ACI 349.

2R-97
(Reapproved 2002)

Embedment Design Examples
Reported by ACI Committee 349

Charles A. Zalesiak Chairman Hans G. Ashar Ranjit Bandyopadhyay * Ronald A. Cook* Jack M. Daly Arobindo Dutt Branko Galunic Dwaine A. Godfrey Herman L. Graves III
* Major contributor to the report † Deceased

Gunnar A. Harstead Christopher Heinz Charles J. Hookham Richard E. Klingner Timothy J. Lynch Frederick L. Moreadith Dragos A. Nuta

Richard S. Orr* Robert B. Pan Julius V. Rotz † Robert W. Talmadge Chen P. Tan Richard E. Toland Donald T. Ward Albert Y. C. Wong

Appendix B of ACI 349 was developed to better define the design requirements for steel embedmnts revisions are periodically made to the code as a result of on-going research and testing. As with other concretebuilding codes, the design of embedments attempts to assure a ductile failure mode so that the reinforcement yields before the concrete fails. In embedments designed for direct loading, the concrete pullout strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report presents a series of design examples of ductile steel embedments. These examples have been updated to include the revision incorparated in Appendix B of ACI 349-97. Keywords: Anchorage (structural); anchor bolts; anchors (fasteners); embedment; inserts; loads (forces); load transfer; moments; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; shear strength; structural design; studs; tension.

PART A—Examples: Ductile single embedded element in semi-in nite concrete. . . .p. 349.2R-3 Example A1 Single stud, tension only Example A2 Single stud, shear only Example A3 Single stud, combined tension and shear Example A4 Anchor bolt, combined tension and shear Example A5 Single rebar, combined tension and shear PART B—Examples: Ductile multiple embedded elements in semi-in nite concrete. .p. 349.2R-10 Example B1 Four-stud rigid embedded plate, tension only Example B2(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(c) Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B3(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B3(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab, tension only APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp) for four studs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 349.2R-26
ACI 349.2R-97 became effective October 16, 1997. Copyright © 2002, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

CONTENTS Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 349.2R-2 Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349.2R-2

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/ Engineer.

349.2R-1

349.2R-2

MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION This report has been prepared by members of the ACI 349 Sub-Committee on Steel Embedments to provide examples of the application of the ACI 349 Code to the design of steel embedments. The ACI 349 Committee was charged in 1973 with preparation of the code covering concrete structures in nuclear power plants. At that time, it was recognized that design requirements for steel embedments were not well defined and a special working group was established to develop code requirements. After much discussion and many drafts, Appendix B was approved and issued in the 1978 Supplement of ACI 349 covering the design of steel embedments. Subsequently, the Sub-Committee has continued to monitor on-going research and testing and to incorporate experience of applying the Code. Periodic revisions have been made to the Code and Appendix B. The underlying philosophy in the design of embedments is to attempt to assure a ductile failure mode. This is similar to the philosophy of the rest of the concrete building codes wherein, for example, flexural steel for a beam is limited to assure that the reinforcement steel yields before the concrete crushes. In the design of an embedment for direct loading, the philosophy leads to the requirement that the concrete pull-out strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report includes a series of design examples starting with simple cases and extending to more complex cases for ductile embedments. The format for each example follows the format of the Strength Design Handbook, SP-17, and provides a reference back to the code paragraph for each calculation procedure. NOTATION depth of equivalent stress block, in. effective stress area defined by the projected area of the 45 degree stress cone radiating towards the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchor, sq. in. effective stress area of anchor, sq. in. area of anchor head, sq. in. area of steel, sq. in. area of steel required to resist tension, sq. in. area of steel required to resist shear, sq. in.

Ar = A vf = b =

B c C db dh ds Fy fc ′ f ut fy h k tr ld Ld Mn Mu My n Pd Pn Pu R S t T Th Vn Vu α β γ µ φ

