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FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance

Study into Best Practice

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Lloyds Register of Shipping 2003

FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance 5HYLVLRQ 6WDWXV


Issue 1 2 3 4 5 Date 2 Sept, 2002 16 Sept, 2002 26 Nov, 2002 10 Jan 2003 06 May 2003 Comment Issued for Comment Steering Group comments incorporated Industry Comments incorporated Final Issue Minor revisions to service suppliers Checked RE RE RE RE RE Authorised CMcI CMcI CMcI CMcI CMcI

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Summary 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 4 6 Acknowledgements Findings 7 Ramform Banff ............................................................................7 Captain........................................................................................8 Curlew .........................................................................................8 MacCulloch .................................................................................9 Schiehallion...............................................................................10 Triton .........................................................................................10 Discussion and Conclusions General Conclusions.................................................................12 Ballast Systems, (Pipework, Tanks, Pumps and Control Systems) Oil Storage System ...................................................................16 Hull ............................................................................................17 Caissons ...................................................................................18 Deck Structures, Pallets, walkways, and upper deck plating ...18 Tank Venting System, Pipework, PV Valves and Seals ...........19 Cranes.......................................................................................19 Thrusters ...................................................................................19 Swivels and Drag-Chains..........................................................19 Recommended Practice Ballast Systems........................................................................20 Cargo Systems..........................................................................21 Hull ............................................................................................22 Caissons ...................................................................................22 Deck Structures, Pallets, walkways, and upper deck plating ...22 Tank Venting System, Pipework, PV Valves and Seals ...........22 Cranes.......................................................................................22 Swivels, Drag-Chains................................................................22 Suppliers and Repairers 25 26 31 20 15 12

Appendix A List of Repairers Appendix B Blank Questionnaire

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Summary
This rep ort relates to a stu d y of Insp ection Rep air & Maintenance (IRM) Practice on Floating Prod u ction Storage and Offtake u nits, (FPSOs), in service on th e UK Continental Shelf. The stu d y, as d escribed in the invitation to tend er, w as intend ed to establish best p ractice in IRM by means of a qu estionnaire am ong FPSO op erators, interview s w ith IRM p ersonnel and throu gh a review of literatu re and an Internet search. The d eliverables w ere to be: 1. 2. 3. A register of vend ors, etc., to su p p ort each of the IRM categories id en tified in the tend er. Resu lts of the qu estionnaire, in a d atabase. A d iscu ssion of the inform ation obtain ed , d ealing w ith exp erience on equ ip m ent, p roced u res and system s from agreed selected p articip ants. This to inclu d e both the resu lts of the interview s and d ata from other sou rces id entified in the cou rse of the stu d y. A rep ort, id entifying for each of the strategic areas, the range of p ractices cu rrently ad op ted , together w ith recom m end ations on best p ractice to eliminate rep etition of failu res and re-d esign.

4.

Early in the stu d y, a nu m ber of challenges w ere encou ntered inclu d ing a p atchy resp onse and resu lts of the qu estionnaire w hich, w hile interesting in them selves, yield ed little in the w ay of general trend s. The Internet search likew ise revealed little that cou ld be regard ed as novel. These challenges w ere d iscu ssed at som e length w ith the steering grou p . The stu d y set ou t to find an objective answ er to a large and su bjective qu estion. The on e com mon trend w as that m ost op erators regard their own IRM strategies and p lans as good , even best, p ractice. Alm ost w ithou t excep tion they regard the cond ition of p rojects as d elivered to be the root cau se of failu re. N either Insp ection nor m aintenance featu red large in the history of failu res and rep airs. With these interim find ings, and consid ering the original exp ectation in term s of d eliverables, it w as agreed that the p roject shou ld be re-focu sed on areas more likely to yield u sefu l resu lts. A series of second interview s w ere cond u cted with a n u mber of op erators. The nu mber w as not restricted : those who resp ond ed w ere visited and the exercise consid ered six vessels. The interview s w ere aim ed at su m m arising exp erience and establishing key factors relating to a nu mber of in-service failu res. A p ilot stu d y w as u nd ertaken, com m encing w ith BPs Schiehallion facility. This collected d ata on IRM systems. This w as analysed in accord ance w ith the head ings taken from the original invitation to tend er d ocu m ent. The d ata w as then com p ared and collated . Fin ally th e resu lts of the interview s were d iscu ssed at length, both internally and w ith the Steering Grou p . The stu d y conclu d es that m ost of the failu res consid ered w ou ld have been avoid ed had closer attention been p aid to foreseeable op erating cond itions at the d esign stage. Fu rtherm ore, it is op timistic, to say the least, to exp ect insp ection and m aintenance strategies, bu ilt as they are on the assu mp tion of comp etent and com p rehensive d esign, to d etect early life w arranty-typ e d efects. Finally w e have conclu d ed that u nd erstand ing of risk-based I&M p hilosop hies varies w id ely betw een

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op erators. At their w orst they su ggest schem es that sim p ly accep t risk, rather than those that assess and seek to m itigate or avoid risk.

