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Braking is nothing but bringing a moving vehicle or moving body to a stop. Nowadays safety is an important feature in the automotive industry. The intelligent braking system is the next step to automation. Presently cars have the alarm system where when the car gets too close to an object an alarm is triggered which warns the driver about an object close by. But this feature has produced lot of problems and are prone to human error. We have enhanced the facility by using the same system but we have altered it so that the car brakes automatically when an obstacle is close by. T h e a i m i s t o d e s i g n a n d d e v e l o p a c o n t r o l s ys t e m b a s e d o n i n t e l l i g e n t electronically controlled automotiv e braking system is called INTELLIGENTREVERSE BRAKING SYSTEM.

Sensor Operated Brake consists of IR transmitter and Receiver circuit, Control Unit, mechanical breaking system. The IR sensor is used to detect the obstacle. There is any obstacle in the path, the IR sensor senses the obstacle and giving the control signal to the breaking system. The pneumatic breaking system is used to brake the system. So basically here the car brakes on its own by determining the distance from the object.


W e h a v e p l e a s u r e i n i n t r o d u c i n g o u r n e w p r o j e c t INTELLIGENTBRAKING SYSTEM, w h i c h i s f u l l y e q u i p p e d b y I R s e n s o r c i r c u i t a n d breaking circuit. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and designed for Automobile vehicles. This forms an integral part of best quality. The BRAKING CIRCUIT can stop the vehicle within 2to 3 seconds running at a speed of 50 KM. The intelligent braking system is a fully automated.

This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation r e m a i n s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e s y s t e m a l t h o u g h w i t h c h a n g i n g d e m a n d s o n physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased.

Degrees of automation are of two types, Full automation. Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical p o w e r i s required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.


Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost a u t o m a t i o n . T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e s o f a l l p n e u m a t i c s ys t e m s a r e e c o n o m y a n d simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass production. For mass production of the product, the machining operations decide the sequence of machining. The machines designed for producing a particular product are called transfer machines. The components must be moved automatically from the bins to various machines sequentially and the final component can be placed separately for packaging. Materials can also be repeatedly transferred from the moving conveyors to the work place and vice versa. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to d e l i v e r t h e p r o d u c t s a t a f a s t e r r a t e . T h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n i s b e i n g atomized for the following reasons.

To achieve mass production

To reduce man power

To increase the efficiency of the plant

To reduce the work load

To reduce the production cost

To reduce the macine handling


The brakes for automotive use may be classified according the f o l l o w i n g considerations.

1. With respect to application

a. Foot brake b. Hand brake

2. With respect to the number of wheels

a. Two wheel brakes b. Four wheel brakes

3. With respect to the method of braking contact

a. Internal expanding brakes b. External contracting brakes

4. With respect to the method of applying the braking force.

a. Single acting brake b. Double acting brakes.

5. With respect to the brake gear,

a. Mechanical brake b. Power brakes

6. With respect to the nature of power employed a. Vacuum brake b. Air brake c. Hydraulic brake d. Hydrostatic brake


In a motor vehicle, the wheel is attached to an auxiliary wheel called drum. The brake shoes are made to contact this drum. In most designs, two shoes are used with each drum to form a complete brake mechanism at each wheel. The brake shoes have bake Lining on their outer surfaces. Each brake shoe is hinged a tone end by on anchor pin; the other end is operated by some means so that the brake shoe expands outwards. The brake linings come into contact with the drum . Retracting spring keeps the brake shoe into position when the brakes are not applied. The drum encloses the entire mechanism to keep out dust and moisture. The wheel attaching bolts on the drum are used to contact wheel and drum. The braking plate completes the brake enclosure, holds the assembly to car axle, and acts the base for fastening the brake shoes and operating mechanism.


A sensor is a transducer used to make a measurement of a physical variable. Any sensor requires calibration in order to be useful as a measuring device. Calibration is the procedure by which the relationship between them a sure variable and the converted output signal is established.

Care should be taken in the choice of sensory devices for particular tasks. The operating characteristics of each device should be closely matched to the task for which it is being utilized. Different sensors can be used in different ways to sense same conditions and the same sensors can be used in different ways to sense different conditions



Detect the reflected or emitted electro-magnetic radiation from natural sources.


Detect reflected responses from objects which are irradiated from artificially generated energy sources, such as radar. Each is divided further in to non-scanning and scanning systems.

