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3.6K views699 pagesAerospatiale Aeronautique - Composite Stress Manual MTS00

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Aerospatiale Aeronautique - Composite Stress Manual MTS00

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

3.6K views

Aerospatiale Aeronautique - Composite Stress Manual MTS00

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1

5 4

2 4

1

2

5

Structural

Design

Manual

Purpose To list and homogenise the calculation methods and the

allowable values for the composite materials used at the

Aerospatiale Design Office.

subcontractors' stressmen.

supporting this Manual

responsibility

Name : P. CIAVALDINI Function: Deputy Department

Group Manager

Dept. code : BTE/CC/A

Date : 06/05/99

Signature

This document belongs to AEROSPATIALE and cannot be given to third parties and/or be copied without

prior authorisation from AEROSPATIALE and its contents cannot be disclosed.

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Foreword

All allowable values and coefficients related to the various materials described in chapter Z

are updated with each issue of the manual. This means that different values may be found in

the stress dossiers prior to latest issue.

The data processing tools are given for information purposes only.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS

DETAILED SUMMARY A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

B INTRODUCTION - COMPOSITE MATERIAL PROPERTIES A B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

COMPOSITE PLATE THEORY B *

MONOLITHIC PLATE - MEMBRANE ANALYSIS C A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - BENDING ANALYSIS D A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - MEMBRANE + BENDING ANALYSIS E A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - TRANSVERSAL SHEAR ANALYSIS F B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

B

MONOLITHIC PLATE - FAILURE CRITERIA G B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - FATIGUE ANALYSIS H *

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE-TOLERANCE I ** B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - BUCKLING J *

MONOLITHIC PLATE - HOLE WITHOUT FASTENER ANALYSIS K B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

B

MONOLITHIC PLATE - FASTENER HOLE L B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

MONOLITHIC PLATE - SPECIAL ANALYSIS M *

B SANDWICHIC - MEMBRANE / BENDING / SHEAR ANALYSIS N B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

SANDWICH - FATIGUE ANALYSIS O *

SANDWICH - DAMAGE-TOLERANCE APPROACH P *

SANDWICH - BUCKLING ANALYSIS Q *

SANDWICH - SPECIFIC DESIGNS R *

BONDED JOINTS S A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

B BONDED REPAIRS T B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

BOLTED REPAIRS U A Jan 98 P. Ciavaldini

B THERMAL CALCULATIONS V B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT W *

NEW TECHNOLOGIES X *

STATISTICS Y *

B MATERIAL PROPERTIES Z ** B Apr 99 P. Ciavaldini

**: chapter partially dealt with.

Composite stress manual

reference(s) of

title of chapter subchapter(s)

SANDWICH

Effect of normal load Ny

N 4.2.1 page

1/2 number

4.2.1 . Effect of normal load Ny

Assuming that all layers are in a pure tension or compression condition, a

normal load Ny applied at the neutral line results in a constant elongation over

the whole cross-section. This elongation may be formulated as follows:

reference Ny

n3 ε =

of b (EMi ei + EMc ec + Ems es )

relation

This elongation this unduces:

- in the lower skin, a stress σi = Emi ε,

- in the core, a stress σc = Emc ε,

- in the upper skin, a stress σs = Ems ε.

The equivalent membrane modulus of the sandwich beam may be determined

by the relationship m14.

Emc ec << Emi ei and Emc ec << Ems es, the relationship becomes:

Ny

n4 ε ≈

b (EMi e i + Ems e s )

σs

Ny

Ems es Y

σc

Emc ec

Emi ei

b σi ε

Composite stress manual

reference(s) of

title of chapter subchapter(s)

SANDWICH

Example

N5 page

1/7 number

5 . EXAMPLE

Let a 10 mm wide sandwich beam be defined by the following stacking

sequence:

- an upper skin (carbon layers) of thickness es = 1.04 mm and of longitudinal

2

elasticity Es = 6000 daN/mm ,

- a core (honeycomb) of thickness ec = 10 mm and of longitudinal elasticity

2

modulus Ec = 15 daN/mm ,

- a lower skin (carbon cloths) of thickness ei = 0.9 mm and of longitudinal

2

elasticity modulus Ei = 4500 daN/mm .

We shall assume that the beam is subjected to the following two loads and

moment:

- Ny = 800 daN,

- Mx = 2000 daN mm,

Z

Tz = 250 daN

- Tz = 250 daN.

Mx = 2000 daN mm

1,04 Y

10

Ny = 800 daN

0,9

10

X

reference

1 step: to determine elongation ε induced by normal load Ny.

st

of

relation {n3}

ε= 800 = 7612 µd

10 ( 4500 0.9 + 15 10 + 6000 1.04 )

Z

ε = 7612 µd

X

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

DETAILED SUMMARY

1 . Introduction - General

2 . Composition

2.1 . Fibres

2.2 . Matrices

3 . Processing methods

4 . Composite structure design

5 . Assembly

6 . Advantages - Disadvantages (environmental parameters)

7 . Similitudes with metals

7.1 . System equilibrium

7.2 . Load distribution

7.2.1 . Normal load N

7.2.2 . Bending moment M

7.2.3 . Shear load T

7.3 . Material strength laws - Behavior laws

7.4 . General instability

8 . Differences with metals

1 . Ply

1.1 . Tapes - Fabrics

1.2 . Ply behavior (unidirectional orthotropic)

1.3 . Definitions - Notations

2 . Laminate

2.1 . Principle

2.2 . Assembly

3 . Sandwich

3.1 . Principle

3.2 . Assembly

1 . Notations

2 . General definitions

2.1 . Homogeneity - Isotropy

2.2 . Coupling phenomena

2.2.1 . Plane coupling

2.2.2 . Mirror symmetry

3 . Analysis method

4 . Deformations and equivalent properties

5 . Graphs

5.1 . Failure envelopes

5.1.1 . Theoretical principle

5.1.2 . Margin search - Methodology

5.2 . Mechanical properties

6 . Example

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Analysis method

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999 MTS 006 Iss. A

Composite stress manual

5 . Example

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Analysis method

4 . Example

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Design method

4 . Example

1 . Notations

2 . Inventory of static failure criteria

2.1 . Maximum stress criterion

2.2 . Maximum strain criterion

2.3 . Norris and Mac Kinnon's criterion

2.4 . Puck's criterion

2.5 . Hill's criterion

2.6 . Norris's criterion

2.7 . Fischer's criterion

2.8 . Hoffman's criterion

2.9 . Tsaï - Wu's criterion

3 . "Aerospatiale"'s criterion: Hill's criterion

4 . Example

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Damage sources and classification

3.1 . Manufacturing damage or flaws

3.2 . In-service damage

3.2.1 . Fatigue damage

3.2.2 . Corrosion damage and environmental effects

3.2.3 . Accidental damage

4 . Inspection of damage

4.1 . Minimum damage detectable by a Special Detailed Inspection

4.2 . Minimum damage detectable by a Detailed Visual Inspection

4.3 . Minimum damage detectable by a General Visual Inspection

4.4 . Minimum damage detectable by a Walk Around Check

4.5 . Classification of accidental damage by detectability ranges

5 . Effects of flaws/damage on mechanical characteristics

5.1 . Health flaws

5.1.1 . Porosity

5.1.2 . Delaminations

5.1.2.1 . Delaminations outside stiffener

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999 MTS 006 Iss. A

Composite stress manual

5.1.3 . Delamination in spar radii

5.1.4 . Delamination on spar flange edges

5.1.5 . Foreign bodies

5.1.6 . Translaminar cracks

5.1.7 . Delaminations consecutive to a shock

5.2 . Visual flaws

5.2.1 . Sharp scratches

5.2.2 . Indents

5.2.3 . Scaling

5.2.4 . Steps

6 . Justification of permissible manufacturing flaws

7 . Justification of in-service damage

7.1 . Justification philosophy

7.1.1 . Undetectable damage

7.1.2 . Readily and obvious detectable damage

7.1.3 . Damage susceptible to be detected during scheduled in-service inspections

7.1.3.1 . Aerospatiale semi-probabilistic method

7.1.3.1.1 . Process for determining inspection intervals

7.1.3.1.2 . Inspection interval calculation software

7.1.3.1.3 . Load level K to be demonstrated in the presence of large VID

7.1.3.2 . CEAT semi-probabilistic method

7.2 . Examples

7.2.1 . AS method applied to A340 ailerons

7.2.2 . CEAT method applied to A340 nacelles

1 . Local buckling

1.1 . Design conditions

1.1.1 . General

1.1.2 . Specific to composite materials

1.2 . Design rules

2 . General buckling

2.1 . Variable inertia

2.2 . Off-centering

2.3 . Post local buckling

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . General theory

st

3.1 . 1 method (Whitney and Nuismer)

nd

3.2 . 2 method (NASA)

rd

3.3 . 3 method (isotropic plate)

th

3.4 . 4 method (empirical)

4 . Associated failure criteria

4.1 . Point stress

4.2 . Average stress

4.3 . Empirical

5 . Examples

Composite stress manual

1 . Notations

2 . General - Failure modes

2.1 . Bearing failure

2.2 . Net cross-section failure

2.3 . Plane shear failure

2.4 . Cleavage failure

2.5 . Cleavage and net cross-section failure

2.6 . Fastener shear failure

3 . Single hole with fastener

3.1 . Pitch p definition

3.2 . Membrane design - Short cut method

3.2.1 . Theory

3.2.2 . EDP computing program PSG33

3.3 . Bending design - Short cut method

3.4 . Justifications

3.5 . Nominal deviations on a single hole

3.5.1 . Changing to a larger diameter

3.5.2 . Pitch decrease

3.5.3 . Edge distance decrease

3.6 . "Point stress" finite element method

3.6.1 . Description of the method

3.6.2 . Justifications

4 . Multiple holes

4.1 . Independent holes

4.2 . Interfering holes

4.3 . Very close holes

5 . Examples

1 . Stiffener run-out

2 . Bending on border

3 . Effect of "stepping"

4 . Edge effects

N . SANDWICH - MEMBRANE/BENDING/SHEAR/ANALYSIS

1 . Notations

2 . Specificity

3 . Construction principle

4 . Design principle

4.1 . Sandwich plate

4.2 . Sandwich beam

4.2.1 . Effect of a normal load Ny

4.2.2 . Effect of a shear load Tx

4.2.3 . Effect of a shear load Tz - Honeycomb shear

4.2.4 . Effect of a bending moment Mx

4.2.5 . Effect of a bending moment Mz

4.2.6 . Equivalent properties

5 . Example

Composite stress manual

1 . Impact damages

1.1 . Delamination

1.2 . Separation

1.3 . Design rules

2 . Manufacturing defects

2.1 . Porosity/bubbling

2.2 . Fissures/cracks

1 . Local buckling

1.1 . Dimpling

1.2 . Wrinkling

2 . General buckling

2.1 . Bending

2.2 . Shear load

1 . Densified zones

2 . Slopes/ramps

S . BONDED JOINTS

1 . Notations

2 . Bonded single lap joint

2.1 . Elastic behavior of materials and adhesive

2.1.1 . Highly flexible adhesive

2.1.2 . General case (without cleavage effect)

2.1.3 . General case (with cleavage effect)

2.1.4 . Scarf joint

2.2 . Elastic-plastic behavior of adhesive and elastic behavior of materials

3 . Bonded double lap joint

4 . Bonded stepped joint

5 . Software

6 . Examples

T . BONDED REPAIRS

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Analysis method

3.1 . Analytical method

3.2 . Digital method

4 . Example

U . BOLTED REPAIRS

1 . Notations

2 . Stiffness of fasteners

2.1 . Fastener in single shear

2.2 . Fastener in double shear

3 . Assumptions

4 . Geometrical characteristics

5 . Mechanical properties

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999 MTS 006 Iss. A

Composite stress manual

6.1 . Distribution of flow Nx

6.2 . Distribution of flow Ny

6.3 . Distribution of shear flow Nxy

7 . Assessment of thermal in-plane forces on the doubler ?

8 . Assessment of flows in the panel

9 . Assessment of loads per fastener

9.1 . Repair with 1 row of fasteners

9.2 . Repair with 2 rows of fasteners

9.3 . Repair with 3 rows of fasteners

9.4 . Repair with 4 rows of fasteners

9.5 . Repair with a number of rows of fasteners greater than 4

9.6 . General resolution method for direction x

10 . Assessment of loads per fastener due to the transfer of shear loads Nxy

11 . Justifications

12 . Summary flowchart

13 . Examples

V . THERMAL CALCULATIONS

1 . Notations

2 . Introduction

3 . Hooke - Duhamel law

4 . Behavior of unidirectional fibre

5 . Behavior of a free monolithic plate

5.1 . Calculation method

5.2 . Residual curing stresses

5.3 . Equivalent expansion coefficients

6 . Theory of the bimetallic strip

6.1 . Determining stresses of thermal origin

6.2 . Study of the link between two parts

6.2.1 . Bolted or riveted joints

6.2.1.1 . Force F taken by one fastener

6.2.1.2 . Force F taken by two fasteners

6.2.1.3 . Force F taken by three fasteners

6.2.1.4 . Force F taken by four or more fasteners

6.2.2 . Bonded joints

7 . Influence of temperature on aircraft structures

7.1 . General

7.2 . Temperature of ambient air

7.2.1 . Temperature envelope

7.2.2 . Variation of ambient air temperature

7.2.2.1 . Ambient temperature on ground

7.2.2.2 . Ambient temperature in flight

7.3 . Wall temperature

7.3.1 . Influence of solar radiation

7.3.1.1 . Maximum solar radiation

7.3.1.2 . Solar radiation during the day

7.3.2 . Influence of aircraft speed

7.3.3 . Temperature of structure

7.3.3.1 . Calculation method

7.3.3.2 . Thermal characteristics of the materials

7.3.3.3 . Temperatures of structure on ground

7.3.3.4 . Temperatures of structure in flight

7.4 . Recapitulative block diagram

8 . Computing softwares

9 . Examples

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999 MTS 006 Iss. A

Composite stress manual

W . ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT

1 . Temperature

2 . Aging

3 . Humidity

X . NEW TECHNOLOGIES

1 . R.T.M.

2 . Thermoplastic

2.1 . Shoft fibres

2.2 . Long fibres

3 . Glare-Arall

Y . STATISTICS

Z . MATERIAL PROPERTIES

1 . Prepreg unidirectional tapes

1.1 . First generation epoxy high strength carbon

1.2 . Second generation epoxy intermediate modulus carbon

1.3 . Epoxy R glass

1.4 . Bismaleimide carbon

2 . Fabrics

2.1 . Epoxy resin prepreg

2.1.1 . Carbon

2.1.2 . Glass

2.1.3 . Kevlar

2.1.4 . Hybrid

2.1.5 . Quartz polyester hybrid

2.2 . Phenolic resin prepreg

2.2.1 . Carbon

2.2.2 . Glass

2.2.3 . Kevlar

2.2.4 . Fiberglass carbon hybrid

2.2.5 . Quartz polyester hybrid

2.3 . Bismaleimide resin prepreg

2.3.1 . Carbon

2.4 . Wet lay--up epoxy (for repair)

2.4.1 . Carbon

2.4.2 . Glass

2.4.3 . Kevlar

2.4.4 . Fiberglass carbon hybrid

2.4.5 . Quartz polyester hybrid

3 . R.T.M.

3.1 . Epoxy resin

3.1.1 . Carbon

3.2 . Bismaleimide resin

3.3 . Phenolic resin

4 . Injection moulded thermoplastics

4.1 . Carbon

4.1.1 . PEEK

4.1.2 . PEI

4.1.3 . Polyamide

4.1.4 . PPS

4.1.5 . Polyarylamide

4.2 . Glass

© AEROSPATIALE - 1999 MTS 006 Iss. A

Composite stress manual

4.2.1 . PEEK

4.2.2 . PEI

5 . Long fibre thermoplastics

5.1 . Carbon

5.1.1 . PEEK

5.1.2 . PEI

5.2 . Glass

6 . Arall-Glare

7 . Metallic matrix composite materials (CMM)

8 . Adhesives

8.1 . Epoxy

8.2 . Phenolic

8.3 . Bismaleimide

8.4 . Thermoplastic

9 . Honeycomb

9.1 . Nomex

- Hexagonal cells

- OX-Core

- Flex-Core

9.2 . Fiberglass honeycomb

- Hexagonal cells

- OX-Core

- Flex-Core

9.3 . Aluminium honeycomb

10 . Foams

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

General A 1

1 . INTRODUCTION - GENERAL

within the Aerospatiale group, has initiated the need to prepare a document the interest of

preparing a document gathering all the design methods and mechanical properties of the

main composite materials used and/or developed by the composite material Design

Office.

Each one of these two subjects shall make up one volume of the composite material

design manual.

Composite materials result from the association of at least two chemically and

geometrically different materials.

resistant material (reinforcing material) which are embedded in a material with a much

lower strength (matrix), and stiffness.

The bond between the reinforcing material and the matrix is created during the

preparation phase of the composite material and this bond shall have a fundamental

effect on the mechanical properties of the final material.

- wood,

- reinforced concrete,

In the aeronautical industry, the term "composite" is mainly associated with fibre-

reinforced polymer resins.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Composition - Fibres A 2.1

2.1 . Fibres

Their purpose is to ensure the mechanical function of the composite material. Fibres can

be of very different chemical and geometrical types, and the following properties shall be

specifically searched for:

- easy to use.

- low density.

- low cost.

They are made up of several thousand filaments (the number of filaments being indicated

by 3K: 3000 filaments, 6K: 6000 filaments or 12K: 12000 filaments) with a diameter

between 5 and 15 µm, and they are commercialised in two different forms:

- short fibres (a few centimeters long): they are felt, pylons (fabrics in which fibres are

laid out randomly) and injected short fibres,

- long fibres: they are cut during manufacture of the composite material, used as such

or woven,

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Composition - Matrices - Implementation A 2.2

3

1/3

2.2 . Matrices

- to provide a bond between the reinforcing fibres (cohesion of all fibres) while

maintaining a regular interval between them,

- resin matrices:

3 . PROCESSING METHOD

The reinforcing fibre/resin mix becomes a genuinely resistant composite material only

upon completion of the last manufacturing phase, i.e; curing of the matrix.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Implementation A 3

2/3

This cycle is achieved following the chemical reaction between the various components -

this is the crosslinking phase.

The chemical reaction is initiated as soon as products are in contact, and it is often

accelerated by heat: the higher the temperature, the quicker and more explosive is the

reaction:

- the polyaddition reaction for epoxy resins where the weight of reactants is equal to

the weight of the compound,

compounds are formed (a solid one and a gaseous one).

- a gel level which allows getting a consistent temperature gradient throughout the

material before full gelation to limit internal stresses,

- a post-curing level which allows internal stresses to be relieved, and additional curing

for a better temperature resistance.

Note: the glass transition point is the temperature value at which all material properties

change. This important property must be measured, before and after wet aging.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Implementation A 3

3/3

- Manufacturing facilities:

- Manufacturing processes:

laminates to the substructure (ribs, honeycombs, etc.) is performed as a

second operation.

(rib, or honeycomb + internal skin and stiffeners) is then cocured on the

external skin with an adhesive film spread, if necessary.

• Single phase process: or "cocuring", skins are cured and bonded to the

substructure (ribs or honeycomb or stiffeners) in one single operation.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Design A 4

- element geometry.

- element type.

Composite structures use the same types of design principles as metal ones:

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Assembly A 5

5 . ASSEMBLY

After being manufactured, the different composite (and metal) elements must be

connected to one another to allow load transfer.

The two most commonly used techniques are bonding and bolting (or riveting).

because they are sensitive to environmental conditions: hygrometry, temperature, cure

date of adhesives.

They are also difficult to control because even a sound adhesive film is a barrier to

ultrasounds.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Advantages - Disadvantages A 6

- a weight gain which is reflected by fuel saving and, therefore, by a payload increase,

- the capacity to control stiffness and strength according to the areas of the structure,

thanks to the different types of layered materials. Composite materials naturally offer

membrane-bending coupling or plane coupling possibilities, which can have important

applications in the field of aero-elasticity,

- a good fatigue strength, which increases the life of aircraft parts concerned and

lightens the maintenance program considerably,

mechanical properties change, due to:

- humidity,

- temperature,

- the various aeronautical fluids such as Skydrol (hydraulic fluid), oils or solvents (MEK)

and fuels,

- radiation (ultraviolet).

On the other hand, the effects of lightning strikes (temperature rise, melting, impacts,

electronic damages) and shocks (delamination, separation, punctures) must be taken into

account in the design and justification of composite parts.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Metal/composite material similitudes - System equilibrium A 7

7.1

1/4

STRUCTURES

Composite material and metal material structures obey the same basic rules of structural

mechanics.

On the other hand, composite material behavior laws are slightly different from those for

metals.

The purpose of this sub-chapter is to specify the similitudes between metal materials and

composite materials for the structural justification of structures.

Composite parts and metal parts have the same behavior with respect to:

- static equilibrium.

Whatever the type of system or element under study (metal, composite or combined), it is

subject to a set of external loads which may be of several types:

- Solid loads: distributed in the volume of the solid and of gravity (selfweight), dynamic

(inertial forces), electrical or magnetic origin.

- Areal loads: distributed over the external surface of the solid, such as normal

pressures due to a fluid or tangential loads due to friction phenomena.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

System equilibrium A 7.1

2/4

- Line loads: distributed over a line and which are, in fact, an idealized density of

surface load with a much smaller application width than length.

- Concentrated loads (P): acting in one point and which are, in fact, an idealized

density of surface load acting on a surface with smaller dimensions with respect to

the dimensions of the solid under study.

- Concentrated moments (M): acting in one point and which are, in fact, an idealized

concentrated moment.

ds

dl

P

dv

Z

To reach the equilibrium of the solid, all these external loads (C) must be equilibrated by

reactions at the bearing surfaces (R).

Σ (C) = - Σ (R)

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

System equilibrium A 7.1

3/4

Let the solid be defined by its external loads and bearing surfaces:

external loads

+

bearing surfaces

a

A Z

B

Y

deformed system

external loads

+

reactions at bearing surfaces

Z

ra

Y

RA X

RB

equilibrated forces (F) and three equilibrated moments (Mt).

Σ (Fy) = Σ (Cy) + Σ (Ry) = 0

Σ (Fz) = Σ (Cz) + Σ (Rz) = 0

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

System equilibrium A 7.1

4/4

Σ (Mt/x) = 0

Σ (Mt/y) = 0

Σ (Mt/z) = 0

If the system is isostatic, the solving alone of these six equations allows all reactions at

the bearing surfaces to be found.

introduce new equations (the number depends on the degree of redundancy) of the

deformation compatibility type that take element stiffness into account.

If the system is complex or if the degree of redundancy is high, only a point stress or a

matrix analysis makes it possible to find reactions at the bearing surfaces and the internal

loads they generate.

Whatever the case and whatever the type of structure (composite or metal), the three

following rules must always be applied before any stress and deformation calculation:

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Load distribution - Normal load N A 7.2.1

If a system made up of several parts which are connected together, is subject to a normal

load N, then, the load distribution within the different elements (whether metal or

composite) is as follows:

σ1

σ2

1 N

2

3

ε σ3

A.N.

we have:

å

3

N1 N2 N3 Nk N

k = 1

ε= = = = =

å å

3 3

E1 S1 E2 S 2 E3 S3 E Sk E Sk

k = 1 k k = 1 k

N Ei Si

a1 hence Ni =

å

3

E Sk

k =1 k

å

3

E Sk

k =1 k

a2 we may deduce Eeq. memb. (1 + 2 + 3) =

å

3

Sk

k =1

Ei: layer (i) elasticity modulus

Si: layer (i) section

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Load distribution - Bending moment M A 7.2.2

A bending moment M applied to the neutral axis of the system is picked up in each layer

in proportion to its bending stiffness.

The moment M breaks down, in each layer (i), into a bending moment Mi and a normal

load Ni, so that:

εe σe

v1

1 M

2

3

σi

εi

A.N.

M Ei Si v i

a3 Ni =

å

3

E l

k =1 k k

a4 Mi =

M Ei ιi

å

3

E l

k =1 k k

å

3

E l

k =1 k k

a5 we may deduce E eq. flex. (1 + 2 + 3) =

å

3

l

k =1k

Mi: moment applied to layer (i)

li: layer (i) inertia with relation to the system neutral axis

ιi: layer inertia of layer (i)

Si: layer (i) section

vi: distance between layer (i) neutral axis and system neutral axis

Ei: layer (i) elasticity modulus

æ b h3 ö

li: inertia + "Steiner" inertia ç + S d2 ÷

è 12 ø

æ b h3 ö

ιi : layer inertia ç ÷

è 12 ø

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Load distribution - Shear load T A 7.2.3

Assuming that layers 1, 2 and 3 are parallel and of the same height, a shear load T is

applied to each layer in proportion to its shear stiffness.

3

2 T

1

τm3

τm2

τm1

we have:

å

3

T1 T2 T3 T T

k = 1 k

γ= = = = =

å å

3 3

G1 S1 G 2 S 2 G 3 S3 Gk Sk Gk Sk

k = 1 k =1

T Gi Si

a6 hence Ti =

å

3

Gk Sk

k =1

å

3

Gk Sk

k =1

a7 we may deduce G eq. (1 + 2 + 3) =

å

3

Sk

k =1

Gi: layer (i) shear modulus

Si: layer (i) section

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Material strength laws - Behavior laws A 7.3

(σ) = (Aij) (ε), the matrix (Aij) is more complex for composite materials as described in

chapter C.

∂2y M

The equation of the elastic line of a bent metal beam = becomes

∂x 2 EI

∂2y M

= for a composite structure.

∂x 2

å

n

Ek lk

k =1

Normal stress - normal load relationship: for a stressed or compressed metal beam, the

N N Ei

expression σ = becomes σi = for each layer of a composite beam.

å

n

S Ek Sk

k =1

Mv M Ei v i

σ= becomes σi = for each layer of the composite beam.

å

n

l Ek lk

k =1

TW

Shear stress - shear load relationship: for a sheared metal beam, τ = becomes

lb

T Ei w i

τi = for each layer of the composite beam.

å

n

Ek lk bk

k =1

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

General instability A 7.4

For a beam, Euler's law which associates the general instability critical compression load

with the geometrical and mechanical properties of the beam remains valid, whatever the

material used (metal/isotropic or composite/orthotropic).

π2 E l

Fc = for metal beams,

l2

å

n

π2 E l

k = 1 k k

Fc = 2

for composite beams,

l

Regarding plates, the approach is more complex for composite materials, although bases

are identical.

The differential equation which governs composite plate instability is formulated in its

most general form:

∂4 w ∂4 w ∂4 w ∂2 w ∂2 w ∂2w

C11 + 2 (C + 2 C ) + C = N + N + 2 N

∂x 4 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 4 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y

12 33 22 x y xy

where C11, C12, C33 and C22 are the temps of the matrix (Cij) binding the rotation tensor

and the bending load tensor (see chapter D).

E e3 æ ∂4 w ∂4 w ∂4 w ö ∂2w ∂2 w ∂2w

ç + + ÷ = N + N + 2 N

12 (1 − ν2 ) è ∂x 4 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 4 ø ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y

x y xy

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Metal/composite material differences A 8

1/3

These differences are actually covered by the composite material manual. A few

examples are given below:

materials are generally anisotropic. This means that their properties depend on the

direction (see drawing below) along which they are measured.

y

F/S l

Isotropic material F F

2 1, 2, 3

1

3

x ∆l/l

0

Properties are independent from the

coordinate system direction

y

F/S l

Anisotropic material F F

1

2

2

1

3 3

x ∆l/l

0

Properties depend on the coordinate

system direction

it allows a greater freedom to choose element rigidity and, therefore, a more accurate

control of load routing.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Metal/composite material differences A 8

2/3

- Failure criteria

covariant failure criteria (independent from the coordinate system direction) like metal

materials. Generally, they must be applied to each layer and are applicable only in a

preferential direction (the direction of the fibre to be justified).

- Effect of holes

Sizing of holes in composite materials not only takes into account the net cross-

section coefficient (as for metal materials) due to material removal, but also a

decrease of the intrinsic material strength.

- Effect of bearing

membrane stresses to be artificially increased by part of the bearing stresses and, as

a result, residual strength to be decreased.

- Damage tolerance

the laminate static strength.

Corrosion and fatigue are the overriding factors of the limited life of metal structures.

Metal fatigue is controlled by the number of cycles required, on the one hand, to

initiate a crack and, on the other hand, bring it to its critical length (growth phase).

Influent factors of this phenomena are stress concentrations and tension loads.

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

Différences composite/métal A 8

3/3

As a general rule, fatigue is not a design factor for composite elements of civil aircraft

with thin thicknesses and no structural irregularities. More specifically, mechanical

properties are such that static design requirements naturally "cover" fatigue design

requirements. Wohler curves are relatively flat and damaging loads are of the

compression type (R = - 1).

because of the high rate of delamination growth. The current inability to control

through analysis the damage growth rate in composite materials does not allow a

damage tolerance justification based on slow growth. For this reason, allowable

damage tolerance values are low; this makes it possible to avoid any explosive

evolution during the aircraft life.

Metal materials have an elastic range and a plastic range, in their behavior, which

lead to breaking, breaking occurs in carbon composite materials without plasticizing.

F/S l F/S l

F F F F

breaking

breaking

plastic zone

∆l/l ∆l/l

0 Plastic material 0 Brittle material

(metal) (composite)

Composite stress manual

INTRODUCTION

References A

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

Composite stress manual

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Composite stress manual

Notations C 1

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, l, t): coordinate system specific to the unidirectional ply

θ: fibre orientation

eθ: overall thickness of plies in direction θ: eθ = nθ x ep

n: number of plies in laminate

(σ): stress tensor

(ε): elongation tensor

(Q): stiffness matrix of unidirectional ply

(R): stiffness matrix of laminate

(A): stiffness matrix of laminate

Et: transversal young's modulus of unidirectional ply

νit: longitudinal/transversal Poisson coefficient

Et

νtl = νlt : transversal/longitudinal Poisson coefficient

El

Glt: shear modulus of unidirectional ply

ep: ply thickness

Rlc: allowable longitudinal compression stress

Rtt: allowable transversal tension stress

Rtc: allowable transversal compression stress

S: allowable shear stress

Composite stress manual

2.1

MONOLITHIC PLATE - MEMBRANE

Definitions - Homogeneity - Isotropy - Coupling C 2.2.1

2.2.2

2 . GENERAL DEFINITIONS

- A material is so-called homogeneous when its properties are independent from the point

considered.

direction and on the point considered.

perpendicular planes. Axes of symmetry are so-called axes of orthotropy.

In the case of an orthotropic material, there is a “plane coupling” if the loading axis is not

coincident with one of its axes of orthotropy. In that case, normal loading (σ) generates

shear (γ) and shear loading (τ) generates elongation (ε).

N1 x N1

The laminate must be such that each layer has an identical symmetrical layer with relation

to the neutral plane.

occurrence of plate bending, when a tension load is applied in its plane.

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

1/8

3 . DESIGN METHOD

The design method for a flat plate consists in assessing stresses in each ply and in

determining the corresponding Hill’s criterion (see § G.3).

Let’s assume that all plies are made up of the same material, and that the laminate is

provided with the mirror symmetry property.

That is to say the central plane of the laminate (for example: (0°/45°/135°/90°) s =

(0°/45°/135°/90°/90°/135°/45°/0°). This property implies that there is no coupling between

the membrane effects and the bending effects.

Which means that the membrane flux tensor (Nx, Ny, Nxy) induces εx, εy, and γxy type

elongations only and that, on the other hand, the moment flux tensor (Mx, My, Mxy) induces

χx, χy and χxy type rotations only.

In other words, in the case of a laminate with the mirror symmetry property, the

relationship which binds loading and elongation may be formulated as follows:

Nx εx

Ny Aij 0 εy

Nxy γxy

=

Mx χx

My 0 Cij χy

Mxy χxy

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

2/8

A laminate (as well as the sign convention for membrane type load fluxes) may be

represented as follows:

z

y y

Ny > 0

Nxy > 0

x Nx > 0

3

θ2

θ1

x

1

θ3

nθ.

1st step: Design of the stiffness matrix for the unidirectional layer in its own coordinate

system (l, t). This matrix shall be called (Ql, t).

El ν tl E l

σl 0 εl

1 − νlt ν tl 1 − ν lt ν tl

ν lt E t Et

σt = 0 εt

1 − ν lt ν tl 1 − ν lt ν tl

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

3/8

2nd step: Design of the stiffness matrix for the unidirectional layer in direction θ in the

reference coordinate system (x, y). This matrix shall be called (Qx, y,θ).

y

l

t

with:

Matrix (Tθ) corresponding to the basic transformation matrix for stress condition.

Matrix (T'θ) corresponding to the basic transformation matrix for elongation condition.

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

4/8

t y

ds

σt

l

τxy

τtl σx

θ

x

τyx

i

σy

σt

τtl

t y τlt

σl

σy

l

τyx σl

τlt

τxy σx

σl

σx σt

θ

x

τyx

i σy

Expressions from which the matrix (Tθ) terms are easily taken.