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1 Acknowledgements
The au thors are gratefu l for the assistance of the stu d y p articip ants in p rep aring this rep ort. Their op enness in d ealing w ith m atters su ch as system failu res and lessons learned is very m u ch ap p reciated . Th ese inclu d ed contribu tions from : Am erad a H ess Blu ew ater BP Exp loration Kerr McGee Maersk Contractors PGS Pierce Prod u ction Com p an y Shell UK Texaco Wood Grou p Ou r th anks are also d u e to the m embers of the steering grou p , for their p atience and for their invalu able contribu tions to a som etim es-contentiou s d iscu ssion, d ealing as it d id w ith som e d early held view s on all sid es.

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2 Findings
2.1 Ramform Banff
Planned maintenance is ap p lied to Safety Critical Elem ents (SCEs). The Planned Maintenance Rou tine (PMR) system is controlled by the STAR p lanned m aintenance and m anagem ent system. Those PMRs relating to the SCEs take into accou nt the PFEER and DCR verification in ad d ition to Class/ IMO requ irem ents. The initial PMRs have been mod ified w ith op erating exp erience to ensu re all w ritten schem e of verification (WSVs) item s are d ealt w ith. The WSVs now sp ecifically refer to the related PMRs. The stru ctu ral insp ection schem e is based on the ou tcome of a d etailed risk assessm ent.

2.1.1

Repairs during 2000/2001 refit in Hamburg:1. Bilge keels ad d ed to alleviate the excessive rolling of the vessel d u ring heavy sw ells. Op erating exp erience since has show n a marked im p rovement in roll characteristics althou gh the heave characteristics rem ain largely u nchanged . Su bstantial strengthening of p rocess p allet m ain d eck fou nd ations and su p p orts. This work was u nd ertaken in resp onse to a stru ctu ral m otion stu d y that show ed accelerations and forces attribu table to the vessel m ovem ent to be in excess of the original d esign limits. Su bstantial rew orking and strengthening of flare stru ctu re follow ing fatigu e failu re of su rrou nd ing stru ctu re. Strengthening of KO Dru m , H P, MP and Test Sep arators w ith stiffening rings to im p rove fatigu e life in resp onse to vessel m otions in excess of those initially p red icted . Extensive strength ening w ork on barriers and bu m p ers. With a congested d eck, the risk of collision by sw inging load s w as high and this had not been ad equ ately ad d ressed in the original d esign. New air lock d oor m echanism s fitted to p ort sid e em ergency escap e tu nnel to ensu re p ositive p ressu re m aintained . Tem p orary refu ge ou ter d oors p lann ed for refu rbishm ent to m aintain integrity. Original m arine H VAC system was fou nd not to be su itable for offshore op erations. Rep airs and mod ification to main tu rbine fu el m anagem ent system. The situ ation p reviou sly w as that, follow ing p rocess shu td ow ns, the change over from fu el gas to d iesel often resu lted in p ow er ou tages. The change over system is now op erational and p ow er availability has been significantly im p roved . Grad u al ad ju stm ent of the p rocess instru m entation has im p roved d ow n tim e d u e to vessel m ovem ents. The bilge keels have also help ed in this resp ect.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

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2.2 Captain
The PMR is risk/ corrosion based and the original concep t d id consid er FMEA and RCM theories. H ow ever, so far as cou ld be seen, it ap p ears to concentrate m ore on corrosion asp ects. Initial frequ ency for the stru ctu ral item s is 5 years w ith annu al exam inations for a significant p rop ortion of comp onents. H ow ever, w hen examined in d etail, the situ ation is not as first ap p ears. In gen eral, the 5 yearly insp ections are general exam inations, while in a nu m ber of cases, close visu al examination is not requ ired u ntil 10 years have elap sed . Resu lts and com m ents are fed back into the system to either mod ify the exam ination or to p u t rem ed ial w ork into the p lanning for shu t d ow ns etc. Maintenance sheets are p rod u ced to d etail the w ork to be u nd ertaken. These are w ell d etailed as to what is requ ired and how it is to be carried ou t. Resp onsibility is clearly laid ou t in d ecid ing w hat is to be d one. The overall im p ression is of a risk-based p rogram w ith a sim p le fu nctional ap p roach.