The IR transmitting circuit is used in many projects. The IR transmitter sends 40 kHz carrier under 555 timer control.

IRcarriers at around 40 kHz carrier frequencies are widely used in TV remote Controlling and ICs for receiving these signals are quite easily available.


The transmitted signal reflected by the obstacle and the IR receiver circuit receives the signal and giving control signal to the control unit. The control unit activates the pneumatic breaking system, so that break was applied.


The IR transmitter and IR receiver circuit is used to sense the obstacle. It is f i x e d t o t h e back side of the frame stand with a suitable arrangement.

The IR transmitter sensor is transmitting the infrared rays with the help of 555 IC timer circuit. These infrared rays are received by the IR receiver sensor. The Transistor T1, T2 and T3 are used as an amplifier section. At normal condition Transistor T5 is OFF condition. At that time relay is OFF, so that the vehicle running continuously.

At Obstacle conditions the IR transmitter and IR receiver, t h e resistance across the Transmitter and receiver is high due to the non conductivityof the IR waves. So the output of transistor T5 goes from OFF condition to Onstage.

Faradays discovered , that electricity could be used to produce motion, to build the world first electric motor in 1821. Ten years later, using the same logic in reverse, faraday was interested in getting the motion produced by experiment to be continuous, rather then just a rotatory shift in position. In his experiments, faraday thought in terms of magnetic lines of force. He visualized how flux lines existing around a current carrying wire and a bar magnet. He was then able to produce a device in which the different lines of force could interact a produce continues rotation. The basic faradays motor uses a free-swinging wire that circles around the end of a bar magnet. The bottom end of the wire is in a pool of mercury. Which allows the wire to rotate while keeping a complete electric circuit.


Although Faraday's motor was ingenious. It could not be used to do any practical work. This is because its drive shaft was enclosed and it could only produce an internal orbital motion. It could not transfer its mechanical energy to the outside for deriving an external load. However it did show how the magnetic fields of a conductor and a magnet could be made to interact to produce continuous motion. Faradays motor orbited its wire rotor must pass through the magnets lines of force.

When a current is passes through the wire circular lines of force are produced around the wire. Those flux lines go in a direction described by the left-hand rule. The lines of force of the magnet go from the N pole to the S pole You can see that on one side of the wire, the magnetic lines of force are going in the opposite direction as a result the wire, s flux lines oppose the magnets flux line since flux lines takes the path of least resistance, more lines concentrate on the other side of the wire conductor, the lines are bent and are very closely spaced. The lines tend to straighten and be wider spaced. Because of this the denser, curved field pushes the wire in the opposite direction.

The direction in which the wire is moved is determined by the right hand rule. If the current in the wire went in the opposite direction. The direction of its flux lines would reverse, and the wire would be pushed the other way.


The left hand rule shows the direction of the flux lines around a wire that is carrying current. When the thumb points in the direction of the magnetic lines of force. The right hand rule for motors shows the direction that a current carrying wire will be moved in a magnetic field. When the forefinger is pointed in the direction of the magnetic field lines, and the centre finger is pointed in the direction of the current in the wire the thumb will point in the direction that the wire will be moved.


In the basic action you just studied the wire only moves in a straight line and stops moving once out of the field even though the current is still on. A practical motor must develop a basic twisting force called torque loop. We can see how torque is produced. If the loop is connected to a battery. Current flows in one direction one side of the loop, and in the opposite direction on the other. Therefore the concentric direction on the two sides.

If we mount the loop in a fixed magnetic field and supply the current the flux lines of the field and both sides of the loop will interact, causing the loop to act like a lever with a force pushing on its two sides in opposite directions. The combined forces result in turning force, or torque because the loop is arranged to pivot on its axis. In a motor the loop that moves in the field is called an armature or rotor. The overall turning force on the armature depends upon several factors including field strength armature current strength and the physical construction of the armature especially the distance from the loop sides to the axis lines. Because of the lever action the force on the sides are further from the axis; thus large armature will produce greater torques.

In the practical motor the torque determines the energy available for doing useful work. The greater the torque the greater the energy. If a motor does not develop enough torque to pull its load it stalls.


It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then release it.

To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitors-these names refer to the material they are made of aluminums foil. (2) Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are pico-farad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000,000,000,000 f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, it's two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.