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

a = Acp =

Ac = Ah = As = Ast = Asv =

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

reduction in effective stress area to account for limited depth of concrete beyond the bearing surface of the embedment, sq. in. area of shear friction reinforcement, sq. in. width of embedded or surface mounted plate, or width of an anchor group, measured out to out of bearing edges of the outermost anchor heads, in. overlapping stress cone factor (see Appendix A) spacing or cover dimension, in. compressive reaction nominal diameter of reinforcing bar, in. diameter of anchor head or reinforcing bar, in. diameter of tensile stress component, in. specified yield strength of steel plate, psi specified compressive strength of concrete, psi specified tensile strength of steel, psi specified yield strength of steel, psi overall thickness of concrete member, in. transverse reinforcement index development length, in. embedment depth of anchor head measured from attachment of anchor head to tensile stress component, to the concrete surface, in. nominal moment strength factored moment load on embedment elastic moment capacity of steel plate number of threads per inch design pullout strength of concrete in tension nominal axial strength factored external axial load on the anchorage radius of 45 degree stress cone, in. (see A cp ) spacing between anchors, in. thickness of plate, in. tension force thickness of anchor head, in. nominal shear strength factored shear load on embedments reinforcement location factor coating factor reinforcement size factor coefficient of friction strength reduction factor

shear only Single stud. combined tension and shear Anchor bolt.2R-3 PART A EXAMPLES: Ductile single embedded element in semi-infinite concrete Example A1 Example A2 Example A3 Example A4 Example A5 Single stud.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. combined tension and shear Single rebar. combined tension and shear . tension only Single stud.

tension only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.312 in.2 of the Code. CALCULATION B.38 = 5. CODE SECTION P u = 8 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud Assume that the load is applied directly over the stud and that a plate size of 3 in. 2 .2 Use one 1/2 in.8 Ld (Ld + 1.5 2]0.18 in.5.6. must exceed the minimum specified tensile strength (As fut ) of the tensile stress component.8 kips φ4 f c = 0.4. Ah = π(d h /2 )2 = 0. Pu = φ P n = φ Asfy As = 8/ [(0.79 / 0. × 3/8 in.2 > 0.2 a) Area of the anchor head (Ah) (including the area of the tensile stress component) is at least 2.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.000 psi Pu = 8 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9.25 in. Pd > Asfut As fut = 0.0) ≥ 22. which has an effective length of 4. c) Bearing area of head is approximately evenly distributed around the perimeter of the tensile stress component. has been established by requirements of the attachment.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B. giving Ld = 4. diameter stud 1-5/16 in.8 ≥ 0 Ld ≥ 4.4.165 ≥ 11.5 OK Th = 0.30 in. × 3 in. long. Use 1/2 in. d h = 1 in.25 in. diameter stud. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.312 > 0.87 + 0. b) Thickness of the anchor heat (Th) is at least 1.5. Th = 0.) Ah / As = 0.0 times the greatest dimension from the outer most bearing edge of the anchor head to the face of the tensile stress component.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) ′ = 165 psi (see Note 2) π[(Ld + 0.1(a) B.196 in.1. As = 0.2R-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A1—Single stud.87 in. dh Th Ld Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50.1 B.196 = 4 > 2.5.79 in.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. Pd .5)2 – 0.196 × 60 = 11. OK STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.5 times the area of the tensile stress component.2 (per manufacturer’s data.8 Pd = φ4 f c Acp ′ Acp = π[(Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2] Compute Ld from the equation: π[Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2]φ4 f c ≥ As fut ′ L d + Ld – 22.000 psi f ut = 60.349.18 in.2 The design pullout strength of the concrete.5.9)(50)] = 0.1.

diameter studs is acceptable on 3/8 in.2R-5 Example A1. the strength reduction factor φ for concrete pullout is taken as 0.65 per Category (d) of Section B.4. If the plate were larger than the stress cone. the embedment length Ld is taken to the face of the concrete. then the embedment length would exclude the thickness of the embedded plate.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. thick plate per manufacturer. . continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Check plate thickness Since the load is applied directly over the stud.2. NOTE: Stud welding of 1/2 in. the only requirement on plate thickness is that it satisfy the minimum thickness required for stud welding. OK CALCULATION 1) In the above example. 2) In all design examples.

196 = 4 > 2.5.16 in. Th = 0.312 > 0.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. STEP 4: Check plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 since tensile capacity of the stud must be developed. AISC Engineering Journal.5.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.2 B.” G.4. * Ref.7* Use 1/2 in.312 in.4.9. STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Vu = φVn = φµ A vf f y A vf = Vu /(φµ f y ) A vf = 6/(0.196 in.185 3/8 in.2 > 0. shear only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.2 Use the shear friction provision of Section 11. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.7 = 0. (per manufacturer’s data) (d h – ds )/2 = 0.25 in. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections. diameter stud 5-3/16 in.000 psi Vu = 6 kips where Vu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete.4.3.5 OK Th = 0. Goble. diameter stud.5.7.79 / 0. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.2 Use one 1/2 in. G.2 of the Code.85. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50. April.2 OK B.2R-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A2—Single stud.9 × 50) = 0. Th Ld dh V u = 6 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.1.7 with φ = 0.6.16 in.5.: . 1968. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B. As = 0.349.000 psi f ut = 60.85 × 0. long (see calculation in Example A1) t > 0. µ = 0. thick plate is OK.2.5/2. NOTE: The provisions of Section 11.

