Differences between Dynamic & Steady State Mode

It is apparent that the specifications required by the unit operations in Dynamics mode are not the same as the Steady State mode. This section outlines the main differences between the two modes in regards to specifying unit operations

Steady State
The Steady State mode uses modular operations which are combined with a non-sequential algorithm. Information is processed as soon as it is supplied. The results of any calculation are automatically propagated throughout the flowsheet, both forwards and backwards Material, energy, and composition balances are considered at the same time. Pressure, flow, temperature, and composition specifications are considered equally. For example, a column’s overhead flow rate specification is replaced by a composition specification in the condenser. The column can solve with either specification.

Dynamics
Material, energy and composition balances in Dynamics mode are not considered at the same time. Material or pressure-flow balances are solved for at every time step. Energy and composition balances are defaulted to solve less frequently. Pressure and flow are calculated simultaneously in a pressure-flow matrix. Energy and composition balances are solved in a modular sequential fashion Because the pressure flow solver exclusively considers pressure-flow balances in the network, P-F specifications are separate from temperature and composition specifications. P-F specifications are input using the “one P-F specification per flowsheet boundary stream” rule. Temperature and composition specifications should be input on every boundary feed stream entering the flowsheet. Temperature and composition are then calculated sequentially for each downstream unit operation and material stream using the holdup model Unlike in Steady State mode, information is not processed immediately after being input. The integrator should be run after the addition of any unit operation to the flowsheet. Once the integrator is run, stream conditions for the exit streams of the added unit operation is calculated

Add unit operations. These unit operations include the separator operation and tray sections in a column operation. The valve should be sized with a 50% valve opening and a pressure drop between 15 and 30 kPa Column Tray Sizing Rules Tray Sizing can be accomplished for separation columns using the Tray Sizing utility in the Utilities page.Valves should be sized using typical flowrates. and pumps. Sizing of trays in columns can be accomplished using the Tray Sizing utility available from the Utilities page.15 minutes of liquid holdup time. Condensers. which define a pressure flow relation to these streams. the simulation flow sheet should be set up so that a realistic pressure difference is accounted for across the plantThe following table indicates some basic steps you can take to set up a case in Steady State mode and then switch to Dynamics mode 1-Adding Unit Operations Identify material streams which are connected to two unit operations with no pressure flow relation and whose flow must be specified in Dynamics mode. It is also possible to specify a flow specification on this stream instead of using an operation to define the flow rate 2-Equipment Sizing Size all the unit operations in the simulation using actual plant equipment or predefined sizing techniques. heat exchangers. Any use of utilities should be restricted to Steady State mode. Vessels should be sized to accommodate actual plant flow rates and pressures while maintaining acceptable residence times General Equipment Sizing Rules Vessels (Separators. Before a transition from steady state to dynamics mode occurs. The trays are sized according to the existing flow rates and the desired residence times in the tray. Important variables include • Tray diameter •Weir length . Sizing and Costing calculations are also performed using the Vessel Sizing utility in the Sizing page of the Rating tab. Reboilers) should be sized for 5 .Moving from Steady State to Dynamics You should be aware that flow in the plant occurs because of resistance and driving forces. such as valves.

Controllers play a large part in stabilizing the PF Solve Precautions • Pay special attention to equipment with fixed pressure drops. If the steady state pressure profile is very different from the calculated pressure drop.•Weir height •Tray spacing 3-Adjusting Column Pressure In steady state. such as flow occurring in the direction of increasing pressure. Implementing control schemes increases the realism and stability of the model. This utility provides a value in the Results tab. The column pressure profile can be calculated using this value. the value. Disturbances in the plant can be modeled using the Transfer Function operation. Any fixed pressure drop specifications in equipment can yield unrealistic results. the Nozzle Pressure Flow K-factors (found on the Dynamics tab of the Main TS property view) can also be adjusted to better model the pressure drop across the column 4-Adding Control Operations Identify key control loops that exist within the plant. In Dynamics mode.You can change the value to achieve a desired pressure profile across the column. A reasonable estimate of the column’s pressure profile can be calculated using the Tray Sizing utility. The Events Scheduler can be used to model automated shutdowns and startups 5-Enter HYSYS 6-Adding Dynamic Environment Pressure-Flow Specifications Specify one pressure-flow specification for each flowsheet boundary stream. . and a desired pressure specification anywhere on the column. In dynamics. the pressure profile of the column is user specified. This can easily be done by modifying the Weir height in the Ratings tab in the Tray Sizing utility. Reducing the weir height lowers the static head contributions and lowers the value. Remember to check for fixed pressure drops in the reboiler and condenser of columns. there can be large upsets in flow in the column when the integrator is run. it is calculated using dynamic hydraulic calculations.

• Be cautious of Heaters/Coolers with fixed duties. • Feed and product streams entering and exiting tray sections should be at the same pressure as the tray section itself. or a temperature specification to control the temperature of a stream.Dynamics Assistant can be also be used to trouble shoot specification problems Too Many Specifications/Not Enough Specifications Singular Problem This message indicates that not all of the equations in the P-Fpressure flow solver matrix are independent of one another The Pressure Flow Solver Failed to Converge . Any large pressure differences between a feed or product stream and its corresponding tray section can result in large amounts of material moving into or out of the column 7-Trouble Shooting Error messages appear once the integrator is run. This can cause problems if the flow in the heater/cooler happens to fall to zero. It is recommended to use a controller. or a Spreadsheet function.

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