cannot be the date of this If we examine his rules for finding when and the moon would have numerically equal declinations near about conjunction. astrologer KfiKda.' Thus any statement as correct.TIME INDICATIONS aaliologei IX KIL1DISA from 277 the whose date cannot but be about 1243 A D.* and oppositions. cannot be taken The King Vikramaditya may be is The moot point here to explore earlier mere invention. or 5'23 was zero afc 413 of the S. only for the date from which the cak'uiathns are of started. Sanskrit the poet finding of bearing same name. As-: to the last chapter of this astrological work Pandit Dvivedi has paid: Ayaiuantiniadhiayo viiaeito \fl. 34 B. Sudhakara Dviv^'ii in his Sauskr t work named Ganahu Taranyinl.C. the distance of the origin of the Hindu sphere from t the vernal eq-iinox was about also 1-3. a if found only in the last chapter of this astrological work. granthakrta jagad-vaficanaya iti svayaui nihsaiii&iyam ajanaui&ina} aua-krantifcamjasailhunair granlhasthair vibhati. this except yields the the nui result that at the time of this astrologer.sa. This was the MM. and for the numerical person in order to chapter deceive is either wtitten by it the author himself the world or that : wa-j interpolated who was equality in declination finding of the sun and the moon excepting near about conjunctions and oppositions. of the Vikramaditya tradition.058 years of Kali epoch of elapsed. page 46. ' tenaticl itiliasauabbijSena praksipta This last by a ignorant of history a conclusion which follows as a necessary corollary to the rules given in the body of the work for finding the distance of the origin of the Hindu sphere from the vernal equinox of date..D. This muceUrs the late da'e aboat 1-243 A.D. and more reliable . : following considerations chapter the author says that work is placed at 3. This author can never 'be (he same peison as the greatest. -This e'inmfc be the date of the autaor.'c.

D. So far as I have seen. The now-known Samvat Kalidasa. comes out century A. as its original name was perhaps not 'Vikrama 'era Then again the but 'Malava* or 'Erta' era.. eia can also have nothing so to do with the time of As to the date of Kalidasa. The traditional king Vikramaditya of UjjayinI is in ail probability a mythical He cannot be identified with any of the Gupta emperors person. the finding in this paper would not go against any epigraphic evidence as discovered up to date. * ' Sorne hypothesis that the Vikrama era of having from 57 or 58 B. The reader is here referred to Chapter of the XXIV. gems/ however.ANCIENT INDIAN CHKONOLOGY authors before this tradition of the ' nine may be accepted as true. may have been contemporary. far as we can it reasonably deduce from the astronomical data in his works. who assumed the title of Vikramaditya. as about 541-546 A. pages 242-43. is also of very questionable been started nature. or about the middle of the sixth . From the facts stated above we may eia in question take it that the old name was the Vikrama era.. and that he is a contemporary of Varahamihira.C.D.

. ing." 2 that the MalidGarga Sariihita it is also said This "blidrat a heroes were living at the end of the Dvapara age.). faithful to their austerities. the seven Rsis .EPILOGUE The book has come certain points. 2. It may also be suggested that the Puranas should more properly be used only a great In reply to this it may be said that (1.. (2) In the Garga Samhitd for the purpose.C.C. page 15. Coll. data derived from it cannot form any basis for finding the Date of the Bharata Battle. were the protectors of the peoples. as it to Section I treating of the Date of the Bharata Battle. 3 a verse which runs thus : ra 66 ?<cns \\ At the junction of the Kali and Dvdpara ages. is may be put forward that the Mahabharata poem and as such. L D. . Bhattotpala has 1 quoted in his commentary on the Brhatsamhitd. 1 This is a corroboration Loc cit. were in the naksatra Maghd in the they. Folio 102. Manuscript. 2454 B.C. The is exactly one luni-solar cycle of five years later than the Dvapara-Kali junction year of 2454 B. B. Bengal. XIII. to its end but its it is felt necessary to make of some concluding remarks First for future critics in respect of all. 3 B. in contradistinction date of the Bharata Battle. of "junction" Again 35-42. the The year Winter in this Malia- bharata cum Purana KaUynga had Solstitial reckon- to Aryabhata's veinal equinoctial years. 20 (Forb Will. (not yet published) there have been found more than one state- ment which say or indicate that the Bharata Battle was fought at the junction of the Kali and Dvdpara Yugas. the astronomical data can be found only from the Malianecessary bhdrata and from no other source.A. Kali and Dvapara has been shown in pp. as determined at 2449 B. as at January 10.