196 in.9.5.2 11.2 Use one 1/2 in.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Use 1/2 in. 1968.1. long (see calculation in Example A1) STEP 4: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2.” G. diameter stud 5-3/16 in. Th Ld dh P u = 4 kips V u = 2 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.14 in.2 Vu = φVn = φµ Asv fy Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 2/(0.6.7 = 0. µ = 0. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.000 psi f ut = 60. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50.79 / 0.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.7* NOTE: * Ref. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension.2 OK B.2 B.2.7 Eq. G. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.312 > 0. (11-26) B. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.5.5. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.185 3/ in.312 in.05 = 0.09 + 0.3. thick plate is OK 8 The provisions of Section 11.05 in.6.5/2.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.6.5.25 in.5.4.09 in.7.2 As = 0.9 × 50) = 0. Th = 0. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11. .2 B. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B.5 OK Th = 0.85.7 with φ = 0.14 in. As = 0. Goble.3.9 × 50) = 0.000 psi Pu = 4 kips Vu = 2 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9. diameter stud. April.4.85 × 0. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections.4.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete.2R-7 Example A3—Single stud.: t > 0. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 4/(0.2 > 0.2 of the Code. AISC Engineering Journal.196 = 4 > 2.

85 × 81) = 0. Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 40/(0.78 > 0.55 in.2.85.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A s fut = 0.97 = 3.46 / 0.7 f y A sv ) A sv = Vu / [(0.97 in. Tensile stress area = 0.0 in.2 B.125 2 ]0.6. diameter bolt width across flats = 2.5.41= 0.5 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 (dh – ds )/2 = (2 × 2 3 – 1.2 B. φ = 0. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 81.78 in. P u = 40 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.5.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B. Ah = (1..2R-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A4—Single bolt.5.97 × 105 = 102 kips φ4 f c′ = 0.1 B.000 psi f ut = 105.2 of the Code.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi [(Ld + 1.96 in.25)/2 = 0.4. Th = 0.2 Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.8 Ld ≥ –1.2 Vu = φ Vn = φ (0.2 Ah / As = 3.125 + 196.53 in.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A 325 Heavy Hex Head for 1-1/4 in.53 Head and tensile stress component are concentric.5.7)(φ f y )] A sv = 20/(0.3.46 in.0)2 × 2 × 3 = 3. 2 .96 in. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.55 + 0.2 > 0. Use provision for contact surface of the base plate flush with the surface of the concrete.95 in.000 psi Pu = 40 kips Vu = 20 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.125 + ( 1.2 As = 0. OK OK OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the bolt to prevent concrete cone failure B.4. Total Area As = Ast + Asv As = 0.7 × 0. 7 threads per inch. thickness = 0. diameter bolt.8 ) = 12. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a high strength bolt (A 325).6.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension.97 in.41 in.2 Use one 1-1/4 in.6.125) 2 – 1.57 > 2.25) ≥ 196.165 ≥ 102 Ld (Ld + 2.9 × 81) = 0.349.1.5.

2 of the Code.4 .= ----. CODE SECTION P u = 15 kips V u = 5 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.6. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11.28 in.7 = 0.11 in.1. µ = 0.2 OK B.7 Eq.75/2.3.5 ) ] × 0. max. 6 Grade 60 reinforcing bar.7 with φ = 0.85.2 As = 0.000 psi (≤ 60. As = 0.).39 in. thick plate 12.2.44 in.39 in.2 Use No. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Calculate required embedment length Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y Ast = 15/(0.6. 6 bar (γ = 0. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.9 × 60) = 0.5. based on attachment configuration and welding requirements. STEP 3: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select the plate thickness as shown for Example A2.2 Vu = φVn = φ µ A sv f y Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 5/(0.2R-9 Example A5—Single rebar.28 in.0). uncoated anchor (β = 1.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. of fresh concrete to be cast below the anchor (α = 1.3 12.0 × 0.---------. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a straight reinforcing bar welded to an embedment plate.4 ld 3 fy αβγ ----.85 × 0. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.2 11.28 + 0.2.2 > 0.000 OK per Code Section 3.6.000 psi (based on typical test results) Pu = 15 kips Vu = 5 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for tension.3) f ut = 90.3.11 = 0. (11-26) B.2 Provide full penetration weld between bar and plate per AWS D1.3).5.14.-----------------------------------db 40 f ′ [ ( c + k tr ) ⁄ d b ] c Assume no transverse reinforcement (k tr = 0).9.5. No.2 B. Use ld = 24 inches t ≥ 0. more than 12 in.5. Use 5/16 in.75 = 22.2 in.3.8).5. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 60. no adjacent anchors or edges ([c + k tr ]/db = 2.1(b) 12.5.3 × 1.9 × 60) = 0.8 ) ⁄ ( 2. STEP 4: Connection of reinforcing bar to plate l d = [ ( 3 ⁄ 40 ) ] × [ ( 60000 ⁄ 4000 ) ] × [ ( 1.2.

combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate. combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud flexible embedded plate. combined tension. combined tension.349. shear. and uniaxial moment Four-stud flexible embedded plate. shear.2R-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE PART B EXAMPLES: Ductile multiple embedded element in semi-infinite concrete Example B1 Example B2(a) Example B2(b) Example B2(c) Example B3(a) Example B3(b) Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate. tension only . combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate. and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab. tension only Four-stud rigid embedded plate.

312 in.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.4.196 = 4 > 2.400 /165 = 160. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi Pd = φ4 f c′ Acp Where Acp = the projected area of the 45 deg stress cones radiating toward the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchors. This area must be limited by overlapping stress cones and by the bearing area of the anchor heads.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.5. Pd ≥ As fut As fut = 4 × 0.000 psi (plate) Pu = 18 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. A cp min = As fut /(φ4 f c′ ) = 26.2 . (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0. As = 0. tension only Design an embedment with four welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 3/16 in. diameter studs. Pu = φ Pn = φµ A s f y As = 18 /45 = 0.5.6 in.312 > 0.79 / 0.2R-11 Example B1—Four-stud rigid embedded plate. P u = 18 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud. Th = 0. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required stud spacing and embedment length to prevent concrete pullout B.442 in. Pd .2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.25 in.40 in.110 × 60 = 26.2 Use four 3/8 in. must exceed the minimum specified tensile strength of the tensile stress components.6.5.000 psi Fy = 36.1 The design pullout strength of the concrete.40 in.2 > 0. A 501 structural tube attachment.5 OK Th = 0.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.4 kips φ4 f c′ = 0.1.2 of the Code.

Select 3/8 in.09 in. the approximate method would give: R 6′′ Acp = 6 × 6 + 4 × 6 × 4.9 in. S (see Table B1-1). the projected area is (see Appendix A) The projected area of the stress cones may be calculated for each standard stud length (Ld) and a range of stud spacings. For the stud configuration selected above (R = 4. 129. NOTE: The above calculation utilizes an exact calculation of the projected area. inches 3.09 + π × 4. 152.71 in. 195. Conservatively neglect the thickness of the plate t.5 in.2 4 in. In many cases. an approximate calculation is sufficient. The radius of the projected stress cone is Ld + dh /2 at the underside of the embedded plate.71 5.2 .4 in.2 6 in.2 6.09 2 = 4 × π × 0.09′′ R 6′′ R Table B1-1—Projected areas (Acp ) for varying Ld and S Development length Ld. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: (continued) For a four-stud plate with studs at spacing S and radius R of the projected stress cone. All values greater than: CALCULATION Acp = (4π – 2B )R 2 – 4 Ah Acp = (3π – B)R 2 + S 2 – 4 Ah (2R > S > 2 R) ( 2 R > S) Acp min = As fut /(φ4 f c′ ) are then satisfactory.4 in..2 324.2 This compares with the exact value of 175.71 Spacing S Radius R.). stud with effective length of 3.09 in.8 in.2 258. and Ld + dh /2 + t at the outer surface of the concrete and plate. inches 4.2 calculated in Table B1-1 R 4.2R-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B1.2 226.4 in.2 5 in. Such a method is used in Example B2.2 290. at 6 in. 175.0 in.2 7 in.4 in. × 4-1/8 in.2 in. spacing.09 in.375 2 = 184.349. S = 6 in.0 in.

