RF Planning Procedure for Greenfield Network

Copyright 2009 – Aircom International (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Confidential – not for circulation

Prepared by: Shailendra kumar

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1. INTRODUCTION Network Planning Play’s a critical role in any cellular design process. Nominal planning is performed to generate basic site count for a new network which forms the foundation stone of that network. By doing a proper Network planning by keeping the future growth plan in mind we can reduce a lot of problem that we may encountered in future and also reduce substantially the cost of optimization once the network will be on full swing. On the other Hand a poorly planned network not only leads to many Network problems, it also increases the Capex and Opex once the network is live. In current low cost/revenue scenario we need to focus on smart and accurate planning to reduce the Capex and Opex during the whole project. Several mechanism and logics are implemented to address such issue which we will discuss in subsequent pages. It is important to remember that local regulation and company policies may change the process or certain step in process. The practices presented in this section serve the purpose of highlighting the important area in RF Design.

The RF design process presented is a generic process for Greenfield/New Network. In this section RF designed process is described where as CORE&TRANSMISSION is described in other section. The RF design process consists of Two Phases.

 Preliminary Planning
 Final Design Fed into the RF design process are the design requirements such as link budget and traffic prediction, and the output of the process is the RF system design(location of the cell sites, cell site parameters, coverage prediction, site sketches, drive test data. Steps need to be followed while planning new network • • • CW Testing Model Tuning Nominal Planning RF Survey/Candidate Selection

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Prepared by: Shailendra kumar

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Flow Chart Radio Planning Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 3 .

The receiver scanning rate should be settable so that it satisfies Lee’s law.  Principally each model should have 5 Sites for accurate measurement. These transmitted power levels are then measured and collected by the Drive test kit. Cables and accessories. A GPS to get latitude and longitude. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 4 . Receiver to scan the RSS (Received signal levels). – – – – – – • • A single frequency is transmitted a predetermined power level from the candidate site. Antenna (generally Omni ).1. A laptop to collect data. d) Sub Urban e) Industrial. Wattmeter to check VSWR. The objective of CW Drive testing & Model Tuning is: a) To ensure accurate propagation Model b) Aim is to produce Zero Mean Error & Minimize the standard Deviation (Less than equal to 8) Propagaton Test Kit • The propagation test kit consists of – Test transmitter. This data is then loaded on the Planning tool and used for tuning models. however some time it becomes customer dependent. CW Testing The Aim of the CW measurements from field to calibrate Macro cell Propagation Model for Network for different model like a) Dense Urban b) CBD c) Urban. Few customer demands it with 3 sites per model to save the budget.

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Steps to Follow while doing CW/Simulation Testing Step s Step1 Step2 Step3 Step4 Activity Site Selection and Route Planning Hardware Installation Drive Testing and Data Collection Drive Length Description This is the important part of CW testing as wrong selection will lead to bad results. After site selection .AC main is required to energize the transmitter Radio receiver will be used to collect field measurement during drive testing. Site selection should be in synch with customer. collected samples fed into the Asset tool for calibration and Model tuning. Steps followed during the model tuning represented in chart as mentioned below. Model Tuning This is the next step after CW sample collection. Since the drive will be conducted at higher frequencies therefore the drive route will less<6Kms as signal disappear after that in higher frequency. Drive tester will maintain average speed of 40 Km/Per Hour to get the better results. transmitter will be installed at site. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 6 . therefore careful planning is crucial to achieve good results. 2. hardware like Antenna.

Latitude.  Filter the CW data on basis of Distance from Site and RSSI. Clutter Distribution and Regression Analysis.  If targets are met Propagation Model is tuned. There is no single “correct” method of calibrating a model but the process described here is widely used. During calibration data from CW surveys is used to calibrate the propagation models to improve their accuracy.e.  See if the required targets (i. This is achieved by placing a dummy site with the same configuration as that of the CW Transmitter. Mean=0. RMS and Standard Deviation. it has reduced the standard deviation between the propagation model and the CW data) until and unless Mean and Standard Deviation cannot be reduced any further After completing the procedure we get K1 to K7 values which will be used to calculate path loss as shown below. quantify the effect of the change in terms of whether the change was beneficial (i. The metrics used to quantify the error are the Mean. SD<8) are achieved.  Average the CW samples on basis of Rayleigh Fading and Map resolution used.  Note down the Mean and Standard Deviation achieved. Longitude.  One needs to continuously alter the model parameter in question.  Edit CW Properties by entering the Transmitter Antenna details like Type of Antenna being used. Asset allows model parameters to be adjusted to obtain an accurate match between the CW survey data and predictions.  Use AMT (Automatic Model Tuner) to tune the basic Planet General Model.  One can also optionally fine tune the Clutter Absorption Loss(CAL) manually on top of AMT. And Go to Step 6. The generic iterative calibration process can be described as follows:  Import the CW data into Asset.e. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 7 . re-analyze against the measured data. Azimuth. if not try and alter the Filtering parameters slightly.  Save the Model Tuning report. Power (EiRP) and so on.Introduction RF propagation is based on numerous factors resulting in a very complex process to attempt to model.  Analyze the CW data itself by thoroughly using tools like Histogram Analyses. The overall objective is to minimize the error between the Propagation Model and the Continuous Wave survey data. Transmitter Height. Tilt.

and coverage threshold and propagation model applicable in the desired circles. d = TX-Rx distance (m) Heff=Height Effective Hms=Test mobile effective height (m) Diffn=Diffraction Loss (dB) K1 and K2 =Intercept and Slope K3= Mobile antenna height Factor K4=Okumara Hata multiplying factor K5=Effective antenna height gain K7=A Multiplying factor for diffraction 3. a Nominal plan will be prepared based on the equipment details. which will demonstrate the proposed design. This will include nominal plans for Coverage Preliminary Work a) Propagation Tool Setup Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 8 . For the purpose of bid. coverage objectives. The objective is to provide a nominal cell plan. Nominal Planning Nominal Planning is backbone of any network launch and acts as a foundation stone on which the entire Network is planned. Coverage Plots of this nominal Cell Planning are issued to represent the result of this design step.Path Loss: K1+K2log(d)+K3logHms+K4log(Hms)+K5log(Heff)+k6log(Heff)*logd+K7difn+C_Loss. subscriber projection. Nominal Planning consists of determining the position and characteristics of each site to achieve compliance with coverage and traffic requirement.

1. 2. 3. Clutter. d) Load master lease site locations in database 1. c) Setup site tracking database 1. Setup these data on the planning tool. Procure the terrain. Inputs Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 9 . GOS is determined in agreement with the customer (generally the GOS is taken as 2%) 4. b) Terrain. 3. f) Zoning Analysis 1. 2. 2. This is the central database which is used by all relevant department. e) Marketing Analysis and GOS determination for Capacity Management 1. 2. GOS and number of carriers as inputs. clutter and vector data in the required resolution. Marketing analysis is mostly done by the customer. Link Budget Analysis is the process of aanalyzing all major gains and losses in the forward and reverse link radio paths. Based on the marketing analysis. This involves studying the height restrictions for antenna heights in the design area. RF. viz. This is done using Project management or site management databases. Set up the planning tool hardware. If predetermined friendly sites that can be used are available. the network design is carried out. and avoids data mismatch. Setup the plotter and printer to be used. 2. Site acquisition. Growth plan is provided which lists the projected subscriber growth in phases. g) Initial Link Budget 1. This includes the server and or clients which may be UNIX based. Civil engineering etc. Power. Vector data acquisition and setup 1. Test to see if they are displayed properly and printed correctly on the plotter. then load this data into the site database.