The following exttju-ts from the Miihlblwrala will bear this out: (//) * # f .lit- exi^iry in anlic-pat'on of I'-iJ day following Hie winter solar myth. Purdnas extract says positively that it is ara nipntio^.il between the birth of Pariksit and the accession pafluui' Nunda ate hopelessly a bani^ for fiirling the UK fur rupejior ]ji>t of all.l by the name. The Mdhnbhtirala and the Purdnas belong to the same literature class of called Jaya or tales of victory. If we should not lose sight o&the fact that r The crthoclDX Indian view is we a D ree ihat this w. 61 & 63. ranged against this allegation. of MahaThe Muhfibharata as intevv. which cannot be only a the Date of the Bharata Battle "poem" like the Mahnbhdrata. lists faulty in their dynastic The Purdnas are extremely and tha sum-mrisers who sta e the unreliable.is a niyth. (i) From the the first extract we learn that the Mahabharata contains (history). ma be nr^ed that BhTs r na ns a hero in Hie great that hi-i lyinjr an impo-s'bHi^v before solbtice is a on Ili3 bol of arrows for 58 u'/. be^innin^a of the Purilnas and Itihdsas In the Malribli'lfa'a \ve find that only the Vdyu and Matsya. of which zero year was the year of the .28o of ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY oar finding from the Garga Samhitd. 1. itself The second is Nith'bhnrata a Jaya or a tale of victory. the leal necessity for creating it lay in correctly finding the begin! ng of the year One of the Judhisthira era. fij.ht is Date of the Bharata Battle has been shown to the it Pnranas. The Puranic evidences as are ail to incomplete and faulty as shown in Chapter III. and f the easiest of this class of literature.e. .

the assumed centre of Vedic culture. and the 25th December. the sun's depression should have been In this connection we would say taken less than this amount. that we do not know how far accurate were the observers of those do days of hoary antiquity as to the heliacal risings of stars. character of BhTsma in th6 fight as a solar found year remains myth. : n 1 f? : 1 u n \ 86U08B . Regulus. has tirr. In certain case we have admitted possible lowering of the date by a few centuries. horizon was clear in different seasons not also know how far the Kuruksetra. In the case of the bright stars. for such observations and what was the necessary or accepted altitude of at We the star above the horizon in the several cases. In Section II on Ve'dic Antiquity.C. the Date of the Bharata Battle as In ancient times the first day of the solstice. was the first day of the sun's northerly course. the December was the winter solstice day. the of different stars in different seasons has been used as a basis for the determination of below these cases the depression of the sun the horizon.e. was the day following the winter 24th Even now In the first Christ's birth-day is observed on the 25th December.. or the birth of Christ was synchronous with In both cases the myths these great the birth of the year..g. may also have been created round personages on the basis that a certain great astronomical event such as the beginning of the heliacal rising year coincided with their birth or death. In all been uniformly taken at 18. etc. at the time of the heliacal rising of stars. century B.EPILOGUE great battle. 281 the Hence even accepting valid. Sinus. e.