1 B. embedded plate . The design strength for embedments shall be based on a maximum steel stress of φf y .5 × 1.2R-13 Example B1. On diagonal (b-b): M = 4.5 = 13.5 in.2t 2 t min = ( 9. Evaluate plate sections to determine minimum load capacity.2 t 2 t min = ( 13.2 ) = 0.5′′ 1.2 ) = 0.50 in.5′′ b Calculate the bending strength of the plate based on the yield moment capacity using yield stress.6. At face of tube (a-a): M = 9 × 1.-kips 0. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Calculate required plate thickness Try an 8 in. Use 8 in.-kips My = 1/6 × 5 2 × t 2 × 0. × 8 in. × 8 in.9 × My = 1/6 × 8 × t 2 × 0.56 in. a CALCULATION B.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.5 ⁄ 43.5 2 = 9.9 × 36 = 43.3.5 in.2 b a 1. plate The plate must transmit to the studs all loads used in the design of the attachment. × 5/8 in.5 ⁄ 38.9 × 36 = 38.

CODE SECTION 7′′ V u = 12.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.2 B.000 psi Fy = 36.5.85 φV n = 0.5.85 f c′ b ) a = Ae 50 / [ 0.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength .349. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Mu = φ Mn 70.-kips Vu = 12.3.1 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0.5.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the two top studs as the tension components.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in. Section B.196 in.196) A sv = 0.2R-14 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate. × 7 in.2 9.2 Ae /stud = 0.0 = 0.2 0.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.2 Ae /stud = 0. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.5 > 12.90 (0. 6′′ C 0.275 in.6. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50.2 is applicable.4 kips 7′′ 5′′ M u = 70 in.10Ae /2) Ae = 0.508)(50) V n = 22.6. plate with 5 in.196 – 0.9 kips) φV n = 19.2.90 V n = 0. A 501 structural tube attachment.2.2.138) + 2 (0.2 of the Code. × 5 in.85 f c′ a M u = 70 9.90Av f f y V n = 0.6. A sv = 2 (0.10Ae Equate the external (required strength) and internal moment (design strength) and solve the resulting quadratic equation for Ae : For 2 studs in tension.508 in.2.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.4 kips OK B.9 kips φ = 0. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.138 in.6. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.85 (22.2 Shear-friction coefficient Nominal shear strength B.2 9.2 9.9 Ae (50)(6 – 2.85 (4)(7)] a = 2.85f c′ ab = Ae f y a = Ae f y /(0.

both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e.75 in.-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0.-kips ← controls Moment on compression side Note that C = T .275 (50)[ 2 – 2. NOTE: For this example. Moment on tension side a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Tdt M = Ae fy dt M = (0.275)(50)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0.. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than d t . and then calculate the moment as M = (d c)(C ). continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior. plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate. This general procedure is shown in this example. The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate.275)/2 ] M = 23. A φ factor of 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. The φ factor is not included since the calculation of plate thickness should be based on the maximum nominal tensile force in the anchor rather than the design force. Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors.5 t = 0.1(0. a middle row of anchors). CALCULATION T = Aefy dt No Yield dc c t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding.g. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.2R-15 Example B2(a). use 3/4 in.75 in. it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection.5 in.9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1 .0) M = 13. Nominal moment capacity of base plate Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2/6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42t 2 42 t 2 = 23.275)(50)(1.

69 + 0.0) = 51.4. If the designer can assure that such a tensile condition cannot occur.349.2 Calculate capacity of concrete CALCULATION Put = As f ut = 4(0.65 Acp = projected area of concrete R = radius of projected cones Try 1/2 in.5. particularly those in the “rigid” plate category.2 Therefore.79) = 312. it is sufficient only to develop two of the studs at a time since the other two studs are in compression. For most embedments. Check bearing requirements of stud head B. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length B. Assume the outer boundaries of the stress cones are connected by tangents. Acp = 5 (5) + 4 (5)(6.1.300 lb Pd = 51.0 kips See Example A1 Pd = φ4 ( f c′ ) Acp where: φ = 0.69 in. Ld = 5. the assumption above is reasonable for embedments where the embedment radius (R ) exceeds the spacing between individual anchors. diameter stud 6-1/8 in.0 in.94) + (6. Pd = 4(0. R = Ld stud + plate thickness + stud head radius = 5.196)(60) = 47. long having an effective length.94 in.94) 2 π – 4(0. NOTE: Although slightly unconservative.5 = 6.2R-16 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a). This assumption of all four studs in tension assures ductility even in the event of a pure tension load.75 + 0.3 kips > 47.1 Calculate design load assuming all studs may resist concurrent tensile loads.65)* ( 4000 ) (312. the embedment radius will usually exceed the anchor spacing.0 kips .

