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12 (2008) 4497

Phantom Energy with Variable G and Λ

Arbab I. Arbab

∗∗

1

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum 11115, Sudan

Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Computer, Omdurman Ahlia

University, P.O. Box 786, Omdurman, Sudan

(Received 27 March 2008)

We investigate a cosmological model of a phantom energy with a variable cosmological constant (Λ) depending on

the energy density (ρ) as Λ ∝ ρ

−α

, α = const and a variable gravitational constant G. The model requires α < 0

and a negative gravitational constant. The cosmological constant evolves with time as Λ ∝ t

−2

. For ω > −1 and

α < −1 the cosmological constant Λ < 0, G > 0 and ρ decrease with cosmic expansion. For ordinary energy (or

dark energy), i.e. ω > −1, we have −1 < α < 0 and β > 0 so that G > 0 increases with time and ρ decreases

with time. Cosmic acceleration with dust particles is granted, provided −2/3 < α < 0 and Λ > 0.

PACS: 98. 80. Cq, 95. 36. +x, 98. 80. Es

Cosmologists have wondered whether our present

universe will eventually re-collapse and end with a

Big Crunch, or expand indeﬁnitely and eventually be-

comes cold and empty. However, recent evidence from

supernovae type I ushers into a ﬂat universe, possi-

bly with a cosmological constant or some other sort

of negative-pressure dark energy, has suggested that

our fate is accelerating.

[1,2]

However, the data may

actually be pointing toward an astonishingly diﬀerent

cosmic end game. Caldwell et al.

[3]

explored the con-

sequences that follow if the dark energy is a phantom

energy, i.e. the sum of the pressure and energy den-

sity is negative. The positive phantom-energy density

becomes inﬁnite in a ﬁnite time, overcoming all other

forms of matter, which will rapidly brings the epoch of

cosmic structure to a halt.

[4]

The phantom energy rips

apart every bound matter before the Universe ends

into a Big-Rip.

However, the phantom energy scenario does violate

the the strong energy condition (SEC) ρ + 3p > 0, a

principle that keeps energies positive and imposes en-

ergy conservation on a global scale. It is the strong

energy condition that is helpful to rule out wormholes,

warp drives, and time machines. Dark energy requires

an equation of state p + 3ρ < 0. The violation of the

null energy condition (NEC) p+ρ > 0 results in energy

ﬂows faster than the speed of light. A phantom be-

haviour is predicted by several scenarios, e.g., kineti-

cally driven models

[5]

and some versions of braneworld

cosmologies.

[6]

Another possibility for dark energy is an energy of

a scalar ﬁeld known as quintessence having an equa-

tion of state such that −1 < ω < −1/3.

[7−11]

Assum-

ing that the quintessence ﬁeld coupled minimally to

gravity, one can write the Lagrangian as

L =

1

2

˙

φ

2

+V (φ), (1)

with energy density and pressure given by

ρ =

1

2

˙

φ

2

+V (φ), p =

1

2

˙

φ

2

−V (φ). (2)

where a dot presents a derivative with respect to time.

In the so-called tracker models the scalar ﬁeld density

(and its equation of state) remains close to that of the

dominant background matter during most of the cos-

mological evolution. The equation of state is given by

p

ρ

=

˙

φ

2

/2 −V (φ)

˙

φ

2

/2 +V (φ)

. (3)

A comprehensive study of quintessence is investigated

by Ratra and Peebles.

[12]

However, A tracker poten-

tial of the form V (φ) ∝ φ

−n

, n = const is considered

recently by Sahni.

[13]

Moreover, one may include the possibility of an

equation of state p = −ρ. This is attributed to exis-

tence of vacuum energy or the cosmological constant.

At the present time it is diﬃcult to tell which form of

energy our universe consists of.

In this Letter, we investigate the evolution of dark

energy and phantom energy arising from the intro-

duction of a cosmological constant that evolves as

Λ = 3β/ρ

α

, where α, β = const. With this assump-

tion, a phantom energy arises whenever p + ρ < 0

and α > 0. However, the gravitational constant be-

comes negative. In the present model, the dark en-

ergy models do no necessarily require the condition

p > −1/3ρ. Cosmic acceleration is generated for

α > 0, −1 < α < 0 and α < −1. Phantom en-

ergy with variable G has been recently considered by

Stefancic.

[14]

We have shown that during the evolution

of the domain-walls the cosmological constant ﬂips its

sign. We have seen that the whole evolution of the

universe is characterized by the two constants α and

β.

