(Characteristics, Counter Measures and Problem Areas for Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Cyclones, Floods, Drought and Disease Epidemics) 1. EARTHQUAKE
Characteristics • Usually no warning • Speed of onset usually sudden. • Earthquake-prone areas are generally well identified and well-known. • Major effects arise mainly from land movement, fracture, or slippage; specifically, they include damage to structures and systems and considerable casualties due to lack of warning. General countermeasures • Developing possible warning indicators, • Land-use regulations, • Building regulations, • Relocating communities, • Public awareness and education programs Special problem areas for disaster management • Severe and extensive damage, creating the need for search and rescue, and medical assistance; • Difficulty of access and movement; • Widespread loss of or damage to infrastructure, essential services, and lifesupport systems; • Recovery requirements (Rebuilding houses, infrastructure) may be very extensive and expensive • Rarity of occurrence in some areas may cause problems for economies

Characteristics • The tsunami wave can be very destructive; wave heights of 30 meters have been known. The velocity of the wave may be as high as 900 kmph at originating point slowing to approximately 50 kmph as the wave strikes land. • Warning time depends on the distance from the point of wave origin. • Impact on a shoreline can be preceded by a marked recession of normal water level prior to the arrival of a wave. This can result in a massive outgoing tide, followed by the incoming tsunami wave.People may be trapped when they investigate the phenomenon of the outgoing tide and then be struck by the incoming wave. • Impact can cause flooding; saltwater contamination of crops, soil,and water supplies; and destruction of or damage to buildings, structures, and shoreline vegetation.

General countermeasures • Dissemination of warning from early warning systems • Evacuating threatened communities from sea level/low-level areas to high ground, if sufficient warning is available; • Land-use regulations in Coastal boundaries • Public awareness and education programs Special problem areas for disaster management • Timely dissemination of warning because of the possible short period between receipt of warning and the arrival of the tsunami wave; • Effective evacuation time-scale; • Search and rescue; • Recovery problem may be extensive and costly because of severe destruction and damage.

Characteristics • Usually long warning, derived from systematic international meteorological observation; • Speed of onset gradual; • Tends to conform to seasonal pattern; • Major effects arise mainly from storm surge and flooding from intense rainfall; • Landslides may follow flooding and heavy rainfall; • Destruction and/or severe damage to buildings and other structures, roads, essential services, crops, and the environment generally; • Major loss of life and livestock may occur. General countermeasures • Effective warning arrangements; • Precautionary measures during warning period (e.g., boarding up buildings, closing public facilities); • Moving people to safe shelters; • General readiness and cleanup measures prior to an expected cyclone season (especially to reduce the risk of flying objects); • Building regulations, and • Public education and awareness. Special problem areas for disaster management • Assessing effects and needs may be difficult; • Problems of access and movement caused by high damage levels; • Loss of counter-disaster resources (e.g., transport, emergency food and medical supplies, shelter materials); • Search and rescue; • Widespread destruction/disruption of essential services; • Evacuating; • Rehabilitating agriculture, especially tree crops.

Characteristics • Long, short, or no warning, depending on the type of flood • Speed of onset may be gradual or sudden; • There may be seasonal patterns to flooding; • Major effects arise mainly from inundation and erosion General countermeasures • Flood control (e.g., by walls, gates, dams, dikes, and levees); • Land-use regulations; • Building regulations; • Forecasting, monitoring, and warning system(s); • Relocating population; • Planning and arranging evacuation; • Emergency equipment, facilities, and materials such as special floodboats, sandbags, supplies of sand, and designated volunteers who will implement emergency measures; • Public awareness and education programs. Special problem areas for disaster management • Difficulties of access and movement; • Rescue; • Medical and health difficulties (e.g., arising from sanitation problems); • Evacuating; • Loss of relief supplies; • Large-scale relief may be required until next crop harvest.

Characteristics • Major areas liable to drought are usually well-known; • Periods of drought can be prolonged; • Area(s) affected may be very large; • Long warning; • Effects on agriculture, livestock, rural industry production, and human habitation may be severe. This may lead to prolonged food shortages or famine; • Long-term effects can be in the form of severe economic loss, erosion which affects future habitation and production, and sometimes abandonment of large tracts of land; • Man-made activities may aggravate the possibility and extent of the drought problem (e.g., overgrazing of agricultural land, destruction of forests or similar areas); • The Unwillingness of the population to move from drought-prone areas General countermeasures • There are few, if any, quick and easy solutions to the drought problem; effective countermeasures tend to be mostly long term;

• Since these decisions involve human settlement, they are often sensitive and difficult ones; • International cooperation and assistance usually play an important part in coping with major drought problems; • Land management and special plans (e.g., for irrigation); • Response to drought-caused emergencies usually includes providing food and water supply, medical and health assistance Special problem areas for disaster management • Response requirements may be extensive and prolonged, thus involving major commitment and expenditure of resources. • Prolonged drought may undermine self-reliance of affected communities, thus making it difficult to withdraw disaster management assistance. • Logistic requirements may exceed large inputs of outside commodities are involved.

Characteristics • Disaster-related epidemic arises generally from the disrupted living conditions. • Epidemic may arise from food sources; water sources; inadequate medical and health facilities/standards; malnutrition; and vector-borne sources (e.g., mosquitoes). • Types of disease include hepatitis, typhoid, diptheria, malaria, cholera, diarrhea, skin diseases, and food poisoning. • Under post-impact conditions, when personnel and facilities may be limited, outbreaks may prove difficult to contain and control. This may particularly apply if community health education is substandard. • Speed of onset is mostly rapid. General countermeasures • An effective medical and health sub-plan within the overall local or area counterdisaster plan. This medical and health plan needs particularly to cover preparedness measures and the capability to deal with post-disaster eventualities; • Close post-disaster monitoring of medical and health aspects; • Reinforcement of medical resources and supplies in anticipation of epidemic outbreak; • Public awareness and education, both before and after disaster impact. Special problem areas for disaster management • Loss of medical and health resources during disaster impact may inhibit response • In-country shortage of special equipment (e.g., water purifying plant). • Integrating outside (international) medical and health assistance with local systems • Containing and controlling common diseases (e.g., enteritis and diarrhea) which can have a mass effect.

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