7 Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment.625)2 /6 Mn = 16. No. thick base plate and determine yield capacity Mn of plate. 1645-1665. 4′′ If the base plate is not stiff enough to obtain rigid base plate behavior. A. NOTE: From summation of forces T = C = Ae f y . × 7 in. it may also be assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member. 1992. Physically. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in. the nearest the compressive reaction can be to the edge of the attached member is a distance “c ” equal to the yield moment of the plate divided by the compressive reaction. pp.4 in. A 501 structural tube attachment. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10.-kips Vu = 12. CODE SECTION 7′′ V u = 12. a hinge will form on the compression side of the base plate at the edge of the attached member. V. American Society of Civil Engineers.2.. June. × 5 in. R. 118.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.4/ Ae (50) c = 0. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50. 6.2 of the Code. Mn = F y S Mn = (36)(7)(0. plate with 5 in.-kips c = Mn / C c = F y S / Ae f y c = 16. NOTE: For simplicity. and Klingner.” Journal of Structural Engineering. R. E.000 psi Fy = 36.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.328 / Ae Determine c. Assume a 5/8 in.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external oads as defined in Section 9.4 kips 7′′ 5′′ M u = 70 in. C c M u = 70 Reference: Cook.. “Ductile Multiple-Anchor Steel-to-Concrete Connections.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in. This will cause the compressive resultant to move inward toward the attached member.2R-17 Example B2(b)—Four-stud flexible embedded plate.

6. .6.6.2R-18 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(b).3 B. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear B.153 in.2 For 2 studs in tension.85 φ Vn = 0. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: continued 9. Note that a φ = 0.2.478 in.2 9.349.0.2.196 in.4 kips OK B.2.0 = 45 (4 Ae + 0.5.0 = 0.5.35 in.478) (50) Vn = 21.2 Ae /stud .2 Ae /stud = 0.90 Vn = 0.2 9.2 is applicable.6.328/Ae ) 70.196 – 0.35 in.-kips 5/ in.9 Ae (50)(4 + c ) 70.328) Ae = 0.153) + 2 (0.9 Ae (50)(4 + 0.90 Asv f y Vn = 0.4 in.625) 2/6 Mn = 16.2 9.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength STEP 3: Design for flexible base plate In order to ensure that prying action does not occur on the tension side of the base plate.2 0.85(21.3.5.5 kips) φ Vn = 18.-kips Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) Mn = (36)(7)(0. it is essential that the base plate not yield on the tension side of the connection.2 B.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.196) Asv = 0.0 = 0.6.0) M = 15.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moment and solve the resulting linear equation for Ae : CALCULATION Mu = φ Mn 70. T = Aefy dt No Yield Yield OK C t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding and possible prying action on tension side.307)(50)(1. plate is OK 8 Nominal moment capacity of base plate.5 kips φ = 0. Section B. Shear-friction coefficient Nominal shear strength Asv = 2 (0. M = Td t M = Ae f y d t M = (0. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in.90 is already included. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.90 (0.3 kips > 12.-kips > 15.307 in.5.

the flexible base plate procedure will result in more reasonable base plate thicknesses. the compressive reaction becomes so large that the assumption of rigid base plate behavior results in excessively thick plates.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length See Example B2(a) NOTE: As can be seen from this flexible base plate example (5/8 in. CALCULATION . base plate).2R-19 Example B2(b). In the case of multiple rows of anchors. base plate) and Example B2(a) with a rigid base plate (3/4 in. The real advantages of flexible base plate analysis become apparent with multiple rows of anchors. For multiple row connections. there is very little difference between the two analyses for a typical two row connection.

