Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan

-
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1
Formation Damage
Mechanisms
FARUK CIVAN, Ph.D.
Alumni Chair Professor
Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological
Engineering
The University of Oklahoma
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2
Presentation Outline
† How is formation damage defined?
† What does formation damage do?
† How does formation damage occur?
† What are the common formation
damage mechanisms?
† How can we control formation
damage?
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3
Formation Damage
†An expensive headache
(Amaefule et al. 1988)
†Requires interdisciplinary
knowledge and expertise
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4
Damage Mechanisms
(Butler et al., 2000)
†Formation damage:
Impairment of reservoir permeability
by adverse processes
†Completion damage:
Hinderence of well productivity by
deposition and flow modification at
and around well bore
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Mechanical Skin (Formation
Damage (Yildiz, 2003)
Porosity and permeability variation by
„ Fines migration and deposition
„ Mud filtrate and fines invasion
„ Rock compression
„ Scales
„ Acidizing
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Near Wellbore Damage
Damaged Region Non-damaged Region
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Effect of Anisotropy and Stress on
Damage Zone
K
H
> K
V
K
H
< K
V
Invasion Zone
Well
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Formation Damage
Indicators
†Permeability impairment
†Skin damage
†Decrease of well
performance.
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Pressure Profile and Skin
P
w
r
o
r
w
t > 0 , s > 0
P
wo
t = 0, s = 0
P
r
t > 0 , s < 0
P
w
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10
Formation Damage
Measure- Skin Factor
actual w
s
apparent w
r e r ) ( ) (

=
r
e
r
d
r
w
Damaged
Region
Non-
Damaged
Region
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11
Consequence of
Formation Damage
†Reduction of reservoir
productivity
†Non-economic operations
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Formation Damage
†“Not necessarily reversible”
(Porter, 1989)
†What gets into porous media does
not necessarily come out” (Porter,
1989)
†Avoid formation damage than to
restore it
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Potential Sources of Formation
Damage During History of Well
1. Drilling (emulsion block,
wettability change, mud
damage, mechanical damage)
2. Cementing (pH change, scale
formation)
3. Perforating
4. Completion
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Potential Sources of Formation
Damage During the History of
the Well…
5. Workover
6. Gravel packing
7. Production
8. Stimulation
9. Fluid injection
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15
Common Formation
Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)
1. Fluid-fluid incompatibility
(emulsion generation, etc.)
2. Rock-fluid incompatibility (clay
swelling, etc.)
3. Fines invasion and migration
(particles, etc.)
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Common Formation
Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)
4. Phase trapping and blocking (water
entrapment in gas reservoirs)
5. Adsorption and wettability alteration
6. Biological activity (bacteria, slime
production).
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17
What do Rocks contain?
(Bucke & Markin,1971, Ezzat,1990, Mancini,1991)
1. Mineral oxides (SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, etc.)
2. Swelling and non-swelling clays
(detrital and authigenic)
3. Other substances (mud, cement,
and debris)
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Clay Minerals
Crystalline minerals described
as hydrous aluminum silicates
1. Kaolinite group (breaks apart
into fine particles)
2. Smectite or montmorillonite
group (water sensitive and
expandable)
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Clay Minerals…
3.Illite group (plugs pore throats)
4.Mixed-layer clay minerals
(breaks apart in clumps and
form bridges across pores)
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Extraneous Materials
Foreign materials introduced
during:
†Drilling and completion of
wells
†Workover operations
†Enhanced recovery processes
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Externally Introduced
Particles
† Fluid loss control materials
„ Bentonite
„ Clays
† Mud weighting materials
„ Calcium carbonate
„ Barite
„ Hematite
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Externally Introduced
Particles
† Pore bridging materials
„ Fibers
„ Resins
„ Silica
„ Calcium carbonate
† Injection water materials
„ Bacteria
„ Sand, clay, silt, asphaltene, wax, polymers
„ Materials produced by corrosion of tubing
† Particulate matter produced by drilling
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23
Porous Media Realization
Leaky-tube Model
(Civan, 2003)
Network Model
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Bundle-of-Leaky-Capillary-
Tubes Model of Porous Media
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Porosity-Permeability Alteration
1.0E-18
1.0E-17
1.0E-16
1.0E-15
1.0E-14
1.0E-13
1.0E-12
1.0E-11
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Porosity,
φ,
fraction
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