Morphology describes the density and height of manmade or natural obstructions. Using Okumura Hata empirical formula. Antenna Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 10 . Density also applies to morphology definitions like dense urban. Target coverage reliability. Morphology is used to more accurately predict the path loss. 2. Some morphology area definitions are Urban. l) Planning of cell sites sub-area depending on clutter type and traffic required. 2. Antenna gain at the base station & mobile station. Base station & mobile receiver sensitivity parameters b. Using generic models prepared by drive testing & prop test. a initial estimate of the number of cells can be made. the maximum allowable path loss is calculated. 2. c. This basically leads to a number of sub-area formation where the link budget will differ and hence the cell radius and cell count will differ. Suburban. Using link budget calculation. the initial cell radius can be calculated. 5. 3. commercial etc. Hardware losses (Cable. 1. Planning tool calculates the path loss and received signal strength using Coordinates of the site location. combiners etc). run predictions for each cell depending on morphology type to predict the coverage in the given subareas. 2. rural. 4. e. d. Fade margins. Once the cell radius is known. j) Morphology Definition 1. open etc. k) Complete Initial Cell Placement 1. i) Initial cell count estimates 1. h) Initial cell radius calculation Maximum allowable path loss. connector. Output a. Run Propagation Analysis 1.a. light suburban. Ground elevation above mean sea level. By dividing the total area to be covered by the area of each cell. the area covered by one site can be easily calculated. 3.

Phase 2 sites layout transparency. Then step by step put the site layout and coverage prediction. All relevant data such as coverage objectives Antenna specifications (radiation pattern and specifications). m) Reset Cell Placement( Ideal Sites) 1.) b. Input Required for Nominal Planning a. During design review. 2. 7. Power radiated from the antenna. Phase 2 composite coverage predictions on transparency. 3. Phase 1 sites composite coverage prediction. 4. Prepare presentations as follows 2. Display may show some coverage holes in phase 1 which should get solved in phase 2 . regulatory constraints (max EIRP. The existing sites/towers from Infrastructure partner if any. Other sites required for the purpose will be added in the plan to meet the planning objectives. o) Design Review With The Client 1. 5. 3. site height. c. RF propagation model for each clutter type. Phase 1 sites layout on transparency. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 11 . shall be the basis for the start of nominal cell planning. If more phases follow the same procedure. n) System Coverage Maps 1. first put only the background map which is on paper. 6. etc. Initial design review has to be carried out with the client so that he agrees to the basic design of the network. main roads etc. Antenna radiation pattern (vertical & horizontal) & antenna orientation.height above ground. Background on paper showing area MAP which include highways. According to the predictions change the cell placements to design the network for contagious coverage and appropriate traffic.

etc . Display may show some coverage holes in phase 1 which should get solved in phase 2 . Statistics. azimuth. During design review. XML export from planning Digital Map Data Hot Spot Location List of highways & Rail routes to be covered List of Sharing site details & Antenna height details Proposed polygons of cities Coverage Plots – A0 plots Coverage & Site export in MapInfo format Coverage information in PPT Submission of Final Report Vendor Customer P P P S - 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 P P P P P P P P P - 4. The site survey is the activity of describing a potential site. first put only the background map which is on paper. A specific questionnaire is used as a guideline for this activity.Responsibility Matrix S No Activity 1 2 3 EiRP details Link Budget with K values Nominal RF Design – Site details with Lat-Long. power supply details. RF Survey & Candidate selection This is the next step of nominal planning wherein we send the engineer in the field for physical verification Initial design review has to be carried out with the client so that he agrees to the basic design of the network. Then step by step put the site layout and coverage prediction. and evaluating its feasibility and preparedness for possible installation. tilt. This Candidate Information Report (CIR) questionnaire captures all information about the site including equipment room. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 12 . antenna height. Coverage Plots. antennas. Also examined are constraints and location specific information that would lead to the qualification or disqualification of the chosen location. Equipment room survey consists in drafting a plan of the room where the equipment will be installed.