TRANSISTOR: The name is transistor derived from transfer resistors indicating a solid state Semiconductor device. In addition to conductor and insulators, there is a third class of material that exhibits proportion of both. Under some conditions, it acts as an insulator, and under other conditions its a conductor. This phenomenon is called Semi-conducting and allows a variable control over electron flow. So, the transistor is semiconductor device used in electronics for amplitude. Transistor has three terminals, one is the collector, one is the base and other is the emitter, (each lead must be connected in the circuit correctly and only then the transistor will function). Electrons are emitted via one terminal and collected on another terminal, while the third terminal acts as a control element. Each transistor has a number marked on its body. Every number has its own specifications.

There are mainly two types of transistor NPN PNP

NPN Transistors:
When a positive voltage is applied to the base, the transistor begins to conduct by allowing current to flow through the collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small current flowing through the base circuit causes a much greater current to pass through the emitter / collector circuit. The phenomenon is called current gain and it is measure in beta.

PNP Transistor:
It also does exactly same thing as above except that it has a negative voltage on its collector and a positive voltage on its emitter.

Transistor is a combination of semi-conductor elements allowing a controlled current flow. Germanium and Silicon is the two semi-conductor elements used for making it. There are two types of transistors such as POINT CONTACT and JUNCTION TRANSISTORS. Point contact construction is defective so is now out of use. Junction triode transistors are in many respects analogous to triode electron tube.

A junction transistor can function as an amplifier or oscillator as can a triode tube, but has the additional advantage of long life, small size, ruggedness and absence of cathode heating power.

Junction transistors are of two types which can be obtained while manufacturing.

The two types are: -


PNP TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of P type of germanium to an N-P



NPN TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of N type germanium




Both types are shown in figure, with their symbols for representation. The center section is called the base, one of the outside sections-the emitter and the other outside section-the collector. The direction of the arrowhead gives the direction of the conventional current with the forward bias on the emitter. The conventional flow is opposite in direction to the electron flow.


A PNP transistor is made by sand witching two PN germanium or silicon diodes, placed back to back. The centre of N-type portion is extremely thin in comparison to P region. The P region of the left is connected to the positive terminal and N-region to the negative terminal i.e. PN is biased in the forward direction while P region of right is biased negatively i.e. in the reverse direction as shown in Fig. The P region in the forward biased circuit is called the emitter and P region on the right, biased negatively is called collector. The center is called base.

The majority carriers holes of P region move to N region as they are repelled by the positive terminal of battery while the electrons of N region are attracted by the positive terminal. The holes overcome the barrier and cross the emitter junction into N region. As the width of base region is extremely thin, two to five percent of holes recombine with the free electrons of Nregion which result in a small base current while the remaining holes (95% to 98%) reach the collector junction. The collector is biased negatively and the negative collector voltage aids in sweeping the hole into collector region.

As the P region at the right is biased negatively, a very small current should flow but the following facts are observed:-


A substantial current flows through it when the emitter junction is biased in a forward direction.


The current flowing across the collector is slightly less than that of the emitter.


The collector current is a function of emitter current i.e. with increase in the emitter current a corresponding observed.




change in the collector current is

The facts can be explained as follows:

As already discussed that 2 to 5% of the holes are lost in recombination with the electron n base region, which result in a small base current and hence the collector current is slightly less than the emitter current.

The collector current increases as the holes reaching the collector junction are attracted by negative potential applied to the collector.

When the emitter current increases, most holes are injected into

the base region, which

is attracted by the negative potential of the collector and hence results in increasing the collector current. In this way emitter is analogous to the control of plate current by small grid voltage in a vacuum triode.

Hence we can say that when the emitter is forward biased and collector is negatively


a substantial current flows in both the circuits. Since a small emitter voltage of about 0.1 to 0.5 volts permits the flow of an appreciable emitter current the input power is very small. The collector voltage can be as high as 45 volts.

SOLDERING Building project in the proper manner is really an art, something which must be prectised and learned through trial and error, it is not all that difficult. The main thing is to remember to take each step slowly and carefully according to the instructions giving making since that everything at it should be before proceeding further.

TOOLS: The electronics workbench is an actual place of work with comfortably & conveniently & should be supplied with compliment of those tools must often use in project building. Probably the most important device is a soldering tool. Other tool which should be at the electronic work bench includes a pair of needle nose pliers, diagonal wire cutter, a small knife, an assortment of screw driver, nut driver, few nuts & bolts, electrical tape, pucker etc. Diagonal wire cutter will be used to cut away any excess lead length from copper side of P.C.B. 7 to cut section of the board after the circuit is complete. The needle nose pliers are most often using to bend wire leads & wrap them in order to form a strong mechanical connection.

MOUNTING & SOLDERING: Soldering is process of joining together two metallic parts. It is actually a

process of function in which an alloy, the solder, with a comparatively low melting point penetrates the surface of the metal being joined & makes a firm joint between them on cooling & solidifying.



As soldering is a process of joining together two metallic parts, the instrument,

which is used, for doing this job is known as soldering Iron. Thus it is meant for melting the solder and to setup the metal parts being joined. Soldering Iron is rated according to their wattage, which varies from 10- 200 watts.


The raw material used for soldering is solder. It is composition of lead & tin. The

good quality solder (a type of flexible naked wire) is 60% Tin +40% Lead which will melt between 180 degree to 200 degree C temperature.



When the points to solder are heated, an oxide film forms. This must be removed

at once so that solder may get to the surface of the metal parts. This is done by applying

chemical substance called Flux, which boils under the heat of the iron remove the oxide formation and enable the metal to receive the solder.


To clean the surface & leads of components to be soldered is done by this

common instrument.


The oxide formation may attack at the tip of your soldering iron & create the

problem. To prevent this, clean the tip with the help of sand paper time to time or you may use blade for doing this job. Apart from all these tools, the working bench for soldering also includes disordering pump, wink wire (used for di soldering purpose), file etc.


Mount components at their appropriate place; bend the leads slightly outwards to prevent them from falling out when the board is turned over for soldering. No cut the leads so that you may solder them easily. Apply a small amount of flux at these components leads with the help ;of a screwdriver. Now fix the bit or iron with a small amount of solder and flow freely at the point and the P.C.B copper track at the same

time. A good solder joint will appear smooth & shiny. If all appear well, you may continue to the next solder connections.


The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semiconducting material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and n-type layers to an external circuit. This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased.

If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is because under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type material will give up its free electrons to the battery, resulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the N-type material has no more electrons. Thus there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased.

Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the other direction. Power diodes are used in concerting AC into DC. In this, current will flow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the other half cycle (reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which convert ac into pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage.

Some common diodes are:-

1.zener diode.

2. Photo diode.

3. Light Emitting diode.



A zener diode is specially designed junction diode, which can operate continuously without being damaged in the region of reverse break down voltage. One of the most important applications of zener diode is the design of constant voltage power supply. The zener diode is joined in reverse bias to d.c. . through a resistance R of suitable value.


A photo diode is a junction diode made from photo- sensitive semiconductor or material.

In such a diode, there is a provision to allow the light of suitable frequency to fall on the p-n junction. It is reverse biased, but the voltage applied is less than the break down voltage. As the intensity of incident light is increased, current goes on increasing till it becomes maximum. The maximum current is called saturation current.



When a junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction due to recombination of electrons and holes. In case of silicon and germanium diodes, the energy released is in infrared region. In the junction diode made of gallium arsenate or indium phosphide, the energy is released in visible region. Such a junction diode is called a light emitting diode or LED.

Important component of our project are:

Ir transmitter Ir receiver Control unit with power supply d.c. motor wheels braking arrangement

The IR transmitter circuit is to transmit the infrared rays. If any obstacle is there in a path, the infrared rays reflected. This reflected infrared rays are received by the receiver circuit is called IR receiver. The IR receiver circuit receives the reflected IR rays and giving the control signal to the control circuit. The control unit controls the braking system.


S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6

PARTS Permanent Magnet DC Motor Dual Control Relay Wheel Sensor unit Capacitor motor Stand

QUANTITY 1 1 4 1 1 1


1. Material Cost:
S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PARTS Permanent magnet d.c. motor Dual control relay Wheel Sensor unit Capacitor motor Stand Wire Battery Total cost AMOUNT(Rs.) 300:00 500:00 200:00 400:00 300:00 150:00 50:00 240:00 = 2140:00

2. Labour cost:

Total labour cost = 200:00

3. Total cost:

Total cost = material cost + labour cost + extra charges = 2140:00 + 200:00 + 150:00 = 2490:00