2.2.1

Repairs
All of the rep airs listed below relate to d esign issu es, w ith a p ossible contribu tion of w orkm anship to item 5. 1. Tu rret this d esign has no sw ivel, relying on a system of hyd rau lically op erated grip p ers instead . These have all been renew ed w ithin 3 years. The tu rning system is d eem ed to be over-stressed and not fit for p u rp ose and is to be rep laced by a locally d esigned an d manu factu red p ackage. The hoses in the cu rrent system reach their minim u m bend rad iu s in u se. This has resu lted in several failu res. Prod u ction Sep arators Internal grid s collap sed , requ iring com p lete ren ew al. This w as attribu ted to wave m otions w ithin the sep arators cau sed by the FPSO s m otion in heavy seas. Sea Chests the vessel has 11 sea chests, all of w hich w ere originally fitted w ith Stainless Steel grid s. This arrangem ent led to severe bu ild u p of cru staceans and consequ ent blockage: stainless steel p rovid es an u nu su ally cond u cive environm ent for marine life. The sea valves w ere also not su itable for the p rolonged life exp ectancy in an offshore u nit. The grid s w ere renew ed in carbon steel and the bu tterfly valves w ere rep laced w ith conventional ship sid e globe valves. Hu ll variou s areas of p aint coating have failed . At this stage it is u nclear w hether the root cau se is system selection or qu ality of ap p lication.

2. 3.

4.

5.

2.3

Curlew
The PMRs are risk based and takes accou nt of FMEA and RCM. The initial p eriod icity w as based on five yearly class requ irements. The p lann ed maintenance strategy u tilises MAXIMO. Maintenance Rou tine Sheets d etail the p lant or equ ip m ent d escrip tion and each relates to a p articu lar WSE & SCE, w ith cross-references to associated p roced u res and d ocu m entation. The sheets d etail the equ ip m ent covered , the reference p roced u res, the p recau tions sp ecific

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to the task to be u nd ertaken, w hat is to be d one and how it is to be d one. PMRs typ ically have a hierarchy w hich varies from w eekly checks u p to 2 / 4 / 5 yearly interventions. Defects are tracked via corrective maintenance w ork ord ers, d etailing p rop osals for d ealing w ith d efects and su bsequ ent follow u p activities.

2.3.1

Repairs
1. Water Ballast Tank Fram es. Fatigu e cracking in low er flu m e op enings w as d etected after 2-3 years of op eration as FPSO. (There w as no evid ence of this failu re noted in 13 years as a trad ing tanker) The cracks have been d rilled & grou nd . Rop e-access team s imp lem ented m od ifications. These have been su ccessfu l and are now su bject to annu al monitoring. Caissons The u nit exp erienced extensive noble corrosion of seaw ater & firew ater caissons in the water ballast tanks, cau sed by titaniu m su bm ersible p u mp bod y / caisson coating breakd ow n. Rep airs by m eans of by external p lu gs an d re-coating w ere p artially su ccessfu l. In the w orst case (SW caisson) rep airs w ere effected by re-coating & by grou ting a larger annu lar sleeve. This rep air w as u nsu ccessfu l. The cem ent leaked into and blocked base of caisson to a d ep th of 1-2m . Steering Gear The u nit su ffered severe d am age to the steering gear d u e to w ave slam on the ru d d er. At the tim e the steering gear w as hyd rau lically locked and the slam torqu e on the ru d d erstock cau sed a ru p tu re and consequ ent d am age d u e to u nrestrain ed m ovem ent. Since then p erm anent m echanical locks h ave been installed to restrain the ru d d er.

2.

3.

2.4

MacCulloch
The PMR is risk based and takes accou nt of FMEA and RCM stu d ies w hich w ere intend ed to refine and focu s maintenance activities. The initial p eriod icity w as based on five yearly class requ irem ents (sp ecifically the IMO requ irem ent). The resu lts of initial insp ections have been fed back into the system w ith the resu lt that rep airs have been requ ired and the frequ ency of insp ections increased as p art of the rep air scenario. In 1999, the RCM stu d ies and FMEA stu d ies w ere revisited to inclu d e later OREDA statistics w ith a view to red u cing m aintenance w orkload & consequ ent backlog. Maxim o p rovid es th e CMMS. Maintenance Rou tine Sheets d etail the p lant or equ ip m ent d escrip tion and each relates to a p articu lar WSE & SCE, w ith cross-references to associated p roced u res and d ocu m entation. The sheets d etail the equ ip m ent covered , the reference p roced u res, the p recau tions sp ecific to the task to be u nd ertaken, w hat is to be d one and how it is to be d one. PMRs typ ically have a hierarchy w hich varies from w eekly checks u p to 2 / 4 / 5 yearly interventions. Defects are tracked via corrective maintenance w ork ord ers, d etailing p rop osals for d ealing w ith d efects and su bsequ ent follow u p activities. The p lanned m aintenance strategy u tilises MAXIMO. Maintenance h istories are grou p ed by system tag nu m bers allow ing d efect trend s to be highlighted .