Information so gathered is input into a site survey report. Release search rings to project management Visit friendly site locations • • If there are friendly/sharing sites available that can be used (infrastructure sharing). then visit these sites first.Sites that will also work as a BSC.Examination of existing towers. • Reset / Review Search Rings • If the prediction shows a coverage hole ( as the actual site may be shifted from the designed site). the surrounding search rings can be resetted and reviewed. Enter Data In Propagation Tool • Enter the sites exact location in the planning tool. surveys should carried out and at least 3 suitable site candidates identified. Perform Propagation Analysis • Now since the site has been selected and the lat/lon of the actual site ( which will be different from the designed site) is known. Select Initial Anchor Sites • Initial anchor sites are the sites which are very important for the network buildup. If these sites suite the design requirements. Release the search ring with details like radius of search ring. Eg . Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 13 . Get the address of the area from mapping software. height of antenna etc. put this site in the planning tool and predict coverage. Check to see that the coverage objectives are met as per prediction. a) Selection of Sites Prepare Initial Search Ring • • • Note the latitude and longitude from planning tool. Candidate site Visit( Average 3 per ring) • For each proposed location. antennas and environment on each site allows for determination of antennas best location. which will be used for site selection and site engineering (when the site is selected). then these sites are to be given preference.

Any objections are taken care off at this point itself. Civil etc ) • A meeting at the selected site takes place in which all concerned departments like RF Engineering. B. C. Site acquisition. Power. Power. Civil contractor and the site owner is present./Long) Building Height Site address and contact number Height of surrounding clutter Details of potential coverage effecting obstructions or other comments (A. Simple way is to ask yourself three questions 1) Why am I putting this site ? 2) Will this selected site serve that purpose ? 3) Are there any possible problems that might arise if i select this site.. Civil Engineer..) » Visit Site With All Disciplines( SA.• Details of each candidate should be recorded on a copy of the Site Proposal Form for that site. If yes can I solve or avoid those problems? BAD SITE SELECTION • • • • Uncontrolled interference Interleaved coverage Awkward HO behaviours But are good for microwave links Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 14 . The planner needs to visit each and every site if required • Simple logic for Good site • • We need to understand various factors we must take into account to ensure that the selected site is good. Site are expensive and have to be chosen carefully.. Details must include: » » » » Site name and option letter Site location (Lat.Otherwise this will create problem in future • Site Location • • Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells.

GOOD SITE SELECTION • Sites off hilltop locations are preferable for a BTS site as  hills can be used to separate cells  interference can be easily controlled  minimum overlapping will result  can face problems for microwave links Desired cell boundary b) SITE SELECTION CRITERIA Radio criteria for site selection • Good view in the main beam direction Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 15 .

4 m of pole can cater the purpose c) For GBT option we should have at least footprint of 15mx20m for 50m tower. Each option should have 12 different photograph even after same clutter and within search ring. For sharing option photograph for clutter should be taken from tower only. Survey Engineers should have a) 5/6 Mega Pixel Camera b) Measurement Tape c) GPS d) Binocular e) Compass f) Altimeter 3. Make proper civil layout for new option 13.• • • • • Non-radio criteria • • • • • • No surrounding nearby high obstacle Good visibilty of terrain Room for antenna mounting LOS to the two microwave site and if possible to the BSC Short cabling distance Space for equipment Availaibilty of lease lines or microwave links Power supply Access restrictions Rental costs Ease of acquisition c) Guideline while doing RF Physical Survey 1. Proper justification required for single option and same should be communicated from site only. Daily Report Submission 12. Govt area should be intimated well in advance. option should be at least 50m away from HT line 7. For example a) G+1 building can not take a load of 40m tower b) If we required 24 height on 24m building then we should not proposed 24 m tower height. 2. 9. 15. d) For GBT option we must take the photograph near by building if possible otherwise prepare a plan.G. 4. Check Properly. Each obstruction should be captured in camera. 10. Take clear photograph of existing tower justifying antenna height in case of sharing option 11. Make yourself clear what to do before starting survey. For sharing option make proper layout indicating dimension and position of tower. Guard room Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 16 . if nominal falls in DIG or lower AMSL area 5. 8. 6. Check Properly.Shelter.D. Clear visibility of footprint of site & structural stability of building. Building feasibility should be checked properly for candidate selection. 14.

