You are on page 1of 2

Aaron Wong Pd. 1 Cornell Notes Ch. 7 Section 1 Questions Who was Darwin? What were some observations?

Headings and Notes Darwins Theory Darwin was a naturalist who took a trip around the world on a ship. Darwins Observations He observed the organism diversity, remains of ancient organisms, and organism characteristics. Diversity Over 1.7 million species have been discovered. Fossils A fossil is the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past. Darwin saw many fossils of animals that were similar, but a lot bigger than current animals. Galpagos Organisms He made many observations, and discovered many species. Comparisons to South American Organisms Some differences were: The Galpagos iguanas had larger claws, while mainland iguanas had smaller ones. Darwin realized that some species may have come from the Galpagos Islands to the mainland. Comparisons Among the Islands The tortoises on different islands had differently shaped shells. Adaptations An adaptation is a trait that helps an organism survive in its environment. The finches beaks were suited to help in obtaining food. Evolution He spent 20 years on it. Darwins Reasoning

How many species have been discovered on Earth? What is a fossil?

What did Darwin do on Galpagos? What were some differences?

What was a difference?

How did the beaks of Galpagos finches differ from one island to another? How many years did he ponder diversity? What did he reason?

He reasoned that organisms on the Galpagos Islands faced different environmental factors than the ones on the mainland. In this way, they changed and became better adapted to their environments. This is called evolution. Darwins idea was a scientific theory. What is one example of this? What is it? Selective Breeding English farmers in Darwins time used selective breeding to produce sheep with fine wool. Natural Selection In natural selection, organisms that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. Overproduction Female insects can lay thousands of eggs because not many of them will survive. This is overproduction. Variations A difference in a certain species is a variation. Competition Competition is usually indirect. Selection Over a long time, natural selection will lead to change. Helpful variations will accumulate, and unfavorable ones will disappear. Environmental Factors They can cause certain species to not be able to live in a certain area. Genes and Natural Selection Mutation and the shuffling of alleles can both cause variation in a species. Summary: Organisms will adapt to their environments by natural selection. This adaptation allows them to survive without as much trouble, and this was proven by Charles Darwin. He observed this on the Galpagos Islands.

What is overproduction?

What are variations? Is competition usually direct or indirect? What did Darwin propose?

How do they affect survival? What causes variation?