K
,

m
D
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26
Formation Damage Causing
Rock-Fluid Interactions
(Bennion and Thomas, 1994)
1. Mobilization, migration, and
deposition of fine particles
(internal or external)
2. Alteration of porous media and
particle surface (absorption,
adsorption, wettability change,
and swelling)
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Formation Damage Causing
Rock-Fluid Interactions…
(Bennion and Thomas, 1994)
3. Other processes (mud fluid
imbibition, grinding and mashing
of solids, surface glazing)
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Deposition Within Porous
Formation
DEPOSITION
ENTRAINMENT
FLOW
TYPICAL HYDRAULIC TUBE
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29
Shock Phenomena Causing Particle
Detachment and Mobilization
Three Important Criteria:
† Critical salt concentration
† Critical interstitial fluid velocity
† Critical temperature
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Salinity Shock
Salinity Shock
Civan (2000, 2001)
Civan (2000, 2001)
CSC : Critical salt concentration ( CSC : Critical salt concentration (Khilar Khilar and and Fogler Fogler, 1983) , 1983)
B
a
s
a
l

S
p
a
c
i
n
g
Salt
Concentration
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Particle swelling
Particle swelling
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Critical Mobilization Velocity
Critical Mobilization Velocity
Gruesbeck
Gruesbeck
and Collins (1982)
and Collins (1982)
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Particles experience more fluid shear
in tortuous paths (Civan, 2006)
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Temperature Shock
Temperature Shock
Gupta and Civan (1994)
Gupta and Civan (1994)
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Small Particles
Deep-bed Filtration
Suspended
particles
Immobile
particles
Fluid velocity
decreases with
radial distance
Tortuous
flow path
Well
Reservoir
region of
well
influence
Hydraulic
fracture
Critical
velocity
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36
Particle Deposition
Mechanisms
Surface
deposition
Pore throat
plugging
Pore filling
and internal
cake formation
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Valve effect of pore throats
Valve effect of pore throats
Chang and Civan
(1997) and Ochi and
Vernoux (1998)
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Pore Throat Plugging
Deposition
D
p
D
t
0
p
t
D
D
= β
( ) µφ
p p
p
uD c
= Re
Non-bridging
Bridging
( )
Re
1
p
B
cr
A e C β

= − +
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Dislodgement/deposition
at Pore Throats
Flow Reversal
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Particle aggregation kinetics
Particle aggregation kinetics
† Diffusion-limited
† Reaction-limited
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Medium to Large Particles
External Cake Formation
Large
particles
(Screening)
Medium
particles
(Bridging)
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Filter Cake
Distribution
Vertical Well
•Radial filter cake
•Homogeneous thick
r, radial direction
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Filter Cake
Distribution…
Horizontal Well
•Rotation effect
•Gravity effect
•Non-uniform thick
Gravity direction
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Perforated Wells
x
y
Perforation
I
n
v
a
d
e
d

Z
o
n
e
Uninvaded Zone
Filter
Cake
Wellbore
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Hydraulically-Fractured
Wells
x
y
Perforation
I
n
v
a
d
e
d

Z
o
n
e
Uninvaded Zone
Wellbore
Filter cake
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Conditions Favorable for
Sand Production
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
1. Lack of cementation and loss
of mechanical integrity
2. Small grain size
3. Weak consolidation and
compaction
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Conditions Favorable for
Sand Production
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
4. Rising water table
ƒ Higher water cut
ƒ Petrophysical alteration
5. Grain buoyancy effect
6. High flow rate and low
pore fluid pressure
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Sand Liquefaction Criterion
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
Friction shear-stress > Critical-shear-stress
θ
τ
x
y
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Massive Sand
Production…
(Geilikman and Dusseault, 1994, 1997)
r
w
r
e
R(t)
Yielded
Zone
Intact
Zone
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Practical Results
0
0
q
s
t
Sand
Production
Rate
0
0
t
Fluid
Production
Improvement
o
f
q
q
q
o
= flow rate without
sand production
q
f
= flow rate with
sand production
1.0
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
1. Sand control is necessary for
weak formations and high
water influx.
2. Hydraulic fracturing reduces
the flow rate and pressure
gradient to prevent sanding.
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
3. Zone perforation and frac-
packing (gel or water packing)
4. Resin injection for chemical
consolidation
5. Gravel packs, screens, and
slotted liners to filter sand.
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
6. Dropping the water level by special
completion techniques
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999):
a) Horizontal wells
b) Water production from below
the oil/water contact
c) Reducing water-coning.
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Wettability
Definition:
1. Preferential affinity of solid to
fluid phases
2. Tendency of fluids to spread
over solid surface
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Contact Angle
θ < 90
o
, strong wettability
θ > 90
o
, weak wettability
θ 90
o
, intermediate wettability

θ
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Wettability Effect
(Durand and Rosenberg, 1988)
Water-wet
(Clay/Oil)
Oil-wet
(Clay/Oil)
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Wettability Alteration
Oil-wet
Site
Water-wet
Site
Pore Space
Oil
adsorbed
Water
adsorbed
WI
Oil Adsorption
(mg/g)
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Wettability…
†Wettability alteration can be
detected by capillary pressure
measurement
P
c
0
250
o
F
100
o
F
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Particle Migration in Multi
Particle Migration in Multi
-
-
phase Flow
phase Flow
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Formation Damage Causing
Fluid-Fluid Interactions
(Amaefule, 1988, and Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
„ Emulsion blocking
„ Inorganic deposition
„ Organic deposition
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Liquid Phase Entrapment
†Filtrates
„ Water based
„ Oil based
†Condensates
„ Water
„ Hydrocarbon
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Phase Entrapment
(Bennion, 2003)
Wetting
phase
Wetting
phase
Wetting
phase
Non-wetting
phase
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Relative Permeability
Alteration and Liquid Block
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Before damage
After damage
Kr vs. Sw Kr vs. Sw
Shrinking of mobile
fluid saturation range
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Natural and Induced
Scale Damage
(Shaughnessy and Kline, 1983)
0
Dissolved Ca
2+
Dissolved
HCO
-
3
mol/lt
N
a
t
u
r
a
l
Induced
Add incompatible fluid
) ( 2
) (
2
) (
3 3
2
0 2
l
g s
H CO CaCO HCO Ca + + ↔ +

+
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Calcite solubility in water
(Segnit et al., 1962)
) ( 2 2 ) ( 3 3
2
2
g s
CO O H CaCO HCO Ca + + ⇔ +

+
Calcite
Solubility
g/kg solution
p
CO2
150
o
C
200
o
C
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Saturation Index
(Schneider, 1997)
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
sp
ap
K
K
SI
10
log
Supersaturated
Saturated
Undersaturated
C, Concentration of
aqueous solution, mol/L
SI > 0
SI = 0
SI < 0
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Organic Deposition
1. Paraffins (dissolved in oil)
2. Asphaltenes (undissolved, but
suspended as a colloid in oil)
3. Resins (peptizing agent,
dissolved in oil, help suspend
asphaltene in oil)
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4. Wax: A combined deposit of
paraffins, asphaltenes, resins,
mixed with clays, sand, and
debris (dissolved in oil)
Organic Deposition…
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Asphaltene and Wax
Phase Behavior
(Leontaritis, 1996)
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Liquid + Vapor
Liquid
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

B
u
b
b
l
e
-
P
o
i
n
t

L
i
n
e
Lower deposition
boundary
Upper deposition
boundary
Liquid+Solid+Vapor
Region (Pressure and
Composition dependant)
Liquid+Solid Region
(Mostly pressure
dependant)
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Electrokinetic Effect
(Mansoori, 1997)
Pipe or Capillary Tube
Streaming Potential
Difference
Negative
Charge
Positive
Charge
Asphaltene deposits
•Asphaltene is positively charged
•Oil phase is negatively charged
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Evaluation of Common
Formation Damage Problems
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
† Pore blocking by drilling,
completion, workover, and
injection fluids
† Clay hydration, swelling,
dispersion, and pore blocking
resulting from clay-water
reactions
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Evaluation of Common
Formation Damage
Problems…
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
† Liquid block resulting from
extraneous water
introduction during drilling,
completion, and workover
† Caving and sand production
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Analysis of Core
Damage Data
L
Permeability
P
L u
K

=
µ
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Constant-Pressure
Difference Test
Permeability
ratio,
K/K
o
PV-injected
∆P-small
∆P-large
0
0
1.0
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Core Plugs Wafers
(Acid soak Experiments)
1-inch diameter
0.25-inch thick
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A Simple Linear Core Flow
Testing Set-up
(Doane et al., 1999)
Core
Fluid
Reservoir
Displacement
Pump
Annulus
Pump
Pressure
Transducer
Effluent
Fluid collector
Core Holder
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Annular Flow Tester
(Saleh et al., 1997)
Pump
Fluid
Reservoir
Radial Outward
Flow
Effluent
Fluid collector
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Drilling of Wells
(Yao and Holditch, 1993)
Uninvaded
Zone
Mud
Invasion
Mud In
Mud Out
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Depth of Filtrate
Invasion
Time
Depth of
Invasion
Water mud
Low-colloid
oil mud
Oil mud
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Saturation Profiles for Mud
Filtrate Invasion
(Yao and Holditch, 1993)
Wellbore
S
w
= S
wc
Mud
Cake
Radial Distance r
w
r
e
S
w
= 1- S
or
t
1
t
2 t
3 Filtrate
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Dynamic Mud Tester
Pump
Mud
Reservoir
Core
Mud
Filtrate
Linear
Flow
Effluent
Fluid collector
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Hydraulic Fracturing
Fluids
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
†Water-block
†Solids invasion
†Leak-off and spurt loss
†Clay hydration
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Fracture Flow Tester
(Doane et al., 1999)
Fracture
Flow
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Mitigation Methods
(Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
„ Emulsion blocking: Apply demulsifier
„ Precipitates: Apply wax, scale, and
alkaline control
„ Migrating clays: Apply cation
„ Swelling clays: Apply cation or
polymer
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Mitigation Methods
(Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
„ Phase trapping and blocking: Apply alcohol,
oil, and interfacial surface tension (IFT)
reducer
„ Wettability alteration: Apply surfactant
„ Solid invasion: Apply cake inducing agent
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Treatment
Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Proper Additives
Major
Treatment
= Treating + to control
Fluid
Chemical
further damage
¦ ¹
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
¹ )
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ )
¹ )
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Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Additives can control:
† Corrosion
† Sludge formation
† Emulsion formation
† Organic and inorganic
precipitation
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Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Additives can control…
† Homogeneity
† Clay stabilization
† Interfacial tension
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Fracture
Stimulation
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
†Hydraulic fracturing
†Bypass damaged region
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Bypassing Damage by Hydraulic
Fracturing
x
y
z
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Completion Techniques
† Open-hole completions
† Cavity completions
† Hydraulic fracturing
† Frac-and-packs
† Horizontal wells
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Reservoir Fluid Pattern- Open Hole
vs. Perforated Cased Hole
Invasion Zone
Well
Perforation
Fluid goes through
damaged zone
Fluid bypasses
damaged zone
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Perforated Well Flow Efficiency
(Chen and Atkinson, 2001, Yildiz, 2002)
† Wellbore radius
† Shut density
† Shut angle
† Perforation depth
† Perforation diameter
† Crushed zone thickness
† Damaged zone thickness
† Reservoir anisotropy
Crushed
zone
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Partial Completion and Deviation
(Al Qahtani and Al Shehri, 2003)
h
c
Perforated
Zone
H
z
c
L
Elevation
to mid
point
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Horizontally Fractured Well
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Vertically Fractured Well
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Frac-and-Pack Completion
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Multi-lateral Wells Completion
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Damage Tolerance of Completion
Techniques from Most to Least
(Jahediesfanjani and Civan, 2005)
† Long horizontal wells
† Short horizontal wells
† Horizontally fractured wells
† Cavity completions
† Vertical wells
† Frac-and-Pack completions
† Fractured wells
† Vertical wells
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100
Final Remarks
† Formation damage mechanisms vary
depending on the well operation
types and reservoir and fluid
conditions.
† Oil and gas recovery can be enhanced
by minimizing and controlling of
formation damage.
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101
Thank you for your attention
† Questions?
† Discussions?
† Comments?

Presentation Outline
How is formation damage defined? What does formation damage do? How does formation damage occur? What are the common formation damage mechanisms? How can we control formation damage?
Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 2

Formation Damage
An expensive headache
(Amaefule et al. 1988)

Requires interdisciplinary knowledge and expertise

Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved

3

Damage Mechanisms (Butler et al.. 2000) Formation damage: Impairment of reservoir permeability by adverse processes Hinderence of well productivity by deposition and flow modification at and around well bore Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 4 Completion damage: .

Mechanical Skin (Formation Damage (Yildiz. 2003) Porosity and permeability variation by Fines migration and deposition Mud filtrate and fines invasion Rock compression Scales Acidizing Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 5 .

Near Wellbore Damage Damaged Region Non-damaged Region Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 6 .

Effect of Anisotropy and Stress on Damage Zone KH > KV Well KH < KV Invasion Zone Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 7 .

Formation Damage Indicators Permeability impairment Skin damage Decrease of well performance. Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 8 .

Pressure Profile and Skin t >0.s<0 P t = 0.s>0 r Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved ro 9 . s = 0 Pw Pwo Pw rw t >0.

Skin Factor (rw ) apparent = e (rw ) actual re −s Damaged Region rw rd NonDamaged Region 10 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .Formation Damage Measure.

Consequence of Formation Damage Reduction of reservoir productivity Non-economic operations Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 11 .

Formation Damage “Not necessarily reversible” (Porter. 1989) What gets into porous media does not necessarily come out” (Porter. 1989) Avoid formation damage than to restore it Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 12 .

mud damage. wettability change. mechanical damage) 2. Drilling (emulsion block.Potential Sources of Formation Damage During History of Well 1. Completion Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 13 . scale formation) 3. Perforating 4. Cementing (pH change.

7. 6. 8.Potential Sources of Formation Damage During the History of the Well… 5. Workover Gravel packing Production Stimulation Fluid injection Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 14 . 9.

Common Formation Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)

1. Fluid-fluid incompatibility

(emulsion generation, etc.) 2. Rock-fluid incompatibility (clay swelling, etc.) 3. Fines invasion and migration (particles, etc.)
Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 15

Common Formation Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)

Phase trapping and blocking (water entrapment in gas reservoirs) 5. Adsorption and wettability alteration 6. Biological activity (bacteria, slime production).
4.

Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved

16

What do Rocks contain?
(Bucke & Markin,1971, Ezzat,1990, Mancini,1991)

1. Mineral oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, etc.) 2. Swelling and non-swelling clays (detrital and authigenic) 3. Other substances (mud, cement, and debris)

Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved

17

Smectite or montmorillonite group (water sensitive and expandable) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 18 . Kaolinite group (breaks apart into fine particles) 2.Clay Minerals Crystalline minerals described as hydrous aluminum silicates 1.

Illite group (plugs pore throats) 4.Mixed-layer clay minerals (breaks apart in clumps and form bridges across pores) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 19 .Clay Minerals… 3.

Extraneous Materials Foreign materials introduced during: Drilling and completion of wells Workover operations Enhanced recovery processes Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 20 .

Externally Introduced Particles Fluid loss control materials Bentonite Clays Mud weighting materials Calcium carbonate Barite Hematite Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 21 .

silt. asphaltene. clay. wax. polymers Materials produced by corrosion of tubing Particulate matter produced by drilling Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 22 .Externally Introduced Particles Pore bridging materials Fibers Resins Silica Calcium carbonate Injection water materials Bacteria Sand.

Porous Media Realization Network Model Leaky-tube Model (Civan. 2003) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 23 .

Bundle-of-Leaky-CapillaryTubes Model of Porous Media Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 24 .

0E-17 1.0E-12 1.20 25 .0E-16 1. fraction Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 0.05 0.0E-11 1.0E-14 1. K mD . φ.00 Permeability.10 0.0E-18 0.0E-15 1.Porosity-Permeability Alteration 1.0E-13 1. 0.15 Porosity.

adsorption. wettability change. 1994) 1. Mobilization. and deposition of fine particles (internal or external) 2. Alteration of porous media and particle surface (absorption. and swelling) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 26 . migration.Formation Damage Causing Rock-Fluid Interactions (Bennion and Thomas.

Formation Damage Causing Rock-Fluid Interactions… (Bennion and Thomas. Other processes (mud fluid imbibition. grinding and mashing of solids. surface glazing) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 27 . 1994) 3.

Deposition Within Porous Formation DEPOSITION ENTRAINMENT FLOW TYPICAL HYDRAULIC TUBE Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 28 .

Shock Phenomena Causing Particle Detachment and Mobilization Three Important Criteria: Critical salt concentration Critical interstitial fluid velocity Critical temperature Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 29 .

1983) Basal Spacing Civan (2000. 2001) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Salt Concentration 30 .Salinity Shock CSC : Critical salt concentration (Khilar and Fogler.

Particle swelling Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 31 .

Critical Mobilization Velocity Gruesbeck and Collins (1982) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 32 .

Particles experience more fluid shear in tortuous paths (Civan. 2006) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 33 .

Temperature Shock Gupta and Civan (1994) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 34 .

Small Particles Deep-bed Filtration Fluid velocity decreases with radial distance Well Hydraulic fracture Critical velocity Reservoir region of well influence Tortuous flow path Suspended particles Immobile particles 35 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .

Particle Deposition Mechanisms Surface deposition Pore filling Pore throat and internal plugging cake formation Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 36 .

Valve effect of pore throats Chang and Civan (1997) and Ochi and Vernoux (1998) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 37 .

Pore Throat Plugging Deposition Dp Dt Non-bridging β cr = A 1 − e ( − B Re p )+C Dt β= Dp 0 Bridging Re p = c p uD p (µφ ) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 38 .

Dislodgement/deposition at Pore Throats Flow Reversal Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 39 .

Particle aggregation kinetics Diffusion-limited Reaction-limited Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 40 .

Medium to Large Particles External Cake Formation Large particles (Screening) Medium particles (Bridging) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 41 .

Filter Cake Distribution r. radial direction Vertical Well •Radial filter cake •Homogeneous thick Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 42 .

Filter Cake Distribution… Horizontal Well •Rotation effect •Gravity effect •Non-uniform thick Gravity direction Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 43 .

Perforated Wells y Filter Cake Invade d Zon e Uninvaded Zone Perforation Wellbore x Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 44 .

Hydraulically-Fractured Wells y Invade d Zon e Uninvaded Zone Perforation Wellbore Filter cake Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 45 x .

Lack of cementation and loss of mechanical integrity 2. Weak consolidation and compaction Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 46 . 1999) 1.Conditions Favorable for Sand Production (Hayatdavoudi. Small grain size 3.

High flow rate and low pore fluid pressure Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 47 . 1999) 4. Grain buoyancy effect 6.Conditions Favorable for Sand Production (Hayatdavoudi. Rising water table Higher water cut Petrophysical alteration 5.

1999) Friction shear-stress > Critical-shear-stress y τ θ x Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 48 .Sand Liquefaction Criterion (Hayatdavoudi.

1997) Yielded Zone rw Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Intact Zone R(t) re 49 .Massive Sand Production… (Geilikman and Dusseault. 1994.

0 0 Fluid Production Improvement qo = flow rate without sand production qf = flow rate with sand production t 0 t 50 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .Practical Results Sand Production Rate qs 0 0 qf qo 1.

Sand control is necessary for weak formations and high water influx. Hydraulic fracturing reduces the flow rate and pressure gradient to prevent sanding.Sand Control Methods (JPT. Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 51 . 2. 1995) 1.

Resin injection for chemical consolidation 5. and slotted liners to filter sand.Sand Control Methods (JPT. Zone perforation and fracpacking (gel or water packing) 4. screens. 1995) 3. Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 52 . Gravel packs.

Sand Control Methods (JPT. 1999): a) Horizontal wells b) Water production from below the oil/water contact c) Reducing water-coning. Dropping the water level by special completion techniques (Hayatdavoudi. Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 53 . 1995) 6.

Wettability Definition: 1. Tendency of fluids to spread over solid surface Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 54 . Preferential affinity of solid to fluid phases 2.

Contact Angle θ θ < 90o. intermediate wettability Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 55 . weak wettability θ ≈ 90o. strong wettability θ > 90o.

Wettability Effect (Durand and Rosenberg. 1988) Water-wet (Clay/Oil) Oil-wet (Clay/Oil) 56 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .

Wettability Alteration Oil-wet Site Oil adsorbed Water-wet Site Water adsorbed WI Pore Space Oil Adsorption (mg/g) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 57 .

Wettability… Wettability alteration can be detected by capillary pressure measurement 250oF Pc 0 100oF Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 58 .

Particle Migration in Multi-phase Flow Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 59 .

and Masikewich and Bennion. 1988.Formation Damage Causing Fluid-Fluid Interactions (Amaefule. 1999) Emulsion blocking Inorganic deposition Organic deposition Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 60 .

Liquid Phase Entrapment Filtrates Water based Oil based Condensates Water Hydrocarbon Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 61 .

2003) Wetting phase Wetting phase Wetting phase Non-wetting phase Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 62 .Phase Entrapment (Bennion.

Sw Shrinking of mobile fluid saturation range Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 63 .Relative Permeability Alteration and Liquid Block (Keelan and Koepf. 1977) Before damage Kr vs. Sw After damage Kr vs.

1983) − 2+ 3 Dissolved HCO-3 mol/lt 0 Dissolved Ca2+ Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 64 .Natural and Induced Scale Damage Ca + 2 HCO ↔ CaCO3( s ) + CO2 ( g ) + H 2 0(l ) Add incompatible fluid Induced Na tur al (Shaughnessy and Kline.

1962) Ca 2+ + 2 HCO3 ⇔ CaCO3( s ) + H 2O + CO2 ( g ) 150 oC 200 oC − Calcite Solubility g/kg solution pCO2 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 65 ..Calcite solubility in water (Segnit et al.

1997)  K ap  SI = log10    K sp    SI > 0 SI = 0 SI < 0 Supersaturated Saturated C. Concentration of aqueous solution.Saturation Index (Schneider. mol/L Undersaturated Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 66 .

but suspended as a colloid in oil) 3. Asphaltenes (undissolved. dissolved in oil. Paraffins (dissolved in oil) 2. Resins (peptizing agent. help suspend asphaltene in oil) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 67 .Organic Deposition 1.

asphaltenes.Organic Deposition… 4. sand. resins. and debris (dissolved in oil) Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 68 . Wax: A combined deposit of paraffins. mixed with clays.

1996) Liquid+Solid Region (Mostly pressure dependant) Upper deposition boundary Liquid ion urat t Line Sat oin -P bb l e Pressure Bu Liquid + Vapor Lower deposition boundary Liquid+Solid+Vapor Region (Pressure and Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Composition dependant) Temperature 69 .Asphaltene and Wax Phase Behavior (Leontaritis.

1997) Pipe or Capillary Tube Negative Charge Streaming Potential Difference Asphaltene deposits Positive Charge •Asphaltene is positively charged •Oil phase is negatively charged Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 70 .Electrokinetic Effect (Mansoori.

and injection fluids Clay hydration.Evaluation of Common Formation Damage Problems (Keelan and Koepf. swelling. dispersion. completion. and pore blocking resulting from clay-water reactions Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 71 . workover. 1977) Pore blocking by drilling.

Evaluation of Common Formation Damage Problems… (Keelan and Koepf. and workover Caving and sand production Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 72 . 1977) Liquid block resulting from extraneous water introduction during drilling. completion.