∗∗

Email: aiarbab@uofk.edu

c 2008 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd

4498 Arbab I. Arbab Vol. 25

The Friedmann–Lematre–Robertson–Walker met-

ric

ds

2

= dt

2

−a

2

(t)

dr

2

+r

2

(dθ

2

+ sin

2

θ dφ

2

)

,

for a ﬂat universe yields

3( ˙ a/a)

2

= 8π Gρ + Λ, (4)

3(¨ a/a) = −4π G(ρ + 3p) + Λ, (5)

and the energy conservation equation reads

˙ ρ + 3( ˙ a/a)(ρ +p) = 0. (6)

The pressure p and energy density ρ of an ideal ﬂuid

are related by the equation of state

p = ω ρ, ω = const. (7)

We now allow Λ and G to vary with time, i.e. Λ =

Λ(t) and G = G(t), so that the energy conservation,

Eq. (6), entitles that

[15−18]

8π

˙

Gρ +

˙

Λ = 0. (8)

We consider here the ansatz

Λ = 3β/ρ

α

, β, α = const. (9)

Integrating Eq. (6), using Eq. (7), we obtain

ρ = Aa

−3(1+ω)

, A = const. (10)

Substituting this in Eq. (8) using Eq. (9), one obtains

G=

−3αβ

8π(1 +α)A

1+α

a

3(1+ω)(1+α)

, α = −1, 0.

(11)

When α = 0, Eq. (8) implies that Λ = const and

G = const. Substituting Eqs. (10) and (11) into

Eq. (4) we obtain

H

2

=

β

1 +α

A

−α

a

3(1+ω)α

, α = −1, 0, (12)

where H = ˙ a/a, or

H

2

=

β

1 +α

ρ

−α

, α = −1, 0. (13)

Using Eq. (13), Eq. (11) can be written as

8πG =

−3αβ

1 +α

ρ

−(α+1)

, α = −1, 0. (14)

Integrating Eq. (13), using Eq. (10), one obtains

a(t) = A

−1/3(1+ω)

F

−2/3α(1+ω)

t

−2/3α(1+ω)

,

α = 0, −1, (15)

where F =

−

3

2

α(1 + ω)

β

(1 +α)

1/2

. Using

Eq. (15), Eq. (11) becomes

G =

−3αβ

8π (1 +α)

F

−2(1+α)/α

t

−2(1+α)/α

, α = −1, 0.

(16)

Using Eq. (15), Eq. (10) reads

ρ = F

2/α

t

2/α

, α = 0, −1, (17)

which shows that the energy density of the phantom

increases with expansion, if α > 0. Using Eq. (17),

Eq. (9) yields

Λ =

3β

F

2

t

−2

. (18)

This form is found to emerge from many of the vacuum

decaying models.

[16,17,19−21]

Since we believe that the

vacuum decays with time then β > 0.

For an expanding universe, we require that −α(1+

ω) > 0 as is evident from Eq. (15). If α > 0, one must

have the relation 1+ω < 0. This is the familiar condi-

tion for the existence of phantom energy. This relation

implies that p < −ρ. In this case, the energy density

grows with time, as it is evident from Eq. (17). This is

the condition for phantom energy. It is very interest-

ing to see that such a cosmological constant variation

leads to phantom energy solution. We, however, no-

tice that an increasing energy density requires α > 0.

We see from Eq. (13) that since H

2

≥ 0 the signs of

β and 1 + α are the same. However, Eq. (13) implies

that when α > 0 then β > 0 and hence Eq. (16) im-

plies that G < 0. Since we have considered α > 0

then β > 0. Thus, phantom energy existence requires

G < 0 and Λ > 0 so that

˙

G > 0 and

˙

Λ < 0 (as can be

seen from Eqs. (8) and (9)). We, therefore, see that

the phantom energy has negative gravity. One may

attribute this to the anti-gravitating nature of phan-

tom energy. Such a bizarre behaviour could be the

reason why phantom energy has a negative pressure,

unlike the ordinary matter.

In the scalar ﬁeld theory, the phantom energy is

modelled by a ﬁeld with a negative kinetic energy, but

negative pressure and positive energy. In our present

scenario, G < 0 and p < 0, but ρ > 0. Hence, the

two pictures of phantom energy evolution could be

equivalent. However, in our present scenario while the

gravitational increases, the cosmological constants de-

creases with time. Unlike the standard phantom en-

ergy model, we see that as t → 0 a → 0, ρ → 0; and

as t → ∞, a → ∞, ρ → ∞. Consider now the case

ω = −3/2 and α = 2/3. In this case, a ∝ t

2

, and

hence, ρ ∝ t

3

and G ∝ t

−5

. An equivalent case corre-

sponds to α = 1 and ω = −4/3. However, in the latter

case ρ ∝ t

2

and G ∝ t

−4

. The present observational

data favour negative values for ω rather than positive

ones. In particular, models with −1.62 < ω < −0.74

are favoured observationally.

[22]

No. 12 Arbab I. Arbab 4499

The present observational data usher toward an

accelerated expansion of the universe.

[1,2]

The decel-

eration parameter is given by q = −(¨ a/a)/H

2

. Using

Eq. (15), this yields

q = −

1

2

[2 + 3α(1 +ω)]. (19)

For an accelerating universe, one must have q < 0,

i.e., α >

−2

3(1 +ω)

. For non-phantom energy one has

1 + ω > 0 so that α < 0. We treat the case α = −1

separately.