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C. on an examination of one i of these traditions. . The first of these deals with the da-te of the Bharata battle. 145. No. 8602..orical studies bear upon points of interest and importance in the archaeological investigation tlae origin a. 1 of Conclusions of a more surprising character. 1939. the evidence of the Yudhishthira era. based on astronornical evidence. 1940. Mahabharata.SOME OPINIONS ON THE RESEAROHES EMBODIED IN THE PRESENT WORK A (-EZ&tract from " 9 ' Nature. Vol.nd development of Indian civilization. Let ers 4. - 38*89) ' * c SOME INDIAN ORIC NOI T E LIGHT OF ASTKO3E . / Cii^ ters JI J&i xm IV Bengal. 3 (1938). have been formulated by P. an<i v of the present work. issued September. several a technical character palaeographical ariu . the great conflict which forms in the centra! incident of that the great monument date three for of early this Indian as litei*a. accounted at indicated lines of traditional 3102-3101 B. Among recent cor c the aetails Royal Asiatic of Society of ii Bengal. is The by battle. C.ture. Sengupta in eu series of papers discussing chronological and other problems early Indian history. The author. January T 6. B Asiatic i Boo. shown that the astronomical references justify the inference J.

C. be calculation reconciled with the astronomical The Kaliyuga. (traditionally would appear that this reckoning was started by Brahma.C. of the month of Magha or Tapas. in 1924 during February 5 March 5. This was determined by the phases of the moon in the at beginning Magha. as the beginning of this Kaliyuga era. Aryabhata and the depends upon the dating of the Kaliyuga. when the Hindu It scientific Siddhantas depends upon an incorrect assumption of the of the solstices of Pandava times and an incorrect annual position into being. (2) the full-moon was near Eegulus (3) the last quarter was conjoined with Antares. a lunar month of which the the present time may be from January 15 to month of In the calendar of the Vedic Hindus. at about 3050 B. it occurred . tion came A corrected back calcula- from conditions in the heavens corresponding to those that is recorded in the Mahabharata." From the northerly astronomical conjunctions to which reference is made in the it is Mahabharata. the five-j ear cycle which began moon and the Dhanisthas (Delphinis) cross the heavens together February started 11. as the year of This leads to futher inquiry as to observation of the solstices in successive ages.284 SOME OPINIONS ON BEBEABOHBS He now turns to that the great battle took place in 2449 B. of the light half and of the sun's course. In our own times. 3102 B.C. 2454 B. this month " when the tun. It cannot. examine the remaining two traditions. rate of the precession of the equinoxes. 499. but it was the standard month of Magha. which the Mahabharata states had just begun and to which the date February. the Puranic traditions. the .C. conditions in the period February 1924-35. and 2449 B. is assigned.D. it : There are three peculiarities of this month - (1) it began with a new-moon near Delphinis.C. gives the battle. . Such a month did not come every year. a year which for the purpose pf this investigation is taken as the gauge year. the beginning of the Yuga. a date January 10. however. and based upon an astronomical calculation in which correct only for is shown to be conditions are A.

constellation The three stars. this definite finding of the astronomical evidence derived from the literature as to the antiquity and chronology of the Vedas must . In The earliest epigraphic the absence of further epigraphic evidence.C date of the age of the Brahmanas.C. that the Brahmanic literature developed. From these astronomical references fixing the position of the nicon in relation to the winter solstice and the beginning of the month of Magha. spring and all seasons of the year. which as here interpreted is really the knowledge of the celestial signal for the coming of spring. who are identified with a and /B Arietis. . it is pointed out. celestial /3 signal of Arietis. Hence it is beyond question that the Vedic Hindus could fiud accurately the beginning of winter. The in the Asvins are spoken heavens in their triangular. and covering a period of 1450 . at the latitude evidence of Vedic chronology from cuneiform inscriptions referring to Indra and other gods of the horse riding Kharri or Mitanni dates from about 1400 B. it the advent of Spring and 7 By astronomical calculation can be shown that this event mentioned took place at. a matter year-long and calculation importance in connection with the other sacrifices. say 4000 B. Asvini cluster. period Next is considered Madhu-vidya or the science of Spring. spring began at some references it The jealously place in the latitude of Kuruksetra in the Punjab. is prominent stars in the Arietis. " " was thus nothing science of Spring guarded Madhu-vidya or but knowledge of the the heliacal rising of a.C. of in several passages of the Rigveda as riding and spring- bearing chariot From the Asvins certain first would seem that when the car of becomes visible at dawn. addressed to the Asvins.IN ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 285 References in the Brahmanic and other works directly state or indicate the winter solstice of successive Vedic periods. three-wheeled. It was thus during this years with a possible error of 400 years. form a /? and 7 -which likened to the head of a horse. it has been possible to fix by of ritual back from the corresponding conditions in recent the earliest years a series of dates beginning with 3550 B. the a.

I. The monsoons which 22. C. Cambridge. Chapter IX of the present work* . Mass. it is maintained. Page " 10. SeDgupta (Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society 1 C{. and there is bring the rains usually burst about June usually a drought which lasts for about a month before the monsoon comes. to ? us must be the constellation at Maghas rising of consisting y. Magbas of a. that the of the Vedic Hindus was earlier than that of the t Indus Valley as evidenced by the remaius at Mahenjo-daro " When Indra became Maghavan..236 be allowed civilization to SOME OPINIONS ON KESEAKCHES stand. Harvard College Observatory. The demon Susna (drought) is killed by Indra.) This it is shown must have happened B. SenFinally. 1942. 1 determining in Astronomy has come the time to the aid of the historian in the earliest known Aryan colonisation India.C. No. ?. when divested allegory. Indra withdrawing his raingiving (or annual) bow with the coming of autumn. 5. News and Notes. of all references to this god in the Rigveda. 26.. The while yield the clouds as their represented store until by a demon are unwilling assailed to up watery by the thunderbolt hurled by the god. the " " to the summer of rain and wielder of the thunderbolt/' solstice. suggest that he is the god of the summer solstice." B Sky and Telescope. in " shedder gupta turns to the relation of the Vedic god In3ra. It establishes. ECLIPSE OF JULY of 3928 B. /U) and e Leonis. The fight with Vritra or Ahi. According to P.C. the heliacal of Kuruksetra in 4170 which the sun reached the simimer solstice at the latitude flat. the cloud demon. 30 N." Mr. Vol. When did given by the Indra become the slayer of Vritra? The answer Eigveda is when Indra by the rising of Maghas became Maghavan. is thus an annual affair which takes place when the sun enters the summer solstice. March.

. Among Summer Solstice central solar eclipses that occurred near the date of the Sengupta's painstaking researches thus place the investifirst settlement of Aryans in India earlier than previous To most Americans. observations made at so early an It is a epoch might appear to have a purely mythological value.C.peak. during It was observed from a cave at the foot of a snowcapped. It must have been a central eclipse. had been observed by Atri.C. this began about 3900 B. whose ancestry can be gators believed. one of the earliest settlers in the northern Punjab. totality. (Julian^ Calendar). Summer on the day must have ended either the Himalayas or the Karakoram range. there is one and only one that fulfils all of the required conditions inferred from the Rigveda. It the fourth quarter of the day at meridian of Kuruksf tra. 3928 B.C. at the within the given time interval. taking place of the Solstice or the following day. From various historical and etymological considerations. He then lists five other conations that must be satisfied in the determination of the actual date. eclipse. 1941). That one occurred on July 26. described in the Rigveda. source of satisfaction to find that they conform with astronomically predictable facts/' . place where Atri was.IN ANCIENT INDIAN CHRONOLOGY A 287 solar of Bengal for August. traced but a few hundred years. the eclipse did dot reach the 2*2 Finally. Sengupta deduces that the eclipse occurred between the years 4000 and 2400 B.

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37 1408B 4300 .

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1935 .

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