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1.1 Statement of the Study:
Job satisfaction has been defined in several different ways and a definitive designation for the term is unlikely to materialize. A simple or general way to define it therefore is as an attitudinal variable: Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics and management sciences, job satisfaction is a frequently studied subject in work and organizational literature. This is mainly due to the fact that many experts believe that job satisfaction trends can affect labor market behavior and influence work productivity, work effort, employee absenteeism and staff turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being, as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job. Therefore, as we are the student of MBA program, we need to study Organizational Behaviors very effectively.
1.2 Objectives of the Study:
Our main objective is to study about the Concept of Job Satisfaction. There are some specific objectives of our study these are: To study about the factors that influence Job satisfaction. To study about the determinants of Job Satisfaction To know the effects of Job Satisfaction To know the dimension of Job Satisfaction To Study about the Theories of Job Satisfaction
1.3 Literature Review
Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation. It is more if an attitude, an internal state of the person concerned. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. Job satisfaction is an individual’s emotional reaction to the job itself. It is his attitude towards his job.
“Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”.
-Robert L. Kahn
“Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.” -P. Robbins
“Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs.” -Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C. Feldman
1.3.1 Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is one part of life satisfaction. The environment influences the job. Similarly, since a job is important part of life, job satisfaction influences one’s general life satisfaction. Manager may need to monitor not only the job and immediate work environment but also their employees’ attitudes towards other part of life.
RELIGION RELATED ELEMENT OF LIFE SATISFACTION
Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people are ever increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job satisfaction of industrial workers is very important for the industry to function successfully. Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as
b) The work itself. e) Working condition.backbone of any industrial development. 4 . Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. a) Pay. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working conditions to boost their job satisfaction. problem of efficiency absenteeism labor turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry. pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. PAY Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. More over. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. Any business can achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved. and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. Money facilities the obtaining of food. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as direct wages. c) Promotion d) The work group. shelter. f) Supervision.
display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation.THE WORK ITSELF Along with pay. The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them. they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. In general. By and large. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. PROMOTION Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. 2. The two most important aspect of the work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes supervision. SUPERVISION Two dimensions of supervisor style: 1. job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. more challenging work assignments and high salary. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’. job content and pay. employee who participates in decision that affect their job. 5 . workers want jobs that are challenging. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom.
all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables. Therefore. there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus.3. nature of job.WORK GROUP Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work. 1. friends and recreation outside work. 6 . People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort. we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. they will have very little felt for their families. it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment. Let us see what these factors are. and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. If people are require working long hours and / or overtime. WORK CONDITION The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort.2 Determinants of job satisfaction: While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction.
particularly at the fag end of the career. several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education. 7 . Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. gets gradually reduced. particularly higher level of education. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. If their expectations are met from the jobs. These assumptions make them more satisfied. age and other factors. At the last. In their case. applies more quickly.Individual factors: Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education. job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage. and finally dips to a low degree. they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to drive from their work. However. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence. Level of education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example. starts rising upto certain stage. they feel satisfied. When individuals join an organization. when these assumptions fall short of reality. job satisfaction goes down.
there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. he may not feel happy at the workplace.Other factors: Besides the above two factors. Occupation level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. Nature of job: Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content. Similarly. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory workers are least satisfied. For example. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. If an individual does not have favorable social and family life. 8 . other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.
the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. there is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more 9 . Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization. particularly physical work environment. These work in two ways. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction. Some of the important factors which affect job satisfaction are given below: 1. job enlargement. For example. the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation. these provide means job performance. and job enrichment. First. Second. Working conditions: Working conditions. Situational variables: Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context – formal and informal. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision. In employee-oriented supervision. and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction. provision of these conditions affects the individual’s perception about the organization. 2.Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it. If these factors are favourable.
In job oriented supervision. it offers higher satisfaction.3. In a cohesive group. it reduces satisfaction. To the extent such groups are cohesive. there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. If the group is not cohesive. people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction. the degree of satisfaction is high. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable.3. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance. Opportunity: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job offer.satisfaction. it affects job satisfaction adversely. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking. job satisfaction is low. Work group: Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. Equitable rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. 5. This situation decreases job satisfaction . 4. 1.3 Effects of Job Satisfaction 10 .
Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling. Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse. Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual’s physical and mental health. since a job is an important part of life. job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. Productivity: 11 . Further.Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. productivity. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and mental health. For example. its favorableness or unfavorableness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction. alcoholism and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs. absenteeism. and turnover.
Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. A happy worker is a productive worker. when satisfaction decreases. Therefore. The another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. 2. etc. when job satisfaction increases. 1. However. this may not be true in all cases. Any 12 . bonus. The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. challenging job. For example. The basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. productivity decreases. etc. The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. Various research studies also support this view. productivity increases. There are two types of rewards intrinsic and extrinsic. this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential.There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: 1. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.
A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and. he cannot go beyond certain output. it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact o productivity. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity. this constraint affects the management’s expectations from the individual in the form of lower output. However. therefore. the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance. Further. Thus. Perceived equity of rewards Extrinsic reward Performanc e Intrinsic reward Satisfaction THE RELATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION Absenteeism: 13 .increase in these factors does not hep to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction.
This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of will to work’ and alienate a worker form work as for as possible. Thus. job satisfaction is related to absenteeism. HIGH TURNOVER JOB SATISFACTION ABSENCES LOW LOW HIGH TURNOVER AND ABSENCES RELATIONSHIP OF JOB SATISFACTION. EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES Employee turnover: 14 .Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern.
in general case. the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere.Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given period of time. employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. he tries to overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. For example. Thus. However. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization. 15 . these professionals leave their organizations not simply because they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad. he opts to leave the organization. If he is not able to do so. the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However. in the present context. job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover.
The level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual. Organizational factors:.Nature and size. working conditions. Social factors:-Relationship with co-workers. nature of work. group working and norms. cultural. intelligence and abilities. education. age.1. technical and governmental influences. 16 . marital status. opportunities for interaction.Personality. technology and work organization. social. Environmental factors:-Economic. management systems. orientation to work. personnel policies and procedures. formal structure. industrial relation.3. organizational factors as stated below:- DIMENSIONS INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL FACTORS ORGANIZATIONAL FACTOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR CULTURAL FACTOR Individual:. supervision and styles of leadership.4 DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATIFACTION Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. informal relations etc. social.
5 Creating Job Satisfaction So. These factors affect job satisfaction of certain individuals in a given set of circumstances but not necessarily in others. beliefs and values. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: Flexible work arrangements. how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits. Cultural factors:-Attitudes. 1. such as child-care and exercise facilities 17 . possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put his or her signature" on the finished product Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable.3.Thus. overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to person. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects .
and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. experiences. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds. and the nature of the work itself. managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work. or needs in the same workgroup. and challenge in the work itself. and achievement. Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Also. scope. and opportunities for growth. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction. job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics. a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector. As much as possible. Apart from the factors mentioned above. 18 . Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. For example. when creating work teams. For example. learning. the manager's personal characteristics and management style. managers should match job tasks to employees' personalities. recognition. One such step is job enrichment. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility.
Learn to de-stress. Develop excellent communication skills. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management techniques 19 . Accept the diversity in people. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed. Employers’ value and reward excellent reading. Develop teamwork and people skills. surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities.6 Workers' Roles in Job Satisfaction If job satisfaction is a worker benefit.1.3. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This helps to give meaning to one's existence. listening. Know more. and speaking skills. See the value in your work. writing. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction.
supportive. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting. Very simply put.3. her pay is fair. and her coworkers are friendly. job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. it is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. her supervisor is supportive. there is some level of job satisfaction 20 . if the pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains. 91). Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system.7 Assuring Job Satisfaction Assuring job satisfaction. and rewarding work environment is vital. in essence. challenging. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg's(1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating. So. over the long term. requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. her promotional opportunities are good. then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p.1.
8 MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION 21 .1.3.
if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy. When a person values a particular facet of a job. compared to one who doesn’t value that facet.3. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory]. 22 . This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Further. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met). then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.1. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.g. To illustrate.9 THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION Affect Theory Edwin A. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. regardless of one’s job. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job.
Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: selfesteem. a) Need for personal achievement : Desires for personal career development. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. locus of control. improvement in one's own life standards. and neuroticism. Need Fulfillment Theory: Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him. Finally. Needs may be need for personal achievement. social achievement & for influence. proposed by Timothy A.A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Selfevaluations Model. 23 . better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance. Having an internallocus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Judge in 1998. the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. general self-efficacy.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals. this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of. promotion opportunities. for example achievement in work. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. supervisory practices. increased national prosperity. In the works situation. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay. company policies. it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making. recognition. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform. and provide people with satisfaction. or the work carried out. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. In summary. better life community & safety for everyone. or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation. and other working conditions.b) Need for social achievement : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. respectively. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity. c) Need for influence: A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors. 24 .
researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model. he will not like it.Group Theory: It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. Hulin. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor. 25 . Social References . Such groups are defined as the 'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself). he will like it & if it does not.L. desires and requirements of a person's reference group. It would be predicted. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. A good example of this theory has been given by C. according to this theory that if a job meets the interest. Furthermore. conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally.While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research. Hulin. the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment. the theory does not consider individual differences.
these attrition leads to unemployment and possibly failure of the business as well. There are several reasons why a person is working.1. to gain experience or just to improve themselves. it creates positive attitude. but once they found the job. doing their best to improve their performance. there are certain reasons why they are not satisfied with their work and decided to leave.4 Importance of the Study The importance to the study of job satisfaction level is very important for executives. It could be because they wanted to earn money. but if a particular employee is satisfied with what he/she is doing. creating harmonious relationship with their colleagues and a lot more 26 . it boost up their morale which results to staying with the organization.
co.answers.Employee-Turnover. people remain their most valuable asset. assigning specific duties to the group.htm) Equitable rewards: designing a salary and compensation package: although distributors make major investments in hard assets such as cylinders and trucks. maintaining harmonious relations among them.1.com/topic/absenteeism) Productivity: The rate at which goods or services are produced especially output per unit of labor.7.biz-development. ( http://www. (http://findarticles.reference.com/HumanResources/3.5 Working Definition: Absenteeism: Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace. equitable incentive system can work wonders when it comes to maintaining a happy. A common sense. A variety of types of responsibilities is involved in this function. (http://dictionary.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFE/is_5_47/ai_n27665517/) Supervision: Supervising involves determining or interpreting work procedures for a group of workers. and promoting efficiency. satisfied staff.uk/item/144919) 27 . (http://www.trainingzone.com/browse/productivity) Employee Turnover: is the number of permanent employees leaving the company within the reported period versus the number of actual Active Permanent employees on the last day of the previous reported period (http://www.
2 Limitations of the Study Lack of time Load shedding Problem 28 . We have collected the data from one source which is given below 2. It can be collected from various sources. Without data there is no means of study.1 Sources of the data For any study there must be data.Chapter Two: Methodology of the Study 2.1.1 Secondary Source Books Internet 2. Data collection plays an important role in any study.
Satisfied employee is more productive than dissatisfied employee. 29 .1 Conclusion: Job Satisfaction is a positive approach about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.Chapter Three: Conclusion 3. Job Satisfaction increases the productivity of employee. Job satisfaction represents an attitude rather than behavior. So the Job Satisfaction is an important variable because satisfied employees represent a public relations asset for the organization. A person with a high level of Job Satisfaction holds positive feelings about the job.
com/2008/04/job_satisfaction_model_20 080412.3. Human Resource Management (third edition). T. .scribd.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFE/is_5_47/ai_n27665517/ http://www. Chhabra.wordpress.com/browse/productivity http://findarticles.com/HumanResources/3.com/topic/absenteeism http://www.biz-development.reference.. Human Resource Management. Dhanpat Rai $Co(P)Ltd.2 Bibliography: BOOKS: Ashwathapa K. Websites: http://dictionary.uk/item/144919 http://www.files.com/imgres? imgurl=http://talentedapps.7.htm http://www.google. N.com/2008/04/11/jobsatisfaction-model-forretention/&h=474&w=606&sz=41&tbnid=wHvfIE16YyMwAM:&tbnh=90&tbnw =115&zoom=1&docid=WFPp67fx6u_tpM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Fd6gT4KHHYHkrA ffwozXCA&ved=0CHYQ9QEwBw&dur=241 www. India.wordpress.answers.Employee-Turnover. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication Company Ltd.png&imgrefurl=http://talentedapps.trainingzone.com 30 .co. ninth edition.