6. × 7 in.2 A e / bolt = 0.130 in.85 (4)(7) ] a = 4.065 in.2 ) STEP 2: Design for shear B.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment CALCULATION 10.2.2 9. A e per bolt is: Try 3/8 in.2. The nominal shear strength is the sum of the shear strength provided by the anchors and the friction force between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction. Section B.5. taken as 0.4 in this example.2.85 f c′ M u = 70 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 105. × 5 in.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moments and solve the resulting quadratic equation for A e : For 2 bolts in tension.4 kips 7′′ 5′′ M u = 70 in.2 of the Code.0 = 0.349.-kips Vu = 12.078 in. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using cast-in-place bolts and a rigid surface-mounted plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in. T = Aefy 6′′ a C 0.6.000 psi (bolts) f ut = 125.1 is applicable.41A e 9.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.2 Since this is a surface mounted plate.1 Vn = 0.3. Mu = φ Mn 70.5.5.41A e /2 ) A e = 0.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.6. 7′′ V u = 12.85 f c′ ab = A e f y a = A e f y /(0. plate with 5 in.2R-20 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c)—Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate. diameter bolts (for 3/8 in.70 A vs f y + 0. Assume standard concrete beam compression block. bolt spacing Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment.9 A e (105)(6 – 4.85 f c′ b ) a = A e 105 / [0.7 Try a 7 in. threaded bolts A e = 0. A 501 structural tube attachment.000 psi (bolts) Fy = 36.2 B.078 in.2 A e / bolt = 0.40 C .

it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection.46) Vn = 18.130)(105) 0.065) + 2(0. a middle row of anchors).70(0.40 C Vn = 0. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.2 9. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 2: continued B. The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate.70 A vs f y + 0. Assume threads in shear plane. Nominal shear strength from anchors and friction between the base plate and concrete 0. Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding.130)(105)(1.-kips ← controls Moment on compression side: Note that C = T.130)/2 ] M = 23.40 T = 0.0 kips > 12. the actual design values used should be based on the appropriate structural steel code.8 kips φ = 0.41(0.078) for shear transfer.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength.85(18.2 Shear contribution from friction between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction.0) M = 13. This general procedure is shown in this example..g. STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior.4 in.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. Moment on tension side T = Aefy dt No Yield dc C a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Td t M = Ae fy dt M = (0. NOTE: For this example.2 9.40 C = 5.85 φVn = 0.130)(105)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0.5.8 kips) φ Vn = 16.6.182 in. A vs = 0.182)(105) + (5. Actual design of the base plate is not covered by ACI 349 Appendix B.6.4 kips OK B. Although the design procedure shown is appropriate for base plate design.2.40(0.3 The anchor area not used for moment is available A vs = 2(0. and then calculate the moment as M = (dc )(C).40 C = 0.40( A e f y ) = 0. .130 (105)[ 2 – 4. NOTE: This step in the example is for information only.-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e.7 in. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than dt .46 kips CALCULATION Vn = 0.078 – 0. both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined.2R-21 Example B2(c).

use 3/4 in. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: continued Nominal moment capacity of base plate CALCULATION Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42 t 2 42 t 2 = 23.4 t = 0. Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors. A φ factor of 0.74 in.9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1. STEP 4: Embedment length The calculation of the required embedment length is similar to that in Example B2(a). .349. It is not necessary to include a φ factor in this calculation of plate thickness.2R-22 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c). plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate.

74)(0.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment and tension Try a 7 in. A 501 structural tube attachment.0 = 0. CODE SECTION 7′′ V u = 12.466) × (7)[6 – 2.23 in. × 5 in.466)] Solving the quadratic equation: Steel / Stud Provide 5/8 in.3 kips > 12.78 = 50 A e (2. φ = 0.-kips Vu = 12.2 A sv = 2(0. OK .46/2 = 0. Nominal shear capacity µ = 0.2 of the Code.85(33.85 STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(a) A e = 0.4 kips Pu = 11.9 for flexure M u = 70 50A e – 0.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60. C a 0. 9.5) + 0.1 6′′ 10.1 Sum external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces.1 kips where Mu .23) + 2(0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.3 Shear capacity φ = 0. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.30 – 0. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy P u = 11. combined tension.2 0.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the top two studs as the tension components.2 A e = 0.1 a = 2. Sum moments about the center line of base plate (line of axial load). × 7 in.1 A e – 0.2 9.85 f c′ ab ( d – 2.3) = 28.85(4)(2.3.85 f c′ See Example B2(a).2R-23 Example B3(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Assume the total stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction.2.000 psi Fy = 36.1 7′′ 5′′ M u = 70 in.5 – 0. shear.74 in.1A e – 0.9) = 33.85(4)(a )(7) = 11.2 9.30) = 0.5 –a /2)] 77.5) + 0. Pu .9 9.466 70. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.30 in.4 kips.5(2. the attachment plate is assumed rigid.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.46 in.1 A e – 0.2 V n = 50(0.9[50A e (2.3 kips φ V n = 0.4 kips P u = 11. plate with 5 in.