Analysis of Core Damage Data Permeability L uµ L K= ∆P Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 73 .

K/Ko 0 0 ∆P-small ∆P-large PV-injected 74 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .0 Permeability ratio.Constant-Pressure Difference Test 1.

Core Plugs Wafers (Acid soak Experiments) 1-inch diameter 0.25-inch thick Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 75 .

. 1999) Pressure Transducer Core Holder Fluid Reservoir Displacement Pump Core Annulus Pump Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Effluent Fluid collector 76 .A Simple Linear Core Flow Testing Set-up (Doane et al.

. 1997) Effluent Fluid Reservoir Radial Outward Flow Fluid collector Pump Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 77 .Annular Flow Tester (Saleh et al.

Drilling of Wells (Yao and Holditch. 1993) Mud In Mud Out Mud Invasion Uninvaded Zone Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 78 .

Depth of Filtrate Invasion Water mud Depth of Invasion Low-colloid oil mud Oil mud Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Time 79 .

1993) Wellbore Mud Cake Filtrate t1 Sw = Swc t2 Sw = 1.Saturation Profiles for Mud Filtrate Invasion (Yao and Holditch.Sor t3 rw Radial Distance re 80 Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved .

Dynamic Mud Tester Pump Mud Reservoir Mud Filtrate Linear Flow Core Effluent Fluid collector Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 81 .

1977) Water-block Solids invasion Leak-off and spurt loss Clay hydration Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 82 .Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids (Keelan and Koepf.

.Fracture Flow Tester (Doane et al. 1999) Fracture Flow Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 83 .

and alkaline control Migrating clays: Apply cation Swelling clays: Apply cation or polymer Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 84 . 1999) Emulsion blocking: Apply demulsifier Precipitates: Apply wax. scale.Mitigation Methods (Masikewich and Bennion.

Mitigation Methods
(Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
Phase trapping and blocking: Apply alcohol, oil, and interfacial surface tension (IFT) reducer Wettability alteration: Apply surfactant Solid invasion: Apply cake inducing agent

Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved

85

Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)

Major  Proper Additives   Treatment       = Treating  +  to control  Fluid  Chemical      further damage 
Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 86

Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998) Additives can control: Corrosion Sludge formation Emulsion formation Organic and inorganic precipitation
Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 87

Treatment Fluids (Thomas et al.. 1998) Additives can control… Homogeneity Clay stabilization Interfacial tension Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 88 .

1977) Hydraulic fracturing Bypass damaged region Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 89 .Fracture Stimulation (Keelan and Koepf.

Bypassing Damage by Hydraulic Fracturing z y x Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 90 .

Completion Techniques Open-hole completions Cavity completions Hydraulic fracturing Frac-and-packs Horizontal wells Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 91 .

Open Hole vs.Reservoir Fluid Pattern. Perforated Cased Hole Perforation Well Invasion Zone Fluid goes through damaged zone Fluid bypasses damaged zone Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 92 .

2001.Perforated Well Flow Efficiency (Chen and Atkinson. Yildiz. 2002) Wellbore radius Shut density Shut angle Perforation depth Perforation diameter Crushed zone thickness Damaged zone thickness Reservoir anisotropy Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved Crushed zone 93 .

Partial Completion and Deviation (Al Qahtani and Al Shehri. 2003) Perforated Zone hc H Elevation zc to mid point L Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 94 .

Horizontally Fractured Well Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 95 .

Vertically Fractured Well Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 96 .

Frac-and-Pack Completion Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 97 .

Multi-lateral Wells Completion Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 98 .

2005) Long horizontal wells Short horizontal wells Horizontally fractured wells Cavity completions Vertical wells Frac-and-Pack completions Fractured wells Vertical wells Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 99 .Damage Tolerance of Completion Techniques from Most to Least (Jahediesfanjani and Civan.

Final Remarks Formation damage mechanisms vary depending on the well operation types and reservoir and fluid conditions. Oil and gas recovery can be enhanced by minimizing and controlling of formation damage. Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 100 .

Thank you for your attention Questions? Discussions? Comments? Copyright 2006 by Faruk Civan All rights reserved 101 .

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