Mobile phone should be switched on at any point of time. Power Supply. space for site b) Match the criteria justifying tower * building height relation 19. take photograph fro each obstruction 18. 5. Battery Bank.16. CASE STUDY ON NOMINAL PLANNING-1 City-Calicut Contents            Short Summary of CALICUT Assumption & Guideline Link Budget Propagation Model Polygons Sharing Site Options Planned Vs Sharing Sites Statistics of Planned City Sites Clutter partition as per standard Polygon used by other OPCO Summary Recommendations Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 17 . Check the building feasibility properly a) Check the column. Always carry complete KIT along with extra battery. 20. 17. Consider all obstruction which can obstruct RF signal.Tx Rack etc. For sharing option make proper layout of shelter(Inside) indicating dimension and position of BTS.

BS antenna heights in the range of 15-200 metres and receiver heights in the range of 1-10 metres. It is a tourist hotspot and a favored destination. b) Assumption and Guidelines   Map Used-25m(Resolution) Antenna Used for Nominal Planning-65 deg for City & 33 Deg for Highway Clutter Dense Urban Urban Sub Urban Rural / Highway Bldg Loss 25 dB 20 dB 15 dB 8 dB Threshold -65 dB -70 dB -75 dB -85 dB Antenna Horizontal Beam width 65 Degree 65 Degree 65 Degree 65/33 Degree Antenna Gain 17 dBi 17 dBi 17dBi 17 / 21dBi RF Antenna Ht 25 M 25 M 30 M 35-40 M Standard Macro cell 3 Model:Its usage in the environments where the distance from the site is greater than 500 metres. political unrest and historical happenings. Pathloss (dB)=k1 + k2log(d)+k3(Hms)+k4log(Hms)+K5log(Heff)+k6log(Heff)log(d)+k7(diffn) +C_Loss Where: d is the distance from the base station to the mobile station 9km Hms is the height of the MS above ground (m0) Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 18 . Calicut as it was known to the British and Europeans was the seat of active trade.a) Short Summary of CALICUT City The city of Kozhikode.

0 21 7 79% 3 0 17 3 57.ant gain Rx ant. W dBm Highway 40 46.cable loss UL duplexer loss Min Rx Level Tot.0 21 -102 3 0 0 0 0 -99 n. K1 & k2 are the Intercept and Slope.a. K4 is the multiplying factor for Hms K5 is the effective antenna height gain.0 21 -102 3 0 0 0 0 -99 n.0 21 7 79% 3 0 17 3 57.los s PA backoff??? Tx ant gain Tx ant. Div. Correction factor used to take into account the effective MS antenna height.0 21 -102 3 0 0 0 0 -99 n. c) Link Budget ownlink(Dense Urban) Mean o/p power over burst 40 Power(Before 46. Area Probability -102 3 0 0 0 0 -99 n.0 Combiner) 21 RxSens Interference degr.0 21 4 79% Miscellaneous Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 19 .comb.&dupl.0 21 4 79% 3 0 21 3 61. Cable loss EiRP Standard dev.0 21 -102 3 0 0 0 0 -99 n. W dBm Rural 40 46. These factors correspond to a constant offset (in dB) and a multiplying factor for the log of the distance between the BS and MS K3 is the MS antenna height factor. Deygout or Japanese Atlas Knife edge techniques.gain Rx. W dBm Suburban 40 46.a. Bullington.a.a. This is multiplying factor for the log of the effective antenna height K6 is the multiplying factor for log(Heff)log(d) K7 is the multiplying factor for diffraction loss calculation C-Loss is the clutter specifications such as heights and separation are also taken into account in the calculation process. W dBm User input Rx (MS) User input Tx (BS) 3 0 17 3 57.a.0 21 7 79% 3 0 17 3 57.Heff is the effective BS antenna height (m) Diffn is the diffraction loss calculated using either the Epstein-Peterson. Urban W dBm 40 46.

K m 8 145.K m 20 127.Fading magin Body Loss Indoor penetration loss (Inc LNF) Max. 38 0.22 06 Km Sq.61 83 Km Sq.5 0.K m -65 Hb(m )= Hm( m) = a(Hm )= Lc = dBm 25 1.K m 8 141.41 64 57.5 0.K m 15 132.5 0.31 41 3.04 3 8 1800 -85 Hb(m )= Hm( m) = a(Hm )= Lc = dBm 35 1.04 3 1 1800 -75 Hb(m )= Hm( m) = a(Hm )= Lc = dBm 30 1.04 3 15 1800 Dense Urban Correction Factor Frequency d) Propagation Model   Agreed Coverage Threshold Considering 100% Sharing Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 20 .22 57 3 25 122.64 49 3 5. 38 1. 38 0. 79 5.64 49 3 5.5 0.PL Cell range Site area The Threshold Level Assume: 5.allow.33 63 0.36 74 Km Sq.64 49 3 3.2 08 Km Sq.22 57 3 3.5 0.5 11 Km Sq.89 03 29.56 31 0.04 3 14 1800 -85 Hb(m )= Hm( m) = a(Hm )= Lc = dBm 35 1.04 3 -2 1800 -70 Hb(m )= Hm( m) = a(Hm )= Lc = dBm 25 1. 79 3.

Polygon Created On Map of India f) Sharing Site Options Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 21 .e) Polygon 1. Polygon Created On Asset 2.

g) Planned Vs Sharing Sites Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 22 .

127 Covered area(km²) 0.94 0.00 <= x < -75.351 12.00% 99.00 dBm -85.103 Covered area(%) 100.015 9.00% 100.63% 94.149 34.015 9.92% 99.73% Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 23 .all display categories in Cumulative mode: Category -65.573 0.00 <= x dBm -70.015 Covered area(%) 57.81% Clutter summary Clutter urban_high_density urban_medium urban_low_density villages industrial low_dense_vegetation Total area(km²) 0.956 42.00 dBm Covered area(km²) 24.55 4.578 0.00 <= x < -70.937 0.96% 99.351 12.37% 82.00 dBm -75.67% 100.GSM Best Server [Non-Simulator] Category summary Multiple categories .00% 99.55 4.00 <= x < -65.781 39.h) Statistics of Planned Sites as per Polygon Statistics for GSM .

578 RURAL 0.00% 59.940 CLUTTER Area Covered Coverage >-65 % Area Covered With Coverage >-65 Area Covered Coverage >-70 With % Area Covered With Coverage >-70 Area Covered Coverage >-75 With 12.153 13.074 0.31 0.00% 0.048 Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 24 .55% 4.724 0.00% 100.528 96.00% 99.015 Covered area(%) 99.248 0.81% i) Clutter partition as Per Polygon CALICUT -Statistics Report (With Available Sharing Options) UNITECH COVERAGE STATISTICS DATE : 6/10/2008 TOWN NAME : CLUTTER TYPE TOTAL AREA CALICUT DENSE URBAN 0.153 13.66% Total area(km²) 42.agriculture/fallow water open quasi_open river Sea Attribute summary Attribute CALICUT 0.024 0.550 With 0.248 0.093 Covered area(km²) 42.044 100.008 0.550 4.241 URBAN 4.724 0.000 0.128 94.550 100.88% 100.366 STATE : KERALA SUB URBAN 12.31 0.00% 100.

366 100.% Area Covered With Coverage >-75 Area Covered Coverage >-85 With 100.000 0.550 100.573 99.137 4.000 95.96% 0.68% % Area Covered With Coverage >-85 j) Prediction Plot (CALICUT City) Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 25 .79% 12.000 97.937 99.

k) Summary  39 Sites Planned Outside the CALICUT City Polygon for Small Town & Highway out of which 03 Sites are not showing on the 2D view of Asset Tool. Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 26 .

05 other small town sites. Total Sites Used to cover CALICUT City(polygon)– 48 out of which 43 are sharing site. l) Recommendations Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 27 .

 Nominal Planning done with electrical tilt of 2 deg since the city is along with coastal boundary therefore mechanical tilt of 2 deg is recommended for border cells For Highways and railways we had used 2 sector with high gain antenna and one sector with 65deg city antenna 2 New site required with this link budget and the Clutter requirement. Change in Orientation based on coverage requirement    Confidential – not for circulation Prepared by: Shailendra kumar Page 28 .

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