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

5/8

Remark: the stiffness matrix (Qx, y, θ) also allows determination of the mechanical

properties of the unidirectional layer in direction θ in the reference coordinate

system (o, x, y). For the unidirectional layer, we have:

εx − σx

E x (θ) Ey (θ) Gxy (θ)

ν xy (θ) 1 µ yx

εy = − σy

E x (θ) Ey (θ) G xy (θ)

η x (θ) µ y (θ) 1

γxy τxy

E x (θ) E y (θ) G xy (θ)

where:

1

Ex(θ) =

c4

s 4

æ 1 ν ö

+ + c2 s2 ç − 2 tl ÷

El Et è Glt Et ø

1

Ey(θ) =

s4

c 4

æ 1 ν ö

+ + c2 s2 ç − 2 tl ÷

El Et è Glt Et ø

1

Gxy(θ) =

( )

2

æ 1 1 ν tl ö c 2 − s2

4c s ç +

2 2

+2 ÷ +

è El E t Et ø Glt

ν yx (θ) ν tl 4 æ1 1ö

E y (θ)

=

Et

( )

c + s4 − c 2 s 2 ç +

1

− ÷

è El E t Glt ø

E x (θ)

νxy(θ) = νyx(θ)

E y (θ)

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

6/8

3rd step: Knowing the stiffness matrix of each layer (Qx, y, θ) with relation to the reference

coordinate system (x, y), the laminate stiffness matrix can be calculated in this same

coordinate system: (Rx, y).

å å

n n

(Q x, y, θk ) ep (Q x, y, θk )

k =1 k =1

c3 (Rx, y) = or (Rx, y) =

n e

4th step: Determination of the laminate elongation tensor in the reference coordinate

system.

1

c4 (εx, y) = x (Rx, y)-1 x (Nx, y)

e

εx Nx Nx εx

1

εy = (Rx, y)-1 Ny or Ny = (A) εy

e

γ xy Nxy Nxy γ xy

where (A) is the laminate membrane stiffness matrix: (A) = e x (Rx, y).

Matrix (A) is the stiffness matrix which binds the stress flux tensor (N) with the elongation

tensor (ε).

Nx A 11 A 12 A 13 εx

Ny = A 21 A 22 A 23 x εy

Nxy A 31 A 32 A 33 γ xy

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

7/8

where

c6 Aij = å

n

k = 1

(Ε k

ij (z k − z k )

− 1)

ply No. k

thickness

ply No. 1

with

Ε22(θ) = s4 Εl + c4 Εt + 2 c2 s2 (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)

Ε33(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 2 νtl Εl) + (c2 - s2)2 Glt

Ε12(θ) = Ε21(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 4 Glt) + (c4 + s4) νtl Εl

Ε13(θ) = Ε31(θ) = c s {c2 Εl - s2 Εt - (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

Ε23(θ) = Ε32(θ) = c s {s2 Εl - c2 Εt + (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

c ≡ cos(θ) where θ is the fibre direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y)

s ≡ sin(θ) where θ is the fibre direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y)

El

Εl =

1 − ν tl νlt

Et

Εt =

1 − ν tl νlt

Composite stress manual

Design method C 3

8/8

σ lθ ε lθ

σ tθ = (Ql, t) ε tθ

τ lt θ γ lt θ

7th step: Assessment of Hill’s criterion in each fibre direction. Refer to chapter G (failure

criteria).

Composite stress manual

Equivalent properties C 4

their equivalent membrane stiffness properties in order to determine the passing loads

and resulting deformations.

Equivalent membrane young's moduli are directly derived from the laminate stiffness

matrix (A):

1 ν yxmemb. equi.

− x

E xxmemb. equi. E yy memb. equi.

1 ν xymemb . equi. 1

c9 (A)-1 = − x

e E xxmemb. equi. E yymemb . equi.

1

x x

Gxy memb. equi.

If reference axes (o, x, y) are coincident with the axes of orthotropy of the laminate, we

obtain:

A11 A 22 − (A 12 )2

E xxmemb. equi. =

e A 22

A 11 A 22 − (A12 )2

E yymemb. equi. =

e A11

A 66

Gxymemb . equi. =

e

A12

ν xy memb. equi. =

A 22

A 21

ν yxmemb . equi. =

A 11

Composite stress manual

Graphs - Failure envelopes - Theoretical principle C 5.1.1

1/3

5 . GRAPHS

Let a laminate be made up of plies in the same material and described as follows:

- overall thickness e,

If membrane fluxes Nx, Ny and Nxy, are applied to the laminate, so that Nx2 + Ny2 + Nxy2 = 1,

the design method outlined above allows loads inside each layer to be determined and the

overall plate margin (m) to be found (see § G "Failure criteria").

Ny

Nx

o

Nxy

Composite stress manual

Graphs - Failure envelopes - Theoretical principle C 5.1.1

2/3

m

Let's assume that the three fluxes are multiplied by the coefficient + 1.

100

In this case, the laminate subject to this new loading (Nx', Ny', Nxy') shall have a zero

margin.

Therefore, it is possible to associate each triplet (Nx, Ny, Nxy) with a flux triplet (Nx', Ny', Nxy')

so that the margin associated with it is zero.

If this operation is repeated for the set of points so that Nx2 + Ny2 + Nxy2 = 1 (sphere S with

radius 1), then, surface S' is obtained, corresponding to the set of points with a zero

margin. This is the material failure envelope.

Ny

S'

Nx

o

Nxy

Composite stress manual

Graphs - Failure envelopes - Theoretical principle C 5.1.1

3/3

It can be represented in a two-dimensional space (Nx, Ny) in the form of graphs (each

curve corresponding to the intersection S' with an equation plane Nxy = Nxyi).

Ny

plane Nxy = 0

plane Nxyi

plane Nxyn

Nx

Nxy

If this set of curves is projected onto the plane (o, Nx, Ny), a network of curves is obtained

which constitutes the breaking graph of the laminate.

Ny

Nxyi = 0

Nxyi

Nxyn

Nx

o

This graph (corresponding to a given material and a specific lay-up) allows the laminate

margin (Hill's criterion) to be determined graphically.

Composite stress manual

Graphs - Failure envelopes - Margin C 5.1.2

Let a laminate be subject to fluxes Nxo, Nyo and Nxyo and the breaking graph associated

with it.

- Plot the straight line D crossing point o and point A of coordinates Nxo and Nyo.

- Perpendicular to this straight line, plot the value Nxyi segment corresponding to the

graph curve Nxyi. Repeat this operation for each graph curve.

- Plot curve C.

æo C ö

- The composite plate margin is equal to 100 ç − 1÷ .

èoB ø

Ny

N

xy

i

A C

Nyo N

xy

o

c

B

o Nx

Nxo

Composite stress manual

Graphs - Mechanical properties C 5.2

In practice, curves are represented in stress and not in flux values. This makes it possible

to group together some laminates per lay-up class (for example: 3/2/2/1 ≡ 6/4/4/2 ≡

9/6/6/3).

found in chapter Z “material properties”.

For a given material, a set of graphs may be created giving the mechanical properties

(strength and elasticity moduli) of an orthotropic laminate described by its percentages of

plies in each direction (see drawing below).

Gxy

% to 90°

Gxy

% to 45°

%

A number of those graphs associated with carbon T300/914 layer shall be found in

chapter Z “material properties”.

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

1/8

6 . EXAMPLE

0°: 6 plies

45°: 4 plies

135°: 4 plies

90°: 6 plies

Et = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

νlt = 0.35

νtl = 0.0125

Glt = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

ep = 0.13 mm

e = 2.6 mm

Rlc = - 100 hb (1000 MPa)

Rtt = 5 hb (50 MPa)

Rtc = - 12 hb (120 MPa)

S = 7.5 hb (75 MPa)

The purpose of this example is to search for stresses applied to each ply (0°, 45°, 135°,

90°) knowing that the laminate is globally subject to the three following load fluxes in the

reference coordinate system (x, y):

Nx = 30.83 daN/mm

Ny = - 2.22 daN/mm

Nxy = 44.92 daN/mm

These load fluxes being the continuation of the example covered in chapter K (Fastener

hole).

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

2/8

1st step: Design of stiffness matrix (Ml, t) for the unidirectional ply with relation to its own

coordinate system (l, t).

{c1}

0

1 − 0.35 0.0125 1 − 0.35 0.0125

(Ql, t) = 0

1 − 0.35 0.0125 1 − 0.35 0.0125

0 0 465

13057 163 0

0 0 465

2nd step: Assessment of stiffness matrix for each unidirectional ply with relation to the

reference coordinate system (x, y).

{c2}

−1

1 0 0 13057 163 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 465 0 0 1

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

3/8

0 1 0 13057 163 0 0 1 0 −1

0 0 −1 0 0 465 0 0 −1

Thus, we find:

13057 163 0

0 0 465

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

4/8

467 163 0

0 0 465

3rd step: By applying the mixture law, the overall laminate stiffness matrix (Rx, y) is

formulated as follows.

{c3}

1

(Rx, y) = 12 x 163 + 8 x 2998 6 x 467 + 8 x 3928 + 6 x 13057 4 x 3148 − 4 x 3148

20

4 x 3148 − 4 x 3148 4 x 3148 − 4 x 3148 12 x 465 + 8 x 3299

5628 1297 0

0 0 1598

. xE − 4

188 − 4.32 x E − 5 − 6.11 x E − 20

188 4.02 x E − 20

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

5/8

4th step: Determination of the laminate strain tensor in the reference coordinate system (x,

y).

{c4}

εx . xE − 4

188 − 4.32 xE − 5 − 611

. xE − 20 3083

. 2262 x E − 6

1

εy = − 4.32 xE − 5 . xE − 4

188 . xE − 20

402 − 2.22 = − 673 x E − 6

2.6

γ xy − 611

. xE − 20 . xE − 20

402 6.25 x .E − 4 44.92 10807 x E − 6

{c7}

1 0 0 2262 x E − 6 2262 x E − 6

0 0 1 10807 x E − 6 10807 x E − 6

− 1 1 0 10807 x E − 6 − 2935 x E − 6

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

6/8

1 − 1 0 10807 x E − 6 2935 x E − 6

0 1 0 2262 x E − 6 − 673 x E − 6

0 0 −1 10807 x E − 6 − 10807 x E − 6

6th step: With the previous results, stresses in each ply are determined.

{c8}

.

.

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

7/8

.

7th step: In each direction, the corresponding Hill’s criterion is calculated (see chapter G),

which gives the following margins for each ply:

The ply at 135° is, therefore, the most brittle ply in this loading case.

Composite stress manual

Example C 6

8/8

8th step: The laminate margin may be found with the breaking graph corresponding to this

material (see chapter Z).

Ny = - 2.22 daN/mm

Nxy = 44.92 daN/mm

σx = 11.86 hb

σy = - 0.85 hb ≈ 0 h

τxy = 17.28 hb

+ T = 22 HB

x T = 21 HB

Y T = 18 HB

+ T = 15 HB

x T = 12 HB

Y T = 9 HB

T = 6 HB

T = 3 HB

T = 0 HB

Scale: 1 cm ↔ 3.33 hb

æo C ö æ 72 ö

Marge = 100 ç − 1÷ = 100 ç − 1÷ ≈ 41 %

èoB ø è 51 ø

Composite stress manual

References C

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

440.227/79

J. CHAIX, 436.127/91

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations D 1

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, l, t): coordinate system specific to the unidirectional fibre

uo, vo, wo: displacement from the beam neutral plane

β: beam curvature at a given point

R: beam radius of curvature at a given point

εox, εoy, γoxy: strains neutral plane

(α): tensor of angles formed by the deformation diagram

(C): inertia matrix of laminate

θ: fibre orientation

Et: transversal young's modulus of unidirectional ply

νlt: longitudinal/transversal poisson coefficient

Et

νtl = νlt : transversal/longitudinal poisson coefficient

El

Glt: shear modulus of unidirectional ply

ep: ply thickness

Composite stress manual

Introduction - Design method D 2

3

1/4

2 . INTRODUCTION

In chapter C, we examined the case of a laminate provided with mirror symmetry subject

to membrane type loading. In the paragraph below, we shall examine the case of a

laminate with the same properties but, this time, subject to pure bending type loads.

By convention, we shall consider that any positive moment compresses the laminate

upper fibre.

Let’s assume that bending moment flows Mx, My and Mxy generate εx, εy and γxy type

strains.

Let’s assume also (Kirchoff) that the neutral plane is coincident with the neutral line.

3 . DESIGN METHOD

z

y

My > 0

z

1

R=

2

∂ w

2 ∂w

∂x tg(β) =

∂x

w

x, y

w

u, v wo

z

x, y

uo, vo

Composite stress manual

Design method D 3

2/4

If the displacements from a point at position Z are defined as u, v and w in the coordinate

system (x, y, z), then we may write:

∂w o

u = uo - z

∂x

∂w o

v = vo - z

∂y

w = wo

where uo, vo et wo represent displacements from the neutral plane in the coordinate

system (x, y, z).

We deduce (by deriving with respect to coordinates) the corresponding non-zero strains:

∂2 w o

d1 εx = εox - z

∂x 2

∂2 w o

εy = εoy - z

∂y 2

∂2wo

γxy = γoxy - 2 z

∂x ∂y

εx z

εox

neutral plan o

2

∂ w

tg(α) =

2

∂x

x

where εox, εoy and γoxy rerepresent strains at a point located on the neutral plane and εx, εy

and γxy represent strains at any point at position z.

Composite stress manual

Design method D 3

3/4

h

From the general expression for the bending moment: M = ò

−

2

h

2

σ z dz , we obtain the

relationship between the bending load tensor (M) and the rotation tensor (χ):

∂2wO

Mx C11 C12 C13

∂x 2

∂2wO

My = C 21 C22 C 23

∂y 2

∂2 w O

M xy C 31 C32 C 33 2

∂x ∂y

where

æ k zk3 − zk3 − 1 ö

å

n

d3 Cij = çç Ε ij ÷÷

k = 1

è 3 ø

with

Ε22(θ) = s4 Εl + c4 Εt + 2 c2 s2 (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)

Ε33(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 2 νtl Εl) + (c2 - s2)2 Glt

Ε12(θ) = Ε21(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 4 Glt) + (c4 + s4) νtl Εl

Ε13(θ) = Ε31(θ) = c s {c2 Εl - s2 Εt - (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

Ε23(θ) = Ε32(θ) = c s {s2 Εl - c2 Εt + (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

c ≡ cos(θ) where θ is the ply direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y)

s ≡ sin(θ) where θ is the ply direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y)

Composite stress manual

Design method D 3

4/4

with

El

d5 Εl =

1 − ν tl νlt

Et

Εt =

1 − ν tl νlt

If the tensor of angles formed by the strain diagram in each direction is defined by (α):

(αx, αy, αxy) we may write in a simplified form the relationship:

d6 (χ) = tg (α)

By convention, we shall assume that (α) is negative when the upper fibre is in tension. We

have:

d7 (ε)z = - (χ) x z

z z

ply No. k

α

zk zk - 1

h neutral plan σ ε

ply No. 1

This relationship makes it possible to determine each ply strain and, therefore, to find

(using chapter C) stresses applied to it.

Remark: The terms Cij must be determined with relation to the laminate neutral line

(Kirchoff’s assumption). In this case, the neutral plane shall also be used as a

reference for the overall load pattern.

Composite stress manual

Equivalent mechanical properties D 4

their equivalent bending stiffness properties in order to determine the passing loads and

resulting deformations.

Equivalent bending elasticity moduli are directly derived from the laminate stiffness matrix

(C):

1

x x

E xx bending equi.

12 1

d8 (C)-1 = x x

e3 E yy bending equi.

1

x x

Gxy bending equi.

If reference axes (o, x, y) are coincident with the axes of orthotropy of the laminate, we

obtain:

C11 C 22 − (C12 )2

Exxbending equi. = 12

e3 C 22

C 11 C 22 − (C 12 ) 2

Eyybending equi. = 12

e 3 C 11

C 66

Gxybending equi. = 12

e3

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

1/7

5 . EXAMPLE

0°: 2 plies

45°: 2 plies

135°: 2 plies

90°: 2 plies

z8 = 0.52

k = 8 (0°)

z7 = 0.39

k = 7 (45°)

z6 = 0.26

k = 6 (135°)

z5 = 0.13

k = 5 (90°)

z4 = 0

k = 4 (90°)

k = 3 (135°)

k = 2 (45°)

k = 1 (0°)

El = 13000 hb

Et = 465 hb

νlt = 0.35

νtl = 0.0125

Glt = 465 hb

ep = 0.13 mm

The purpose of this example is to search for elongations at the laminate external surface,

knowing that the laminate is globally subject to the three following moment fluxes in the

reference coordinate system (x, y):

Composite stress manual

Exemple D 5

2/7

Mx = 10 daN

My = 0 daN/mm

Mxy = - 5 daN/mm

z

Mxy = - 5 daN

x Mx = 10 daN

{d5}

13000

Εl = = 13057 daN/mm2

1 − 0.35 0.0125

465

Εt = = 467 daN/mm2

1 − 0.35 0.0125

2nd step: For each ply, stiffness coefficients Εij expressed in daN/mm2 are calculated.

{d4}

ply at 0°

Ε11(0°) = 13057

Ε22(0°) = 467

Ε33(0°) = 465

Ε12(0°) = Ε21(0°) = 0.0125 x 13000 = 163

Ε13(0°) = Ε31(0°) = 0

Ε23(0°) = Ε32(0°) = 0

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

3/7

ply at 45°

Ε11(45°) = 0.7074 13057 + 0.7074 467 + 2 x 0.7072 0.7072 (0.0125 x 13057 + 2 x 465) = 3925

Ε22(45°) = 0.7074 13057 + 0.7074 467 + 2 x 0.7072 0.7072 (0.0125 x 13057 + 2 x 465) = 3925

Ε33(45°) = 0.7072 0.7072 (13057 + 467 - 2 x 0.0125 x 13057) = 3297

Ε12(45°) = Ε21(45°) = 0.7072 0.7072 (13057 + 467 - 4 x 465) + (0.7074 + 0.7074) x 0.0125 x 13057 = 2995

Ε13(45°) = Ε31(45°) = 0.707 x 0.707 {0.7072 13057 - 0.7072 467} = 3146

Ε23(45°) = Ε32(45°) = 0.707 x 0.707 {0.7072 13057 - 0.7072 467} = 3146

ply at 135°

Ε11(135°) = 3925

Ε22(135°) = 3925

Ε33(135°) = 3297

Ε12(135°) = Ε21(135°) = 2995

Ε13(135°) = Ε31(135°) = - 3146

Ε23(135°) = Ε32(135°) = - 3146

ply at 90°

Ε11(90°) = 467

Ε22(90°) = 13057

Ε33(90°) = 465

Ε12(90°) = Ε21(90°) = 163

Ε13(90°) = Ε31(90°) = 0

Ε23(90°) = Ε32(90°) = 0

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

4/7

3rd step: Calculation of laminate inertia matrix (C) coefficients Cij expressed in daN mm.

The laminate being provided with the mirror symmetry property, coefficients Cij shall be

calculated for the laminate upper half, then they shall be multiplied by 2.

{d3}

æ .

0133

− 0 3

0.26 3

− 013

. 3

0.39 3

− 0.26 3

0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C11 = 2 ç 467 + 3925 + 3925 + 13057 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ . 3 − 03

013 0.26 3 − 013

. 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C12 = 2 ç163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ 0.13 3 − 0 3 0.26 3 − 0.13 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C13 = 2 ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ . 3 − 03

013 0.26 3 − 0.13 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C21 = 2 ç163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ . 3 − 03

013 0.26 3 − 013

. 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C22 = 2 ç13057 + 3925 + 3925 + 467 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ 0.13 3 − 0 3 0.26 3 − 0.13 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C23 = 2 ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ 0.13 3 − 0 3 0.26 3 − 0.13 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C31 = 2 ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ 0.13 3 − 0 3 0.26 3 − 0.13 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C32 = 2 ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ . 3 − 03

013 0.26 3 − 013

. 3 0.39 3 − 0.26 3 0.52 3 − 0.39 3 ö

C33 = 2 ç 465 + 3297 + 3297 + 465 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

C11 = 858

C12 = 123

C13 = 55

C21 = 123

C22 = 194

C23 = 55

C31 = 55

C32 = 55

C33 = 151

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

5/7

858 123 55

55 55 151

{d2}

∂ 2 wo

Mx 858 123 55

∂x 2

∂ 2 wo

My = 123 194 55 =

∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy 55 55 151 2

∂x ∂y

hence

∂ 2 wo

1287

. E−3 − 7.617 E − 4 − 1913

. E−4 Mx

∂x 2

∂ 2 wo

= − 7.617 E − 4 6.199 E − 3 − 198

. E−3 = My

∂y 2

∂2 wo

2 − 1913

. E−4 − 198

. E−3 7.414 E − 3 Mxy

∂x ∂y

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

6/7

∂2wo

1287

. E−3 − 7.617 E − 4 − 1913

. E−4 10

∂x 2

∂2wo

= − 7.617 E − 4 6.199 E − 3 − 198

. E−3 = 0

∂y 2

∂2 w o

2 − 1913

. E−4 − 198

. E−3 7.414 E − 3 −5

∂x ∂y

Thus, we find:

∂2wo

13.82 E − 3

∂x 2

∂2wo

= 2.283 E − 3

∂y 2

∂2 w o

2 − 38.98 E − 3

∂x ∂y

5th step: We now propose to calculate strains ε (0°) for the ply at 0° (at the external line of

the layer).

{d7}

∂2 w o h

εx(0°) = - x

∂x 2

2

∂2 w o h

εy(0°) = - x

∂y 2

2

∂2w o h

γxy(0°) = - 2 x

∂x ∂y 2

Composite stress manual

Example D 5

7/7

hence:

chapter C.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

References D

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

440.227/79

J. CHAIX, 436.127/91

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations E 1

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, l, t): coordinate system specific to the unidirectional fibre

wo: displacement from plate neutral plane

(M): bending moment tensor

(χ): curvature tensor

(B): laminate stiffness matrix (membrane/bending coupling)

(C): laminate stiffness matrix (bending)

θ: fibre orientation

Et: transversal elasticity modulus of unidirectional fibre

νlt: longitudinal/transversal poisson coefficient

Glt: shear modulus of unidirectional fibre

ep: ply thickness

Composite stress manual

Introduction E 2

2 . INTRODUCTION

We have seen in chapter C that there is a relationship which binds membrane strains and

loading of the same type.

We also saw in chapter D that there is a relationship which binds the curvature tensor and

the moment tensor.

If lay-up has the mirror symmetry property, then both phenomena are dissociated and

independent. In other words, the overall relationship which binds the set of strains and the

set of loadings may be formulated as follows:

Ny A 21 A 22 A 23 0 0 0 εy

Nxy A 31 A 32 A 33 0 0 0 γ xy

= ∂2wo

Mx 0 0 0 C11 C12 C13 ∂x 2

∂2wo

My 0 0 0 C21 C 22 C23 ∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy 0 0 0 C31 C 32 C33 2

∂x ∂y

Composite stress manual

Analysis method E 3

1/2

3 . ANALYSIS METHOD

If lay-up is non-symmetrical, then all zero terms of the previous matrix become non-zero

and there is a membrane/bending coupling. Both phenomena become dependent. The

relationship between loadings and strains is thus:

e1 = ∂2wo

Mx B11 B12 B13 C11 C12 C13 ∂x 2

∂2wo

My B21 B22 B23 C21 C 22 C23 ∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy B31 B32 B33 C31 C 32 C33 2

∂x ∂y

where

æ k zk2 − zk2 − 1 ö

å

n

e2 Bij = - çç Eij ÷÷

k = 1

è 2 ø

ply No. k

zk zk - 1

neutral plane

ply No. 1

Composite stress manual

Analysis method E 3

2/2

with

Ε22(θ) = s4 Εl + c4 Εt + 2 c2 s2 (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)

Ε33(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 2 νtl Εl) + (c2 - s2)2 Glt

Ε12(θ) = Ε21(θ) = c2 s2 (Εl + Εt - 4 Glt) + (c4 + s4) νtl Εl

Ε13(θ) = Ε31(θ) = c s {c2 Εl - s2 Εt - (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

Ε23(θ) = Ε32(θ) = c s {s2 Εl - c2 Εt + (c2 - s2) (νtl Εl + 2 Glt)}

where

c ≡ cos(θ) where θ is the fibre direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y).

s ≡ sin(θ) where θ is the fibre direction in the reference coordinate system (o, x, y).

with

El

e4 Εl =

1 − ν tl νlt

Et

Εt =

1 − ν tl νlt

Remark: The terms Bij and Cij must be determined with relation to the laminate neutral

line (Kirchoff’s assumption). In this case, the neutral plane shall also be used as

a reference for the overall load pattern.

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

1/9

4 . EXAMPLE

0°: 1 ply

45°: 1 ply

135°: 1 ply

90°: 1 ply

z4 = 0.26

k = 4 (0°)

z3 = 0.13

k = 3 (45°) neutral plane

z2 = 0

k = 2 (135°)

z1 = - 0.13

k = 1 (90°)

z0 = - 0.26

El = 13000 hb

Et = 465 hb

νlt = 0.35

νtl = 0.0125

Glt = 465 hb

ep = 0.13 mm

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

2/9

The purpose of this example is to search for strains at the laminate internal and external

surfaces, knowing that the laminate is globally subject to the following fluxes in the

reference coordinate system (x, y):

Nx = 5 daN/mm

Ny = 0 daN/mm

Nxy = 0 daN/mm

Mx = 0 daN

æ mm daN ö

My = - 0.15 daN ç ÷

è mm ø

Mxy = 0 daN

My = - 0.15 daN

x Nx = 5 daN/mm

{e4}

13000

Εl = = 13057 daN/mm2

1 − 0.35 0.0125

465

Εt = = 467 daN/mm2

1 − 0.35 0.0125

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

3/9

2nd step: For each fibre direction, stiffness coefficients Εij expressed in daN/mm2, are

calculated.

{e3}

fibre at 0°

Ε11(0°) = 13057

Ε22(0°) = 467

Ε33(0°) = 465

Ε12(0°) = Ε21(0°) = 0.0125 x 13000 = 163

Ε13(0°) = Ε31(0°) = 0

Ε23(0°) = Ε32(0°) = 0

fibre at 45°

Ε11(45°) = 0.7074 13057 + 0.7074 467 + 2 x 0.7072 0.7072 (0.0125 x 13057 + 2 x 465) = 3925

Ε22(45°) = 0.7074 13057 + 0.7074 467 + 2 x 0.7072 0.7072 (0.0125 x 13057 + 2 x 465) = 3925

Ε33(45°) = 0.7072 0.7072 (13057 + 467 - 2 x 0.0125 x 13057) = 3297

Ε12(45°) = Ε21(45°) = 0.7072 0.7072 (13057 + 467 - 4 x 465) (0.7074 + 0.7074) x 0.0125 x 13057 = 2995

Ε13(45°) = Ε31(45°) = 0.707 x 0.707 {0.7072 13057 - 0.7072 467} = 3146

Ε23(45°) = Ε32(45°) = 0.707 x 0.707 {0.7072 13057 - 0.7072 467} = 3146

fibre at 135°

Ε11(135°) = 3925

Ε22(135°) = 3925

Ε33(135°) = 3297

Ε12(135°) = Ε21(135°) = 2995

Ε13(135°) = Ε31(135°) = - 3146

Ε23(135°) = Ε32(135°) = - 3146

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

4/9

fibre at 90°

Ε11(90°) = 467

Ε22(90°) = 13057

Ε33(90°) = 465

Ε12(90°) = Ε21(90°) = 163

Ε13(90°) = Ε31(90°) = 0

Ε23(90°) = Ε32(90°) = 0

3rd step: Calculation of laminate (membrane) stiffness matrix (A) coefficients Aij expressed

in daN/mm.

{c6}

A11 = (467 x 0.13 + 3925 x 0.13 + 3925 x 0.13 + 13057 x 0.13)

A12 = (163 x 0.13 + 2995 x 0.13 + 2995 x 0.13 + 163 x 0.13)

A13 = (0 x 0.13 - 3146 x 0.13 + 3146 x 0.13 + 0 x 0.13)

A21 = (163 x 0.13 + 2995 x 0.13 + 2995 x 0.13 + 163 x 0.13)

A22 = (13057 x 0.13 + 3925 x 0.13 + 3925 x 0.13 + 467 x 0.13)

A23 = (0 x 0.13 - 3146 x 0.13 + 3146 x 0.13 + 0 x 0.13)

A31 = (0 x 0.13 - 3146 x 0.13 + 3146 x 0.13 + 0 x 0.13)

A32 = (0 x 0.13 - 3146 x 0.13 + 3146 x 0.13 + 0 x 0.13)

A33 = (465 x 0.13 + 3297 x 0.13 + 3297 x 0.13 + 465 x 0.13)

hence

A11 = 2779

A12 = 821

A13 = 0

A21 = 821

A22 = 2779

A23 = 0

A31 = 0

A32 = 0

A33 = 978

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

5/9

4th step: Calculation of laminate (bending) inertia matrix (C) coefficients Cij expressed in

daN mm.

{d3}

æ (− 013

3

. ) − (− 0.26)

3 3

0 − (− 013

. )

3

013

.

3

− 0

3 3

0.26 − 013

.

3

ö

C11 = ç 467 + 3925 + 3925 + 13057 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ (− 013

3

. ) − (− 0.26)

3 3

0 − (− 0.13)

3

013

.

3

− 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C12 = ç163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ ( − 0.13) 3 − (− 0.26) 3 3

0 − (− 0.13)

3 3

0.13 − 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C13 = ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ (− 013

3

. ) − (− 0.26)

3 3

0 − (− 013

. )

3

013

.

3

− 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C21 = ç163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ (− 013

3

. ) − (− 0.26)

3 3

0 − (− 013

. )

3

013

.

3

− 0

3 3

0.26 − 013

.

3

ö

C22 = ç13057 + 3925 + 3925 + 467 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ (− 0.13) 3 − (− 0.26) 3 3

0 − (− 0.13)

3 3

0.13 − 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C23 = ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ ( − 0.13) 3 − (− 0.26) 3 3

0 − (− 0.13)

3 3

0.13 − 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C31 = ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ ( − 0.13) 3 − (− 0.26) 3 3

0 − ( − 0.13)

3 3

0.13 − 0

3

0.26 − 0.13 ö

3 3

C32 = ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

æ (− 013

3

. ) − (− 0.26)

3 3

0 − (− 013

. )

3 3

0.13 − 0

3 3

0.26 − 013

.

3

ö

C33 = ç 465 + 3297 + 3297 + 465 ÷

è 3 3 3 3 ø

hence

C11 = 75.1

C12 = 6.06

C13 = 0

C21 = 6.06

C22 = 75.1

C23 = 0

C31 = 0

C32 = 0

C33 = 9.59

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

6/9

5th step: Calculation of membrane - bending coupling coefficients Bij expressed in daN.