3 The stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction. shear.9(0.2 B.1 7′′ 5′′ M u = 70 in.85 φ V n = 0.5.5. diameter stud STEP 2: Design for shear B. OK .3 B.2 A e provided = 0. A 501 structural tube attachment. plate with 5 in.2 V n = 0.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Tension in top studs Try a 7 in.2.2 A v f = 2 (0.2 of the Code.9 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be equal to or greater than the required strength. Lever arm for moment = 4 in.349. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.5)/4 φ T = 21.2 9. Pu .000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.1 kips where Mu .2. area for each stud Try 5/8 in. × 5 in.6.9 Tension in each stud φ T = 70/4 + 11..4) = 27. combined tension. φ = 0. 7′′ V u = 12.40 kips φ = 0. Given: f c = 4000 psi ′ f y = 50.24 in. STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(b) A e = 12.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.24) + 2 (0.0 / 50 = 0.5 kips > 12.3 9.1 6′′ C 0.30) = 0.30 – 0.000 psi Fy = 36. it is assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member. Nominal shear strength µ = 0. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy P u = 11. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.72 in.7 kips T = 24.85 f c′ a M u = 70 For simplicity. × 7 in.4 kips Pu = 11.0 kips 24.4 kips.30 in.0 / 2 = 12.72)(50) = 32.0 kips A e .2 9.2R-24 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B3(b)—Four-stud flexible embedded plate.6.6.1(1.4 kips P u = 11.-kips Vu = 12.85(32.

P u = 18 kips Given: fc = ′ fy = f ut = 4000 psi 50. tension only Determine the reduction of projected stress area due to limited concrete thickness for the embedment of Example B1.75′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine area available for stress reduction CALCULATION B. therefore.000 psi (studs) 60.86 in. in. this leaves approximately 14. L d = 3. . conservatively neglects the thickness of the plate and uses L d = 3.33 in.4.625) – 2(6.6 in. when there was a minimum required area of 160.71′′ 3. Note that the projected area calculated in Example B1. rather than the length of 4.5)] 2 = 5. Due to biaxial symmetry of the assembly in Example B1.42′′ b + 2 (L d + t – h ) b = 6.71) + 2 (0. available for reduction in projected area before the minimum requirements for concrete strength are no longer met. in.2 Total stress reduction area = (b + 2 L d + 2 t – 2 h ) 2 = [ 6.8 in.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.000 psi h = 6′′ 5/ ′′ 8 thick plate Thickness of concrete slab = 6 in.2.2 area still available for stress reduction.2 < 14.4 sq. COMMENT: Example B1 describes an embedment assembly with a projected area of 175. OK Ductility requirements met.8 sq. only one side needs to be found.71 in. all sides of the rectangular stress reduction area are equal and.2R-25 Example B4—Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab. to the face of concrete.75 + 2 ( 3.

the angle α of the common segment is given by: cos(1/2 α) = S /(2 R ) α = 2cos –1 [ S /(2 R )] The area of the common segment A seg equals the area of the two sectors minus the area of the triangles: R α A seg = 2 [α R 2 /2 – R 2 sin(α/2) cos(α/2)] = (α – sinα) R 2 S /2 CASE I The projected area is equal to the area of four full cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions minus the area of the four heads. In Case I. There are two cases of overlapping stress cones. R A cp1 = 4πR 2 – 2(αx – sinαx )R 2 – 2(α y – sin α y)R 2 – 4 A h Sx Sy CASE II The projected area is equal to the area of the central rectangle plus the area of the four three quarter cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions outside the rectangle minus the area of the four heads. For two overlapping stress cones of radius R and spacing S. all four stress cones overlap. In Case II. CASE I A cp2 = S x S y + (4)( 3/4 )π R 2 – (α x – sinα x) R 2 – (α y – sin α y ) R 2 – 4 A h SUMMARY R Sx A cp1 = (4π – 2 B ) R 2 – 4 A h A cp2 = (3π – B ) R 2 + S x S y – 4 A h where B = (α x – sin α x ) + (α y – sin α y ) αx = 2cos –1 (S x Sy / 2R) α y = 2cos –1 (S y /2 R ) CASE II . The projected area for the two cases is formulated below.349. The radius of the projected stress cones (45 deg cone angle) is R = L d + d h / 2. The studs are located at the corners of a rectangle with spacing S x and S y in each direction. there is no overlap at the center of the rectangle since R < 1 / 2 ( S x 2 + S y 2 ) 1/2 .2R-26 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp ) for four studs This appendix develops the projected area of four stress cones at the surface of the concrete.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful