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, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. The organic portion, which is derived from the decayed remains of plants and animals, is concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed over thousands of years by physical and chemical weathering of bedrock. Productive soils are necessary for agriculture to supply the world with sufficient food. There are many different ways that soil can become polluted, such as: Seepage from a landfill Discharge of industrial waste into the soil Percolation of contaminated water into the soil Rupture of underground storage tanks Excess application of pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer Solid waste seepage
The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents
Since the metals are not degradable. application of pesticides. leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. sulfur and more must be obtained from the soil. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage. lead and other heavy metals. insecticides and herbicides Dumping of large quantities of solid waste Deforestation and soil erosion 1. Farmers generally use fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies. oil and fuel dumping. becomes an indestructible poison for crops. phosphorus. texture and mineral content of the soil or which disturbs the biological balance of the organisms in the soil. their accumulation in the soil above their toxic levels due to excessive use of phosphate fertilizers. percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata. pesticides. The over use of NPK fertilizers reduce quantity of SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 2 . A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage links.CAUSES OF SOIL POLLUTION Soil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. hydrogen and oxygen from air and water. magnesium. Pollution in soil is associated with Indiscriminate use of fertilizers Indiscriminate use of pesticides. potassium. solvents. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth. Plants obtain carbon. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons. But other necessary nutrients like nitrogen. calcium. Indiscriminate use of fertilizers: Soil nutrients are important for plant growth and development.
They contain increasing amounts of paper. domestic refuse and discarded solid materials such as those from commercial. Pesticide problems such as resistance. Dumping of solid wastes: In general.degradation may take weeks and even months. solid waste includes garbage. causing eggshells to be thin and fragile. fungi. insecticides and herbicides: Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects. resurgence. viruses. SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 3 . bacteria. it persisted in the environment. 2. grown on that soil. large birds of prey such as the brown pelican. and must compete with weeds for nutrients.. ospreys. 3. etc.vegetables and crops grown on soil over the years. and heath effects have caused scientists to seek alternatives. farmers use pesticides. It also reduces the protein content of wheat. it biomagnified up the food chain and disrupted calcium metabolism in birds. Pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human and animals but also decrease the fertility of the soil. industrial and agricultural operations. maize. The first widespread insecticide use began at the end of World War II and included DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and gammaxene. Since it was soluble in fat rather than water. Pheromones and hormones to attract or repel insects and using natural enemies or sterilization by radiation have been suggested. rodents and other animals. DDT has been now been banned in most western countries. To kill unwanted populations living in or on their crops. Insects soon became resistant to DDT and as the chemical did not decompose readily. grams. As a result. falcons and eagles became endangered. Some of the pesticides are quite stable and their bio. Indiscriminate use of pesticides.
plastic bottles. glass bottles. leaves. Humans speed up this process by construction. cloth wastes as well as sweepings) and many non-biodegradable materials (such as plastic bags.000 metric tons every day. old construction material. wooden pieces. most agricultural waste is recycled and mining waste is left on site. mining. Deforestation. carcasses. plant twigs. glass pieces. 5. stone / cement pieces). glass. and human activities contribute to this erosion.000 . animal wastes. plastics.80.cardboards. On a rough estimate Indian cities are producing solid city wastes to the tune of 50. packaging material and toxic or otherwise hazardous substances. Since a significant amount of urban solid waste tends to be paper and food waste. SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 4 . precipitation including acid rain. over cropping and overgrazing. cutting of timber. Deforestation: Soil Erosion occurs when the weathered soil particles are dislodged and carried away by wind or water. agricultural development. Pollution Due to Urbanisation: Urban activities generate large quantities of city wastes including several Biodegradable materials (like vegetables. papers. the majority is recyclable or biodegradable in landfills. 4. temperature extremes. Similarly. plastic wastes. It results in floods and cause soil erosion.
If contaminated soil is used to grow food. Environmental Effects: When it comes to the environment itself.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION 1. the toll of contaminated soil is even direr. Urban: Clogging of drains Inundation of areas Public health problems Pollution of drinking water sources Foul smell and release of gases Waste management problems 4. because the chemicals can leech into the food and harm people who eat it. the land will usually produce lower yields than it would if it were not contaminated. can cause even more harm because a lack of plants on the SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 5 . This. Agricultural: Reduced soil fertility Reduced nitrogen fixation Increased erodibility Larger loss of soil and nutrients Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs Reduced crop yield Imbalance in soil fauna and flora 2. Industrial: Dangerous chemicals entering underground water Ecological imbalance Release of pollutant gases Release of radioactive rays causing health problems Increased salinity Reduced vegetation 3. Soil that has been contaminated should no longer be used to grow food. in turn.
Effects of soil pollution in brief: Pollution runs off into rivers and kills the fish. plants and other aquatic life Crops and fodder grown on polluted soil may pass the pollutants on to the consumers Polluted soil may no longer grow crops and fodder Soil structure is damaged (clay ionic structure impaired) Corrosion of foundations and pipelines Impairs soil stability May release vapours and hydrocarbon into buildings and cellars May create toxic dusts May poison children playing in the area SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 6 .soil will cause more erosion. spreading the contaminants onto land that might not have been tainted before.
reducing solid waste pollution. 2. Reuse. Crop rotation or mixed cropping can improve the fertility of the land. and Recycle. soil erosion and floods. can be reused at domestic levels rather than being disposed. recovery of one tonne of paper can save 17 trees. Reusing of materials: Materials such as glass containers. Biological methods of pest control can also reduce the use of pesticides and thereby minimize soil pollution. cloth etc. This would give us less solid waste.CONTROL OF SOIL POLLUTION The following steps have been suggested to control soil pollution. To help prevent soil erosion. 4. some kinds of plastics and glass can and are being recycled. Materials such as paper. In general we would need less fertilizer and fewer pesticides if we could all adopt the three R's: Reduce. SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 7 . paper. Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use: Applying bio-fertilizers and manures can reduce chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. plastic bags. 3. 1. Recycling and recovery of materials: This is a reasonable solution for reducing soil pollution. For example. Reforesting: Control of land loss and soil erosion can be attempted through restoring forest and grass cover to check wastelands. we can limit construction in sensitive area. This decreases the volume of refuse and helps in the conservation of natural resources.
5. Solid waste treatment: Proper methods should be adopted for management of solid waste disposal. the insoluble material if biodegradable should be allowed to degrade under c conditions before being disposed. SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 8 . Industrial wastes can be treated physically. Acidic and alkaline wastes should be first neutralized. chemically and biologically until they are less hazardous.
com 3.com SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 9 . www.scribd.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE 2. www.wikipedia.
can contaminate the groundwater resources in the area. there SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 10 . Perhaps because it is so commonplace. In New Brunswick. These contaminants can be toxic to animal or plant life and can result in sickness and death in humans. or leachate. Soil is composed of mineral and organic materials and living organisms within these materials. in turn. This.CONCLUSION Soil is a substance found everywhere. some say that the most serious cause of ecological damage is suspended solids within our stream systems due to increased erosion rates. plants and other life forms or their habitats. which may cause harm to humans. Major areas of concern involve: soil erosion and deposition. Soil pollution can also result from atmospheric deposition. can contaminate surrounding soils if care is not taken. Soil is a very valuable resource and a major component of our ecosystem. Man-induced erosion has become a major pollutant in our waterways. They can become a problem if they impact on non-target organisms or if they accumulate in the soil. These can fall out as dust or be stripped from the atmosphere by rainfall. It is a common agricultural practice to add chemicals to the soil in order to enhance fertility. Industrial activities that involve incineration may release toxic substances into the atmosphere. Pesticides are used to decrease or eliminate the population of a particular target species. Soil pollution can be the result of the addition of substances that cause a detrimental decrease in soil quality. contaminating the soil. animals. excessive nutrient additions can cause considerable ecological damage by overloading adjacent ecosystems and upsetting the natural balance. the clear-cutting of trees or deforestation along stream banks. the use of soil to dispose of hazardous wastes. we often fail to fully appreciate its significance in our daily lives. Soil is still being used to bury our waste substances. much pollution is caused by the careless use or the lack of protection of the soil. In some cases. soil contamination by agricultural pesticides and soil contamination by hazardous chemicals. such as fuels. This accelerated soil erosion is often caused by poor construction or agricultural practices. Unfortunately. The subsurface drainage. In New Brunswick. Persistent use of pesticides that don't break down readily is particularly problematic. Soil can be polluted by the addition of a wide variety of chemical substances.
are a number of areas that are prone to these problems as a result of the contaminants given off by electrical power generation plants. smelters and refineries. and still is. Soil contaminated by lead fallout from the combustion of leaded gasoline was. SOIL POLLUTION PAGE 11 . a major problem for many throughout the world.
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