Personal Development as a strategic manager

This unit is about the leadership skills required by a manager to operate effectively at a strategic level. 1. 2. 3. 4. Be able to identify personal skills to achieve strategic ambitions. Be able to manage personal leadership development to support achievement of strategic ambitions. Be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the leadership development p p plan. Be able to promote a healthy and safe environment that supports a culture of quality.

Assessment criteria
At the end of the session the learner can: session, 1.1 Analyze the strategic direction of the organization 1.2 Evaluate the strategic skills required of the leader to achieve the strategic ambitions g

Leadership in organization Research and Theory .

1984) Behling 1984). 1992). . “Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group towards goal achievement” (Rauch & Behling. “Leadership is defined in terms of a process of social influence whereby a leader steers members of a group towards a goal” (Bryman. 1978).Definition D fi i i “Leadership is the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization” (Katz & Kahn.

Definition D fi i i “Leadership is “L d hi i an i fl influence process affecting the ff ti th interpretation of events for followers. and being able to mobilize ideas and values that energize other people” (Noel Tichy.1998). altering the way they behave. and the enlistment of support and cooperation from people outside the group or organization” (Yukl. the choice of objectives for the group or organization. . the motivation of followers to achieve the objectives. the organization of work activities to accomplish the objectives. “Leadership is concerned with changing people’s mindsets. 1998).

2002). it can be defined as f g g pp the act of making something happen that would not otherwise occur” (Warner Burke. . duty willingly” Shamir. willingly (House & Shamir 1993). 1993) “Leadership is the exercise of power.Definition D fi i i “Leadership is the ability of an individual to motivate Leadership others to forego self interest in the interest of a collective vision and to contribute to the attainment of that vision by making significant personal sacrifices over and above the call of duty.

Burke. 2002) Without a follower a person is not a leader Leadership and power & influence (French & Raven. and (Burns. personality. Rost.e. groups and organizations Leadership requires follower ship ( W.e. styles and behavior . referent. 1998) The person: personal characteristics i. and expert power . CEO The process: processes occurring among individuals.p y. abilities. 1959) Influence over followers is the essence of leadership Sources of power include reward power. coercive power. skills. legitimate referent power legitimate. y The position: formal position i.Leadership Perspectives eade s p e spect es The concept of leader and leadership (Burns 1978.

analyze p potential p problems. seek opportunities.Leadership Perspectives L d hi P ti Conceptual Perspectives ( Zaccaro. and form . pp . 2001) Conceptual complexity Leaders require significant conceptual capacities to navigate successfully within complex environments i t Behavioral complexity Leader’s behavior in terms of multiple roles in a variety of situations Strategic decision making Leaders to monitor the environment. an d implement policies and strategies Visionary and inspirational Leaders to develop a vision that will focus and motivate collective moti ate collecti e action by followers in the b follo ers organization .

strategy. of 7-S Organization Framework (C. timetables and routines. leaders are essential. compounded of personality and vision. more a matter of accounts calculation. Management is of the mind. of statistics.Leadership Versus Management “Leadership is of the spirit. Watson) . A good system will produce efficient managers. structure and system. M. skills. Managers are necessary. organizers. but who are also inspired and inspiring leaders” ae inspi ed inspi ing leade s (Field Marshall Bill Slim) Managers tend to rely on hard Skills. system whereas leaders are inclined to rely on soft Ss style Ss. shared goals. but more than that is needed. its presence is an art. staff. its presence is a science. of methods. style. We must find managers who are not only skilled o ganize s.

7-s Framework(Mckinsey Framework(Mckinsey) .

British journal of administrative d hi ii hj l f d i i i management. G. Leadership versus management. Thinking process Originates Thinking process Initiates Focuses on people Looks outward Direction setting Vision Creates the future Sees forest Focuses on things Looks inward Direction setting Operational plans Improves the present Sees trees .Leadership Versus Management (The following comparison is adopted from Robinson. Jan/ Feb. 1999).

Leadership Versus Management Employee relations Empowers Associates Trusts and develops Employee relations Tightly controls Subordinates Directs and coordinates Method of operation Efficiency (does things right) Manages change Serves top managers Method of operation Effectiveness (does the right things) Creates change Serves clients and customers .