For ω > −1 and α < −1, the scale factor grows

with time. For a positive gravitational constant,

G > 0, Eq. (14) implies β < 0, so that the cosmo-

logical constant becomes negative, Λ < 0. Equation

(16) and (17) imply that G and ρ decrease with cos-

mic expansion. For α = −2 and ω = −1/2 one has

a ∝ t

2/3

. The evolution of dust particles in Fried-

mann cosmology mimics a dark energy. Similarly for

α = −2 and ω = −1/3, the scale factor evolves as,

a ∝ t

1/2

. Hence, cosmic strings in this case evolve

like radiation in the standard Friedmann cosmology.

For the two cases above the energy density evolves as,

ρ ∝ t

−1

and G ∝ t

−1

.

Now consider the case −1 < α < 0, β > 0 and

ω > −1. This is the case for ordinary matter (or dark

energy). In this case, G > 0, Λ > 0. Equations (16)

and (17) imply that G increases with time and ρ de-

creases with time. For α = −1/2 and ω = 1, the scale

factor varies as a ∝ t

2/3

. Thus, stiﬀ matter mimics

ordinary matter. In this case, G ∝ t

2

and ρ ∝ t

−4

.

We notice that in the present scenario one has the re-

lation Gρ ∝ H

2

. Such a relation is known to satisfy

the Machian cosmology.

[17]

In this model, it is possible to have a cosmic ac-

celeration in the present epoch with ordinary matter

(dust or radiation). To my knowledge this solution

has not been considered before. This arises due to the

presence of the cosmological constant of the form sug-

gested in Eq.(9). We consider here ω > 0 and β > 0.

In this case we have

dust : ω = 0 ⇒α > −2/3.

radiation : ω = 1/3 ⇒α > −1/2.

For the two cases, both G > 0 and Λ > 0. Moreover,

G increases while Λ decreases with cosmic time.

In this case, we consider −1 < ω < 0. Cosmic ac-

celeration for strings-like and domain-walls like ﬂuid

respectively imply

cosmic −strings : ω = −1/3 ⇒α > −1,

domain −walls : ω = −2/3 ⇒α > −2.

We observe that domain-walls proceed in two diﬀer-

ent ways: (i) when α < −1, β < 0 for G > 0 so that

Λ < 0, (ii) when α > −1, β > 0 for G > 0 so that

Λ > 0. Hence, during the domain-walls evolution the

cosmological constant changes its sign.

We study in this section the case α = −1, i.e.,

Λ = 3βρ. Equations (8) and (9) imply that

G =

3β

8π

(1 +ω) ln(Ca), C = const. (20)

This equation implies that when a → 0, G → −∞

unless β or 1+ω becomes negative. Notice that when

a → ∞ then G → ∞. Hence, these solutions show

that the Universe can’t start from a singularity or end

at inﬁnity as far as |G| cannot be inﬁnite. Hence, one

may say that in the case Λ = 3βρ, the initial singu-

larity is avoided provided the gravitational constant is

allowed to vary with time. For an expanding universe

the gravitational constant must increase with cosmic

time. We notice that G increases with time for β > 0

(Λ > 0) and ω > −1 (ordinary/dark energy), or β < 0

(Λ < 0) and ω < −1 (phantom energy). Upon using

this Eq. (20), Eq. (4) becomes

˙ a

2

= β[1 + (1 +ω) ln(Ca)]Aa

−(1+3ω)

. (21)

The solution of the above equation gives the time

dependence of the gravitational constant and energy

density. However, for ω = −1, Eq. (21) yields the

exponential expansion of the form H =

√

βA. This

requires that both β > 0 and A > 0.

We consider here the case ω = −1. In this case,

Eq. (10) yields ρ = const and then Eq. (9) implies

Λ = const. Now Eq. (8) implies that G = const = 0, as

far as α = −1, and hence Eq. (4) gives a ∝ exp(H

0

t),

H

0

= const. This is the standard de-Sitter expansion.

We notice from Eq. (20) that during inﬂation the grav-

itational constant vanishes when α = −1. This may

have assisted the universe to inﬂate with a constant

expansion rate, H =

Λ/3. This solution is the same

as the one obtained where Λ/3 = βA.

We have considered in this paper a cosmological

model with a cosmological constant varies as Λ =

3β/ρ

α

. We have found that cosmic acceleration is

guaranteed in radiation (−1/2 < α < 0) and mat-

ter (−2/3 < α < 0) dominated epochs with Λ > 0

and G > 0. For dark energies (cosmic-strings/domain-

walls) cosmic acceleration occurs when α < −1. Phan-

tom energy with ω < −1 is allowed provided α > 0

and G < 0. The phantom energy density varies as

ρ ∝ t

2/α

. For instance, for α = 1 and ω = −4/3 the

scale factor increases as a ∝ t

2

. The negative grav-

itational constant is tantamount to negative kinetic

energy for phantom ﬁeld. We could have obtained a

positive gravitational constant if we have not set the

integration constant to zero. The case ω = −1 gives

the familiar de-Sitter inﬂationary solution.

I would like to thank M. Jamil for useful commu-

nication.

4500 Arbab I. Arbab Vol. 25

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