{e2}

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13 )

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B11 = - ç 467 + 3925 + 3925 + 13057 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13)

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13)

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B12 = - ç 163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13 )

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B13 = - ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13)

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13)

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B21 = - ç 163 + 2995 + 2995 + 163 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13)

2

− ( − 0.26)

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13)

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0,26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B22 = - ç 13057 + 3925 + 3925 + 467 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13 )

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B23 = - ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13 )

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B31 = - ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13 )

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B32 = - ç 0 − 3146 + 3146 + 0 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

æ ( − 0.13 )

2

− ( − 0.26 )

2

0

2

− ( − 0.13)

2

0.13

2

− 0

2

0.26

2

− 0.13

2

ö

B33 = - ç 465 + 3297 + 3297 + 465 ÷

è 2 2 2 2 ø

hence

B11 = - 319

B12 = 0

B13 = - 53.2

B21 = 0

B22 = 319

B23 = - 53.2

B31 = - 53.2

B32 = - 53.2

B33 = 0

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

7/9

{e1}

Nx A 11 A 12 A 13 B 11 B 12 B 13 εx

Ny A 21 A 22 A 23 B 21 B 22 B 23 εy

Nxy A 31 A 32 A 33 B 31 B 32 B 33 γ xy

= ∂2wo

Mx B 11 B 12 B 13 C 11 C 12 C 13 ∂x 2

∂2wo

My B 21 B 22 B 23 C 21 C 22 C 23 ∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy B 31 B 32 B 33 C 31 C 32 C 33 2

∂x ∂y

then

= ∂2wo

Mx − 319 0 53.2 75.1 6.06 0 ∂x 2

∂2wo

My 0 319 53.2 6.06 75.1 0 ∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy 53.2 53.2 0 0 0 9.59 2

∂x ∂y

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

8/9

x x

y y

xy xy

∂2w

o

= 5.00 x E − 3 − 2.0 x E − 3 2.33 x E − 3 3.57 x E − 2 7.23 x E − 3 1.67 x E − 2 M

x

∂x 2

2

∂ w

o

2.00 x E − 3 − 5.0 x E − 3 2.33 x E − 3 7.23 x E − 3 3.57 x E − 2 − 1.67 x E − 2 M

y

∂y 2

∂2w

o

2 3.61 x E − 3 3.61 x E − 3 0 1.67 x E − 2 − 1.67 x E − 2 1.44 x E − 1 M

∂x ∂y xy

By replacing loading by values quoted at the beginning of the example in the previous

relationship, we find:

εy − 174

. E − 3 mm / mm (− 1740 µd)

γ xy . E − 3 mm / mm

154 (1540 µd)

∂2wo =

∂x 2 2.38 E − 2 mm −1

∂2wo

∂y 2 4.57 E − 3 mm −1

∂2 wo

2 2.05 E − 2 mm −1

∂x ∂y

Composite stress manual

Example E 4

9/9

To do this, membrane strains (εx, εy, γxy) are added to strains resulting from the bending

æ ∂2wo h ∂ wo

2

h ∂2wo hö

effect ç x , x , 2 x ÷

è ∂x

2

2 ∂y 2

2 ∂x ∂y 2 ø

{d7}

∂2 w o h

εx(0°) = εx - x

∂x 2

2

∂2 w o h

εy(0°) = εy - x

∂y 2

2

∂2wo h

γxy(0°) = γxy - 2 x

∂x ∂y 2

hence:

εy (0°) = - 1.74 E-3 + (-1) x 4.57 E-3 x 0.26 = - 2928 µd

γxy (0°) = - 1.54 E-3 + (-1) x 2.05 E-2 x 0.26 = - 3790 µd

εy (90°) = - 1.74 E-3 + 4.57 E-3 x 0.26 = - 552 µd

γxy (90°) = + 1.54 E-3 + 2.05 E-2 x 0.26 = 6870 µd

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

References E

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

440.227/79

J. CHAIX, 436.127/91

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations F 1

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, l, t): coordinate system specific to the unidirectional fibre

Et: transversal elasticity modulus of unidirectional fibre

νlt: longitudinal/transversal Poisson coefficient

νtl: transversal/longitudinal Poisson coefficient

Glt: shear modulus of unidirectional fibre

ep: ply thickness

θ: fibre orientation

El: laminate overall inertia with relation to the (moduli weighted) neutral axis

E Wk: static moment with relation to the (moduli weighted) neutral axis of the set of plies k

to n

τ: shear stress

Composite stress manual

Introduction F 2

2 . INTRODUCTION

plate subject to a shear load flux.

For simplification purposes, we shall assume that the laminate is made up of n identical

fibres but with different directions.

z

Tyz > 0

y

z

Txz > 0

x

y

θ

k=n

ep

k=1

Layer No. k in direction θ has the following longitudinal elasticity modulus with relation to

the reference coordinate system (o, x, y):

1

f1 Ek = see chapter C3.

c4

s 4

æ 1 ν ö

+ + c 2 s2 ç − 2 tl ÷

El Et è Glt Et ø

with

c ≡ cos(θ)

s ≡ sin(θ)

Composite stress manual

Introduction - Analysis method F 2

3

1/5

We shall assume that shear load Txz (direction z load shearing a plane perpendicular to x-

axis) creates stress τxz and, based on the reciprocity principle, stress τzx.

Similarly, we shall assume that shear load Tyz (direction z load shearing a plane

perpendicular to y-axis) creates stress τyz and, based on the reciprocity principle, stress

τzy.

τzy

τzx

τyz

τxz

y

Tyz

Txz

3 . ANALYSIS METHOD

To calculate interlaminar stresses τxz (τzx) generated by shear load Txz (Tyz), use the

following methodology.

We shall only consider the case of a laminate subject to shear load Txz. The analysis

principle is the same for Tyz.

In this case, inertias (El) and static moments (E W k) are measured with relation to y-axis.

Elasticity moduli (Ek) are measured with relation to x-axis.

Composite stress manual

Analysis method F 3

2/5

1st step: The position of the laminate neutral axis is determined. If the laminate lower fibre

is used as a reference, then the neutral axis is defined by dimension zg, so that:

å ( )

n

E k z k2 − z k2 − 1

k =1

f2 zg =

2å

n

(

Ek z k − zk − 1

k =1

)

z

ply No. n

ply No. k

zg

zk

zk - 1

z1 ply No. 1

y

z0 = 0

2nd step: The (moduli weighted) bending stiffness of laminate El is determined with relation

to the lay-up neutral axis

(z )

3

− zk − 1 æ zk + zk − 1 ö

2

f3 El = å

n

k =1

Ek

k

12

+ å

n

k =1

(

Ek z k − z k − 1 ) ç

è 2

− zg ÷

ø

ply No. k

zk zk - 1

zg

Composite stress manual

Analysis method F 3

3/5

3rd step: Then the (elasticity moduli weighted) static moment E W k (of the material surface

located above the line where interlaminar stress is to be calculated), is determined. This

static moment shall be calculated with relation to the plate neutral axis.

If the line is a fibre interface surface (z = zk - 1), then we have the following relationship:

æ zi + z i − 1 ö

f4 E Wk = å

n

i=k

(

Ei z i − z i − 1 ç

è

) 2

− zg ÷

ø

z

ply No. k

zk zk - 1

zg

zk + zk − 1

If the line is situated at the centre of a fibre at z = , the relationship becomes:

2

z i + zi

f5 E Wk = å

n

i = k

(

Ei zi − zi − 1 ) æçè 2

− 1 ö

− zg ÷ −

ø

æ zk + z k − 1 ö æ zk + z k − 1 zk − 1 ö

Ek ç − zk − 1÷ ç + − zg ÷

è 2 ø è 4 2 ø

z

z +z

k k − 1

ply No. k

2

zg

zk zk - 1

Composite stress manual

Analysis method F 3

4/5

Txz . E Wk

f6 τxzk =

El

By using this analysis method for each ply interface (or at the center of each ply for

greater accuracy), it is possible to plot the interlaminar shear stress diagram over the

entire plate width.

The previous relationship shows that the shear stress is maximum when the static

moment is maximum as well, i.e. at the neutral axis (z = zg).

z z

τxzk

ply No. k

τzxk

zg

τxz y

Remark: The previous analysis is based on a shear load flux Txz applied to a section

perpendicular to x-axis.

In the case of any section forming an angle β in the coordinate system (o, x, y), the shear

load flux in this new section may be expressed as a function of Txz and Tyz.

Composite stress manual

Analysis method F 3

5/5

T(β + π/2)

ds

T(β)

-Txz

β

x

-Tyz

As shown in the drawing above, the z equilibrium of the hatched material element leads to

the following relationship:

hence:

æ Tyz ö

It is easy to show that for β = Arctg ç ÷ , a modulus extremum T(β) (called main shear

è Txz ø

load flux) is reached that is equal to:

Example: if shear load fluxes Txz and Tyz are equal, then the maximum shear load flux is

located in the plane with a direction β = 45°. Its modulus equals 2 Txy (or 2 Tyz).

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

1/9

4 . EXAMPLE

0°: 1 ply

45°: 1 ply

135°: 1 ply

90°: 1 ply

0°

45°

135°

90°

Et = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

νlt = 0.35

νtl = 0.0125

Glt = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

ep = 0.13 mm

e = 0.52 mm

The purpose of this example is to search for interlaminar shear stresses in the laminate,

knowing that it is subject to the following shear load flux:

x

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

2/9

Knowing the mechanical properties of the unidirectional fibre, elasticity moduli of each

fibre should be calculated in direction x.

{f1}

1

E2 = 4 4

0.707 0.707 æ 1 0.0125 ö

+ + 0.707 2 0.707 2 ç − 2 ÷

13000 465 è 465 13000 ø

{f2}

465 (0.13 2 − 0 2 ) + 925 (0.26 2 − 0.13 2 ) + 925 (0.39 2 − 0.26 2 ) + 13000 (0.522 − 0.39 2 )

zg =

2 ( 465 (0.13 − 0) + 925 (0.26 − 0.13) + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) + 13000 (0.52 − 0.39 ))

zg = 0.42 mm

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

3/9

z4 = 0.52

z3 = 0.39

z2 = 0.26

zg = 0.42

z1 = 0.13

z0 = 0

2nd step: Analysis of the laminate bending stiffness El with relation to the neutral axis

{f3}

El = 465 + 925 +

12 12

925 + 13000 +

12 12

2

æ 0.13 + 0 ö

465 (0.13 − 0) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø

2

æ 0.26 + 0.13 ö

925 (0.26 − 0.13) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø

2

æ 0.39 + 0.26 ö

925 (0.39 − 0.26) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø

2

æ 0.52 + 0.39 ö

13000 (0.52 − 0.39) ç − 0.42 ÷

è 2 ø

El = 19.67 daN.mm

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

4/9

3rd step: Analysis of static moments E W k (with relation to the neutral line) at the base and

center of each ply.

{f4}

E W 4 = 0 daN

z

0°

45°

135°

90° y

{f5}

æ 0.52 + 0.39 ö

E W 4 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39 ) ç − 0.42 ÷ −

è 2 ø

13000 ç − 0.39 ÷ ç + − 0.42 ÷

è 2 øè 4 2 ø

E W 4 = 59.15 - 2.11

E W 4 = 57.04 daN

0°

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

5/9

{f4}

æ 0.52 + 0.39 ö

E W 4 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39 ) ç − 0.42 ÷

è 2 ø

E W 4 = 59.15 daN

z

0°

{f5}

E W 3 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) ç − 0.42 ÷

è 2 ø è 2 ø

− 925 ç − 0.26 ÷ ç + − 0.42 ÷

è 2 øè 2 2 ø

E W 3 = 55.4 daNp

45°

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

6/9

{f4}

E W 3 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) ç − 0.42 ÷

è 2 ø è 2 ø

E W 3 = 59.15 - 11.42

E W 3 = 47.73 daN

z

45°

{f5}

E W 2 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø è 2 ø

æ 0.26 + 0.13 ö

925 (0.26 − 0.13) ç − 0.42 ÷ −

è 2 ø

925 ç − 0.13 ÷ ç + − 0.42 ÷

è 2 øè 4 2 ø

E W 2 = 35.35 daN

z

135°

y

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

7/9

{f4}

E W 2 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø è 2 ø

æ 0.26 + 0.13 ö

925 (0.26 − 0.13 ) ç − 0.42 ÷

è 2 ø

E W 2 = 19.87 daN

z

135°

y

{f5}

E W 1 = 13000 (0.52 − 0.39 ) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 925 (0.39 − 0.26 ) ç − 0.42 ÷ +

è 2 ø è 2 ø

925 (0.26 − 0.13) ç − 0.42 ÷ + 465 (0.13 − 0) ç − 0.42 ÷ −

è 2 ø è 2 ø

æ 0.13 + 0 ö æ 0.13 + 0 0 ö

465 ç − 0÷ ç + − 0.42 ÷

è 2 øè 4 2 ø

z

E W 1 = 10.12 daN

90°

y

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

8/9

{f4}

E W 1 = 0 daN

90° y

Composite stress manual

B

Example F 4

9/9

In the example given, it is located at the point where the static moment is maximum, i.e. at

the base of the ply at 0°. Its value equals at E W 0 = 59.15 daN, which gives stress τxz0:

{f6}

0.7 x 59.15

τxz0 = = 2.1 hb (21 MPa)

19.67

If these interlaminar shear stresses are analysed for each fibre, stresses are distributed

along the laminate thickness as follows:

0.7 E Wk

τxzk =

19.67

0.52

0.455

0.39

0.325

z (mm) 0.26

0.195

0.13

0.065

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

τ (hb)

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

References F

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Notations G 1

1 . NOTATIONS

σt (σ2): transversal stress in unidirectional fibre

τlt (σ6): shear stress in unidirectional fibre

εt (ε2): transversal strain in unidirectional fibre

γlt (ε6): shear strain in unidirectional fibre

Rlt: allowable longitudinal tension stress

Rlc: allowable longitudinal compression stress

Rtt: allowable transversal tension stress

Rtc: allowable transversal compression stress

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Inventory G 2

The purpose of this chapter is to describe various failure criteria of the unidirectional fibre

within a laminate.

The following criteria shall be presented in chronological order (this is not an exhaustive

list):

- Puck's criterion

- Hill's criterion

- Norris's criterion

- Fischer's criterion

- Hoffman's criterion

For three-dimensional criteria, we shall assume that the composite material is subjected to

the following stress tensor and strain tensor:

For two-dimensional criteria, we shall assume that the unidirectional fibre is subjected to

the following stress tensor and strain tensor:

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Maximum stress criterion G 2.1

for 1 ≤ i ≤ 6

or

σi = - X'i for compression stresses

For the two-dimensional case, the failure envelope may be represented as follows:

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Maximum strain criterion G 2.2

for 1 ≤ i ≤ 6

or

εi = - Y'i for compression strains

For the two-dimensional case, the failure envelope may be represented as follows:

εt

εl

γlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Norris and Mac Kinnon's criterion G 2.3

å

6

C i (σ i ) 2 = 1

1

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Puck's criterion G 2.4

or

σ1 = - X'1 for compression stresses

and

2 2 2

æ σ1 ö æσ ö æτ ö

g4 ç ÷ + ç 2 ÷ + ç 12 ÷ = 1

è X1 ø è X2 ø è X6 ø

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Hill's criterion G 2.5

This criterion is valid for orthotropic materials or for slightly anisotropic materials only.

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Norris's criterion G 2.6

and for 1 ≤ i ≤ 6

or

σi = - X'i for compression stresses

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Fischer's criterion G 2.7

2 2 2

æ σl ö æσ ö σ σ æτ ö

g7 ç ÷ + ç t ÷ − K l t + ç lt ÷ = 1

è X1 ø è X2 ø X1 X 2 è X 6 ø

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Hoffman's criterion FAILURE CRITERIA G 2.8

C1 (σ2 - σ3)2 + C2 (σ3 - σ1)2 + C3 (σ1 - σ2)2 + C4 (σ4)2 + C6 (σ6)2 + C5 (σ5)2 + C'1 σ1 + C'2 σ2 +

C'3 σ3 = 1

Coefficients C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C'1, C'2 and C'3 depend on the material used.

σt

σl

τlt

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Tsaï - Wu's criterion G 2.9

This criterion intends to be as general as possible and then, there is, a priori, no particular

hypothesis.

For 1 ≤ i ≤ 6

Σ Fi σi + Σ Fij σi σj + Σ Fijk σi σj σk + … = 1

g9 F1 σl + F2 σt + F6 τlt + F11 (σl)2 + F22 (σt)2 + F66 (τlt)2 + 2 F12 σl σt + 2 F26 σt τlt + 2 F16 σl τlt = 1

Coefficient F1, F2, F6, F11, F22, F66, F12, F26 and F16 depend on the material used.

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Aerospatiale's criterion G 3

1/2

As seen previously, Hill's criterion is, in its general form, formulated as follows:

This non-interactive criterion is applicable at the elementary ply only. There is a laminate

failure when the most highly loaded layer is broken.

2 H = (1/Rl)2

2 2

æσ ö æσ ö æτ ö

2

æσ σ ö

g10 2

There is a failure if h = ç l ÷ + ç t÷ + ç lt ÷ − ç l 2 t÷ = 1

è Rl ø è Rt ø è Sø è Rl ø

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Aerospatiale's criterion G 3

2/2

1 1

g11 RF = =

h 2

æ σt ö

2 2

æ σl σ t ö

æ σl ö æ τ lt ö

ç ÷ + ç ÷ + ç ÷ +ç ÷

è Rl ø è Rt ø è Sø 2

è Rl ø

This criterion is the one used by Aerospatiale. In order to avoid having a premature

theoretical failure in the resin, the transversal modulus Et was considerably reduced (by a

coefficient 2 approximately) with relation to the average values measured.

This "design" value is determined so that the transversal strain is greater than the

longitudinal one.

The allowable plane shear value S of the unidirectional fibre was determined for having, a

B good test/calculation correlation and significant tension and compression failures of

notched or unnotched laminates.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Example G 4

1/4

4 . EXAMPLE

Hill's criterion shall be applied to the example considered in the chapter "plain plate -

membrane". Stresses applied to fibres are calculated and presented in the corresponding

chapter (C.6) and quoted in the following pages.

0°: 6 plies

45°: 4 plies

135°: 4 plies

90°: 6 plies

Et = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

νlt = 0.35

Glt = 465 hb (4650 MPa)

Rlc = 100 hb (1000 MPa)

Rtt = 5 hb (50 MPa)

Rtc = 12 hb (120 MPa)

S = 7.5 hb (75 MPa)

The laminate is globally subjected to the three following load fluxes in the reference

coordinate system (x, y) (see chapter C.6) :

Nx = 30.83 daN/mm

Ny = - 2.22 daN/mm

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Example G 4

2/4

σl = 29.42 hb

σt = 0.06 hb

τlt = 5.03 hb

{g10}

2 2 2

æ 29.42 ö æ 0.06 ö æ 5.03 ö æ 29.42 x 0.06 ö

÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ −ç ÷ =1

2

h = ç

è 120 ø è 5 ø è 7 .5 ø è 120 2 ø

{g11}

1 1

Reserve Factor: R.F. = = = 14

.

h2 0.51

σl = 80.17 hb

σt = - 1.14 hb

τlt = - 1.36 hb

{f10}

2 2

æ − 114 æ − 136 æ 80.17 x (− 114

2

æ 80.17 ö . ö . ö . )ö

h2 = ç ÷ + ç ÷ + ç ÷ − ç ÷

è 120 ø è 12 ø è 7.5 ø è 120 2 ø

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Example G 4

3/4

{g11}

1

Reserve Factor: R.F. = = 142

.

0.498

Margin ≈ 42 %

σl = - 59.17 hb

σt = 2.14 hb

τlt = 1.36 hb

{g10}

2

æ − 59.17 ö æ − 59.17 x 2.14 ö

2 2

æ 2.14 ö æ 136

. ö

h2 = ç ÷ + ç ÷ + ç ÷ − ç ÷

è 100 ø è 5 ø è 7.5 ø è 100 2 ø

{g11}

1

Reserve Factor: R.F. = = 131

.

0.579

Margin ≈ 31 %

Composite stress manual

FAILURE CRITERIA

Example G 4

4/4

σl = - 8.42 hb

σt = 0.95 hb

τlt = - 5.03 hb

{g10}

2 2

æ − 8.42 ö æ − 5.03 ö æ − 8.42 x 0.95 ö

2

æ 0.95 ö

2

h = ç ÷ + ç ÷ + ç ÷ − ç ÷

è 100 ø è 5 ø è 7.5 ø è 100 2 ø

{g11}

1

Reserve Factor: R.F. = = 142

.

0.494

Margin ≈ 42 %

Composite stress manual

References G

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations I 1

1 . NOTATIONS

Ny: y-direction normal flow

Nxy: shear flow

εti: transverse strain fibre “i”

γlti: angular slip of fibre “i”

γadm: permissible slip of unidirectional fibre

σti: transverse stress of fibre “i”

τlti: shear stress of fibre “i”

Rt: permissible transverse stress of unidirectional fibre

S: permissible shear stress of unidirectional stress

κS: reduction coefficient for permissible shear stress

Composite stress manual

Introduction I 2

2 . INTRODUCTION

The regulatory requirements in terms of structural justification concern, on the one hand,

the static strength JAR § 25.305 and, on the other hand, fatigue + damage tolerance JAR

§ 25.571. For the latter, three cases are to be considered:

- § 25.571 (c) Safe-life evaluation

* § 25.571 (d) Discrete Source

For the static strength evaluation, Acceptable Means of Compliance ACJ 25.603 § 5.8

requests resistance to ultimate loads with "realistic" impact damage susceptible to be

produced in production and in service. This damage must be at the limit of the

detectability threshold defined by the selected inspection procedure. Also, static strength

must be demonstrated after application of mechanical fatigue (§ 5.2) and test specimens

must have minimum quality level, that is, containing the permissible manufacturing flaws

(§ 5.5) and "realistic" impact damage.

The static strength range is defined therefore for a detection threshold and by a "realistic"

cut-off energy leading to "realistic" impacts.

Detection threshold

(impact depth in mm)

detectability

threshold limit

Low thickness

Static strength

range

High thickness

Impact energy

energy cut-off energy

Composite stress manual

2

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE TOLERANCE

Introduction I 3

3.1

Distinction is made between the range above the detectability threshold where all damage

will be detectable and the range above the static cut-off energy and below the detectability

threshold where the damage will never be detected.

In this "Damage tolerance" section, we shall discuss both manufacturing defects and

impact damage for the static justification and the fatigue-damage tolerance justification.

Distinction is made between damage which may occur during manufacture and that which

occurs in service.

resulting from anomalies, during the manufacturing process and also edge cuts, unwanted

routing, surface scratches, surface folds, damage attachment holes and impact damage

(see § 3.2.3).

Damage, outside of the curing process, can occur a detail part or component level during

the assembly phases or during transport or on flight line before delivery to the customer.

routine quality inspections.

For all composite parts, the acceptance/scrapping criteria must be defined by the Design

Office. Acceptable damage/flaws are incorporated into the ultimate load justification by

analysis and into the test specimens to demonstrate the tolerance of the structure to this

damage throughout the life of the aircraft.

Composite stress manual

Fatigue damage I 3.2

3.2.1

This damage occurs in service in a random manner. Distinction is made between three

types of damage:

- fatigue,

- corrosion and environmental effects,

- accidental.

Composite materials are said to be insensitive to fatigue; more exactly, their mechanical

properties are such that the static dimensioning requirements naturally cover the fatigue

dimensioning requirements. This is valid for a laminate submitted to plane loads, less than

60 % of ultimate load. However, complex areas or areas with a sudden variation in rigidity

may favour the appearance of delaminations under triaxial loads.

Today, it is very difficult to (analytically or numerically) model the growth rate of a possible

flaw. This is why a "safe-life" justification philosophy has been adopted. It is based on two

principles which must be underpinned by experimental results:

- no-growth of damage of tolerable size.

On account of the dispersion proper to composites and the form of the "Wohler" curves

associated with them (relatively flat curve with low gradient), the factor 5 normally used on

metallic structures for the number of lives to be simulated during a fatigue test, was

replaced by a load factor.

FATIGUE).

Composite stress manual

Corrosion damage - Environmental effects I 3.2.2

a) Corrosion

metallic materials can cause galvanic coupling liable to damage certain metal alloys.

For information purposes, the table below shows various carbon/metal pairs over a scale

ranging from A to E.

We consider that type A and B couplings are correct and that those of types C, D and E

are not.

Coupling with carbon

correct

B Monel, inconel

Coupling with carbon to

be avoided

b) Environmental effects

separation, delamination, translaminar cracks, etc.

ENVIRONMENT).

Composite stress manual

Accidental damage - Inspection of damage I 3.2.3

4

This is the most important type of damage and the damage most liable to call into

question the structural strength of the part. It can occur during the manufacture of the item

(drilling delamination) or in service (drop of a maintenance tool, hail or bird strikes).

4 . INSPECTION OF DAMAGE

damage detection. This is true both during manufacture and in service. In service, the

detectability threshold depends on the type of scheduled in-service inspection. There are

four types of inspections:

for the following differences. The examination requires some special technique such as

non-destructive test techniques, dye penetrant, high-powered magnification, etc., and

may required disassembly procedures.

This type of inspection is mainly conducted during production but can be used

exceptionally in service.

searches for evidence of irregularity using adequate lighting and, where necessary,

inspection aids such as mirrors, hand lens, etc. Surface cleaning and elaborate access

procedures may be required.

This type of inspection enables BVID (Barely Visible Impact Damage) to be detected.

Composite stress manual

4

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE TOLERANCE

Inspection of damage I 4.1

4.2

This type of inspection may require removal of fillets, fairings, access panels/doors, etc.

Workstands, ladders, etc. may be required to gain access.

Inspection - Walk Around Check (ref: Maintenance Review Board Document: MRB):

In general, the Walk Around check is considered as a general daily visual inspection.

These inspections are conducted with bulky facilities: ultrasonic, thermographic, X-rays,

etc. Minimum detectable sizes are related to the size of the U.S. probes and the accuracy

of the tools used, etc.

This type of damage is called BVID (Barely Visible Impact Damage). The geometrical

detectability criteria are as follows (cf. ref. 22S 002 10504):

δ"

Depth of flaw "δ Outside box structure

(broken fibres)

Mean 0.1 mm 0.3 mm

Composite stress manual

Inspection of damage I 4.3

4.4

This type of damage is called Minor VID (Minor Visible Impact Damage). The geometrical

detectability criteria are as follows (cf. ref. 22S 002 10504):

δ"

Depth of flaw "δ Size of perforation

2 mm

or thickness of structure 20 mm ∅

if < 2 mm

This type of damage is called Large VID (Large Visible Impact Damage). The geometrical

detectability criteria are not explicitly defined but the damage must be detectable without

ambiguities during a Walk Around Check.

The diagram below summarises these four detectability levels according the size of the

damage.

Special Detailed General

detailed visual visual

inspection inspection inspection Walk around

Size of

BVID Minor Large damage

VID VID

diameter 20 mm ∅ 50/60 mm ∅

Composite stress manual

Classification of damage I 4.5

Depending on the type of visual inspection considered during the maintenance phases

(general or detailed), we will define three clearly separate detectability ranges:

- Obvious detectable damage.

These ranges are positioned as follows on the previously defined detectability scale:

Damage Inevitably

Undetectable susceptible to detectable

damage be detected damage

DVI WA

VID VID

Damage Inevitably

Undetectable susceptible to detectable

damage be detected damage

GVI WA

VID VID

Composite stress manual

4.5

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE TOLERANCE

Influence of damage - Porosity I 5

5.1

5.1.1

Remark: Note that certain authors define the BVID notion according to the type of

inspection selected.

In this case, for a general inspection: MINOR VID ≡ BVID

In our document, we will conserve the initial definition related to the visual

detailed inspection.

5.1.1 . Porosity

→ Description

By "porosity", we mean a heterogeneity of the matrix leading, more often than not, to lack

of inter- or intra-layer cohesion, generally small in size, but distributed uniformly or almost

throughout the complete thickness of the laminate. Note that for unidirectional tapes the

porosities have a tendency to be located between the layers whereas, for fabrics, they are

more generally located where the weft and warp threads cross. The porosity ratio given is

a surface porosity ratio measured by the ultrasonic attenuation method. The permissible

absorption level is fixed at 12 dB irrespective of the thickness inspected (cf. note

440.241/90 issue 2 - SIAM curve). All absorption areas above this limit will be considered

as a delamination and meet therefore the same criteria as a delamination.

However, only T300/N5208, more fluid than T300/BSL914 has a higher tendency to be

porous.

Composite stress manual

Porosity I 5.1.1

The test results were interpolated, for the V10F wing, on T300/N5208 with various

porosity ratios distributed in all interply areas to determine the influence on the mechanical

characteristics for a 3 % ratio considered as the acceptable limit. This ratio combined with

the fatigue, ageing and residual test effects at 80° C, led to the following losses in

mechanical characteristics:

3 % porosity

Loss of characteristics

T300/N5208 Loss of characteristics

after F + VC1 + 80° C

after F + VC1 + 80° C

BENDING - 15 % - 19 %

COMPRESSION - 20 % - 19 %

- 20 % - 19 %

stress) joint not supported

interlaminar shear. However, let us recall:

- that the spar boxes of the wings, movable surfaces or fin are subjected to very low

interlaminar stresses,

- that the 3 % porosity criterion distributed at all interply areas is today no longer

applied to primary structures. The permissible porosity ratio depends on the thickness

of the laminate.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations outside stiffener I 5.1.2

5.1.2.1

1/5

5.1.2 . Delaminations

tensile failure of the resin or, more simply, by forgetting a foreign body.

→ Description

A skin bottom delamination is a lack of cohesion between two well-defined plies. Natural

delaminations appear during manufacture (surface contamination). A foreign body left in

the laminate (separator) will be considered as a delamination.

For the V10F wing, a lack of interlayer cohesion up to 400 mm2 leads to a loss of

compression strength of around 10 % for the two materials (T300/N5208 and

T300/BSL914) tested in new condition at θ = 80° C. In aged/fatigue condition the drop in

strength is 20 % for T300/N5208 and 13 % for T300/BSL914 in relation to the new

state/80° C reference. Fatigue leads to no growth of the flaw.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations outside stiffener I 5.1.2.1

2/5

Þ Fastener areas

→ Description

As for the skin bottom delaminations, the lack of cohesion in these areas occurs between

two well-defined plies, sometimes at several levels but generally adjacent. These flaws

come through to the bore. They are created during the drilling operations. The ultrasonic

inspections conducted after each test case showed no evolution of existing flaws.

damage ∅

The parameter representing the size of the damage is the number given by: φ =

fastener ∅

damage Ø

fastener Ø

Vb

The parameter representing the drop in characteristics is the number given by: ν =

Vc

where Vb represents the "B value" (see section Y) relevant to all tests characterising the

material and where Vc is the calculation value used. Provided that the calculation value is

lower than the "B value", the integrity of the item is ensured. For safety reasons, we will

impose a minimum margin of 10 % between the calculated value and the "b value".

Composite stress manual

Delaminations outside stiffener I 5.1.2.1

3/5

ν

- if ν < 1.1: after reduction, the new reserve factor is equal to RF’ = RF

1.1

The values of ν are given by the graphs in section Z for the prepreg epoxy carbon fibre

T300/914.

Generally speaking, the graphs gives the values of ν for the flaw (delamination) but also

for repairs which may be made on it (injection of resin, NAS cup). They enable you to find

therefore:

- what type of repair is to be chosen.

area is greater than:

Ø 3.2 4.1 4.8 6.35 7.92 9.52

These permissible delamination values are valid only for isolated delaminations.

For delaminated hole concentrations and irrespective of the size of the delaminations, the

flaw must be covered by a concession if:

- for aligned fasteners, more than 20 % of the holes are delaminated and/or two flaws

are less than 5 fastener pitches apart,

- for a delamination at a fastener or of another skin bottom area, they are less than

120 mm apart.

Ø 3.2 4.1 4.8 6.35 7.92 9.52

These permissible delamination values are valid only for isolated delaminations.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations outside stiffener I 5.1.2.1

4/5

For delaminated hole concentrations and irrespective of the size of the delaminations, the

flaw must be covered by a concession if:

- for aligned fastener, more than 10 % of the holes are delaminated and/or two flaws

are less than 5 fastener pitches apart,

- for a delamination at a fastener or of another skin bottom area, they are less than

120 mm apart.

• if the flaws are located on several rows, they must be covered by a concession

if they are less than 175 mm apart.

The table below summarises the repair solutions to be applied when delaminations are

detected at fastener holes in materials T300/914, G803/914 and HTA/EH25 depending on

the loads and the damage ∅ ratio.

fastener ∅

- for a pure load, the repair or untreated delamination must resist ultimate loads under

the most severe environmental conditions,

- for a pure bearing stress test, the calculation value Vc is taken as reference. The

Vb

repair will not be acceptable if is lower than 1.

Vc

The validation range of the acceptable solutions given in the table below is damage ∅ ≤ 6.

fastener ∅

Composite stress manual

Delaminations outside stiffener I 5.1.2.1

5/5

Load Condition NAS cup

delamination vent hole injection

Pure tensile

Aged-wet Acceptable Unacceptable - Acceptable

Acceptable

New damage ∅ Acceptable - Acceptable

< 4

Bearing fastener ∅

Tensile Acceptable Acceptable

Aged-wet damage ∅ damage ∅ - Acceptable

< 4.5 < 4.5

fastener ∅ fastener ∅

Acceptable

New Unacceptable Unacceptable Unacceptable damage ∅

< 5

fastener ∅

Pure

Acceptable

compression Acceptable

damage ∅

Aged-wet Unacceptable < 2.5 Acceptable damage ∅

< 5.25

fastener ∅

fastener ∅

New damage ∅ damage ∅ damage ∅ damage ∅

< 4.75 < 2 < 5.25 < 5.25

Bearing fastener ∅ fastener ∅ fastener ∅ fastener ∅

compression Acceptable

Aged-wet damage ∅ Unacceptable Unacceptable Acceptable

< 4

fastener ∅

Without

Acceptable Unacceptable - Acceptable

bending

Bending Acceptable in

JOINT tensile Acceptable Unacceptable -

1000 µd "hollow"

Bending

Acceptable Unacceptable - Unacceptable

2500 µd

Without

Unacceptable Unacceptable - Acceptable

bending

JOINT Bending Acceptable in

Unacceptable Unacceptable -

compression 1000 µd "hollow"

Bending

Unacceptable Acceptable - Acceptable

2500 µd

Composite stress manual

Delaminations in stiffener area I 5.1.2.2

1/5

❏ Stiffener runouts

Stiffener runouts represent a critical point for dimensioning. When these stiffener runouts

are made during moulding without later machining operations, these fairly tortured areas

may include lacks of cohesion either in the base, or in the stiffener itself.

U-section

Half core

Þ Crater

→ Description

This flaw is consecutive to too short a wedge which gives, after machining of the stiffener

runout, a crater at the end of the stiffener.

L

e

Composite stress manual

Delaminations in stiffener area I 5.1.2.2

2/5

Loss of

Size of flaw Test conducted Conditions characteristics

due to flaw

Tensile

Compression New

ATR 72 - 28 %

(stiffener runouts θ = 20° C

T300/914 not protected)

L = 10 mm

l = 4 mm Tensile

e = 1 mm Compression New

0%

(stiffener runouts θ = 20° C

protected)

Compression

-4%

(with reinforcement)

ATR 72 Aged

HTA/EH25 Compression θ = 70° C

(without - 12 %

reinforcement)

For unprotected stiffener runouts (that is, when it was impossible to thicken the skin to

make structure relatively simple to manufacture), this flaw must be covered by a

concession. When it is located at protected stiffener runouts (that is with a significant skin

overthickness at stiffener runout), this flaw will be covered by a concession only if its size

is greater than the following values:

L = 10 mm l = 2 mm e = 0.5 mm

Þ Punching

→ Description

This flaw is due to an imperfect Mosite cut leading to flaws at stiffener ends.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations in stiffener area I 5.1.2.2

3/5

L

e

Loss of

Size of flaw Test conducted Conditions characteristics

due to flaw

Tensile

Compression New

- 20 %

ATR 72 (stiffener runouts θ = 20° C

T300/914 not protected)

Tensile

L = 10 mm Compression New

e = 1 mm 0%

(stiffener runouts θ = 20° C

protected)

located at protected stiffener runouts, it will be covered by a concession only if it size is

greater than the following values:

L = 10 mm l = 2 mm e = 0.5 mm

Composite stress manual

Delaminations in stiffener area I 5.1.2.2

4/5

→ Description

Delamination in radius

Delamination at skin mid-

between U-sections and Delamination under wedge

thickness

base

diagram below:

Flaw BC

A

B

C

Wedge

U-section

Half core

Composite stress manual

Delaminations in stiffener area I 5.1.2.2

5/5

Loss of

Type of flaw Test conducted Conditions characteristics

due to flaw

V10F

Tensile

T300/N5208 New

(between wedge - 17 %

200 mm2 θ = 20° C

and base skin)

(flaw B)

ATR 72 Tensile

Wet ageing

T300/914 (unprotected - 20 %

θ = 50° C

(flaw BC) stiffener runouts)

ATR 72 Compression

Wet ageing

T300/914 (unprotected 0%

θ = 50° C

(flaw BC) stiffener runouts)

❏ Stiffener top

Lack of interlayer cohesion at top of stiffener between the U-section and the wedge does

not seem to modify the mechanical characteristics.

❏ Stiffener base

characteristics. Within the scope of the V10F programme, the greatest drop is less than

10 % in standard stiffener compression case with a type BC flaw.

Composite stress manual

Delamination in spar radii

Delamination on edge of spar flanges

I 5.1.3

5.1.4

This flaw correspond to lack of cohesion between two well-defined plies in the web/flange

blend-in radius.

Þ In standard areas: maximum local surface area between 2 ribs for a radius is 250

mm2, including delaminations and foreign bodies.

Þ In designated areas: maximum local surface area between 2 ribs for a radius is

150 mm2, including delaminations and foreign bodies.

l

Delamination

- l ≤ 5 mm,

- L ≤ 25 mm.

An acceptable flaw will however require a Hysol 9321 sealing operation on edge. Any

other flaws shall be covered by a concession.

Composite stress manual

Foreign bodies - Translaminar cracks I 5.1.5

5.1.6

Translaminar cracks have been detected on the ATR 72 outer wing spar box, the A340

aileron, the 2000 fin, the A300/A310 (cf. note 494.048/91); however there are none on the

flight V10F (cf. note 494.007/91).

These are elongated flaws due to the use of a corrosive stripper (MEK, Methyl Ethyl

Ketone). Currently, baltane is used. T300/914 and G803/914 have these flaws; the tests

conducted on IM7/977-2 and HTA/EH25 showed no translaminar cracks (cf. note

494.056/91).

These cracks are detected by ultrasonic inspection in the fastener areas (the back surface

echo totally disappears). They concern all ply directions but do not touch between two

plies with different orientations. It is in the high crack density area that the ultrasonic signal

is totally damped. There a transition zone between this area and the healthy part of the

laminate where crack density decreases and the ultrasonic back surface echo reappears.

These cracks are parallel to the fibres leaving the holes. They first affect the plies at 0°,

then the plies at ± 45°. Some cracks are observed in the central plies at 90°. The axes of

these crack networks correspond approximately to the hole diameters.

They do not lead to a drop in the mechanical characteristics (cf. note 437.115/91).

The existence of flaws at fasteners can be masked by high density translaminar cracks.

Therefore, the threshold of the surface areas of the translaminar cracks which must be

plotted is coherent with the size of acceptable delaminations.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations consecutive to a shock I 5.1.7

1/4

→ Description

An impact causes lack of interlayer cohesion at several levels depending on the energy of

the impact.

Impactor indent

sensitive from a structural strength viewpoint to compression or shear loads (resin) than to

tensile loads (fibre).

The drops in characteristics within the scope of the V10F programme are:

All points of the tests conducted on the V10F test specimens were plotted on the graph

below (the points of the static and fatigue test specimens are combined on this curve as it

has been demonstrated that the ageing effect is not significant for damage tolerance).

The curve used at Aerospatiale for the new states/residual test at ambient temperature

and aged/fatigue states/residual test at ambient temperature is shown on the curve below

by comparison at static test specimen and fatigue test specimen points.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations consecutive to a shock I 5.1.7

2/4

Static test specimen (CES)

Fatigue test specimen (CEF)

- 1000

- 1500

- 2000

Allongement de compression (µd)

Arrêt CEF

Rupture CES

- 3500

COURBE ACTUELLE VALEURS DE CALCUL

Etat neuf/température ambiante ou

- 4000 Etat vieilli/fatigue à 20° C/température ambiante

- 4500 CES

CEF

- 5000

The problem is generally posed as follows: we take a laminate consisting of a set of tapes

(or fabrics) that we will assume to be made of the same material, each one of them having

a specific orientation in relation to the reference frame (o, x, y).

The laminate is submitted to shear forces (of membrane type) Nx, Ny and Nxy. In the

presence of a delamination (without ply failure) in surface area Sd, what is the strength of

the plain composite plate?

Today, there are three methods for evaluating the residual strength in the presence of a

delamination (established from experimental results) which call on the stresses and/or

strains of the unidirectional fibre and not those of the laminate considered as a

homogeneous plate. Each fibre direction must therefore be justified.

Composite stress manual

Delaminations consecutive to a shock I 5.1.7

3/4

1st method:

This first method consists in calculating a failure criterion determined from the strains of

each fibre in relation to their intrinsic frame (o, l, t).

By referring to the "plain plate - calculation method" section, it is possible to calculate the

strains in the various layers of the composite from the global flows Nx, Ny and Nxy applied

to the laminate and from the characteristics of the material used.

For layer "i" defined by its orientation α i, the strains of the fibre "i" in its own frame are

defined by the following strain tensor: (εli, εti, γlti).

We can define the following failure criterion C1 for each layer "i":

2 2

æ εl i ö æ γ ö

i1 C1 = ç ÷ + ç lt i ÷

çε ÷ çγ ÷

è adm ø è adm ø

where εadm and γadm are the permissible strains (longitudinal and shear) of the

unidirectional fibre (equivalent).

These values (obtained from the test results) depend on the material and the surface area

Sd of the delamination considered and the types of loads.

They are given in section Z (sheets giving calculation values and coefficients used).

This criterion was used for the dimensioning of the ATR 72 wing panels (dossier

22S00210460).

2nd method:

This second method consists in calculating a failure criterion C2 (Hill type criterion in which

the permissible stresses are reduced by coefficients κR and κS) calculated from the

stresses in each fibre in relation to their intrinsic frames (o, l, t).

Composite stress manual

Delaminations consecutive to a shock I 5.1.7

4/4

By referring to the "plain plate - calculation method" section, it is possible to calculate the

strains in the various layers of the composite from the global flows Nx, Ny and Nxy applied

to the laminate and from the characteristics of the material used.

For layer "i" defined by its orientation α1, the stresses of the fibre "i" in its own frame are

defined by the following stress tensor: (σli, σti, τlti).

We can define the following failure criterion C2 for each layer "i":

2 2 2

æ σ li ö æσ ö æ τ ö σ li σ t i

i2 C2 = ç ÷ + ç t i ÷ + ç lt i ÷ −

çκ R ÷ çR ÷ ç κ S÷ (κ R R l )2

è R l ø è tø è s ø

where Rl, Rt and S are the permissible longitudinal, transverse and shear stresses of the

unidirectional fibre respectively (equivalent) and where κR and κs are the reduction

coefficients for these permissible stresses.

These coefficients depend on the material used and the surface area of the delamination

considered and are determined from the test results.

They are given in section V (sheets giving calculation values and coefficients used).

This criterion was used for the sizing of the A330/340 inboard and outboard aileron

panels.

3rd method:

This method consists in calculating a failure criterion C3 (similar to the one of method 1)

calculated from the strains of each fibre in relation to their intrinsic farmes (o, l, t).

For layer "i" defined by its orientation αi, the strains of the fibre "i" in its own frame are

defined by the following strain tensor: (εli, εti, γlti).

We can define the following failure criterion C3 for each layer "i" :

2 2

æ ε li ö æ γ ö ε ε

i3 C3 = ç ÷ + ç lt i ÷ + li t i

çε ÷ çγ ÷ (ε ab )2

è a ø è adm ø

where:

if 2 ôεadmô ≤ ôγadmô

Composite stress manual

Delaminations consecutive to a shock

Visual flaws - Sharp scratches

I 5.2

5.2.1

1

i4 εa =

3 2

−

2 (ε adm ) (γ adm )2

2

1

i5 εab =

3 6

−

2 (ε adm ) (γ adm )2

2

else

εa = εadm

εab = + ∞

The particularity of this method is that it takes into account (in a significant manner) the

load transverse to the fibre.

Tests have shown that presence of a tensile force perpendicular to the fibre direction

compression increases the ultimate strength of the laminate.

Criterion C3 takes this phenomenon into account. Indeed, if εti is of tensile type and εli of

compression type, the third term of the criterion C3 becomes negative and tends to

increase the reserve factor and therefore the margin (RF = 1/C3).

Today, it is recommended to use this third finer method based on a high number of

experimental results.

→ Description

Sharp scratches are made by scalpels or cutting tools. Sharp scratches lead to drops in

tensile characteristics of around 15 %; for compression, we assume that there is no drop

in characteristics.

Composite stress manual

Sharp scratches I 5.2.1

- maximum length: 100 mm,

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

- maximum length: 100 mm,

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness,

- all scratches though to a hole, an hedge or stopping less than 5 mm away must be

covered by a concession.

Any scratch concentrations must be covered by a concessions if the flaws are less than

20 mm apart.

Þ On A330/A340 inboard and outboard ailerons, if length of scratch is less than 100 mm

and if its depth is less than 0.15 mm for tapes and 0.3 mm for fabrics, sealing with

Hysol 9321 will be performed.

Þ On A330/A340, A320, A319, A321 nose landing gear doors (carbon fabrics G803/914),

- maximum length: 10 mm,

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

- maximum length: 250 mm,

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

Composite stress manual

5.2.1

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE TOLERANCE

Indents - Scaling I 5.2.2

5.2.3

1/3

Þ On A330/A340, A320, A319, A321 main landing gear doors (carbon fabrics G803/914),

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

- maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

5.2.2 . Indents

"Indent" type flaws due, for instance, to abrasion of skin by a rototest are permissible if:

- only the 1st ply is totally damaged, that is 2nd ply visible.

Any flaw concentrations must be covered by a concession if two indents are less than

100 mm apart.

5.2.3 . Scaling

→ Description

By "scaling", we mean separation or removal of several fibres (locally) altering only the

first surface ply on monolith edge or on outgoing side of drilled holes.

Maximum depth: 1 ply for th < 20 plies

2 plies for th ≥ 20 plies

Composite stress manual

Scaling I 5.2.3

2/3

For scaled hole concentrations, this flaw must be covered by a concession if, for aligned

fasteners, more than 20 % of the holes are scaled and/or two flaws are less than

5 fastener pitches apart.

Flaw 1 Flaw 2

Maximum depth: 1 ply irrespective of the thickness.

For scaled hole concentrations, this flaw must be covered by a concession if:

- for aligned fasteners, more than 10 % of the holes are scaled and/or two flaws are

less than 5 fastener pitches apart,

Flaw 1 Flaw 2

175 mm

Flaw 1 For flaws 1 and 3:

to be covered by a

concession

Flaw 2

For flaws 1 and 2:

if S1 and S2 ≤ permissible

surface area permissible

Flaw 3

• for flaws on several rows; must be covered by a concession if they are less than

175 mm apart.

Composite stress manual

Scaling I 5.2.3

3/3

All scaled areas will be sealed with Hysol 9321 to restore flat surface and avoid scaling

developing during later operations.

Þ On A330/A340 inboard and outboard ailerons, scaling on 1 ply of skin will be sealed

with Hysol 9321. Permissible scaling flaws are defined as follows:

For flaw concentrations at fasteners, two flaws on same row must be separated by 9

fasteners.

- between different fastener rows

minimum distance = 175 mm

Maximum depth: 0.2 mm

Maximum depth: 0.2 mm

For flaw concentrations, two flaws on a given row must be separated by 9 fasteners.

Composite stress manual

Steps I 5.2.4

1/2

5.2.4 . Steps

→ Description

This is a fold of one or more skin plies which may occur between two (spar support)

blocks or on a sandwich skin during co-curing or in spar webs.

50 mm Filleralu

- Standard areas: steps on spar and rib passage areas are acceptable within a limit of

0.3 mm. This type of flaw will be compensated for by Filleralu over a width of 50 mm

on either side of the step.

geometry.

→ On stiffeners

- standard areas: steps on stiffener flanges are acceptable within a height limit of

0.3 mm provided that:

• two flaws are at least 400 mm apart in Y-direction (wing frame),

• two adjacent stiffeners are not affected in the same section,

• an ultrasonic inspection demonstrates absence of "delamination" type flaws.

Composite stress manual

Steps - Justification of permissible manufacturing flaws I 5.2.4

2/2

Þ On A330/A340 inboard and outboard ailerons under spar and rib bearing surfaces,

steps lower than or equal to 0.2 mm and with a width lower than or equal to 3 mm will

be accepted, but:

- they will be compensated for by Filleralu,

- in other areas, acceptable height is 0.4 mm.

Þ On A330 Pratt et Whitney thrust reverser sandwich skins mainly in areas with high

curvatures, steps with a height less than 0.5 mm are accepted in production. Steps

greater than 0.5 mm will be examined case by case.

Composite stress manual

7

MONOLITHIC PLATE - DAMAGE TOLERANCE

Justification of in-service damage I 7.1

7.1.1

each damage detectability range § 4.5 (undetectable damage; damage susceptible to be

detected [during inspection]; readily and obvious detectable damage).

The static strength of the composite design should be demonstrated through a

programme of component ultimate load tests in the appropriate environment, unless

experience with similar design, material systems and loadings is available to

demonstrate the adequacy of the analysis supported by subcomponent tests, or

component tests to agreed lower levels.

The effect of repeated loading and environmental exposure which may result in material

property degradation should be addressed in the static strength evaluation…

The static test articles should be fabricated and assembled in accordance with

production specifications and processes so that the test articles are representative of

production structure.

It should be shown that impact damage that can be realistically expected from

manufacturing and service, but not more than established threshold of detectability for

the selected inspection procedure, will not reduce the structural strength below ultimate

load capability. This can be shown by analysis supported by test evidence, or by test at

the coupon, element or subcomponent level.

Composite stress manual

Justification of in-service damage I 7.1.2

7.1.3

1/3

undetectable by a detailed visual inspection and therefore corresponding to BVID) or

manufacturing flaws must be covered by a static justification at ultimate load under the

most severe environmental conditions (humidity and temperature) and at end of aircraft

life. During the certification tests, this damage will be introduced into minimum margin

areas

As laid down in the regulations, any damage which cannot withstand the limit loads must

be readily detectable during any general visual inspection (50 flights) or obvious.

Þ Damage readily detectable within an interval of 50 flights must withstand 0.85 LL.

Þ Obvious damage (engine burst) which occurs in flight with crew being aware of it must

withstand 0.7 LL (get-home loads capability).

scheduled in-service inspections

Þ Regulatory aspects

Structural details, elements, and subcomponents of critical structural areas should be

tested under repeated loads to define the sensitivity of the structure to damage growth.

This testing can form the basis for validating a no-growth approach to the damage

tolerance requirements…

...The evaluation should demonstrate that the residual strength of the structure is equal

to or greater than the strength required for the design loads (considered as ultimate)...

...For the case of no-growth design concept, inspection intervals should be established

as part of the maintenance programme. In selecting such intervals the residual strength

level associated with the assumed damage should be considered.

Composite stress manual

Justification of in-service damage I 7.1.3

2/3

Þ General

For metallic structures, the two fundamental damage tolerance parameters are the

initiation of the damage and its growth before detection. Many tests have been conducted

therefore to evaluate the growth speed of the damage and the time required to reach its

critical size and therefore its residual strength (limit load).

εresidual

Repair

εU.L.

εL.L.

METALLIC

Growth

Time

Initiation

threshold

Inspection intervals

cause, when it occurs, a very substantial drop in the mechanical strength but it does not

grow under the fatigue load levels on civil aircraft.

εresidual

εU.L.

εL.L.

COMPOSITE

Time

At time of impact

Composite stress manual

Justification of in-service damage I 7.1.3

3/3

a) Semi-probabilistic methods

If the no-growth concept of the flaw is demonstrated (by fatigue test), the size of the

damage no longer depends on an evolving phenomenon but on a random event

(accidental).

For the damage range between BVID and VID, the aim of the (analytical) justification will

be to determine an inspection interval so that the probability (Re) of simultaneously having

a flaw and a load greater than its residual load will be a highly improbable event

(probability per flight hour less than 10-9).

This probabilistic damage occurrence versus time aspect therefore replaces the

deterministic concept for metallic materials where the occurrence of a flaw depends either

on fatigue initiation, or, for certain areas, on an accidental impact; the effect of the latter

being a modification in the threshold.

The complete philosophy can be summarised by the curve below. It expresses the load

level to be demonstrated and the type of justification versus the damage range

considered.

The portion of the curve between the BVID and the VID depends on the results of the

probabilistic analysis. Probabilistic analysis

TOLDOM

εresidual

≥ L.L.

Re = E - 9

εBVID ≥ U.L.

εU.L.

εVID

εL.L.

0.85 εL.L.

0.7 εL.L.

ULTIMATE

LOADS

READILY DETECTABLE

Composite stress manual

Aerospatiale semi-probabilistic method

Determining inspection intervals

I 7.1.3.1

7.1.3.1.1

1/6

- demonstrating positive margins at limit load with extensive damage.

inspections which implies that the aircraft may possibly fly between two inspections with

damage in a structure the residual strength of which may be lower than the ultimate loads.

In order not to design composite structures less reliable than metallic ones, an inspection

programme has been defined so that the probability of simultaneously having a flaw and a

load greater than its residual strength will be a highly improbable event (probability per

flight hour less than 10-9).

x

probability of not detecting the resulting flaw (1- Pdat)

x

probability of occurrence of loads greater than the residual strength of the damage

(Prat) ≤ 10-9/fh

or again:

This condition involves several notions that we will specify in the following sections.

Composite stress manual

Determining inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

2/6

We defined, in § 4.2 to 4.4, the visual detection criteria for "A" value and "B" value

damage and the mean value for various types of in-service inspections. Knowing that the

"A" values correspond to a detection probability of 99 %, the "B" values to a probability of

90 % and the mean values to a probability of 50 %, we can deduce the curve below which

shows the probability of detection versus the depth of the indent and the type of

inspection.

Depth of indent

(mm)

Detailed visual inspection: **

5

*

2

0,5

**

0,3

Pdat

0 0.5 0.99 1 Detection probability

❑ Pat: probability of occurrence of an impact with given energy.

- projection of gravel,

- removal of the item,

- dropping of tools or removable items,

- shock with maintenance vehicle.

As for detection, we will define an impact source by a statistical distribution (in this case,

the Log-normal distribution).

We will therefore speak of the impact probability (or, more precisely, the impact energy

range) that we will call (Pat) and which will be characterised by mean energy Em and a

standard deviation (according to Sikorsky, the standard deviation σ has a constant value

equal to 0.217).

E+2

Pat = ò

E

f (E) x dE

Composite stress manual

Determining inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

3/6

∞

We also obtain ò

0

f (E) x dE = 1

f(E)

Pat

E

Em 2J

The impact energy will generally be limited to 50 J (cut-off energy), except for THS root:

140 J corresponding to the energy of a tool box failing from the top of the fin.

Now that the impact has been defined, we must find the relation between the incident

energy (E), the size of the damage (Sd) and its indentation (f).

Generally, we have :

E

Sd = Ksd

e

3.3

æEö

f = Kf ç ÷

èeø

Test campaigns are however necessary to determine the coefficients Ksd and Kf which

depends on the types of materials, their thickness and the item bearing conditions.

❑ Prat: probability of having a loading case greater than the residual strength of the

impacted laminate.

defined by its surface area Sd can be determined by the numbers C1, C2 and C3 that we

will call more generally C in the remainder of this section.

The need to have three variables to characterise the number C (εl, εt, γlt ou σl, σt, τlt)

makes all theoretical exploitations of the item loads (or deformations) difficult.

Composite stress manual

Determining inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

4/6

ε admissible

We will therefore define a number εresidual = which represents the permissible

C

strain of damage of size Sd under a single compression load.

This residual deformation depends of course on the size of the damage Sd. The general

form of this relation can be represented by the following curve:

Sd

εresidual

εnominal

It is therefore possible to determine, for each point on the item studied, the probability of

occurrence of the load leading to the failure of the laminate with a delamination of size Sd

Knowing that the following gust occurrence probabilities are generally admitted:

- 1 x 10-9 for ultimate loads,

We can plot the curve below associating a probability of occurrence Prat with all residual

strength levels (εresidual = k x εL.L.) such that:

Prat

-5

2 x 10

-9

10

εresidual

εL.L. εU.L.

Composite stress manual

Determining inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

5/6

This curve will in fact be compared to a log-normal type occurrence law (or a first

approximation linear law) for a larger deformation range.

- to detect damage,

- to encounter a load greater than the residual strength of the laminate.

Composite stress manual

Determining inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

6/6

f(E)

Known impact

source

Impact energy

range

Pat

Energy

Em

Detection probability mean

f f

Depth of

General visual inspection: * indent 3.3

Detailed visual inspection: ** æEö

Kf ç ÷

èeø

*

**

Pdat Energy

Pdat 1

Sd Sd

Delaminated

surface

E

Ksd

e

εresidual Energy

Prat

-5

2 x 10

Prat

-9

10

εresidual

εL.L. εU.L.

The inspection interval must be such that risk of failure in the interval:

Pat x (1 - Pdat) x Prat ≤ 10-9/flight hours

Composite stress manual

Determining and calculating inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.1

7.1.3.1.2

1/4

Prat

Linear law

1

Log-normal law

0.5

-5

2 x 10

-9

10

εresidual

εmean εL.L. εU.L.

This curve, like all statistical distribution curves, is characterised by a mean value and a

standard deviation. A simple calculation enables us to obtain the following expressions:

σ = 0.0928

To sum up, it is clear that by choosing a given impact energy range, the values of Pat, f,

Pdat, Sd, εresidual and Prat are implicitly determined.

The drawing above shows the links between these various quantities.

The calculation tool is based on the fundamental principle described above: all damage

susceptible to be detected during an inspection must have a probability of encountering a

load greater than its residual strength lower than 10-9 per flight hour (maximum value at

end of aircraft life or before last inspection).

❑ Prat: probability of occurrence of a loading case greater than the residual strength of

the impacted laminate.

Composite stress manual

Calculating inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.2

2/4

The probability of having damage susceptible to encounter a load greater than its residual

strength is equivalent to the sum of the probabilities of having:

load greater than its residual strength

and

- damage relevant to an incident energy between 2 and 4 J susceptible to encounter a

load greater than its residual strength

and

- damage relevant to an incident energy between 48 and 50 J susceptible to encounter

a load greater than its residual strength.

By discretizing the incident energy and therefore the type of the damage, each flaw range

can be dealt with independently of the others.

f(E)

We can therefore apply the fundamental principle to each energy interval then add the

results.

First of all we will consider an incident energy range between E and E+2 Joules.

size versus time knowing that its probability of occurrence is equal to Pat (per flight hour)

and its probability of non-detection during inspections is equal to (1 - Pdat).

Composite stress manual

Calculating inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.2

3/4

If Pat is the probability of occurrence of the flaw per flight hour at time t1 (before first

inspection for instance) the probability of existence of the flaw is equal to: 1 - (1 - Pat)t1.

After the first inspection, the probability of occurrence of the flaw is therefore reduced to:

[1 - (1 - Pat)t1] (1 - Pdat) then increases according to same curve as before but with a time

shift as initial probability is no longer zero. We repeat this operation up until the last

inspection.

The form of the function makes the calculations difficult; it is for this reason that we

compare the curve to its tangent: 1 - (1 - Pat)t ≈ t x Pat. This approximation remains valid

as long as the term t x Pat is small in comparison with 1.

Probability of

occurrence

of a flaw

1 - (1 - Pat) ^ t1

[1 - (1 - Pat) ^ t1] (1 - Pdat)

t

IT1 t1 IT2 t2 IT3 t3 IT4 t4

to its limited development: t x Pat

Probability of

occurrence

of a flaw

IT x Pat IT x Pat

IT x Pat IT x Pat

IT x Pat x (1 - Pdat)

t

IT IT IT IT

ERL = n x IT

Composite stress manual

Calculating inspection intervals I 7.1.3.1.2

4/4

For constant inspection intervals, the mean probability of occurrence of the flaw is equal

to:

IT x Pat n − 1 n − i

2

+

i =1 n

å

x IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat )i

n −1

i8 Rd = IT x Pat + å IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat )

i=1

i

The mean probability of failure (Rr) of the flaw is therefore equal to:

ìïIT x Pat n − 1 n − i üï

Prat x í

ï 2

+

n

å

x IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat) i ý

ï

î i =1 þ

The maximum probability of failure (Rr) of the flaw is therefore equal to:

ìï n −1 üï

i9 Rr = Prat x íIT x Pat +

ï

å

IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat) i ý

ï

î i =1 þ

To find the mean overall risk per flight hour, all we need to do is to integrate this result into

all possible incident energy ranges.

E = 50 J ìïIT x Pat n − 1 n − i üï

å Prat x í

ï 2

+

n

å

x IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat) i ý

ï

E=0J î i=1 þ

The overall maximum risk per flight hour (Re) is equal to:

E = 50 J ìï n −1 ü

iï

i10 Re = å Prat x íIT x Pat +

ï

å IT x Pat x (1 − Pdat) ýï

E=0J î i =1 þ

The table below summarises (by giving the mathematical links between the various

variables) the method used to determine Re.

Composite stress manual

Load level K I 7.1.3.1.2

7.1.3.1.3

1/5

IT & ERL

0-2J

2-4J

4-6J i8

.

.

.

i9

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

44 - 46 J

46 - 48 J

48 - 50 J

i10

Re

The previous analysis can be substantiated by a static test with VID and a load level k.CL

(1 ≤ k ≤ 1.5).

❑ First method:

This method consists in initially evaluating the reduction coefficient α on the permissible

strengths of the material so that the final calculated risk Re is equal to 10-9 per flight hour

(this determination can only be done by successive approximations).

This means that we can suppose that the damage tolerance behaviour of the material is

degraded in relation to that really used, that is a material whose strength (under

compression loading after impact) will be equal to a certain percentage, called α, of that of

the real material.

Composite stress manual

Load level K I 7.1.3.1.3

2/5

In this case, the (εresidual; Sd) is submitted to a homothety in relation to the x-axis.

Sd

Basic curve

→ Re

Reduced curve

→ Re = 10 /fh

-9

xα

εresidual

1

The number can therefore legitimately be compared to a reserve factor.

α

We will thus define a static test with VID (Visible Impact Damage) such that the margin in

relation to the residual strain ε (VID) of the flaw is the one defined above.

We obtain:

1 ε ( VID)

=

α K x εL.L.

hence:

ε ( VID)

i11 K=α = α x k ( VID)

ε L.L.

❑ Second method:

Another method would consist in directly considering the probability and load notions.

Composite stress manual

Load level K I 7.1.3.1.3

3/5

It is clear that for a static test, we can consider that the probabilities of occurrence of the

flaw (Pat) and the probabilities of detecting (Pat) and not detecting (1 - Pdat) the flaw are

equal to 1 as we are sure that it is present in the item.

If we write the equivalence between the test and the maximum risk per flight hour from a

probabilistic viewpoint, we obtain: Re = Prat x PatVID x (1 - PdatVID) = Prat.

The method consists therefore in determining a fictive ultimate load level such that the

probability of the flaw residual load level is equal to Re.

The drawing below shows that we must randomly subject the curve (strain level ε; Prat) to

1

a homothety with a factor so as to move point A to point B level. In this case, it appears

η

that the permissible load level of the VID has a probability of occurrence Re.

We see that this transformation also moves point A' to point B' which corresponds to the

fictive ultimate load level that must be applied to the structure.

Prat

1 Permissible

deformation of

VID

/η

-5

2 x 10

-9 B' A'

10

B A

Re

εresidual

εU.L. fictive εL.L. εU.L.

ε VID

By zooming in onto the part of the graph which concerns us and imposing a logarithmic

scale on the y-axis, we obtain the following representation:

Composite stress manual

Load level K I 7.1.3.1.3

4/5

- Log(Prat)

8.6 x K - 3.9

B /η A

- Log(Re)

B' A'

9

4.7

ε residual

k =

1 K(VID) 1.5 ε L.L.

− Log(Re ) + 3.9 8 .6

We obtain:

η= =

axis(B ) 8.6 x k( VID)

We can deduce the fictive ultimate load level to be demonstrated in the presence of VID

12 .9 x k ( VID )

i12 K =

− Log(Re ) + 3.9

The graph below represents the previous relation (the maximum risk Re per flight hour on

the x-axis and the load level K to be demonstrated on the y-axis). Each curve is relevant

to a residual load level of the flaw K.

Composite stress manual

Load level K I 7.1.3.1.3

5/5

ULTIMATE LOAD

1.5

1.4

K = 1.17 K = 1.7

1.3

k = 20

k = 1.9

Re = E-15

k = 1.8

k = damage residual

k = 1.7

load level

1.2

k = 1.6

k = 1.5

k = 1.4

1.1 k = 1.3

k = 1.2

k = 1.1

LIMIT LOAD

1

0.9 Log(Re)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

ANALYSIS

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations K 1

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, 1, 2): orthotropic axis of laminate

α: angular position of point to be calculated with the orthotropic coordinate system

Ey: transversal modulus of laminate in the reference coordinate system

Gxy: shear modulus of laminate in the reference coordinate system

νxy: Poisson coefficient of laminate in the reference coordinate system

E2: transversal modulus of laminate in the orthotropic coordinate system

G12: shear modulus of laminate in the orthotropic coordinate system

ν12: Poisson's ratio of the laminate in the orthotropic coordinate system

σ ∞x : stress to infinity

σx (y): stress along y-axis

σt (α): tangential stress around circular hole

K LT : hole coefficient for a finite plate width

L: plate width

∅: hole diameter

R: hole radius

Composite stress manual

Introduction - Theory - First method K 2

3.1

1/3

2 . INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to assess stresses at the edge of a hole without fastener on

an axially loaded composite plate and to anticipate failure of a notched laminate.

3 . GENERAL THEORY

From a theoretical point of view, the problem is formulated as follows: let an infinite plate

be subjected to stress flux σ ∞x and with the diameter hole: ∅.

The method is valid only if the x-axis is the laminate orthotropic axis. What is the stress σx

(y) distribution along the y-axis?

σx (y)

σ∞

x

σx (y = R)

∅ = 2R

Composite stress manual

Theory - First method K 3.1

2/3

k1 K ∞T = =

σ ∞x inf inite stress

This coefficient expresses hole edge stress concentration for the case of an infinitely large

plate. This is the hole coefficient.

For a composite plate, this term may be formulated as a function of the mechanical

properties of the laminate as follows:

æ E ö E

k2 K ∞T = 1 + 2 ç x

− ν xy ÷ + x

ç E ÷ G

è y ø xy

σ ∞x æ 2 4

æ 6 8

öö

k3 σx (y) = ç 2 + æç R ö÷ + 3 æç R ö÷ − K ∞ − 3 ç 5

( ) æ Rö

ç ÷

æ Rö

−7ç ÷ ÷÷

2 ç è yø è yø

T ç è yø è yø ÷÷

è è øø

2 + ξ2 + 3 ξ4

k4 σx (R + do) ≈ σ ∞x

2

R

k5 with: ξ =

R + do

Composite stress manual

Theory - First method K 3.1

3/3

σ∞ æ 2 4

æ 6 8 ö

ö

k6 σx (y) = β x ç 2 + æç R ö÷ + 3 æç R ö÷ − K ∞ − 3 ç 5 æç R ö÷ − 7 æç R ö÷ ÷ ÷

( )

2 ç è yø è yø

T ç è yø è y ø ÷ø ÷ø

è è

with:

3

æ ∅ö

2 + ç1 − ÷

è Lø

k7 β= as a first approximation

æ ∅ö

3 ç1 − ÷

è Lø

or

æ ∅ö

3 ç1 − ÷

è Lø 1 æ ∅ Mö

6

æ æ ∅ Mö

2

ö

β

1

=

æ ∅ö

3

+ ç

2è L ø

∞

(

÷ K T − 3 çç 1 −

è

) ç

è L ø

÷ ÷÷ as a second approximation

ø

2 + ç1 − ÷

è L ø

æ ∅ ö

ç 3 æç 1 − ö÷ ÷

è Lø

1− 8 ç − 1÷ −1

ç ∅

3 ÷

ç 2 + æç 1 − ö÷ ÷

è è Lø ø

in which: M2 = 2

æ ∅ö

2ç ÷

èLø

σx (y)

σ∞

x

σx (y = R)

L x

∅ = 2R

Composite stress manual

Theory - Second method K 3.2

1/3

For an infinite plate, it expresses the ratio K ∞T between the loading stress to infinity σ ∞x

and the tangential normal stress at the edge σt (α) around the hole.

The position of the point is defined by the angle α with relation to the orthotropic

2

σ∞

x

σt (α)

α

x

φ

∅ = 2R

Composite stress manual

Theory - Second method K 3.2

2/3

The first step consists in searching for the orthotropic axes (o, 1, 2) of the material. Angles

φ and α are thus determined (α being the angular coordinate of the point to be considered

with relation to the orthotropic coordinate system).

k8

K ∞T =

σt(α ) Eα

σx∞

=

E 1

{ [ ]

(− cos 2 φ + (k + n) sin 2 φ) k cos 2 α + (1 + n) cos 2 φ − k sin 2 φ sin 2 α −

with

E1

k9 k=

E2

Eα 1

k10 =

E1 E1 1æ E ö

sin 4 α + cos 4 α + ç 1 − 2 ν12 ÷ sin 2 2α

E2 4 è G12 ø

æE ö E

K11 n= 2 çç 1 − ν 12 ÷÷ + 1

è E2 ø G12

where E1, E2, G12 and ν12 are the mechanical properties of the laminate in the orthotropic

coordinate system (o, 1, 2).

Composite stress manual

Theory - Second method K 3.2

3/3

σ t (α ) Eα

K ∞T =

σ ∞x

=

E1

{

− k cos 2 α + (1 + n) sin 2 α }

σ t (α )

K ∞T = = − cos 2 α + 3 sin 2 α

σ ∞x

For a nearly-isotropic lay-up and uniaxial loading, hole coefficients for 0°, 45°, 135° and

90° fibre directions are thus: 3, 1, 1 and - 1.

1

1

1

1

σ∞

x

3

1

-1

K∞

T

x

Composite stress manual

Theory - Third method K 3.3

If the material is isotropic (or nearly-isotropic) and if the plate is infinitely large, then the

stress tensor may be formulated for any point P (identified by its coordinates r and α) on

the plate as follows:

σ ∞x æ R 2 ö σ ∞x æ 3 R4 R2 ö

k12 σr = ç 1 − ÷ + ç 1 + − 4 ÷ cos 2α

2 è r2 ø 2 è r4 r2 ø

σ ∞x æ R2 ö σ ∞ æ 3 R4 ö

σt = ç 1 + 2 ÷ − x ç 1 + 4 ÷ cos 2α

2 è r ø 2 è r ø

σ ∞x æ 3 R4 2 R2 ö

τrt = − ç 1 − 4 + 2 ÷ sin 2α

2 è r r ø

t

r

σ∞

x

P

r

α

x

∅ = 2R

Composite stress manual

Theory - Fourth method K 3.4

1/2

This method is simple, fast but conservative. For more details, refer to chapter L

(MONOLITHIC PLATE - FASTENER HOLE) by considering the bearing load as zero.

σ∞

y

τ∞

xy

L x σ∞

x

The first step consists in calculating the principal stresses σ p∞ and σ p'∞ and in weighting

L

them with the net cross-section coefficient .

L−∅

Both stresses are then divided by coefficients Kt (K ct or K tt for direction p) and K't (K' ct or

K' tt for direction p').

Composite stress manual

Theory - Fourth method K 3.4

2/2

These coefficients (smaller than 1) are a function of the material, the elasticity moduli in

the direction considered (p or p'), the hole diameter (∅) and the type of load (tension "t" or

compression "c"). They are found in the form of graphs (for carbon T300/914 layer in

particular) in chapter Z (sheets 3 and 4 T300/914).

σ Np

σ Fp =

Kt

σ Np'

σ Fp' =

K t'

Both stresses are expressed in the main coordinate system (o, p, p').

σN

p'

p'

σN

p

/Kt

σN

p'

/K't

L p

Composite stress manual

"Point stress" - Failure criterion K 4.1

1/2

4.1 . Failure criterion associated with the "point stress" method (Whitney and

Nuismer)

materials) to search for edge stresses at a certain distance do from the hole edge. Indeed,

edge distance stress release through microdamages causes them to be analyzed at the

edge distance do in practice. This distance depends on the type of load of the fibre

considered (compression or tension), on the hole diameter and on the material (see

chapter Z sheets 9 and 10 for T300/914).

At the composite material stress office of the Aerospatiale Design Office, one considers

("point stress" method) that there is a failure in the laminate when the longitudinal stress

of the most highly loaded fibre (located at the edge distance do) tangent to the hole is

greater than the longitudinal stress allowable for the fibre.

fibre at 0°

°

45

at

re b

fibre at 90° fi

fib

re

at

13

5°

do

σl σl

Composite stress manual

"Point stress" - Failure criterion K 4.1

2/2

For complex loads, there is a software (PSH2 on mx4) which automatically models a finite

element mesh and finds loads in fibres that are tangent to the hole.

Longitudinal stress analysis is performed in a circle of elements, its center of gravity being

located at the hole edge distance do.

2 do

Composite stress manual

"Average stress" - Failure criterion K 4.2

4.2 . Failure criterion associated with the "average stress" method (Whitney and

Nuismer)

This method consists in determining the average stress average σx average (ao) between

coordinate points (0, R) and (0, R + ao). It is assumed that the plate is infinitely large and

the loading uniaxial.

σx average (ao)

σ∞

x

(ao)

∅ = 2R

Based on the previous theory (see K 3.1), the following may be formulated as:

1 R + ao

σx average (ao) =

ao ò

R

σ x (y) dy

2 − ξ2 − ξ4

k14 σx average (ao) ≈ σ ∞x

2 (1 − ξ)

R

k15 with: ξ =

R + ao

Composite stress manual

Empirical method - Failure criterion K 4.3

This condition allows the "point stress" and the "average stress" method to become

equivalent.

The "average stress" method is rarely used at Aerospatiale, the same failure criterion as

for the "point stress" method may be applied: one considers that there is a failure in the

laminate when the longitudinal stress of the most highly loaded fibre tangent to the hole is

greater than the longitudinal stress allowable for the fibre.

After determining stresses σ Fp and σ Fp' , a smooth calculation must be performed (see

chapter C) in order to assess longitudinal stresses in fibres tangent to the hole.

B The Hill's failure criterion shall be used to each single ply (see chapter G3).

It may be noted that this method is relatively conservative because both coefficients Kt

and K't are assessed for different points, each one being the most critical with relation to

directions p and p'.

On the other hand, coefficient Kt and K't values were determined only for diameters

between ∅ 3.2 to ∅ 11.1. It is, therefore, necessary to use the theory for large diameters.

Composite stress manual

First example K 5.1

1/4

5 . Example

follows:

0°: 6 plies

45°: 4 plies

135°: 4 plies

90°: 2 plies

N ∞x = 10 daN/mm

N ∞y = 0 daN/mm

N ∞xy = 0 daN/mm

2

4

6

4

L = 120 x Nx = 10

∅ = 40

L = 120

Composite stress manual

First example K 5.1

2/4

Let's analyse, along the y-axis, the evolution of stress flux Nx (y).

The mechanical properties of the laminate in the reference coordinate system are the

following:

Ey = E2 = 3410 daN/mm2 (34100 MPa)

Gxy= Gv12 = 1882 daN/mm2 (18820 MPa)

νxy = ν12 = 0.4191

νyx = ν21 = 0.2285

{k2}

æ 6256 ö 6256

K ∞T = 1 + 2ç − 0.4191÷ + = 3.28

ç 3410 ÷ 1882

è ø

This number represents the hole edge coefficient for the case of a plate of infinite width.

Since the plate does not have an infinite width L = 120 mm, we are led to calculate the

following number :

{k3}

3

æ 40 ö

2 + ç1 − ÷

β= è 120 ø = 1.148

æ 40 ö

3 ç1 − ÷

è 120 ø

Composite stress manual

First example K 5.1

3/4

We thus obtain the evolution of normal stress fluxes along the y-axis:

æ 2 4

æ 6 8 ö

ö

Nx (y) = 1.148

10 ç 2 + æç 20 ö÷ + 3 æç 20 ö÷ − (3.28 − 3) ç 5 æç 20 ö÷ − 7 æç 20 ö÷ ÷ ÷

ç ç ÷ ç ÷ ç

ç è y ø ÷ ç ÷ ÷

2

è è y ø è y ø è è y ø ÷ø ø

æ æ 20 ö

2

æ 20 ö

4

æ æ 20 ö 6 æ 20 ö ö÷ ö÷

8

ç ç

Nx (y) = 5.74 ç 2 + çç ÷÷ + 3 çç ÷÷ − 0.28 5 çç ÷÷ − 7 çç ÷÷ ÷

è y ø è y ø ç è y ø è y ø ÷ø ø

è è

40

37.65

35

30

25

Nx (y) 20

15

12.32

10 10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

y

And we obtain, at the plate edge (y = 60) a flux of 12.32 daN/mm and at the hole edge

(y = 20) a flux of 37.65 daN/mm.

Composite stress manual

First example K 5.1

4/4

If one determines the flux at a hole edge distance do = 1 mm (see do in tension for the

T300/914), one gets: Nx (y = 20 + 1) = 32.47 daN/mm.

A smooth plate calculation (chapter C) with this flux makes it possible to determine the

longitudinal stress of the most highly loaded fibre (fibre at 0°): σl = 32.41 hb.

On the other hand, as the allowable longitudinal tension stress of the same fibre is equal

to Rl = 120 hb, based on the "point stress" failure criterion, we obtain:

æ 120 ö

Margin: ç − 1÷ 100 = 270 %

è 32.41 ø

At a hole edge distance do = 1 mm (see tension do for fibre T300/914 in chapter Z), flux Nx

is now only 32.47 daN/mm.

A smooth plate calculation makes it possible to find that fibres with a 0° direction are

subjected to a 32.41 hb longitudinal stress at this particular hole edge distance.

The longitudinal tensile strength of fibre T300/914 being 120 hb, the targeted margin is

thus:

æ 120 ö

Margin = 100 ç − 1÷ = 270 %

è 32 . 41 ø

Composite stress manual

Second example K 5.2

1/5

0°: 6 plies

45°: 4 plies

135°: 4 plies

90°: 2 plies

N ∞x = 2.8 daN/mm

N ∞y = - 7.8 daN/mm

N ∞xy = 5.3 daN/mm

Ny = - 7.8

Nxy = 5.3

2

4

6

4

Nx = 2.8

x

∅ = 40

Composite stress manual

Second example K 5.2

2/5

Let's determine the normal stress fluxes of the hole edge at point P (fibre at 0° tangent to

hole). To do this, we shall use the second method

First of all, (in order to eliminate the shear flux), let's be positioned in the main coordinate

system (o, p, p') which forms a 22.5° angle with the reference coordinate system (o, x, y).

Stress fluxes then become N p∞ = 5 daN/mm, N p'∞ = - 10 daN/mm.

Orthotropic axes (o, 1, 2) are coincident with the reference coordinate system (o, x, y).

Np' = - 10

p'

4

2

4 2

φ' = 112.5° y

6

α = 90°

P Np = 5

p

φ = 22.5°

∅ = 40

1

x

In the coordinate system (o, p, p'), the mechanical properties of the laminate are the

following:

Ep' = 3749 daN/mm2 (37490 MPa)

Gpp' = 1788 daN/mm2 (17880 MPa)

νpp' = 0.3481

νp'p = 0.225

Composite stress manual

Second example K 5.2

3/5

In the reference coordinate system (o, x, y) and in the orthotropic coordinate system (o, 1,

2), the laminate properties are the following:

Ey = E2 = 3410 daN/mm2 (34100 MPa)

Gxy= G12 = 1882 daN/mm2 (18820 MPa)

νxy = ν12 = 0.4191

νyx = ν21 = 0.2285

A first step shall consist in calculating the effect of the main flux N p∞ at point P as follows:

We have:

{k9}

6256

k= = 1.354

3410

{k10}

E 90° 1

=

E1 6256 1 æ 6256 ö

sin 4 90° + cos 4 90° + ç − 2 x 0.4191÷sin 2 2 x 90°

3410 4 è 1882 ø

E90° 1

= =1

E1 1

{k11}

æ 6256 ö 6256

n= 2ç − 0.4191÷ + = 2.48

ç 3410 ÷ 1882

è ø

Composite stress manual

Second example K 5.2

4/5

{k1}

K ∞T =

σ t ( α = 90°)

=

6256

{

( − cos 2 22.5° + (1.354 + 2.48 ) sin 2 45°) 1.354 cos 2 90° +

σ p∞ 6256

((1 + 2.48 ) cos 2 22.5° − 1.354 sin 2 22.5°) sin 2 90° − 2.48 (1 + 1.354 + 2.48) sin 22.5° cos 22.5°

σ t (α = 90°)

K ∞T = = 2.773

σ p∞

p'

4

2

2

4 y

6

2.773

P Np = 5

p

1

x

A second step shall consist in calculating the effect of the main flux N p'∞ at point P.

{k1}

K' ∞T =

σ t ( α = 90°)

=

6256

{

( − cos 2 112.5° + (1.354 + 2.48 ) sin 2 45°) 1.354 cos 2 90° +

σ p∞' 6256

((1 + 2.48 ) cos 2 112.5° − 1.354 sin 2 112.5°) sin 2 90° − 2.48 (1 + 1.354 + 2.48 ) sin 112.5° cos 112.5°

σ t (α = 90°)

K' ∞T = = − 0.646

σ p∞'

Composite stress manual

Second example K 5.2

5/5

Np' = - 10

p'

4

2

2

4 y

6

- 0.646

P

p

1

x

The deduction is that the normal stress flux tangent to the hole crossing point P is equal

to:

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

References K

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

S.C. TAN, Finite width correction factors for anisotropic plate containing a central opening,

1988

J. Rocker, Composite material parts: Design methods at fastener holes 3 ≤ φ ≤ 100 mm.

B

Extrapolation to damage tolerance evaluation, 1998, 581.0162/98

W.L. KO, Stress concentration around a small circular hole in a composite plate, 1985,

NSA TM 86038

concentration, American Society for testing materials STP 593, 1975

ERICKSON - DURELLI, Stress distribution around a circular hole in square plate, loaded

uniformly in the plane, on two opposite sides of the square, Journal of applied mechanics,

vol. 48, 1981

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations L 1

1/2

1 . NOTATIONS

(o, M, M'): coordinate system specific to the bearing load

(o, P, P'): stress main coordinate system

F: bearing load

∅: fastener diameter

Sf: countersink surface of fastener

e: actual thickness of laminate

e*: thickness taken into account in bearing calculations

p: fastener pitch

σm: bearing stress

σR: allowable stress of material (general designation)

σya: allowable normal stress of material in direction y

τxya: allowable shear stress of material

τvisa: allowable shear stress of screw

N Bx

N By gross fluxes in panel

B

N xy

N Nx

N Ny net cross-section fluxes

N

N xy

N NM

N NM' net cross-section fluxes in the coordinate system specific to the bearing load

N NMM'

Nm

M additional flux due to the bearing load

Composite stress manual

Notations L 1

2/2

NPN

net cross-section global fluxes in the main coordinate system

NPN'

α: main coordinate system angle with relation to the bearing load

N Fx

N Fy corrected final fluxes

F

N xy

K mt : tension bearing coefficient

Km : bearing coefficient in the broad meaning of the term

K tt : tension hole coefficient

Kt: hole coefficient in the broad meaning of the term

Composite stress manual

General - Failure modes L 2.1

2.2

2 . GENERAL/FAILURE MODES

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the structural strength of a notched and loaded

laminate fitted with fastener.

Depending on the loading level and the type of geometry, such a system may fail as per

several failure modes.

F

≥ σRm

∅e

e

∅ F ∅

F

≥ σxa

(b − ∅) e

b ∅ F

Composite stress manual

2.3

MONOLITHIC PLATE - FASTENER HOLE

General - Failure modes L 2.4

2.5

F

≥ τxya

2 (L − 0,35 ∅) e e

L

45°

F

F

≥ σya

æ ∅ö

çL − ÷ e

è 2ø L e

∅ F ∅

2F

σxa (b - ∅) + τxya L ≤

e

L e

b ∅ F ∅

Composite stress manual

Failure modes - Pitch definition L 2.6

3.1

4F

≥ τvisa

π ∅2

e

∅ F ∅

where:

σya is the allowable normal stress of the notched material in direction y

τxya is the allowable shear stress of the notched material

σRm is the allowable bearing stress of the material

τvisa is the allowable shear stress of the screw

The purpose of this sub-chapter is to outline the justification method of a hole with a

fastener to which is applied a bearing load in any direction, the laminate being subjected

to membrane type surrounding load fluxes and/or bending moment fluxes. The failure

mode associated with this method is a combined net cross-section failure mode in the

presence of bearing (see 2.1 and 2.2).

If the main loading is in the F1 direction, the pitch taken into account in the calculations

p1 + p2

shall be equal to: p = .

2

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

1/8

If the main loading is direction F2, the pitch (which is more commonly called edge

distance) taken into account in the designs shall be equal to: p = 2 p3.

For complex loading (or for simplification purposes), the following pitch value may be

used: p = mini (p1; p2; 2 p3).

It should be noted that for membrane or membrane and bending loading, pitch p is limited

to k ∅ where k depends on the material used. The value of k is generally between 4.5 and

5. For pure bending loading, this limitation does not apply.

F1

p1 p2

p3

F2

p1 + p2

p=

2

3.2.1 . Theory

l1 σ Nt + Km σm ≥ Kt σR

In the case of a membrane loaded single hole with fastener, the various justification

(broadly summed up by relationship I1) steps must be followed:

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

2/8

1st step: For load introduction zones (fittings, splices), the membrane gross flux NB to be

taken into account at fasteners is deduced from the constant flux to infinity N∞ by the

following relationship:

p

l2 NB = N∞ if p > 5 ∅ NB = N∞ if p ≤ 5 ∅

5∅

NB = N∞

N∞

B

N

5Ø

Flux

The drawing above shows the difference between the flux to infinity and the actual flux at

fasteners for a load introduction zone and highlights the existence of a working strip at

each fastener of a width equivalent to 5 Ø. This phenomenon is comparable to the one

described in chapter M.1.

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

3/8

2nd step: It consists in transforming pitch corrected gross fluxes (see previous step) into

net cross-section flux in the initial coordinate system:

F

β<0

x B p

Nx

∅

p

l3 N Nx = N Bx

Sf

p−∅−

e

p

N Ny = N By

Sf

p−∅−

e

p

N Nxy = N Bxy

Sf

p−∅−

e

y

N

Nx

F

x

β<0

Sf

∅' = ∅ +

e

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

4/8

Sf = b h = h2 tgθ

b

h

θ

∅'

3rd step: It consists in transforming the previously designed fluxes in the coordinate

system specific to the bearing load:

NNMM' sin β x cos β − sin β x cos β (cos β)2 − (sin β)2 NNxy

N

M' NM M

F

0

β<

x

Angle β is, in the trigonometric coordinate system, the angle leading from the M-axis

(bearing coordinate system) to the x-axis (reference coordinate system).

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

5/8

4th step: Once positioned in the bearing coordinate system, the flux due to the bearing

load N NM (reduced by coefficient Km), is added to (or subtracted from) flux N m

M .

Fe

l5 Nm

M =

∅ e*

e* = mini (e; 1.3 ∅) for single shear.

The bearing height e* is voluntarily reduced for a large thickness to take into account

stress concentration at the element surface.

SINGLE SHEAR

DOUBLE SHEAR

NNM ± Nm

M Km

m

N ± Km N M

NM

l6 NNM' M' M

NNMM'

y

F

< 0

β

x

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

6/8

The values of Km depend on the type of loading, the bearing stress and the material used

(see chapter Z).

Three calculations shall be made with the following values: - Km; + Km; 0.

5th step: It consists in transferring fluxes so determined in their main coordinate system:

M Km

where:

1 æ 2 NNMM' ö

α= Arctg ç N ÷

è NM ± NM K m − NM' ø

m N

2

P

N

NP

M'

M

α>0

P' F

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

7/8

Angle α is, in the trigonometric coordinate system, the angle leading from the M-axis

(bearing coordinate system) to the P-axis (main coordinate system).

1

6th step: Fluxes are maximized by coefficient where Kt is the hole coefficient.

Kt

Kt values depend on the type of loading (tension or compression), the fastener diameter,

the mechanical properties and the material used (see chapter Z).

It should be noted that to each of both main fluxes is associated a hole coefficient which

may be different. This is why their notation differs from the sign*.

NPN

Kt

NPN'

l8

K *t

0 P

NPN

Kt

M'

M

α>0

P' F

Composite stress manual

Membrane analysis - Short cut method - Theory L 3.2.1

8/8

7th step: Fluxes so maximized are recalculated in the initial coordinate system (o, x, y).

P

y

P'

F

F

Nx

α-β>0

x

NPN

NFx 2 2

(cos(β − α )) (sin(β − α )) 2 x sin(β − α ) x cos( β − α ) Kt

2 2 NPN'

l9 NFy = (sin(β − α )) (cos(β − α )) − 2 x sin(β − α ) x cos( β − α )

K *t

2 2

− sin(β − α ) x cos( β− α ) sin(β − α ) x cos( β − α ) (cos(β − α )) − (sin(β − α ))

NFxy 0

Angle (α - β) are, in the trigonometric coordinate system, the angle leading from the x-axis

(reference coordinate system) to the p-axis (main coordinate system).

8th step: A smooth plate calculation is made with fluxes NF previously determined (see

chapter C) to obtain the margin.

Composite stress manual

EDP computing program PSG33 L 3.2.2

B This software, which can be used on mx4 or PC, is simply the digital application of the

theory presented above, the eight steps being integrated into the calculation.

Let input data relating to the example covered further in this chapter be as follows.

CARACMF 1 3 4 1

2 4.8 21.6 4.91 -30. 77. 40.

*3 T300 neuf

1 0.78 0.52 0.52 0.78

2 0. 45. -45. 90.

3 3.

MAT03 1 13000. 465. 465. .35 120.0 -100. 5.

*2 -12. 7.5 .13

*

The software gives the design margin for each value of Km, as well as all intermediate

results. To allow a quick check of loading, it represents the bearing load and main net

fluxes in the reference coordinate system.

^90

I

N2 = -20.19 I N1 = 22.19

* I *

* I *

* I *

* I * /

* I * /

* I * /

*I*/ FM = 77.

--------------------------------------->0

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

Composite stress manual

Bending analysis L 3.3

1/5

If the notched plate is subjected to bending moment fluxes Mx, My and Mxy, follow the

additional steps described hereafter:

1st step: Determine stresses on the external and internal surfaces corresponding to

bending loads only.

Mv 6M

σ≈ ≈ 2 . In that case, the material shall be considered as homogeneous.

l e

external surface

σ Be

σB

l

internal surface

PSD48 (stacking homogenizing and analysis) which takes into account stiffness variations

within the laminate or to refer to chapter D.

external surface σ Be

σB

l

internal surface

Thus, for each design direction (x, y and xy), the following stresses are obtained:

Composite stress manual

Bending analysis L 3.3

2/5

2nd step: From these stresses, "equivalent" membrane gross fluxes are evaluated.

∆neBx σ eBx

∆neBxy τ eBxy

l10 =e

∆niBx σiBx

∆niBxy τ iBxy

B

∆n e external surface

B

∆n i internal surface

3rd step: On the contrary of membrane analysis, no majoration between fluxes to infinity

N∞ and gross fluxes NB will be taken into account at load introduction areas.

NB = N∞

4th step: "Equivalent" membrane net fluxes are evaluated from "equivalent" membrane

gross fluxes.

p

l11 ∆ne Nx = ∆ne Bx

Sf

p−∅−

e

p

∆ne Ny = ∆ne By for external surface (with countersunk fastener head)

Sf

p−∅−

e

p

∆ne Nxy = ∆ne Bxy

Sf

p−∅−

e

Composite stress manual

Bending analysis L 3.3

3/5

p

∆ni Nx = ∆ni Bx

p−∅

p

∆ni Ny = ∆ni By for internal surface (no countersunk fastener head)

p−∅

p

∆ni Nxy = ∆ni Bxy

p−∅

N

∆n e external surface

N

∆n i internal surface

5th step: "Equivalent" membrane net fluxes are divided by the coefficient Kf (bending hole

coefficient) which depends on the material (in general Kf = 0.9).

∆n e Nx

l12 ∆ne Fx =

Kf

∆n e Ny

∆ne Fy = for external surface

Kf

∆n e Nxy

∆ne Fxy =

Kf

∆ni Nx

∆ni Fx =

Kf

∆niNy

∆ni Fy = for internal surface

Kf

∆n i Nxy

∆ni Fxy =

Kf

Composite stress manual

Bending analysis L 3.3

4/5

6th step: Final membrane fluxes from relation I9 are, then, added to fluxes calculated from

relation I12.

l13 N Fx + ∆ne Fx

N Fx + ∆ni Fx

Composite stress manual

Membrane + bending analysis - Summary table L 3.3

5/5

The overall method for the membrane and bending analysis is summarized in the figure

here below.

Membrane Bending Membrane Membrane Bending

B B B B B

Nx ∆n x Nx Nx ∆n x

Data in the

initial B B B B B

Ny ∆n y Ny Ny ∆n y

coordinate

system B B B B B

Ny ∆n yx Ny Ny ∆n yx

N B p N B p N B p

Nx =Nx ∆n x = ∆n x Nx =Nx

Sf Sf Sf N B p N B p

p−∅− p−∅− p−∅− Nx =Nx ∆n x = ∆n x

e e e p − ∅ p − ∅

Net cross- N B p N B p N B p

Ny =Ny ∆n y = ∆n y Ny =Ny N B p N B p

section Ny =Ny ∆n y = ∆n y

Sf Sf Sf

analysis p−∅− p−∅− p−∅− p − ∅ p − ∅

e e e

N B p N B p

N B p N B p N B p N xy = N xy ∆n xy = ∆n xy

N xy = N xy ∆n xy = ∆n xy N xy = N xy p − ∅ p − ∅

Sf Sf Sf

p−∅− p−∅− p−∅−

e e e

N N

NM NM

Rotation in

N N

↓ ↓ ↓

the load N M' N M'

coordinate

N N

system N MM' N MM'

β β

N m N m

N M ± Km N M N M ± Km N M

N N

↓ ↓ ↓

Addition of N M' N M'

bearing

N N

N MM' N MM'

β β

N N N

Rotation in NP NP NP

↓ ↓

the main

N N N

coordinate N P' N P' N P'

system

α α-β α-β

N N

F

∆n x F

∆n x

N ∆n x = N N ∆n x =

NP Kt NP NP Kt

Kt N Kt Kt N

Hole ∆n y ∆n y

F F

coefficient N ∆n y = N N ∆n y =

maximizing NP' Kt NP' NP' Kt

Kt N Kt Kt N

∆n xy ∆n xy

F F

α ∆n xy = α-β α-β ∆n xy =

Kt Kt

F F F

Nx Nx Nx

Rotation in

↓ ↓

the initial F F F

Ny Ny Ny

coordinate

system F F F

N xy N xy N xy

F F F F

N x + ∆n x N x + ∆n x

Addition of F F F F

N y + ∆n y N y + ∆n y

fluxes

F F F F

N xy + ∆n xy N xy + ∆n xy

Composite stress manual

Justifications - Nominal deviations L 3.4

3.5.1

3.4 . Justifications

Whatever the type of load (membrane or membrane + bending), make sure that:

- the plain monolithic plate subject to "equivalent" membrane load fluxes (NF + ∆neF) or

(NF + ∆niF) is acceptable from a structural strength point of view (refer to chapter C),

- the allowable bearing stress of material σm (which depends on the material, the

fastener diameter and the thickness to be clamped - see chapter Z) is greater or

equal to the bearing stress applied corresponding to a laminate thickness that is

smaller or equal to 1.3 ∅ for single shear or 2.6 ∅ for double shear (see sub-chapter

L.2.1 - 4th step):

This sub-chapter is directly related to concession processing. Here, simple rules are

outlined, that shall allow the stressman to assess the effect of a geometrical deviation,

such as a fastener diameter, its pitch or edge distance, on an initial margin.

The following paragraphs are valid only for a hole with fastener subject to membrane

fluxes.

However, for greater accuracy, it is recommended to redo the calculation or use the

B

software psg33.

oversize the fastener.

Composite stress manual

Nominal deviations - Pitch decrease L 3.5.2

Based on the theory we have just presented, any diameter change (∅ changes to ∅')

shall have an effect on:

- the net cross-section coefficient: the resulting reduction shall be equal to:

Sf'

p − ∅' −

l14 k= e

Sf

p−∅−

e

- the bearing stress: we shall assume that there is no effect on the bearing stress, even

if it tends to decrease (this assumption is conservative),

- the hole coefficient: if we assume that the hole coefficient value is in the most

unfavorable case Kt = 0.003684 ∅2 - 0.08806 ∅ + 0.886 (see corresponding curve in

chapter Z - material T300/914), the resulting reduction shall be equal to:

k' = ≈

0.0037 ∅ − 0.088 ∅ + 0.89

2

∅'

Sf'

p − ∅' −

∅ e

l15 RF' ≈ RF k k' ≈ RF

∅' p − ∅ − Sf

e

If loads are parallel to the free edge, no reduction is necessary on the reserve factor:

RF' ≈ RF

F2

p'

Composite stress manual

Nominal deviations - Edge distance decrease L 3.5.3

1/2

If loads are perpendicular to the free edge, the reduction on the reserve factor is equal to:

Sf

p' − ∅ −

l16 RF' ≈ RF e

Sf

p−∅−

e

F1

p'

If loads are parallel to the free edge, the reduction on the reserve factor is equal to:

Sf

p' − ∅ −

RF' ≈ RF e

Sf

p−∅−

e

p'

p

F2

Composite stress manual

Nominal deviations - Edge distance decrease L 3.5.3

2/2

If loads are perpendicular to the free edge, the reduction on the reserve factor is equal to:

0.54

æ p' ö

l17 RF' ≈ RF çç ÷÷ → (100 % ± 45°)

èpø

0.73

æ p' ö

RF' ≈ RF çç ÷÷ → (50 % 0; 50 % ± 45°)

èpø

1.65

æ p' ö

RF' ≈ RF çç ÷÷ → isotrope

èpø

F1

p'

p

Important remarks:

- These empirical relationships are valid only for low edge distance variations (2 ∅ ≤ p' ≤

2.5 ∅).

- For low edge distances, the fact that the failure mode described in sub-chapter L.2.3 is

not critical shall have to be demonstrated.

Composite stress manual

"Point stress" finite element method - Description L 3.6.1

Procedure PSH2 allows the calculation of stresses in fibres around a circular hole with

fastener in a multilayer composite plate subjected to membrane type surrounding fluxes. It

is based on a finite element display of a drilled plate. Mapping calls for two separate parts:

The drilled hole is modeled by 8-junction quadrangular elements and 6-junction triangular

elements. The area adjacent to the hole is modeled by two rings of elements. The ring

nearest to the hole is thin and is not utilized directly on issued sheets. Issues are

presented on the second ring, the center of gravity of elements being at a design distance

from the hole corresponding to the point stress theory (do).

2 do

Contact elements between the plate and the bolt (which also simulate clearance between

the fastener and the edge distance) are of the variable stiffness type. Their stiffness is

very low when there is no contact with the plate, their stiffness is very high if there is a

contact.

Composite stress manual

"Point stress" finite element method - Justifications L 3.6.2

3.6.2 . Justifications

- longitudinal stresses in fibres tangent to the hole edge distance (and located at a

distance do) are smaller than the longitudinal stress allowable for fibre Rl,

Fibre at 0°

°

45

at

re

Fibre at 90° Fib

Fi

br

e

at

13

5°

do

σl σl

- The allowable bearing stress of the material σm is greater or equal to the bearing

stress applied corresponding to a laminate thickness that is smaller or equal to 1.3 ∅

for single shear or 2.6 ∅ for double shear (see sub-chapter L.2.1 - 3rd step).

Composite stress manual

Multiple holes - Independent holes - Interfering holes L 4.1

4.2

4 . MULTIPLE HOLES

The previous study allowed us to find the structural effect of a single hole with fastener (or

distant enough from others) on a monolithic plate subject to membrane or bending type

loads.

We shall now study the effect of several lined up holes. We shall assume that the plate is

subjected to a membrane type uniaxial load flux that is perpendicular to the row of

fasteners.

single hole. Refer to sub-chapter L.3.

5∅ pas = 5 ∅ 5∅ 5∅

If the distance between two holes is smaller than 5 ∅, the net cross-section coefficient to

be used changes to:

5∅−d

l18

Sf

5∅−d−∅−

e

Composite stress manual

Multiple holes - Very close holes L 4.3

1/2

On the other hand, the hole coefficient in tension must also be modified. It changes to:

æ æ 5 ∅ − dö

2

æ5 ∅ − dö ö

l19 η Kt ≈ ç 0.065 ç ÷ − 0.65 ç ÷ + 2.625 ÷ k t (see values of η on next page)

ç è ∅ ø è ∅ ø ÷

B è ø

The hole coefficient in compression is unchanged (cf. note 440.197/84), but the

connection of the holes is ignored for the net section calculation.

These new values are to be taken into account in relationships l3 and l8.

pas = 5 ∅ - d

When holes are very close to each other, the diameter ∅' envelope hole shall be

considered. The net cross-section coefficient then changes to:

pitch

l20

Sf

pitch − ∅' −

e

The hole coefficient is not modified by the number η but applies to diameter ∅'.

pitch = 4.25 ∅

∅'

1.5 ∅

Composite stress manual

Multiple holes - Kt correction coefficient L 4.3

2/2

Kt correction coefficient

2

E

1.9

P

P

1.8

O

1.7

L

1.6

E

V

η 1.5

N

1.4

E

1.3

U

1.2

O

R

1.1

T

1

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

5∅−d

∅

pitch pitch = 5 ∅ - d

∅'

1.5 ∅

d d 5∅ pitch = 5∅ 5∅

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

1/7

0°: 6 plies

45°: 4 plies

135°: 4 plies

90°: 6 plies

It is subjected to the three following fluxes in the initial coordinate system (o; x; y):

N Bx = 8 daN/mm

N By = - 6 daN/mm

N Bxy = 20 daN/mm

F = 185 daN

β = - 30°

The fastener is a ∅ 4.8 mm countersunk head one (100° countersink angle, which

corresponds to a 4.91 mm2). The fastener pitch is 21.6 mm.

6

4

F = 185 daN

6

4 β = - 30°

The purpose of the example is to determine the three final fluxes that shall be used for the

equivalent smooth plate design, which shall provide the hole margin looked for (this

calculation shall be covered in chapter C).

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

2/7

{l3}

21.6

NNx = 8 x = 11.59 daN / mm

4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

21.6

NNy = ( − 6) x = − 8.69 daN / mm

4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

21.6

NNxy = 20 x = 28.97 daN / mm

4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

{l4}

N NM = 31.61 daN/mm

N NM' = - 28.71 daN/mm

N NMM' = 5.7 daN/mm

β = - 30°

185

The bearing stress is equal to: σm = = 14.82 hb

4. 8 x 2. 6

{l5}

Nm

M = 14.82 x 2.6 = 38.54 daN/mm

The flux in the load direction being a tension flux (+ 31.61 daN/mm), the value of K mt is

thus equal to 0.135 (see chapter Z - material T300/914 - Sheet 2).

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

3/7

the three configurations K mt > 0; K mt < 0 and K mt = 0 are obtained:

{l6}

K mt = 0.135

N NM = 31.61 + 0.135 x 38.54 = 36.81 daN/mm

N NM' = - 28.71 daN/mm

N NMM' = 5.7 daN/mm

β = - 30°

{l6}

K mt = - 0.135

N NM = 31.61 - 0.135 x 38.54 = 26.4 daN/mm

N NM' = - 28.71 daN/mm

N NMM' = 5.7 daN/mm

β = - 30°

{l6}

K mt = 0

N NM = 31.61 + 0 = 31.61 daN/mm

N NM' = - 28.71 daN/mm

N NMM' = 5.7 daN/mm

β = - 30°

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

4/7

{l7}

N NP = 37.3 daN/mm

N PN' = - 29.2 daN/mm

α = 4.9°

y P

M

α = 4.9°

β = - 30°

x

N

N P = 37.3 daN/mm

N

N P' = - 29.2 daN/mm

{l7}

N NP = 26.98 daN/mm

N PN' = - 29.29 daN/mm

α = 5.8°

{l7}

N NP = 32.14 daN/mm

N PN' = - 29.24 daN/mm

α = 5.4°

Angle α is the angle formed by the main coordinate system and the bearing coordinate

system.

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

5/7

Monolithic lay-up under study gives the following elasticity and shear moduli in the main

axes:

E

α + β = - 34.9° E = 4470 G = 2078 = 2.151 K tt ≈ 0.6 K ct ≈ 0.87

G

E

α + β = - 35.8° E = 4455 G = 2092 = 2.13 K tt ≈ 0.6 K ct ≈ 0.87

G

E

α + β = - 35.4° E = 4461 G = 2086 = 2.139 K tt ≈ 0.6 K ct ≈ 0.87

G

The values are derived from chapter Z (T300/914 sheets 3 and 4).

Which gives the following new values for corrected main fluxes :

{l8}

37.3

N NP = = 62.17 daN/mm

0.6

− 29.2

N PN' = = - 33.56 daN/mm

0.87

α - β = 34.9°

{l8}

26.98

N NP = = 44.97 daN/mm

0.6

− 29.29

N PN' = = - 33.67 daN/mm

0.87

α - β = 35.8°

{l8}

32.14

N NP = = 53.57 daN/mm

0 .6

− 29.24

N PN' = = - 33.61 daN/mm

0.87

α - β = 35.4°

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

6/7

{l9}

N Fx = 30.83 daN/mm

N Fy = - 2.22 daN/mm

N Fxy = 44.92 daN/mm

y

N Fx = 30.83 daN/mm x

N Fy = - 2.22 daN/mm

{l9}

N Fx = 18.06 daN/mm

N Fy = - 6.76 daN/mm

N Fxy = 37.31 daN/mm

{l9}

N Fx = 24.32 daN/mm

N Fy = - 4.36 daN/mm

N Fxy = 41.17 daN/mm

These fluxes are then used in a smooth plate design. Calculation shall be continued in

chapter C.6.

Composite stress manual

First example L 5.1

7/7

New, let's assume that, as a result of a defective drilling operation, the fastener diameter

had to be changed to a ∅ 6.35 mm with a 8.62 mm2 countersunk surface.

{l15}

8.62

21.6 − 6.35 −

4.8 2.6 = 0.92

RF' = 1.31 x x

6.35 4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

Which corresponds to a - 8 % margin, thus non allowable. However, a full manual analysis

B

(or using software PSG33) would have made it possible to find a 0 % margin.

If the calculation is conservative, it is due to the fact that the decrease of the bearing

stress corresponding to fastener oversizing was not taken into account (see chapter

L.3.5.1).

The preceding example shall also be fully covered in the composite material manual part

B

"Calculation programs" (PSG33 instructions).

Composite stress manual

Second example L 5.2

1/5

Let's assume that three moment fluxes are superposed on membrane fluxes:

Mt Bx = - 4 daN mm/mm

B

Mt y = 3 daN mm/mm

B

Mt xy = 5 daN mm/mm

y

β = - 30°

F = 185 daN

Mt By = 3 daN

Mt Bxy = 5 daN

x Mt Bx = - 4 daN

l 2 .6 2

moment per unit of length equal to: = = 1.127 mm2 is found.

v 6

Assuming that a positive moment flux creates compression stresses on the external

surface, we obtain:

4

σe Bx = = 3.55 hb (35.5 MPa)

1.127

−3

σe By = = - 2.66 hb (- 26.6 MPa)

1.127

−5

τe Bxy = = - 4.44 hb (- 44.4 MPa)

1.127

Composite stress manual

Second example L 5.2

2/5

−4

σi Bx = = - 3.55 hb (- 35.5 MPa)

1.127

3

σi By = = 2.66 hb (26.6 MPa)

1.127

4

τi Bxy = = 4.44 hb (44.4 MPa)

1.127

EXTERNAL SURFACE

- 4.44 hb

3.55 hb y

- 2.66 hb x

4.44 hb

- 3.55 hb

2.66 hb

INTERNAL SURFACE

The purpose of this example is to determine which bending type fluxes must be added to

membrane type fluxes for the fastener hole calculation.

The "equivalent" gross bending type fluxes necessary for the calculations thus have the

following value:

{l10}

∆ne By = - 2.66 x 2.6 = - 6.92 daN/mm

∆ne Bxy = - 4.44 x 2.6 = - 11.54 daN/mm

Composite stress manual

Second example L 5.2

3/5

∆ni By = 2.66 x 2.6 = 6.92 daN/mm

∆ni Bxy = 4.44 x 2.6 = 11.54 daN/mm

The "equivalent" net bending type fluxes thus have the following value:

{l11}

21.6

∆ne Nx = 9.23 = 13.37 daN/mm

4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

21.6

∆ne Ny = - 6.92 = - 10.02 daN/mm

4.91

21.6 − 4.8 −

2.6

21.6

∆ne Nxy = - 11.54 = - 16.72 daN/mm

4.91

21.6 −4.8 −

2.6

21.6

∆ni Nx = - 9.23 = - 11.87 daN/mm

21.6 − 4.8

21.6

∆ni Ny = 6.92 = 8.9 daN/mm

21.6 − 4.8

21.6

∆ni Nxy = 11.54 = 14.84 daN/mm

21.6 − 4.8

Composite stress manual

Second example L 5.2

4/5

{l12}

13.37

∆ne Fx = = 14.86 daN/mm

0. 9

− 10.02

∆ne Fy = = - 11.13 daN/mm

0 .9

− 16.72

∆ne Fxy = = - 18.58 daN/mm

0 .9

− 11.87

∆ni Fx = = - 13.19 daN/mm

0 .9

8. 9

∆ni Fy = = 9.89 daN/mm

0. 9

14.84

∆ni Fxy = = 16.49 daN/mm

0. 9

All prior calculations were made in the initial coordinate system (o; x; y). These

"equivalent" bending type fluxes are thus to be added to the membrane type fluxes found

in the first example (see summary table on next page).

Composite stress manual

Second example L 5.2

5/5

This table summarizes the various steps of "equivalent" membrane flux calculation of the

previous example.

Membrane Bending Membrane Membrane Bending

Data in the

8 9.23 8 8 - 9.23

initial

-6 - 6.92 -6 -6 6.92

coordinate

20 - 11.54 20 20 11.54

system

section - 8.69 - 10.02 - 8.69 - 7.71 8.9

design 28.97 - 16.72 28.97 25.71 14.84

Rotation in

the bearing 31.61 28.06

↓ ↓ ↓

- 28.71 - 25.48

load 5.7 5.06

coordinate - 30° - 30°

system

+ Km - Km Km = 0 + Km - Km Km = 0

36.81 26.4 31.61 33.26 22.86 28.06

↓ ↓ ↓

Addition of

- 28.71 - 28.71 - 28.71 - 25.48 - 25.48 - 25.48

bearing flux 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.06 5.06 5.06

- 30° - 30° - 30° - 30° - 30° - 30°

Rotation in

32.14 37.3 26.98 32.14 33.69 22.59 28.53

↓ ↓

the main

- 29.24 - 29.2 - 29.29 -29.24 - 25.91 - 26.01 - 25.95

coordinate 35.4° 34.9° 35.8° 35.4° 34.9° 36° 35.4°

system

Hole 53.57 14.86 62.17 44.97 53.57 56.15 37.65 47.55 - 13.19

coefficient - 33.61 - 11.13 - 33.56 -33.67 - 33.61 - 29.78 - 29.90 -29.83 9.89

maximizing 35.4° - 18.58 34.9° 35.8° 35.4° 34.9° 36° 35.4° 16.49

Rotation in

24.32 30.83 18.06 24.32 27.7 14.35 21.43

↓ ↓

the initial

- 4.36 - 2.22 - 6.76 - 4.36 - 0.87 - 5.68 - 3.03

coordinate

41.17 44.92 37.31 41.17 38.82 30.81 35.12

system

Addition of

- 15.49 161 % marging 31 % marging 9.02 4.21 6.86 8 % marging

final fluxes

22.59 55.31 47.3 51.61

8 % for membrane + bending design

Composite stress manual

References L

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

LAFON, Carbon fibre structures: simplified rules for sizing at fastener holes, 1983, PL No.

139/83

LAFON, Justification of design methods used for carbon fibre structures - thin sheet

subject area, 1983, 440.156/83

B

100 mm. Extrapolation to damage tolerance evaluation, 1998, 581.0162/98

LAFON, TROPIS, Structural strength of outer wing - justification of design values, 1989,

440.233/89

issue 2.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Notations N 1

1 . NOTATIONS

Mx: moment flux

Mz: moment flux

Tx: shear load flux

Tz: shear load flux

Efi: bending elasticity modulus of lower skin

Gi: shear modulus of lower skin

ei: thickness of lower skin

Efc: bending elasticity modulus of core material

Gc: shear modulus of core material

ec: thickness of core material

Efs: bending elasticity modulus of upper skin

Gs: shear modulus of upper skin

es: thickness of upper skin

Composite stress manual

2

SANDWICH - MEMBRANE / BENDING / SHEAR

Specificity - Construction principle - Design principle N 3

4

2 . SPECIFICITY

honeycomb or foam with a low elasticity modulus and two thin and stiff face sheets.

adhesive

bonding core (honeycomb)

interface

internal face sheet

3 . CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLE

The face sheets and core are assembled by bonding with synthetic adhesives. There are

several alternative manufacturing processes:

- multiple phase process: face sheets are cured separately, then bonding of face

sheets to the honeycomb is performed as a second operation,

- semi-cocuring process: the external face sheet is cured separately, the honeycomb

and the internal face sheet are then cocured on the external face sheet,

- single phase or "cocuring" process: face sheets and the honeycomb are cured in one

single operation.

4 . DESIGN PRINCIPLE

The design rules that shall be developed are derived from the classical elasticity (refer to

"distribution of load among several closely bound structural elements" in chapter A.7).

Composite stress manual

Sandwich plates - Sandwich beams N 4.1

4.2

1/3

First of all, we shall consider that the three materials together are completely ordinary.

Then, we shall simplify the relationships obtained by considering that face sheets are thin

and stiff and that the sandwich core is thick and flexible.

Like monolithic metal or composite plates, sandwich plates are under the general plate

equation (see § A.7.4).

The determination of matrices (Aij), (Bij) and (Cij) which connect the strain tensor to the

load tensor is described in chapters C, D and E.

Here, we shall outline a short cut method applicable to sandwich beams. This method

does not take into account transversal loading, transversal effects so-called "Poisson"

effects and membrane-bending coupling. This simplification may lead to an error of

approximately 10 % on results obtained in cases of complex loading.

From the overall deformation point of view, sandwich plates obey the conventional

equations of classical elasticity theory. Stiffness equivalences (with iso-cross-section) with

homogeneous beams are described by relationships n14 to n18.

- an upper skin of thickness es, of membrane elasticity modulus Ems and of equivalent

bending elasticity modulus Efs,

- a core thickness ec, of membrane elasticity modulus Emc and of equivalent bending

elasticity modulus Efc,

- a lower skin of thickness ei, of membrane elasticity modulus Emi and of equivalent

bending elasticity modulus Efi.

Composite stress manual

Sandwich beams N 4.2

2/3

The bending modulus concept comes from the fact that lower and upper skins are

generally (in the case of honeycomb sandwiches) laminates with different membrane and

bending moduli (see chapters C and D). Its value depends on ply stacking. This concept

was extended to all three materials.

First of all, we shall develop the full sandwich beam theory while taking into account face

sheet thickness and bending stiffnesses, then we shall outline at the end of each sub-

chapter, the simplified relationships in which face sheets shall supposedly be thin and

subject to membrane stress only.

ei 2 æ e ö æ e ö

Emi + Emc ec ç ei + c ÷ + Ems e s ç ei + ec + s ÷

2 è 2ø è 2ø

n1 zg =

Emi ei + Emc ec + Ems es

Remark: In the case of a beam in which Emc ec << Emi ei and Emc ec << Ems es, the

relationship becomes:

ei 2 æ e ö

Emi + Ems es ç ei + ec + s ÷

2 è 2ø

n2 zg =

Emi ei + Ems es

es

ec

ei

Ems Efs Gs

Emc Efc Gc

Emi Efi Gi

b

zg

Composite stress manual

Sandwich beams N 4.2

3/3

We shall assume that the beam is subjected to the following overall load pattern at the

neutral axis:

Torsional moment My shall not be taken into account because it does not correspond to

any realistic loading.

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the stress and elongation diagram for each

one of these five loads.

We shall study the effects of Ny, Tx, Tz, Mx and Mz one by one.

Tz

Mx

y Mz

Ny

Tx

Composite stress manual

Effect of normal load Ny N 4.2.1

1/2

Assuming that all layers are in a pure tension or compression condition, a normal load Ny

applied at the neutral line results in a constant elongation over the whole cross-section.

This elongation may be formulated as follows:

Ny

n3 ε=

b (Emi ei + Emc ec + Ems es )

The equivalent membrane modulus of the sandwich beam may be determined by the

relationship n14.

Remark: In the case of a sandwich beam in which Emc ec << Emi ei and Emc ec << Ems

es, the relationship becomes:

Ny

n4 ε=

b (Emi ei + Ems es )

z

σs

Ems es y Ny

Emc ec σc

Emi ei

σi ε

b

x

Composite stress manual

Effect of normal load Ny N 4.2.1

2/2

By taking into account the remark assumptions of the previous page (ei << ec, es << ec,

Emc << Emi and Emc << Ems), it is possible to oversimplify load distribution in the different

sandwich layers.

We shall assume that load Ny applied at the beam neutral axis is fully picked up by two

membrane type normal loads (Fs and Fi) in both face sheets.

Emi ei

n5 Fi ≈ Ny

Emi ei + Ems es

Ems e s

Fs ≈ Ny

Emi ei + Ems e s

Fs

y Ny

Fi

Composite stress manual

Effect of shear loads Tx N 4.2.2

Generally speaking, shear load Tx is distributed in each of the three materials in proportion

with their shear stiffness.

The maximum shear stress in each of the three layers may then be formulated as follows:

3 Tx Gs es

n6 τs =

2 b es Gs es + Gc ec + Gi ei

3 Tx Gc e c

τc =

2 b e c Gs es + Gc ec + Gi ei

3 Tx Gi ei

τi =

2 b ei Gs es + Gc ec + Gi ei

The equivalent shear modulus with relation to the x-axis may be determined by the

relationship n15.

τs

es Gs y

Tx

ec Gc τc

τi

ei Gi

b

x

Composite stress manual

Effect of shear load Tz N 4.2.3

1/3

T EW

τ= z (Bredt generalized formula).

b å El

where

2

b Efs es 3 æ e ö

n7 Σ El = + b Ems es ç ei + e c + s − z g ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

b Efc ec 3 æ e ö

+ b Emc e c ç ei + c − zg ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

b Efi ei3 æe ö

+ b Emi ei ç i − zg ÷

12 è2 ø

If we consider three critical points A, B and zg, moduli weighted static moments at these

points are equal to:

æ e ö

n8 EW A = b Ems es ç e i + e c + s − z g ÷

è 2 ø

2

æ e ö æe e zg ö

EW zg = b Ems es ç e i + e c + s − z g ÷ + b Em c ç i + c + ÷

è 2 ø è2 2 2ø

æ eö

EW B = b Emi ei ç z g − i ÷

è 2ø

n9 τA = τzg = τB =

b Σ El b Σ El b Σ El

Stress τzg corresponds to the maximum stress within the core. In the general case of a

honeycomb sandwich material, this stress is the maximum shear stress of the

honeycomb.

Stresses τA and τB correspond to shear of (adhesive bonding) interface between the core

and the skins (force sheets).

Composite stress manual

Effect of shear load Tz N 4.2.3

2/3

The equivalent shear modulus with relation to the z-axis may be determined by the

relationship n16.

z

τA Tz

τzg

τB

es y

ec

ei

b

x

Remark 1: In the case of a sandwich beam in which Emc ec << Emi ei and Emc ec << Ems

es, τA, τzg and τB take the following simplified from:

Tz

n10 τA ≈ τzg ≈ τB ≈

æ e e ö

b ç i + ec + s ÷

è2 2ø

z

τA Tz

τzg

τB

es y

ec

ei

b

x

Remark 2: It should be noted that the equivalent shear modulus of a thin face sheet

sandwich beam is on the same order of magnitude as the core for the

honeycomb it consists of, thus very low.

therefore important to take into account this significant effect with respect to

the deformation due to the bending moment.

Composite stress manual

Effect of shear load Tz N 4.2.3

3/3

For example, for a sandwich beam simply supposed, loaded in its center, the deflected

shape due to the shear load may represent approximately 60 % of the overall deflection.

Let an aluminium beam and a sandwich beam with equivalent bending stiffness be, giving:

1 daN

300

2

Aluminium 10 El = 1.85E6 daN mm

ES = 2.22E5 daN

GS = 8.52E4 daN

10

2

0.5 E = 8200 El = 1.85E6 daN mm

Sandwich 9G=2 ES = 8.2E4 daN

0.5 E = 8200 GS = 180 daN

f1

f2

P l3

f1: deflection due to the bending moment f1 =

48 E l

1.2 Pl

f2: deflection due to the shear load f 2 =

4GS

Composite stress manual

Effect of bending moment Mx N 4.2.4

1/2

A bending moment Mx applied at the neutral line results in the creation of a linear

distribution of elongations along the cross-section. At the outer surfaces, we have:

Mx v s − Mx (ei + ec + es − z g )

n11 εs = =

Σ El Σ El

Mx v i Mx z g

εi = =

Σ El Σ El

with:

2

b Efs es 3 æ e ö

Σ El = + b Ems es ç ei + e c + s − z g ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

b Efc ec 3 æ e ö

+ b Emc e c ç ei + c − zg ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

b Efi ei3 æe ö

+ b Emi ei ç i − zg ÷

12 è2 ø

The equivalent bending modulus of the sandwich beam may be determined by the

relationship n17.

z

Mx

σs εs

y

Ems Efs es

Emc Efc ec

Emi Efi ei

σi εi

b

x

Composite stress manual

Effect of bending moment Mx N 4.2.4

2/2

Remark: In the case of a sandwich beam in which ei << ec, es << ec, Emc << Emi and

Emc << Ems, self inertias of both face sheets and honeycomb stiffness may be

disregarded:

2 2

æ e ö æe ö

Σ El ≈ b Ems es ç ei + ec + s − zg ÷ + b Emi ei ç i − z g ÷

è 2 ø è 2 ø

We shall assume that moment Mx is fully picked up by two membrane type normal loads

(F's and F'i) in both face sheets.

Both loads have the same modulus but are opposite. Their value is equal to:

Mx

n12 F'i ≈ - F's ≈

æ ei es ö

ç + ec + ÷

è2 2ø

F's

Mx

F'i

Composite stress manual

Effect of bending moment Mz N 4.2.5

proportion to their natural bending stiffness (with relation to the z-axis).

The maximum normal stress in each of the three materials may then be simply formulated

as follows:

6 Mz Ems e s

n13 σs = ±

b es Ems e s + Emc e c + Emi ei

2

6 Mz Emc e c

σc = ±

b ec Ems es + Emc e c + Emi ei

2

6 Mz Emi ei

σi = ±

b ei Ems e s + Emc e c + Emi ei

2

The equivalent bending modulus with relation to the z-axis is identical to the equivalent

membrane modulus with relation to the y-axis (see relationships n14 and n18).

σs ε

σc Mz

y

Ems es

Emc ec

Emi ei

- σi -ε

b

x

Composite stress manual

Equivalent mechanical properties N 4.2.6

equivalent stiffness properties in order to determine the passing loads and resulting

deformations.

For a sandwich beam, equivalences (with iso-cross-section) with respect to typical loads

are the following:

e1 (3)

e2 (4)

e3

(5)

E1G1

E2G2 (1)

E3G3 (2)

å

3

Ek ek

k =1

n14 (1) E equivalent normal load =

å

3

ek

k =1

å

3

Gk ek

k =1

n15 (2) G equivalent shear load =

å

3

e

k =1 k

æ ek ö

å

3

ç ÷

k =1 G

1 è kø

n16 (3) =

å e

3

G equivalent shear load

k=1 k

å E l

3

k =1 k k

n17 (4) E equivalent bending moment =

å l

3

k =1 k

å E e

3

k =1 k k

n18 (5) E equivalent bending moment =

å e

3

k =1 k

æ e3 ö

lk: self inertia + "Steiner" inertia ç + e d2 ÷

è 12 ø

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

1/7

5 . EXAMPLE

modulus Es = 6000 daN/mm2 (the bending modulus being identical),

Ec = 15 daN/mm2,

modulus Ei = 4500 daN/mm2 (the bending modulus being identical).

We shall assume that the beam is subjected to the following two loads and moment:

- Ny = 800 daN

- Mx = 2000 daN mm

- Tz = 250 daN z

Tz = 250 daN

Mx = 2000 daN mm

y

1.04

10

Ny = 800 daN

0.9

10

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

2/7

The purpose of the first part of the example is to determine inner and outer surface

elongations of the beam subject to load Ny and moment Mx.

1st step: the neutral axis position has to be determined, this position being referenced with

relation to the inner surface.

{n1}

0. 9 2 æ 10 ö æ 1.04 ö

4500 + 1510 ç 0.9 + ÷ + 6000 1.04 ç 0.9 + 10 + ÷

Zg =

2 è 2 ø è 2 ø

4500 0.9 + 1510 + 6000 1.04

Zg = 7.09 mm

zg = 7.09

{n3}

800

ε= = 7612 µd (microstrain)

10 ( 4500 0.9 + 1510 + 6000 1.04 )

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

3/7

{n4}

800

ε= = 7774 µd the error is 2 %

10 ( 4500 0.9 + 6000 1.04 )

Ny = 800 daN

ε = 7612 µd

3rd step: To determine maximum elongations εi and εs induced by moment flux Mx.

{n11}

εs =

Σ El

2000 7.09

εi =

Σ El

{n7}

2

10 6000 1.04 3 æ 1.04 ö

Σ El = + 10 6000 1.04 ç 0.9 + 10 + − 7.09 ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

10 15 10 3 æ 10 ö

+ 10 15 10 ç 0.9 + − 7.09 ÷ +

12 è 2 ø

2

10 4500 0.9 3 æ 0. 9 ö

+ 10 4500 0.9 ç − 7.09 ÷

12 è 2 ø

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

4/7

εs = - 3256 µd

εi = 4761 µd

In fact, elongations (and stresses) are calculated at the center of each face sheet:

4.33

εs = - 3256 = - 2906 µd

4.85

6.64

εi = 4761 = 4459 µd

7.09

z

εs = - 3256 µd

Mx = 2000 daN mm

y - 2906 µd

4459 µd

εi = 4761 µd

{n12}

2000

F'i = - F's ≈ = 182.3 daN

0.9 1.04

+ 10 +

2 2

Which corresponds to average elongations in lower and upper face sheets equal to:

− 182.3

εs ≈ ≈ - 2921 µd the error is 0.5 %

10 1.04 6000

182.3

εi ≈ ≈ 4501 µd the error is 0.9 %

10 0.9 4500

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

5/7

z

εs = 4356 µd

Mx = 2000 daN mm

y

Ny = 800 daN

εi = 12373 µd

The second part of the example consists in calculating the evolution of shear stress due to

shear load Tz, at the neutral axis in particular, at point A (upper face sheet - honeycomb

interface) and at point B (lower face sheet - honeycomb interface).

1st step: To calculate the inertia of the elasticity moduli weighted beam.

{n7}

obtain the value:

2 2

æ 1.04 ö æ 0 .9 ö

Σ El ≈ 10 6000 1.04 ç 0.9 + 10 + − 7.09 ÷ + 10 4500 0.9 ç − 7.09 ÷

è 2 ø è 2 ø

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

6/7

2nd step:

- To calculate the elasticity moduli weighted static moment EW zg (static moment with

relation to the neutral axis of part of the material located above it).

{n8}

2

æ 1.04 ö æ 0.9 10 1.04 ö

EW zg = 10 6000 1.04 ç 0.9 + 10 + − 7.09 ÷ + 10 15 ç + + ÷

è 2 ø è 2 2 2 ø

EW zg = 275538 daN mm

- To calculate the elasticity moduli weighted static moment EW A (static moment with

relation to the neutral axis at the upper face sheet).

æ 1.04 ö

EW A = 10 6000 1.04 ç 0.9 + 10 + − 7.09 ÷

è 2 ø

EW A = 270192 daN mm

- To calculate the elasticity moduli weighted static moment EW B (opposite of the static

moment with relation to the neutral axis at the lower face sheet).

æ 0.9 ö

EW B = 10 4500 0.9 ç − + 7.09 ÷

è 2 ø

EW B = 268920 daN mm

Composite stress manual

Example N 5

7/7

3rd step: to determine shear stresses at the neutral axis (shear stress in honeycomb), at

point A and point B.

{n9}

250 275538

τzg = = 2.31 hb (23.1 MPa)

10 2978541

250 270192

τA = = 2.26 hb (22.6 MPa)

10 2978541

250 268920

τB = = 2.25 hb (22.5 MPa)

10 2978541

It should be noted that, between point A and point B, the shear stress is practically

constant. It would be totally constant if the honeycomb elasticity modulus were zero

(which may be considered as such).

z

Tz = 250 daN

-A

-B y

τA = 2.26 hb

τzg = 2.31 hb

τB = 2.25 hb

{n10}

250

τA ≈ τzg ≈ τB ≈ = 2.28 hb (22.8 MPa)

æ 0.9 1.04 ö

10 ç + 10 + ÷

è 2 2 ø

The error is 2 %.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

References N

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

440.227/79

J. CHAIX, 436.127/91

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Notations S 1

1/2

1 . NOTATIONS

Fr: failure load of adhesively bonded joint

æ tö

M: cleavage moment ç M = F x ÷

è 2ø

E1: longitudinal elasticity modulus of material 1

e1: thickness of material 1

E2: longitudinal elasticity modulus of material 2

e2: thickness of material 2

E: longitudinal elasticity modulus of materials 1 and 2, if they are similar

e: thickness of materials 1 and 2, if they are similar

Ec: longitudinal elasticity modulus of adhesive

ec: thickness of adhesive

h: width of adhesively bonded joint

l: length of adhesively bonded joint

lm: minimum length of adhesively bonded joint

æ e e ö

t: thickness of cleavage ç t = 1 + 2 + ec÷

è 2 2 ø

λ: design constant

k: design constant

D: design constant

τM: maximum shear stress in adhesively bonded joint

τx: shear stress in adhesively bonded joint at dimension x

τam: allowable average shear stress of adhesive

τaM: allowable maximum shear stress of adhesive

σM: maximum peel stress in adhesively bonded joint

σa: allowable peel stress of adhesive

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Notations S 1

2/2

F1i: normal load passing through material 1 (at center of step No. i)

F2i: normal load passing through material 2 (at center of step No. i)

∆Fi: normal load transferred by the adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

e1i: thickness of material 1 (in step No. i)

E2i: longitudinal elasticity modulus of material 2 (in step No. i)

e2i: thickness of material 2 (in step No. i)

τmi: average shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

τMi: maximum shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Bonded single joint - Highly flexible adhesive S 2.1.1

This technique consists in assembling two (or several) elements by molecular adhesion.

The adhesive must ensure load transmission.

- Single joints:

• highly flexible adhesive with respect to bonded laminates,

• general case (without cleavage effect),

• general case (with cleavage effect).

- Scarf joint.

e1 E1 Gc

ec

E2 e2

F

τ

F

τ

τm

x if E1 and E2 >> Gc

- l/2 l/2

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

General case - Without cleavage S 2.1.2

1/3

In the case of an adhesive with a very low stiffness as opposed to the stiffness of the

laminates to be assembled, shear stress may be considered as uniform and equal to:

F

s1 τm =

hxl

If τa is the allowable shear stress of the adhesive, the minimum length of the adhesively

bonded joint shall be equal to:

F

lm =

h x τ am

Fr = λ x τam x h

In practice, check that the average stress (which, in this case, is equal to the maximum

stress) is smaller or equal to τam.

F

τ

τ τM

x if E1 x e1 ≠ E2 x e2

- l/2 l/2

τ τM

x if E1 x e1 = E2 x e2

- l/2 l/2

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

General case - Without cleavage S 2.1.2

2/3

In the case of any bonded assembly (E1 x e1 > E2 x e2) (see drawing on previous page)

subjected to a normal load F, the shear stress in the adhesively bonded joint may be

formulated as follows (VOLKERSEN) :

λ x l æ cosh ( λ x x ) sinh (λ x x ) E x e1 − E 2 x e 2 ö

s2 τx = τm x çç + x 1 ÷÷

2 è sinh (λ x l / 2) cosh (λ x l / 2) E 1 x e1 + E 2 x e 2 ø

with:

G c E 1 x e1 + E 2 x e 2

s3 λ= x

e c E1 x e 1 x E 2 x e 2

and

F

τm =

hxl

If E1 = E2 = E and e1 = e2 = e the joint is so-called symmetrical

In the case of an equilibrated joint, the maximum shear stress may be formulated as

follows:

λ xl æλ xlö

s4 τM = τm x x coth ç ÷

2 è 2 ø

with

2 x Gc

s5 λ=

E x e x ec

and

F

τm =

hxl

if λ x l << 0 then τM ≈ τm

λ xl

if λ x l >> 0 then τM ≈ τm x

2

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

General case - Without cleavage S 2.1.2

3/3

If τa is the allowable shear stress of the adhesive, the minimum length of the adhesively

bonded joint shall be equal to:

æ2 æ Fxλ ö ö

lm = Max ç x Arcth ç ÷; F ÷

çλ ç 2 x τa x h ÷ τa x h ÷

è è M ø m ø

æ æ λ x l ö 2 x τ aM x h ö

Fr = Min çç th ç ÷x ; l x τ am x h ÷÷

è è 2 ø λ ø

The latter relationship makes it possible to establish, for a bonded assembly, the concept

of optimum bonding length. Indeed, the function "th ( )" is asymptotically directed towards

1 when "λ x l/2" increases; now, value 1 is practically reached for a value of "λ x l/2" equal

to 2.7 (th (2.7) = 0.99).

Thus, we have:

λ x l = 2 x 2.7

hence:

5. 4 E x e x ec E x e x ec

l= = 5 .4 x = 3.82 x

λ 2 x Gc Gc

E x e x ec

s6 loptimal = 3.16 x

Gc

Fr

≈ 0.99.Fr

l

loptimal

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

General case - With cleavage S 2.1.3

F

M M

t F

æ Fxtö

assembled causes secondary moments ç M = ÷ to appear in elements, which tends to

è 2 ø

create peeling stresses in the adhesive.

Maximum shear and peeling stresses in the adhesive may, in that case, be formulated as

follows (Bruyne and Houwnik) :

λ xl æλ xl ö

s7 τM = τm x x 1 + 3 x k x coth ç x 1+ 3 x k ÷

2 è 2 ø

and

k E e F

s8 σM = σ x x 6x c x with σ =

2 E ec hxe

with

1

s9 k=

lxF l2 x F2

1+ +

2 x D 24 x D 2

and

E x t3

s10 D=

(

12 x 1 − n 2 )

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Scarf joint S 2.1.4

1/2

2 2

æτ ö æσ ö

Check that τM ≤ τaM and that çç M ÷÷ + ç M ÷ ≤ 1.

è τaM ø è σa ø

ec; Gc e2

e1

F F

E1 α E2

In the case of an angle α, scarf joint, the average shear stress is equal to:

F x cos α

τm =

lxh

The maximum shear stress τM may be assessed using graphs on next page:

Gc æ 1 1 ö

as abscissa: λ x l with λ2 = x çç + ÷

e c è E1 x e1 E 2 x e 2 ÷ø

τm

as ordinate:

τM

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Scarf joint S 2.1.4

2/2

E1 x e1

Each curve is representative of a value of ratio

E2 x e2

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

τm

0.5

τM

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.5 1 10 20 30

λl

The peeling stress in the adhesively bonded joint shall be considered as constant. It shall

be equal to the following value:

F x sin α

σm =

lxh

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Elastic-plastic behavior S 2.2

1/3

c

sti

rupture

ela

τr

τp -plastic

Elastic

γ

γp γt

As long as maximum stresses at joint ends (τM) have not reached the critical value τp

(plasticizing stress of adhesive), the bonded joint behaves like a flexible joint and stress

evolution follows the rules defined in paragraph 1).

If the load increases, a plasticizing zone (with stress τp) is formed at the most highly

loaded end of the joint.

If loading is yet increased, the shear stress of the adhesive in this plasticizing zone

reaches the critical value τr (failure stress of adhesive), which causes the adhesively

bonded joint failure.

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Elastic-plastic behavior S 2.2

2/3

The drawing below illustrates, from a quality standpoint, the shear stress evolution in the

adhesively bonded joint as the bonding force increases.

τr: failure

Load

x

l

Remark: There is no simple theory for the elastic-plastic behavior of a bonded joint. A

finite element model only would allow justification of the structural strength of

such a system in this case.

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Elastic-plastic behavior S 2.2

3/3

However, in the case of an equilibrated joint and assuming that the adhesive has an

elastic-plastic behavior such as described in the drawing below, it is possible to determine

(M.J. DAVIS, The development of an engineering standard for composite repairs, AGARD

SMP 1994) the length of plasticized adhesive and, of course, the length of adhesive in

elastic behavior.

τ

c

sti

ela

τp

elastic-plastic

γ

γp

In the case of such behavior, the shear stress diagram in the adhesive is the following:

τ

Lp Le Lp

τp

x

L

F

Lp ≈

4 x h x τp

6 E x e x ec

Le ≈ ≈6

λ 2 x Gc

If the joint is equilibrated, the plasticized length is given by the following relationship:

æ 1 æ æ L ööö F 2 x Gc

τp ç L p − tanh ç Φ ç − + L p ÷ ÷ ÷ = with Φ=

è Φ è è 2 øøø 2 ec x E x e

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Bonded double lap joint S 3

e1 E1 Gc

ec

x E2 2 x e2

e1 E1

For the case of a bonded double lap joint, shear stress distribution in the adhesive film is

given by the following formula (in replacement of relationship s2) :

ææ 1− β β ö ö

τx = τm x λ x l x çç çç + ÷÷ cosh (λ x x ) − (1 − β) sinh (λ x x ) ÷

÷

è è tanh (λ x l) sinh (λ x l) ø ø

−1

æ E x e2 ö

where β = çç1 + 2 ÷÷

è E1 x e1 ø

In the general case, the maximum shear stress at the joint ends is formulated as follows:

τM = τm x λ x l x

sinh (λ x l)

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Bonded stepped joint S 4

1/3

When the laminates to be bonded are too thick or when the loads to be transmitted are

too high, the "stepping" or scarfing bonding technique is imperative.

The drawing below shows the general geometry of such a joint (the drawing shows a

three-stepped joint (n = 3), a higher number may be considered).

The design method consists in determining, for each adhesively bonded joint portion, the

load fraction crossing it, then, in considering each step "i" as elementary.

This so-called "short cut" method is a strictly manual method which gives the order of

magnitude of average shear stresses per step. For greater accuracy, it is recommended

to use the computing software PSB2 (see § S4 and program PSB2 instructions).

Assumptions: Let's assume that transversal effects are insignificant (εy = 0 or Fy = 0). Let's

also assume that there is no secondary bending (off-centering from the neutral line shall

not be taken into account): joints below are considered as equivalent.

EQUIVALENCE

Material (2)

F Material (1)

l1 li ln

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Bonded stepped joint S 4

2/3

1st step: Determination of loads (F1i et F2i) passing through both laminates (parent material

"1" and repair material "2") at the center of each step.

We shall assume that loads are distributed (at the center of each step) in proportion to the

rigidity of each material:

E1i x e1i

s11 F1i = F x F2i = F - F1i

E 1i x e1i + E 2i x e 2i

E2i, e2i

F2i F

F

F1i

E1i, e1i

We shall assume that the load evolution in material 1 (and consequently in material 2) is

linear by portions. Which leads to the following configuration:

F21

F

F2i

F F2n

F11

F1i

F1n

F2x

F2n

F2i

F2i

x

Evolution of the load transferred in the repair material

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Bonded stepped joint S 4

3/3

2nd step: From the previously determined curve, the load (∆Fi) transferred by each step is

calculated.

l 2 x F1 + l1 x F2

s12 ∆F1 =

l1 + l 2

li + 1 x Fi + li x Fi + 1 li x Fi − 1 + li − 1 x Fi

∆Fi = − 2≤i≤n-1

li + li + 1 li − + li

l n x Fn − 1 + ln − 1 x Fn

∆Fn = Fn −

ln − 1 + ln

å

n

We have also (∆Fi ) = F

i=1

∆F1

F

∆Fi

F ∆Fn

F2x

∆Fn

∆Fi

∆F1

x

0

We have:

∆Fi

s13 τmi = 1.05 x

h x li

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

EDP software S 5

where 1.05 is a fixed plus factor (according to the rule) allowing one to be conservative

with respect to results established by EDP software.

5 . EDP SOFTWARE

The EDP software PSB2 digitally processes problems with adhesively bonded stepped

joints and, therefore, with adhesively bonded single joints as well.

This computing program is based on a differential analysis of the adhesively bonded joint

and not on the "short cut" method outlined in chapter § S3.

- stresses in any point of a bonded stepped single or double joint (evolution of shear

stress and average stress per step),

For more information, refer to instructions for use or to the example in chapter § S6.2.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

First example S 6.1

1/2

6 . EXAMPLES

h = 100 mm

2

Gc = 400 daN/mm

2

e1 = 2 mm E1 = 5000 daN/mm

ec = 0.1 mm 2

e2 = 2 mm

E2 = 5000 daN/mm

l = 50 mm

The allowable average shear value of the adhesive being: τam = 0.8 hb.

Assuming that the joint is subjected to load F = 1000 daN and that there is no cleavage

effect.

1000 1000

{s1} τm = = = 0.2 hb (2 MPa)

100 x 50 5000

2 x 400

{s5} λ= = 0.9

5000 x 2 x 0.1

0.9 x 50 æ 0.9 x 50 ö

{s4} τM = 0.2 x x coth ç ÷ = 4.5 hb (45 MPa)

2 è 2 ø

Check that the average stress τm is smaller than the allowable stress τam (0.8 hb; 8 MPa)

and that the maximum stress τM is smaller than τaM (8 hb; 80 MPa).

The margin thus obtained is equal to 77 % (RF = 1.77 = 8/4.5). Within the framework of

the previous example, let's calculate the optimum bonding length from which any increase

becomes useless over the decrease of maximum shear stress in the adhesive.

5000 x 2 x 0.1

{s6} loptimale = 3.16 x = 5 mm

400

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

First example S 6.1

2/2

This result proves that, concerning the maximum shear stress, a change in the bonding

length from 50 mm to 5 mm increases (after calculations) this stress by only 1 %. The gain

is thus insignificant.

1000

lm = = 12.5 mm

0.8 x 100

The drawing below shows the evolution of the actual stress (smooth curve) and the value

of the average stress (dotted curve) in the example quoted.

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

- 25 - 20 - 15 - 10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Second example S 6.2

1/5

Let the following three-stepped joint be defined by its geometry and mechanical

properties:

h = 10 mm

F = 100 daN

F = 100 daN

l1 = 15 mm l2 = 10 mm l3 = 15 mm

2 2 2

E21 = 5250 daN/mm E22 = 5000 daN/mm E23 = 7000 daN/mm

2

1

2 2 2

E11 = 7000 daN/mm E12 = 5000 daN/mm E13 = 5250 daN/mm

The allowable average shear value of the adhesive being: τam = 0.8 hb (8 MPa).

The allowable maximum shear value of the adhesive being: τaM = 8 hb (80 MPa).

We shall assume that the joint is subjected to load F = 100 daN and that there is no

cleavage effect.

The first stage consists in calculating, at the center of each step, loads passing through

each material.

Concerning the first step:

0.26 x 5250

{s11} F21 = 100 x = 20 daN

0.26 x 5250 + 0.78 x 7000

F11 = 100 - 20 = 80 daN

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Second example S 6.2

2/5

0.52 x 5000

{s11} F22 = 100 x = 50 daN

0.52 x 5000 + 0.52 x 5000

0.78 x 7000

{s11} F23 = 100 x = 80 daN

0.26 x 5250 + 0.78 x 7000

The determination of these values allows the load evolution curve passing through

material 2, or repair material, to be plotted:

F21

F

F22

F F23

F11

F12

F13

F2x

F = 100 daN

F23 = 80 daN

F22 = 50 daN

F21 = 20 daN

0 x

The second stage consists in calculating, from the previous curve, loads transferred by

each step:

15 x 50 + 10 x 20

{s12} ∆F1 = - 0 = 38 daN

15 + 10

15 x 50 + 10 x 80 15 x 50 + 10 x 20

{s12} ∆F2 = − = 24 daN

15 + 10 15 + 10

15 x 50 + 10 x 80

{s12} ∆F3 = 100 - = 38 daN

15 + 10

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Second example S 6.2

3/5

The drawing below represents the different loads ∆Fi transferred by each step.

∆F1

F

∆F2

F ∆F3

∆F3 = 38 daN

∆F2 = 24 daN

∆F1 = 38 daN

x

The third stage consists in determining for each step the average and maximum stresses

in the adhesively bonded joint, based on ∆Fi calculated previously.

steps 1 and 3 being equivalent for symmetry reasons, only the first two shall be justified.

{s13}

38

τm1 = 1.05 x = 0.266 hb (2.66 MPa)

10 x 15

{s13}

24

τm2 = 1.05 x = 0.252 hb (2.52 MPa)

10 x 10

and

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Second example S 6.2

4/5

The fourth stage consists in checking that average stresses are smaller than τam.

F

F

Only a digital analysis (program PSB2) or a finite element analysis (program PSH14) shall

be able to determine with accuracy the shear stress evolution along each step.

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

Second example S 6.2

5/5

For information purposes, we present below the output file of PSB2 corresponding to the

previous example.

Basic data:

I 5) 3 3 10 1 3

F10) 10.0000000 10.0000000 ← loading

A 8)BONDED STEPPED JOINT SAMPLE

MAT1 MF 4 3

MAT1

MAT1 1001) 7000.00000 5000.00000 5250.00000 ← parent material

MAT1 2001) 3000.00000 3000.00000 3000.00000

MAT1 3001) 0. 0. 0.

MAT1 4001) .780000000 0.52000000 .260000000

MAT2P MF 4 3

MAT2P

MAT2P 1001) 5250.00000 5000.00000 7000.00000 ← repair material

MAT2P 2001) 3000.00000 3000.00000 3000.00000

MAT2P 3001) 0. 0. 0.

MAT2P 4001) .260000000 .520000000 .780000000

COLLE MF 2 3

COLLE

COLLE 1001) .050000000 .050000000 .050000000 ← adhesive

COLLE 2001) 300.000000 300.000000 300.000000

VF 3

1) 15.0000000 25.0000000 40.0000000 ← step dimensions

STEPS UPPER STEPS HB

2 .313 ← step No. 2

3 .229 ← step No. 3

It may thus be observed that the short cut method provides (in this example), with respect

to the PSB2 method, a difference of:

- 20 % for the central step

analytical model being "closer" to physical reality. The "short cut" method being mainly a

manual method.

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED JOINTS

References S

GAY, Composite materials, 1991

failure accounted for, AS 432.651/96

M.J. DAVIS, The development of an engineering standard for composite repairs, AGARD

SMP 1994

NASA CR 112-235

NSA CR 112-236

D.A. BIGWOOD A.D. CROCOMBE, Elastic analysis and engineering design formulae for

bonded joints

L.J. HART SMITH, Adhesively bonded joints for fibrous composite structures, Mc Donnell

Douglas Corporation

L.J. HART SMITH, The design of repairable advanced composite structures, Mc Donnell

Douglas Corporation 1985

L.J. HART SMITH, Adhesive bonded scraf and stepped lap joints, Mc Donnell Douglas

Corporation

J.W. VAN INGEN A. VLOT, Stress analysis of adhesively bonded single lap joint

S. MALL N.K. KOCHHAR, Criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints,

University of Missourri-Rolla, 1986

bonded joints, University of Maine

M. DE NEEF, Study of composite material bonding with edge effects accounted for,

Alcatel Espace ; Août 1992

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Notations T 1

1 . GENERAL NOTATIONS

(o, p, p'): main coordinate system of stress fluxes

Ny∝: normal flux in direction y

Nxy∝: shear flux

Np'∝: principal flux in direction p'

β: angle

In principal direction p

τmi: average shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

τMi: maximum shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

Nri: normal flux in repair material (in step No. i)

τ'mi: average shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

τ'Mi: maximum shear stress in adhesively bonded joint (in step No. i)

N'ri: normal flux in repair material (in step No. i)

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Introduction T 2

2 . INTRODUCTION

When a panel undergoes a damage (hole, delamination, etc.), two types of repair may be

considered: a bolted repair (see chapter U) or a bonded repair.

Let the damaged (assuming that the damage is a hole) panel (monolithic skin) be

subjected to stress fluxes Nx∝, Ny∝, Nxy∝.

We shall assume that the repair is circular and of its stiffness close to that of the skin (no

increase of parent skin fluxes due to load transfer in a repair that is too stiff).

Ny∝

Nxy∝

Nx∝

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

1/6

3 . DESIGN METHOD

This is an extrapolation of the bonded joint method (see chapter S) and, therefore, it is not

suited for shear flux transfer. Thus, it is necessary to work within the principal coordinate

system in which stress fluxes are Np∝ and Np'∝ to return to the case of a single joint. This

method is conservative.

1st step: Calculation of principal fluxes Np and Np' and of main angle β.

N x ∞ + Ny ∞ 1

t1 Np∝ = + (Nx ∞ − Ny ∞ )2 + 4 Nxy ∞ 2

2 2

N x ∞ + Ny ∞ 1

t2 Np'∝ = − (N x ∞ − Ny ∞ )2 + 4 N xy ∞ 2

2 2

1 æ 2 N xy ∞ ö

t3 β= Arctg çç ÷

÷

2 è Nx∞ − Ny∞ ø

y

Np'∝

Np∝

p'

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

2/6

2nd step: For each calculation direction (p and p'), let's consider the repair as a 1 mm wide

material strip.

The drawing below shows that, based on a two-dimensional repair (R), two one-

dimensional bonded stepped joints (Jp) and (Jp') are determined (or isolated). Each one of

these elementary bonded joints must transfer a normal load Fp = 1 Np∝ and Fp' = 1 Np'∝.

For the determination of flux transfers from the parent material to the repair material, refer

to the design method for bonded stepped joints (see chapter S) or to the computing

software PSB2.

y

Np'∝

Np∝

J p'

Jp β

p' m

1m

p

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

3/6

3rd step:

From this analysis, the following results are extracted for each step and each direction (p

and p'):

- for direction p:

• average and maximum shear stresses in each step of the adhesively bonded joint: τmi

(average stress in step i) and τMi (maximum stress in step i),

• normal fluxes in the parent material for each step Nsi (step i),

• normal fluxes in the repair material for each step Nri (step i).

Jp

4

3

2

i=

1 p

τ Mi

τ mi

τ

p

Nsi

N Nri

Np

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

4/6

• average and maximum shear stresses in each step of the adhesively bonded joint: τ'mi

(average stress in step i) and τ'Mi (maximum stress in step i),

• normal fluxes in the parent material for each step N'si (step i),

• normal fluxes in the repair material for each step N'ri (step i).

p'

p'

J p' N' r i

N' s i

4 τ' m i

3 N p'

τ' M i

2

i=

N'

1

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

5/6

4th step: It consists of a combination of previously determined shear stresses and normal

fluxes.

- Average shear stresses in the adhesively bonded joint calculated for both directions p

and p' are vertorially combined (although points are different) and the resulting stress for

each step is compared with the allowable average shear value of the adhesive

considered.

t4 ( τmi )2 + (τ'mi )2 ≤ τ a m

τmi (p)

τ'mi (p')

adhesively bonded

joint step No. i

- Maximum shear stresses in the adhesively bonded joint calculated for both directions p

and p' are vectorially combined (although points are different) and the value found for

each step is compared with the allowable maximum shear value of the adhesive

considered.

t5 ( τMi )2 + (τ'Mi )2 ≤ τ a M

τMi (p)

τ'Mi (p')

adhesively bonded

joint step No. i

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Analytical method T 3.1

6/6

- In a plain plate calculation (see chapter C), normal stress fluxes Nsi and N'si for the

parent material are associated (although points are different).

This calculation shall be performed where fluxes are maximum (at the beginning of each

step).

N'si

Nsi

es

parent material

step No. i

- In a plain plate calculation (see chapter C), normal stress fluxes Nri and N'ri for the repair

material are associated (although points are different).

This calculation shall be performed where fluxes are maximum (at the end of each step).

N'ri

Nri

er

repair material

step No. i

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Digital method T 3.2

In the case of a highly loaded bonded repair or with complex loading, the use of finite

element modeling is preferable.

The software PSH14 has been developed for this purpose. It allows automatic modeling of

a circular bonded repair (see drawing below). This model is subjected to membrane stress

only and does not take cleavage effects into account.

The adhesively bonded joint is represented by type 29 volume elements (with elastic-

plastic behavior), the panel and repair by type 80 and 83 elements.

Y-axis

507

407

same st

as

1

quadrant 307

207

X-axis

details of 107

step

same as elements

st

1

same st

as quadrant

1

quadrant 16 7

26 17

36 27

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

1/8

4 . EXAMPLE

Nxy∝ = 4 daN/mm

Repair material: G803/914 (new)

0°/90°

45°/135°

0°/90°

45°/135°

0°/90° 0°/90°

45°/135° 45°/135°

0°/90° 0°/90°

45°/135° 45°/135°

0°/90°

45°/135°

i=1 i=2

12 20

Let's assume (with a view to simplification) that both materials are nearly-isotropic (their

elasticity modulus being equal to 4417 daN/mm2 in all directions) for each step and that

steps are 12 and 20 mm long.

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

2/8

We may deduce that the principal coordinate system has a 45° direction and that principal

fluxes are equal to Np∝ = 4 daN/mm and Np'∝ = - 4 daN/mm.

{t1}

1

Np∝ = + 4 4 2 = 4 daN/mm

2

{t2}

1

Np'∝ = - 4 4 2 = - 4 daN/mm

2

{t3}

1 æ2x 4ö 1 1

β= Arctg ç ÷ = Arctg (∞ ) = 90 = 45°

2 è 0 ø 2 2

J

p' Jp β = 45°

p' p

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

3/8

After running the software PSB2 (computation of a bonded stepped joint), the following

results are found for direction p (results may be multiplied by - 1 for direction p'):

2.2 hb

τ

1.35 hb

1.21 hb

0.207 hb

0.076 hb

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

p

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

4/8

3.5

2.5

Nsi 2

1.512 daN/mm

1.5

0.5

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

p

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

5/8

Nri 3

2.472 daN/mm

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

p

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

6/8

• The first check consists of a vectorial combination of average shear stresses for each

step. In this case, average shear stresses are the same (to the nearest sign) in both

directions p and p'.

The maximum value is equal to 0.207 daN/mm2 in each direction. We may deduce the

vectorial resultant stress:

{t4}

This value is to be compared to the allowable average shear value of the adhesively

bonded joint that is generally selected equal to 0.8 daN/mm2 (a 173 % margin is

obtained).

• The second check consists of a vectorial combination of maximum shear stresses for

each step. In this case, shear stresses are the same (to the nearest sign) in both

directions p and p'.

The maximum stress is reached at the beginning of the first step. The value reached is

equal to 2.20 daN/mm2.

{t5}

This value is to be compared to the allowable maximum shear value of the adhesively

bonded joint: 8 daN/mm2 (a 157 % margin is obtained).

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

7/8

• The third check consists of a plain plate calculation of the parent material for each step

(where the flux is maximum: at the beginning of the step).

At the beginning of the first step, the flux in direction p is Ns1 = 4 daN/mm and the flux in

direction p' is N's1 = - 4 daN/mm, which corresponds to a shear flux Nxys1 equal to

4 daN/mm in the reference coordinate system. At this location, the parent material is

made out of six fabrics (3 fabrics at 0°/90° + 3 fabrics at 45°/135°) G803/914 (supposed

new).

A running of the program PSB3 (plain plate computation) makes it possible to find a Hill's

criterion margin equal to 966 %.

At the beginning of the second step, the flux in direction p is Ns2 = 1.512 daN/mm and

the flux in direction p' is N's2 = - 1.512 daN/mm, which corresponds to a shear flux Nxys2

equal to 1.512 daN/mm in the reference coordinate system. At this location, the parent

material is made out of two fabrics (1 fabric at 0°/90° + 1 fabric at 45°/135°) G803/914

(supposed new).

A running of program PSB3 (smooth plate computation) makes it possible to find a Hill's

criterion margin equal to 843 %.

• The fourth check consists of a smooth plate calculation of the repair material for each

step (where the flux is maximum: at the end of the step).

At the end of the first step, the flux in direction p is Nr1 = 2.472 daN/mm and the flux in

direction p' is N'r1 = - 2.472 daN/mm, which corresponds to a shear flux Nxyr1 equal to

2.472 daN/mm in the reference coordinate system. At this location, the repair material is

made out of four fabrics (2 fabrics at 0°/90° + 2 fabrics at 45°/135°) G803/914 (supposed

new).

A running of the program PSB3 (plain plate computation) makes it possible to find a Hill's

criterion margin above 1000 %.

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

Example T 4

8/8

At the end of the second step, the flux in direction p is Nr2 = 4 daN/mm and the flux in

direction p' is N'r2 = - 4 daN/mm, which corresponds to a shear flux Nxyr2 equal to

4 daN/mm in the reference coordinate system. At this location, the repair material is made

out of eight fabrics (4 fabrics at 0°/90° + 4 fabrics at 45°/135°) G803/914 (supposed new).

A running of the program PSB3 (plain plate computation) makes it possible to find a Hill's

criterion margin above 1000 %.

B In conclusion, the minimum safety margin is assessed at 157 % under maximum stress in

the adhesively bonded joint.

Composite stress manual

BONDED REPAIRS

References T

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

joints, 1995, DCR/M-62385/F-95

receive a bonded repair, 1994, 440.133/94

M. MAHE - D. GRIMALD, Implementation of a digital model for the finite element design of

bonded repairs on composite materials, 436.0086/95

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Notations U 1

1/2

1 . NOTATIONS

∅: diameter of damage

Nx EF

meca. : flux Nx derived from E.F.s not influenced by the repair

Ny EF

meca. : flux Ny derived from E.F.s not influenced by the repair

Nxy EF

meca. : flux Nxy derived from E.F.s not influenced by the repair

∞

Nx or Nx meca . : mechanical origin flux Nx upstream of the repair

∞

Ny or Ny meca . : mechanical origin flux Ny upstream of the repair

∞

Nxy or Nxy meca . : mechanical origin flux Nxy upstream of the repair

Nyr meca.: mechanical origin flux Ny crossing the doubler

Nxyr meca.: mechanical origin flux Nxy crossing the doubler

Nxr meca. + therm.: mechanical and thermal origin flux Nx crossing the doubler

Nyr meca. + therm.: mechanical and thermal origin flux Ny crossing the doubler

Nyr therm.: thermal origin flux Ny crossing the doubler

Nxs meca.: mechanical origin flux Nx in the panel below the doubler

Nys meca.: mechanical origin flux Ny in the panel below the doubler

Nxys meca.: mechanical origin flux Nxy in the panel below the doubler

L sy and h sy : panel dimensions for calculation of direction y

L rx and h rx : doubler dimensions for calculation of direction x

L ry and h ry : doubler dimensions for calculation of direction y

r: elementary stiffness of fasteners.

Eys: transversal elasticity modulus (direction y) of panel

Gxys: shear modulus of panel

es: panel thickness

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Notations U 1

2/2

αys: coefficient of expansion of panel in direction y

Eyr: transversal elasticity modulus (direction y) of doubler

Gxyr: shear modulus of doubler

er: doubler thickness.

αxr: coefficient of expansion of doubler in direction x

αyr: coefficient of expansion of doubler in direction y

R sy : stiffness of panel with respect to flux Ny

R sxy : stiffness of panel with respect to flux Nxy

R rx : stiffness of doubler with respect to flux Nx

R ry : stiffness of doubler with respect to flux Ny

R rxy : stiffness of doubler with respect to flux Nxy

η: correcting factor of panel shear stiffness

ni: number of rows of fasteners on a "unit strip"

ri: stiffness of all fasteners on row "i"

A: distance between the last load-carrying row of fasteners and the axis of symmetry of

the repair

Fyi: overall load transferred by row of fasteners "i" in direction y

fx/xij: load on fastener identified by rows "i" and "j" due to flux Nx

fy/yij: load on fastener identified by rows "i" and "j" due to flux Ny

fx/xyij: direction x load on fastener identified by rows "i" and "j" due to flux Nxy

fy/xyij: direction y load on fastener identified by rows "i" and "j" to flux Nxy

lxi: position of row of fasteners "i" with relation to the axis of symmetry of the repair

lyj: position of row of fasteners "j" with relation to the axis of symmetry of the repair

Remark: Without an exponent, a notation looses its directional nature and thus becomes

general and applicable to x and y-axes.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Stiffness of a fastener in single shear U 2.1

2 . STIFFNESS OF FASTENERS

One of the most important parameters for the justification of a bolted repair is the stiffness

of fasteners which make it up. Their effect on load transfer is direct. The purpose of this

sub-chapter is to make an analytical assessment of the stiffness of a fastener.

Two cases are considered: single shear (the most common in our case) and double

shear.

Let a fastener of diameter D and longitudinal elasticity modulus E bind two parts of

thickness er and es and of elasticity moduli Er and Es.

Er

E

er Es

es

D

The stiffness of the fastener + parts system to be bound may be assessed by one of the

three relationships quoted below.

1 5 æ 1 1 ö

= + 0.8 ç + ÷ → Mac Donnel Douglas

r ED ç ÷

è Er er E s es ø

0.85 er 0.85 e s

1 2 D æ 1 3 ö 2 D æ 1 3 ö

= çç + ÷÷ + çç + ÷÷ → Boeing

r er E

è r 8 E ø es E

è s 8 E ø

2/ 3

1 æ e + er ö æ 1 1 1 1 ö

=ξç s ÷ ç + + + ÷ → Huth

r è 2D ø è Er e r E s e s 2 er E 2 e s E ø

with

ξ = 2.2 → rivet on metal joint

ξ=3 → screw on metal joint

ξ = 4.2 → carbon seal

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Stiffness of a fastener in double shear - Assumptions U 2.2

3

1/2

In the software (Bolted Repairs), the stiffness of the fastener + parts system to be bound

is calculated by the Huth method:

2/3

1 æ e + er ö æ 1 1 1 1 ö

u1 = 4.2 çç s ÷÷ çç + + + ÷÷

r è 2D ø è Er er E s e s 2 er E 2 e s E ø

er

2

Er

E

Es

es

D

3 . ASSUMPTIONS

subjected to is a compression or shear flux. In tension, we shall consider that the

panel retains its initial stiffness,

- the panel is subjected to membrane stress. The bending effects cannot be taken into

account in this method,

- the panel and doubler have a constant thickness and all fasteners are similar,

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Assumptions U 3

2/2

- no overload on panel due to the presence of the doubler: to take it into account,

fluxes in the skin derived from finite element (N EF

meca. ) should be increased in

proportion to stiffnesses of the non-damaged skin alone and of the damaged skin with

reinforcing piece.

Nx meca . = Nx EF

meca. with R sx ∅ = 0 =

Rsx ∅ = 0 Lxs

R ry + R sy E y e s hry

∞

Ny meca . = Ny EF

meca. with R sy ∅ = 0 = s

R sy ∅ = 0 Lys

∞ R rxy + R sxy

Nxy meca EF

. = Nxy meca. with R sxy∅ = 0 = Gxy s es

R sxy∅ = 0

α: x; y; xy

β: r; s

Generally speaking, a bolted repair attached to a panel subjected to three load fluxes

∞ ∞ ∞

Nx meca . , Ny meca. , Nxy meca. may be represented as follows:

∞

Ny meca.

∞

Nxy meca.

∞

Nx meca.

∞

Nx meca.

∞

Nxy meca. x

∞

Ny meca.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Geometrical data - Mechanical properties U 4

5

The justification method of such a repair shall first consist in calculating the three load

fluxes crossing the doubler (Nxr meca., Nyr meca. and Nxyr meca.) then in assessing loads applied to

the repair fasteners, based on these results. The set of fluxes at each fastener may be

determined on a unique basis.

Some geometrical and mechanical parameters of the structure shall be required for

conducting this study.

4 . GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Below are represented the general geometrical characteristics describing the repair. All

other geometrical characteristics appearing further in the document may be formulated

according to these characteristics.

y

2 hr

a*

x

2 hr

∅

y

er

es

x

a

5 . MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

For the panel: Longitudinal (direction x) and transversal (direction y) elasticity moduli,

shear modulus and thickness: Exs; Eys; Gxys; es.

For the doubler: Longitudinal (direction x) and transversal (direction y) elasticity moduli,

shear moduli and thickness: Exr; Eyr; Gxyr; er.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Distribution of flux Nx U 6.1

For fasteners: Number of load-carrying fasteners (n) and elementary stiffness in shear (r)

of each fastener.

, Nyr meca.

and Nxyr meca.

) is

∞ ∞ ∞

identical for all three fluxes Nx meca . , Ny meca. and Nxy meca. . It consists in calculating for each

one the equivalent stiffness of the panel (Rs) and the equivalent stiffness of the doubler

(Rr) and in distributing the flux in proportion to those.

∞

If Nx meca . is the panel flux "far from the repair", the flux Nxr meca.crossing the doubler is equal

to:

∞ R rx

u2 Nxr meca. = Nx meca .

R rx + R sx

with

E xr e r hrx n r

4 Lxr

u3 R rx =

E xr e r hrx nr

+

Lxr 4

and

E x s es hsx

u4 R sx = without chamfer

Lxs

æ a* hx − a *ö

R sx = Exs es ç x + s x ÷ with chamfer

è Ls − a Ls ø

where 2 L rx is the distance between the centers of gravity of fasteners located on either

side of the damage (see shaded fasteners on drawing below). The number of columns

taken into account shall never exceed 3.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Distribution of flux Ny U 6.2

∅

hsx = hrx −

2 x

2 Ls

chamfer

x

hs

x

Lr x

center of gravity of fasteners

∞

If Ny meca . is the panel flux "far from the repair", the flux Nyr meca. crossing the doubler is equal

to:

∞ R ry

u5 Nyr meca. = Ny meca .

R ry + R sy

with

E yr e r hry n r

4 Lyr

u6 R ry =

E yr e r hry nr

+

Lyr 4

and

Ey s es hsy

u7 R sy = without chamfer

Lys

æ a hy − a ö

R sy = Eys es ç y + s y ÷ with chamfer

è Ls − a * Ls ø

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Distribution of flux Nxy U 6.3

where 2 L ry is the distance between the centers of gravity of fasteners located on either

side of the damage (see shaded fasteners on drawing below). The number of columns

taken into account shall never exceed 3.

∅

hys = hry −

2

y

y Lr

2 Ls

x

chamfer

y

hs

∞

If Nxy meca . is the panel flux "far from the repair", the flux Nxyr meca. crossing the doubler is

equal to:

∞ R rxy

u8 Nxyr meca. = Nxy meca .

R rxy + R sxy

with

Gxy r er n r

u9 R rxy = 8

nr

Gxy r er +

8

and

Factor η makes it possible to take into account the effect of damage size ∅ on the panel

shear stiffness below the doubler.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Thermal origin loads in doubler U 7

V2 + W2 0.5

u11 η= 2 2

æ ö æ ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç V − 1+ 1 ÷ + ç W − 1+ 1 ÷

ç 1 ÷ ç 1 ÷

ç 1− ÷ ç 1− ÷

è W ø è V ø

with

2 Lxs

V=

∅

and

2 Lys

W=

∅

In the case of two geometrically different plates (1) and (2) bound by a system with

stiffness ℜ, the thermal loads applied to plate (1) are equal to:

∆θ (α 2 L 2 − α1 L1)

v9 F= (cf. § V6.1)

L1 L2 2

+ +

e1 b1 E1 e2 b 2 E2 ℜ

(1)

ℜ ℜ

(2)

L2

b1 L1 b2

By generalizing this relationship with the case of a bolted repair, we find thermal loads in

directions x and y which apply to the doubler:

(

2 ∆θ α x s Lxs − α xr Lxr )

Lxr Lxs 4

+ +

e r hrx E xr e s h sx E x s nr

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Flux in panel - Loads per fastener due to Nx and Ny U 8

9

Fyr therm. =

(

2 ∆θ α y s Lys − α yr Lyr )

Lyr Lys 4

+ +

er hry E yr e s h sy Ey s nr

Fx r therm.

Nxr therm. =

2 hrx

Fyr therm.

Nyr therm. =

2 hry

Gross fluxes in the panel are deduced immediately form fluxes crossing the doubler:

∞

u13 Nxs meca. = Nx meca . - Nxr meca. - Nxr therm.

∞

Nys meca. = Ny meca . - Nyr meca. - Nyr therm.

∞

Nxys meca. = Nxy meca . - Nxyr meca.

NORMAL LOADS Nx AND Ny

Loads in fasteners are deduced from the geometry and from mechanical and thermal

fluxes crossing the doubler and calculated previously.

A half repair may be represented as follows. The analysis being similar for directions x

and y, indexes x and y have been removed to make the diagram as general as possible.

- straight edge,

- edge with chamfer.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Repair with 1 row of fasteners U 9.1

∞

2 hr N meca. + therm.

er Er

es Es

A a a a a a

Fr

F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

F∞

Fs

∞

2 hr N meca. + therm.

er Er

es Es

A a a a a a

If the number of rows of fasteners is equal to 1, the load transmitted in the doubler is

equal to loads transmitted by all fasteners on the row (single). The load per fastener is

then deduced immediately by the relationship:

Fr 2 x Nr meca . + therm. x h r

f/fix. = =

number of fasteners number of fasteners

F1

F1

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Repair with 2 rows of fasteners U 9.2

A a

F1 + F2

r2 F2 r1 F1

E2 S2 E1 S1

F

ri = ni x r

displacement resolution leads to the two following equations:

æ A 1 A ö æ A A ö FxA

F2 çç + + ÷ + F1 ç

÷ çE x S + E x S ÷÷ =

è E 2 ' x S 2 ' r2 E 2 x S 2 ø è 2' 2' 2 2 ø E2 x S2

æ − 1ö æ a a 1ö Fxa

F2 çç ÷÷ + F1 çç + + ÷÷ =

è r2 ø è E1' x S1' E 1 x S 1 r1 ø E1 x S1

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Repair with 3 rows of fasteners U 9.3

A a a

F1 + F2 - F3

r3 F3 r2 F2 r1 F1

E2 S2 E2 S2 E1 S1 F

æ A A 1ö æ A A ö

F3 çç + + ÷÷ + F2 çç + ÷÷ +

è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 r3 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø

æ A A ö FxA

F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø E 2 x S 2

æ − 1ö æ a a 1ö æ a a ö Fxa

F3 çç ÷÷ + F2 çç + + ÷÷ + F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è r3 ø E

è 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 r 2 ø E

è 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø E 2 x S2

æ − 1ö æ a a 1ö Fxa

F2 çç ÷÷ + F1 çç + + ÷÷ =

è r2 ø è E1' x S1' E 1 x S 1 r1 ø E1 x S1

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Repair with 4 rows of fasteners U 9.4

A a a a

F1 + F2 + F3 + F4

r4 F4 r3 F3 r2 F2 r1 F1

E2 S2 E2 S2 E2 S2 E1 S1 F

æ A A 1ö æ A A ö

F4 çç + + ÷÷ + F3 çç + ÷÷ +

è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 r4 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø

æ A A ö æ A A ö FxA

F2 çç + ÷÷ + F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è E 2' x S 2 ' E 2 x S 2 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø E 2 x S 2

æ − 1ö æ1 a a ö

F4 çç ÷÷ + F3 çç + + ÷÷ +

è r4 ø è r3 E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø

æ a a ö æ a a ö Fxa

F2 çç + ÷÷ + F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è E 2' x S 2 ' E2 x S2 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø E 2 x S 2

æ − 1ö æ a a 1ö æ a a ö Fxa

F3 çç ÷÷ + F2 çç + + ÷÷ + F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è r3 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 r2 ø è E 2' x S 2' E 2 x S 2 ø E2 x S2

æ − 1ö æ a a 1ö Fxa

F2 çç ÷÷ + F1 çç + + ÷÷ =

è r2 ø è E1' x S1' E 1 x S 1 r1 ø E1 x S1

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

with a number of rows of fasteners greater than 4 U 9.5

We may easily find the previous equation system type for a number of rows of fasteners

greater than 4.

A a a a

Σ Fi

rn Fn r(n-1) F(n-1) r2 F2 r1 F1

E2 S2 E2 S2 E2 S2 E1 S1

F

However, we shall consider that, for a number of rows of fasteners greater than 6, the

rows greater or equal to 7 have an insignificant effect on load Fr transfer distribution (see

diagram below).

Fr

F8 = 0 F7 = 0 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

General resolution method for direction x U 9.6

Assessment of ratio k

2 x N xr meca . + therm .

x h rx

u14 k=

å

n

F

i =1 i

u15 Fxi = k x Fi

1.15 x Fxi

u16 fxi =

ni

2 x h rx

ni = (no chamfer)

a*

or

2 x h rx

ni = − 2 (with chamfer for the first row)

a*

y

x

Fxi fx/xi

∞

Nx meca. + therm.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Assessment of loads per fastener due to Nxy U 10

The fastener is identified by the letter "i" . "i" being the number of the row perpendicular to

the load. By definition, only full lines shall be considered and it shall be assumed that row

number 1 is located next to the free edge of the doubler.

LOADS Nxy

Loads in the fasteners are deduced from the geometry and from the mechanical origin

fluxes crossing the doubler.

lx3

a

ly2

i=3

i=1

fy/xyij

j=2

fx/xyij y

a*

j=1

x

1≤j≤n=2 ∞

Nxy meca.

1≤i≤m=5

Loads on fasteners due to the transfer of Nxyr meca. flux are equal to:

Nxyr meca .

x a x ly j

u17 fx/xyij =

å

n

j =1

ly j

Nxyr meca .

x a * x lx i

fy/xyij =

å

m

i =1

lx i

The fastener is identified by letters "i" and "j". "i" being the number of the row parallel to

the y-axis and "j" being the number of the row parallel to the x-axis. By definition, only full

lines shall be considered and it shall be assumed that row number 1 is located next to the

free edge of the doubler.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Justifications U 11

1/2

11 . JUSTIFICATIONS

The repair justification consists of a notched and loaded plain plate calculation (for the

parent skin and for the repair) and a check of the behavior of the existing damage.

The most highly loaded fastener holes (of the four angles) must be justified by

superposing loads due to fluxes Nx meca. (fx/x), Ny meca. (fy/y) and to flux Nxy meca. (fx/xy and fy/xy).

This resulting load (f) must then be combined with fluxes N xs meca., Nys meca. and Nxys meca. (for

the initial skin) or Nxr meca., Nyr meca. and Nxyr meca. (for the repair) at the fastener considered.

Nyr Ny∝

Nxy∝

Nxyr - fx/x - fx/xy

y

fy/y - fy/xy

f

f

Nxr Nx∝

fy/xy - fy/y

x

fx/xy fx/x

On the other hand, the damage in the parent skin in the presence of fluxes Nxs meca., Nys meca.

and Nxys meca. at the repair center shall be justified.

General remark: It should be noted that there are two types of fastener arrangements: a

so-called "square" arrangement and a so-called "staggered"

arrangement. The "square" arrangement is preferred because the hole

coefficient is limited.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Justifications U 11

2/2

Both diagrams below show which value of "a" should be applied in the calculation of loads

per fastener in each of these cases.

a a

This theory was implemented with the desktop computing program "REPBOUL" (refer to

instructions).

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Summary flowchart U 12

12 . SUMMARY FLOWCHART

step No. 1

INITIAL CALCULATE

DOUBLER THE STIFFNESS

LOADING

GEOMETRY OF FASTENERS

Nx∝ Ny∝ Nxy∝

r

ASSESS THE ASSESS THE

DOUBLER PANEL

STIFFNESSES STIFFNESS

x y xy x y xy

Rr Rr Rr Rs Rs Rs

ASSESS ASSESS

FLUXES IN THE FLUXES IN THE

PANEL PANEL

meca. + therm. meca. + therm.

Nxr Nyr Nxyr Nxs Nys Nxys

step No. 6

ASSESS THE RESULTING

LOAD

meca. + therm.

fx/x fy/y fx/xy fy/xy

step No. 7

ASSESS THE

RESULTING

LOAD

meca. + therm.

f

JUSTIFY THE JUSTIFY THE

FASTENER FASTENER JUSTIFY THE

HOLES OF THE HOLES OF THE DAMAGE

PARENT SKIN DOUBLER

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

1/11

13 . Example

Let the following repair be:

Mechanical characteristics original panel

Lay-up: 6/6/6/6

Exs = 4878 daN/mm2

Eys = 4878 daN/mm2

Gxys = 1882 daN/mm2

es = 3.12 mm

Doubler Mechanical characteristics

Lay-up: 2/4/4/2

Exr = 4008 daN/mm2

Eyr = 4008 daN/mm2

Gxyr = 2355 daN/mm2

er = 1.56 mm

Fastener characteristics

Total number n = 32

Stiffness r = 2000 daN/mm

∅ = 3.2 mm

Fastener Elasticity modulus = 7400 daN/mm2

Ny∝ = - 32 daN/mm

Nxy∝ = - 20 daN/mm

a = 18

A

x / xy

fA 1

y/y y / xy

fA 1 fA 1

= 108 mm

= 72 mm

A = 18

∅ = 20 mm

y

r

y

s

2L

2L

a* = 18

x

y

hs = 35 mm

x

2 L s = 72 mm

y

2 h r = 90 mm

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

2/11

Assessment of fluxes in the doubler and the panel below the doubler

This example does not include any thermal loads, we shall only cover mechanical fluxes.

Therefore, notations shall not have any index.

The first calculation step consists in determining both fluxes crossing the doubler (Nyr;

Nxyr) which entails assessing panel and doubler stiffnesses with respect to both of these

load types, first of all. The fact that flux Nx∝ is zero has the following consequence Nxr =

Nxs = 0.

{u6}

4008 x 1.56 x 45

30 x 2000

4 x 36

Rr =

y

= 5138 daN / mm

4008 x 1.56 x 45 30 x 2000

+

36 4

{u7}

4878 x 3.12 x 35

R sy = = 9864 daN / mm

54

{u9}

R rxy = 8 = 2518 daN / mm

32 x 2000

2355 x 1.56 +

8

We have:

72

V= = 3.6

20

108

W= = 5.4

20

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

3/11

{u11}

3. 6 2 + 5. 4 2 0.5

η= 2 2

= 0.94

æ ö æ ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç 3.6 − 1 + 1 ÷ + ç 5.4 − 1 + 1 ÷

ç 1 ÷ ç 1 ÷

ç 1− ÷ ç 1− ÷

è 5.4 ø è 3.6 ø

{u10}

{u5}

5138

Nyr = Ny∝ = 0.34 Ny∝ = 0.34 (- 32) = - 10.96 daN/mm

5138 + 9864

{u8}

2518

Nxyr = Ny∝ = 0.31 Nxy∝ = 0.31 (- 20) = - 6.28 daN/mm

2518 + 5494

{u13}

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

4/11

Load due to Ny

Repair with 3 rows of fasteners: if F1, F2 and F3 corresponds to loads transmitted by the

rows of fasteners, the system displacement resolution leads to the three following

equations:

æ 18 18 1 ö

F3 çç + + ÷÷ +

è 4008 x 1.56 x 90 4878 x 3.12 x 90 5 x 2000 ø

æ 18 18 ö

F2 çç + ÷÷ +

è 4008 x 1.56 x 90 4878 x 3.12 x 90 ø

æ 18 18 ö F x 18

F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è 4008 x 1.56 x 90 4878 x 3.12 x 90 ø 4878 x 3.12 x 90

æ −1 ö æ 18 18 1 ö

F3 çç ÷÷ + F2 çç + + ÷÷ +

è 5 x 2000 ø è 4008 x 1.56 x 90 4878 x 3.12 x 90 5 x 2000 ø

æ 18 18 ö F x 18

F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è 4008 x 1 . 56 x 90 4878 x 3 .12 x 90 ø 4878 x 3.12 x 90

æ −1 ö æ 18 18 1 ö F x 18

F2 çç ÷÷ + F1 çç + + ÷÷ =

è 5 x 2000 ø è 4008 x 1.56 x 90 4878 x 3.12 x 90 5 x 2000 ø 4878. x 3.12 x 90

by assuming F = 1, loads F1, F2 and F3 per row "i" of fasteners are deduced from the

matrix resolution.

F1 = 0.1366 daN

F2 = 0.0669 daN

F3 = 0.0273 daN

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

5/11

{u14}

Assessment of ratio k

2 x ( − ) 10.96 x 45

k= = − 4275

0.1366 + 0.0669 + 0.0273

{u15]

{u16}

1.15 x − 584

fyi = = 1.15 x - 116.8 = - 134 daN

5

{u17}

− 6.28 x 18.54

fx/xyij = = - 56.56 daN

54 + 36 + 18

− 6.28 x 18 x 36

fy/xyij = = - 113.13 daN

36

(

The resultant shall be equal to 56.56 2 + (113.13 + 134 ) )

2 0.5

= 254 daN and the slope

angle of the load shall have the value Arctg (- 247.13/- 56.56) = 77° (- 180°) = - 103°.

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

6/11

- on the panel

Nxs = 0 daN/mm

Nys = - 32 daN/mm

Nxys = - 20 daN/mm

- in the doubler

Nxr = 0 daN/mm

− 116.8

Nyr = = - 6.49 daN/mm

18

fx/xy = - 57 daN A

- 103°

fy = - 134 daN

254 daN

y

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

7/11

Now, let's assume that the carbon reinforcing plate is replaced by an Aluminium plate of

thickness er = 0.84 mm (the thickness was selected so that the doubler stiffness may

remain constant: 0.84 x 7400 = 1.56 x 4008 = 6252 daN/mm) and of coefficient expansion

αr = 2.2 E-5/°C.

The expansion factor of the parent skin (isotropic T300/314 laminate) is equal to: αs = 1.4

E-6/°C (refer to chapter § V 4.2 for the calculation of equivalent coefficient of expansion of

a laminate).

We shall look for thermal loads for an absolute temperature of + 74° C, which corresponds

to a relative temperature with respect to the ambient temperature of ∆T = + 54° C (with a

view to simplicity, mechanical loads shall be considered as zero).

By applying the relationship {u12}, we find the thermal loads in the doubler in directions x

and y.

{u12}

In direction x :

Fxr therm. =

27.69 36 4

+ +

0.84 x 63 x 7400 3.12 x 53 x 4878 26 x 2000

In direction y :

2 x 54 (1.4 E − 6 x 54 − 2.2 E − 5 x 36 )

Fyr therm. =

36 54 4

+ +

0.84 x 45 x 7400 3.12 x 35 x 4878 30 x 2000

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

8/11

Thermal fluxes in the doubler are deduced by dividing the previous results by widths 2 h rx

and 2 h ry :

− 314

Nxr therm. = = - 2.49 daN/mm

2 x 63

− 260

Nyr therm. = = - 2.89 daN/mm

2 x 45

Lay-up: 6/6/6/6

Exs = 4878 daN/mm2

Eys = 4878 daN/mm2

Gxys = 1882 daN/mm2

es = 3.12 mm

Doubler material characteristics

Aluminium

Exr = 7400 daN/mm2

Eyr = 7400 daN/mm2

Gxyr = 2846 daN/mm2 h sy = 35 mm

er = 0.84 mm

= 126 mm

= 108 mm

= 72 mm

∅ = 20 mm

y

r

x

y

s

r

2L

2h

2L

= 53 mm

x

s

h

x

2 L r = 55.38 mm

x

2 L s = 72 mm

x

y

2 h r = 90 mm

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

9/11

Which allows calculation of thermal loads on the most highly loaded fasteners (those in

angles).

In direction x:

Repair with two rows of fasteners: if F1 and F2 correspond to loads transmitted by the rows

of fasteners, the system displacement resolution leads to the two following equations (see

chapter § U 9.2) :

æ 18 1 18 ö

F2 çç + + ÷÷ +

è 7400 x 126 x 0.84 6 x 2000 4878 x 126 x 3.12 ø

æ 18 18 ö F x 18

F1 çç + ÷÷ =

è 7400 x 126 x 0.84 4878 x 126 x 3.12 ø 4878 x 126 x 3.12

æ −1 ö æ 18 18 1 ö F x 18

F2 çç ÷÷ + F1 çç + + ÷÷ =

è 6 x 2000 ø è 7400 x 126 x 0.84 4878 x 126 x 3.12 7 x 2000 ø 4878 x 126 x 3.12

By assuming that F = 1, loads F1 and F2 per row "i" of fasteners are deduced from the

matrix resolution:

We find:

F1 = 0.1271 daN

F2 = 0.0455 daN

{u14}

Assessment of ratio k

2 x ( − 2.49 ) x 63

k= = − 1818

0.0455 + 0.1271

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

10/11

{u15}

{u16}

1.15 x − 231

fxi = = 1.15 x ( − 33 ) = − 37daN

7

In direction y:

For calculation in direction y, just use results for the transfer of mechanical origin fluxes

(distribution on rows of fasteners being independent from the load value - see § U 13 p.

5).

We know that:

mechanical loads:

therefore:

thermal loads:

− 2.89

Nyr therm. = - 2.89 daN/mm → fyi = − 134 x = − 35 daN

− 10.96

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

Example U 13

11/11

Nxr therm. = = − 1.79 daN / mm çç = ÷

18 x 1.15 è F1 + F2 0.1271 + 0.0455 ÷ø

Nyr therm. = = − 1.69 daN / mm çç = ÷÷

18 x 1.15 F

è 1 + F2 + F3 0 .1366 + 0 . 0669 + 0 . 0273 ø

fx therm. = 37 daN

fy therm. = 35 daN

Fresultant therm. = 51 daN

y

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

BOLTED REPAIRS

References U

BARRAU - LAROZE, Design of composite material structures, 1987

determination of mechanical loads in the reinforcing piece, 1992, 440.192/92

compression, 1989, 420.535/90

1990, 420.541/90

determination of mechanical loads in the reinforcing piece, 440. 129/92

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Composite stress manual

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Notations V 1

1 . NOTATIONS

∆T, ∆θ: relative temperature (difference between effective and ambient temperatures)

Tather., θather.: athermane temperature

Tamb., θamb.: ambient temperature

Tstruc., θstruc.: structure temperature

L: plates length

e1: plate thickness (1)

E1: plate modulus of elasticity (1)

α1: plate thermal expansion coefficient (1)

e2: plate thickness (2)

E2: plate modulus of elasticity (2)

α2: plate thermal expansion coefficient (2)

f: force on fasteners

ec: adhesive thickness

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Introduction V 2

2 . INTRODUCTION

differently in different directions. To characterize its behavior, several expansion

coefficients must be defined. In addition, strains and (or) stresses will appear depending

on the boundary conditions and the temperature range inside the solid.

strains and stresses due to the different expansions of the fiber and the resin. As

composite plates are generally manufactured by curing at a temperature greater than

utilization θ, residual curing stresses appear in these plates. Although they can be high,

they are generally not explicitly calculated but included implicitly into the calculation values

determined on crosswise laminated plates (see § V 5.2).

with different expansion coefficients leads to stresses and strains in these plates which

are added to those induced by mechanical loading.

The aim of this chapter is to study the stresses and strains of thermal origin for

unidirectional fibers, composite plates, bimetallic strips and, lastly, aircraft structures,

submitted to regulation environmental conditions.

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Hooke - Duhamel law V 3

If a material is submitted to a mechanical load, the stress - strain relation can be written in

its tensorial form:

ou cf. § V 5

σij = λijkl x εkl

change in temperature, the strain - temperature relation can be written in its tensorial

form:

where

T: modified temperature (uniform)

αij is symmetrical.

For an orthotropic material in the orthotropy reference frame.

éα l o où

ê ú

ê ú

(α) = ê o α ll oú

ê ú

ê ú

ëo o α lll û

If the material is submitted to a mechanical load, the stress - strain - temperature relation

can be written:

or

σij = λijkl x εkl + βij (T - To)

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Behavior of unidirectional fiber V 4

where

(λ): rigidity tensor

(α): thermal expansion tensor

(β): thermal modulus tensor

To: reference temperature

∆T: relative temperature

Let us take a unidirectional fiber defined by its longitudinal direction (l) and by its

transverse direction (t), it is a transverse isotropic and orthotropic material.

orthotropic axis:

t

t (3)

t (y)

l (x)

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Behavior of a monolith plate V 5.1

1/3

αt: transverse expansion coefficient of unidirectional fiber (resin) in y- and z-axes.

éα l o où

ê ú

ê ú

Generally αl << αt (α) = ê o αt oú

ê ú

ê ú

ëo o αt û

As we saw in chapter E 3, the general relation between the strain sensor and the load

sensor of a monolith plate can be written in its matrix form (relation to be compared with

the relation v1):

= ∂2wo

Mx B11 B12 B13 C11 C12 C13 ∂x 2

∂2wo

My B21 B22 B23 C21 C 22 C23 ∂y 2

∂2 wo

Mxy B31 B32 B33 C31 C 32 C33 2

∂x ∂y

z z

y y

My > 0

Ny > 0

x x

BENDING MEMBRANE

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Behavior of a monolith plate V 5.1

2/3

expression becomes (relation which is to be compared with relation v3):

Nx εx αEh x

Ny A B εy αEh y

Nxy γ xy αEh xy

v4 = ∂2wo - ∆t

Mx αEh2

∂x 2 x

∂2wo

My B C αEh2

∂y 2 y

∂2 wo

Mxy 2 αEh2

∂x ∂y xy

where the thermoelastic behavior of the laminate is described by vector (αEh) which terms

are equal to:

æ c 2 El (α l + ν tl α t ) + s 2 E t ( νlt α l + α t ) ö

å

n

v5 αEh x = ç k

( z − z k −1 ) ÷

k =1

è 1 − νlt ν tl ø

æ s 2 El (α l + ν tl α t ) + c 2 E t ( νlt α l + α t ) ö

å

n

αEh y = ç (z k − z k − 1) ÷

k =1

è 1 − νlt ν tl ø

æ c s E t ( ν lt α l + α t ) − c s E l (α l + ν tl α t ) ö

å

n

αEh xy = ç ( zk − zk − 1 ) ÷

k =1

è 1 − ν lt ν tl ø

æ z k2 − z k2 − 1 c 2 El (α l + ν tl α t ) + s 2 E t ( νlt α l + α t ) ö

å

n

αEh 2

=− ç ÷

k = 1ç 1 − νlt ν tl ÷

x

è 2 ø

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Behavior of a monolith plate V 5.1

3/3

æ z k2 − z k2 − 1 s 2 E l (α l + ν tl α t ) + c 2 E t ( ν lt α l + α t ) ö

å

n

αEh 2

=− ç ÷

k = 1ç 1 − ν lt ν tl ÷

y

è 2 ø

æ z k2 − z 2 c s E ( ν + α + α ) − c s E (α + ν α ) ö

å ç t ÷

n

αEh =−

2 k −1 t lt l t l l tl

xy k = 1ç 2 1 − ν ν ÷

è lt tl ø

y

ply No. k ek

t l

zk zk - 1

neutral plane

θ

ply No. 1 x

where:

c ≡ cos(θ) where θ is the orientation of the fiber in the basic reference frame (o, x, y)

s ≡ sin(θ) where θ is the orientation of the fiber in the basic reference frame (o, x, y)

Et: transverse modulus of elasticity of the unidirectional fiber

νlt: longitudinal/transverse Poisson coefficient of the unidirectional fiber

E

νtl = νlt t : transverse/longitudinal Poisson coefficient of the unidirectional fiber

El

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Curing stresses - expansion coefficients V 5.2

5.3

For thermosetting resin composites, the plates are made by juxtaposing different layers

with different characteristics.

These layers are manufactured simultaneously to the plate. We assume that when the

resin cures, each layer is frozen in the state it is in at that time. Let Tp be the curing

temperature; the stresses in the plate can be considered as zero at this temperature.

To obtain the stresses at ambient temperature after cooling, apply relation v4.

If the plate does not have mirror symmetry, the coupling terms, (B) and αEh2 of v4 are

non zero; therefore, a uniform reduction in the temperature (from curing temperature to

ambient temperature) will create a strain in the plane and a curvature of the neutral plane.

In the same way, if there is in-plane coupling (terms A16, A26 non zero), that is if plies are

not equal in + or - α, angular distortion will occur during cooling after curing, the plate will

be "parallelogram" shaped.

The equivalent expansion coefficient vector αequi. (αx equi., αy equi., αxy equi.) of an orthotropic

composite plate, with mirror symmetry without in-plane coupling, can be determined by

the following relation:

where terms Aij of the laminate rigidity matrix (A) can be determined by relation c6 of

chapter C.3.

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bimetallic strip theory V 6.1

1/4

EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS - BIMETALLIC STRIP THEORY

The aim of this subchapter is to study the mechanical influence of the temperature on a

system consisting of two beam elements with an infinitely rigid connection at their ends.

bending effects and the Poisson effects.

Let us take, therefore, two long plates (L >> b) with an infinitely rigid connection at their

ends and with the following mechanical characteristics:

Plate (1):

- length: L

- width: b

- thickness: e1

- modulus of elasticity: E1

- expansion coefficient: α1 (§ V 5.3)

Plate (2)

- length: L

- width: b

- thickness: e2

- modulus of elasticity: E2

- expansion coefficient: α2 (§ V 5.3)

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bimetallic strip theory V 6.1

2/4

(1)

(2)

L

b

Initially, let us assume that the two plates are free at their ends. If we submit each one of

them to a uniform relative temperature ∆T (in relation to the ambient temperature of the

setup), they will expand by the following lengths:

∆L1 = ∆T α1 L

where α1 ≠ α2

∆L2 = ∆T α2 L

(1) ∆L2

(2) ∆L1

Now, as these two plates are rigidly attached at their ends, they will deform by the same

length. Mechanical interaction forces of thermal origin (F1 and F2) are created:

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bimetallic strip theory V 6.1

3/4

(1) ∆L'2

F1 F1 F1

- F1 F2 - F1

(2) ∆L'1

As the system is globally in equilibrium, the force applied to plate (1) is the same as the

one applied to plate (2) except for the sign: F1 = - F2.

F1 L

∆L'1 =

E1 e1 b1

F2 L − F1 L

∆L'2 = =

E2 e 2 L E2 e 2 b 2

∆L1

∆T (α 2 − α1)

v7 F1 =

Γ

∆T (α1 − α 2 )

F2 =

Γ

where

1 1

v8 Γ= +

E1 e1 b1 E2 e2 b 2

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bimetallic strip theory V 6.1

4/4

Remark: For two plates with totally different geometries attached at the ends by an

element (one or several fasteners for example) of global rigidity ℜ, the previous

relation is slightly modified.

(1)

ℜ ℜ

(2)

L2

b1 L1 b2

+ = + +

2 2 2 2 ℜ

∆L1

2

∆L'1

∆L 2 ∆L' 2 2

2 2

∆θ (α 2 L 2 − α1 L1)

v9 F1 =

L1 L2 2

+ +

e1 b1 E1 e2 b 2 E2 ℜ

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bolted system V 6.2.1

6.2.1.1

1/2

6.2 . Study of the link between two parts

In practice, the link between two parts is ensured either by fasteners or by bonding.

We shall assume that the plates are sufficiently long so that the thermal expansion cannot

be absorbed by the play (and the rigidity) of the fasteners (see previous remark).

The thermal force, which will have been calculated previously by relation v4, will be

expressed herein by letter F.

Several hypotheses can be put forward concerning the number of fasteners (of rigidity r)

likely to take force F.

L

F

-F

f

b

f=F

For information purpose, the table on the next page shows the various forces applied to

the structural elements for a splice and a doubler, these being submitted to tensile or

compression loads and at a positive or negative relative temperature.

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bolted system V 6.2.1.1

2/2

We will consider that the expansion coefficient of the upper material (aluminium for

instance) is higher than that of the lower material (isotropic carbon laminate for instance).

It is important to point out that the forces represented on the drawings are those applied to

the structure by the fasteners.

SPLICE DOUBLER

TENSION

COMPRESSION

0° 0°

∆T > 0

0° 0°

∆T < 0

Table V6.2.1.1: Transfer of mechanical and thermal forces to the splices and doublers

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bolted system V 6.2.1.2

6.2.1.3

A a

F

-F

r r

f2 f1

b

A+a

Γ+

Aar

v10 f1 = F

2A+a

Γ+

Aar

f2 = F - f1

A a a

F

-F

r r r

f3 f2 f1

b

1 æA öæ 1 ö

+ A Γ + ç − 1÷ ç ÷

r èa ø è3r + a Γ r ø

2

v11 f1 = F

1 A æ1 ö

+ ç + a Γ÷

r a èr ø

1

v12 f2 = F

3+aΓr

f3 = F - f1 - f2

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bolted system V 6.2.1.4

A a a

F

-F

r r r r

f4 f3 f2 f1

b

1 æA öæ 1 ö

+ A Γ + ç − 1÷ ç 2÷

F r è a ø è3r + a Γ r ø

v13 f1 =

δ 1 A æ1 ö

+ ç + a Γ÷

r a r è ø

where

n−3

v14 δ=1+

10

recommended for a large number of fasteners to solve the problem by a matrix

calculation or a finite element model.

Composite stress manual

THERMAL CALCULATIONS

Bonded joints V 6.2.2

1/2

For a bonded link, the (antisymmetrical) loading of the two plates is continuous from one

end of the system to the other; the main part of the loading is however at the start of the

bonded link.

L

Doubler

τMax.

- τMax.

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