A hero Assumes leaders are born than made Leadership consists of certain characteristics or personality traits Main categories of personal characteristics include physical features. ability characteristics. and what the leader actually does . made popular by the works of Ralph Stogdill and John Adair) Assumes leadership skills can be developed Attention is focused on the responsibilities and functions of leadership. and personality traits The Functional or Group Approach (early 1970’s.Approaches to leadership The Trait Approach (post second world war) ‘A great man approach’.

made popular by the work of Tannenbaum and Schmidt) The kinds of behavior of people in leadership positions and the influence on good performance d th i fl d f The Style Approach (late 1940’s to late 1960’s. Mouton Likert) Concerned with the effects of leadership on those being led Effectiveness has to do with how the leaders behave The Contingency Theory (late 1960’s to early 1980’s. made popular by the work of Mc Gregor Blake Mouton. and Blake. made popular by Fielder and Vroom) Effectiveness of l d hi is affected by the Eff ti f leadership i ff t d b th situation/context . 1980 s.Approaches to leadership Leadership as a Behavioral Category (early 1980’s.

featured the work Peter Senge) How leaders can develop effective learning organizations The Composite Approach (1980’s to present) Leadership is L d hi i not learned from one particular tl df ti l leadership model . shared goals The Learning Organization Approach (1990.Approaches to leadership The Situational Approach (1988. featured the work of Hersey and Blanchard) There is no single style of leadership appropriate to all situations Transformational Leadership Approach (1990. featured the work of Bernard Bass) A process of engaging the commitment of employees in the context of shared vision shared values and vision.

Directive. Selling Participating. Telling Selling. 1993) . Command Consign Consult Conquer and Change style (Zand. and Coercive style (Dunphy & Stace. 1969) Decide. Conquer. Participating and Delegating style (Hersey and Blanchard. Consult. Facilitate.Leadership Styles Command. individual team Facilitate and Delegate style (Vroom & Jago. Consult team. 1997) Telling. Decide Consult individual. 1988) Collaborative. Consign. Consultative Directive Collaborative Consultative.

economical. and a strong conviction of the integrity of one’s own one s beliefs Leaders are viewed by their followers as being special Physical characteristics. 1977) Transactional Leadership An exchange between leader and follower. ability characteristics (House. 1997) . psychological characteristics. political. 1978) Leaders take actions when things go wrong i e i.e. or psychological (Burns. need for influence. management by exception (Bass. 1985.The New Leadership Charismatic Leadership Dominance. self-confidence.

where the latter builds on the formal but not vice versa Transformational leaders have four dimensions. and intellectual stimulation (Bass. charisma. inspiration.The New Leadership Transformational Leadership Inspires followers to go beyond expectations Emotional and motivational arousal as a consequence of leader s behaviour leader’s By defining the need for change. leaders transforms the organization Leaders can both be transactional and transformational. creating new vision and mobilizing commitment to these vision. 1985. individual consideration. 1990) .

about building and sustaining a people centric vision. there are many leaders because there are many people at many levels in the hierarchy who play different critical roles during the change process The purpose of change leadership is process. and the management of time and resources. . It involves taking the responsibility to champion the change initiative through building and maintaining commitment and support. leading the investment in the change effort.Change Leadership Ch L d hi Change leadership can be defined as altering groups to the need for changes. mobilizing and energizing groups. In any major change program. The role of the top leader is to ensure that all leaders are aligned and engaged with a shared vision (Olu Ajayi. 2002). and tapping fully into the potential and the capacity of the organization.

. al 1997) .Characteristics of Change Leaders Commitment to excellence Courage to challenge existing power bases and norms Personal initiative to go beyond defined boundaries Motivation of themselves and others Effective Stakeholder management Caring about how people are treated and enabled to perform A sense of humor about themselves and situations Ability to create visions Skills to read the situation Ability to manage complexity Strong desire to learning and development g g p Ability to manage the speed of change Ability to build effective teams Open to challenges and be challenged (John Katzenbach et. al.

Leading Change The Pre-launch Phase: Pl Th P l h Ph Planning i Leader Self Examination g g Establishing the Need for Change Providing Clarity of Vision and Direction Ensure Top management Support and Commitment to Mission C it t t Mi i Build Internal and External Support y g g Identify Change Agents Set Priorities .

Leading Change The Launch Phase: Implementation Preparing the Ground for Operationalizing Change g Communicating The Need Provide a Plan Provide Resources Initial Activities Dealing with Resistance Implement the Change Program .

Leading Change Post-launch: Post launch: Sustaining the Change Taking the Heart y. and Resilience Repeating the Message Pursue Comprehensive Change Momentum Institutionalize Change Choosing Successors Launching Yet Again New Initiatives . Perseverance. Consistency. .

Leading Change is not about “Star Trekking” and ordering the Trekkies to make it so so. In the words of Tom Peters “Loosening the reins and allowing a thousand fl h d flowers to bloom is the best bl i h b way to sustain vigor in perilous times” And yes. it is still a jungle out there ! .

Assignment Evaluate the strategic skills required of a leader to achieve the strategic ambitions .