2.4.1

Repairs
1. Water Ballast Tank Fram es Fatigu e cracking in low er flu m e op enings after 2-3 years of op eration as FPSO. (N o

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evid ence of this failu re noted in 13 years as a trad ing tanker) Cracks d rilled & grou nd . Mod ification u sing rop e access only p artially su ccessfu l. Cu rrent p lan is to mod ify again, u sing a d esign recom m end ed by the Tanker Co-op erative Foru m.

2.5

Schiehallion
PMRs are risk based and take accou nt of FMEA and RCM. Initial p eriod icity w as based on five yearly class requ irem ents (sp ecifically the IMO requ irem ent). The resu lts of initial insp ections have been fed back into the system with the resu lt that rep airs have been requ ired and the frequ ency of insp ections increased as p art of the rep air scenario. Schiehallion u ses EnGard e as the CMMS. Maintenance Rou tine Sheets d etail the p lant or equ ip m ent d escrip tion and each relates to a p articu lar WSE & SCE, w ith cross-references to associated p roced u res and d ocu m entation. The sheets are sp lit into tw o p arts. Part A d etails p recau tions sp ecific to the task to be u nd ertaken, p art B d etails w hat is to be d one and how it is to be d one. It also instru cts as to w hom is resp onsible for rep air m ethod or p rop osals for d ealing w ith d efects and su bsequ ent follow u p activities. This is fu rther set ou t in the Op erations Safety Case referring to Defect Management Strategy.

2.5.1

Repairs
1. Bow Dam age Heavy w eather d amage to vessels bow p lating and internals. Plating variou sly ind ented betw een stiffeners w ith variou s internal brackets sp ru ng. Rep aired on location u sing heavier section bu lb bar and larger softer brackets and strict w eld ing control. Tears in w ay of inner d eck faired and re-w eld ed . Cargo Oil Tank Defects Defects fou nd in nos. 2 & 3 starboard cargo tanks in w ay of transverse bu lkhead low er su p p ort brackets. These are being m onitored , evalu ated and rep aired u sing ad d itional brackets and new insert p lates as requ ired . The ad d itional steelw ork is su bject to high level of N DE and strict w eld ing control. Particu lar em p hasis w as given to both strengthen and soften rep air areas. Water Ballast Tanks An ongoing series of cracking and cross m em ber bu ckling has been fou nd in the w ater ballast tanks. These are cu rrently being assessed and a rep air strategy form u lated su ch that the d efects can be rep aired on location w hilst maintaining p rod u ction. This w ill involve calcu lating oil and w ater levels in ad jacen t tanks so as not to stress the bu lkhead s more than is necessary. The d esign of the rep airs rem ains ongoing m eantim e. The tanks are cu rrently being m onitored monthly.

2.

3.

2.6

Triton
The initial PMR s have been revised d u ring the last 12 months to ensu re all those item s requ ired by th e Written Schem es of Verification are inclu d ed . Triton u ses Maximo as its CMMS.

2.6.1

Repairs and Modifications


1. Ad d itional green w ater p rotection has been ad d ed to p rotect the p rocess equ ip m ent p allets aft of the forecastle. Fu rther p rotection is p lanned to p rotect the knock ou t d ru m s on the forw ard p ort sid e. Alu miniu m w as chosen as the constru ction m aterial in ord er to

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Oil Storage SystemControl Systems

Tank Venting SystemPipework

Ballast Control Systems

Deck structures Pallets

Deck structures Deck Plating

Oil Storage SystemPipework

Deck structures Walkways

Oil Storage SystemPumps

Hull Tanks & Above Water

Oil Storage SystemTanks

Ballast Pipework

Ballast Pumps

Ballast Tanks

Banff Captain Curlew MacCulloch Schiehallion Triton

        

 

  

  

 

Table 1 Spread of failures/defects on selected FPSOs facilitate installation ou tw ith the w orking rad iu s of the installation s m ain cranes. This d esign was stu d ied to ensu re that there is not an u naccep table incend ive sp ark risk. 2. Jib exten sions to the m ain cranes are being p lanned . The rad iu s of op eration leaves several d ead areas, w hich can significantly increase maintenance/ change ou t times.

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Thrusters

Seals

Swivels & Drag Chains

Hull External

Hull Internal

Caissons

P/V Valves

Cranes

FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance

3 Discussion and Conclusions


3.1 3.1.1 General Conclusions Age of Installations and the Influence of Inspection & Maintenance
The UKCS FPSO fleet is relatively you ng. An im p ortant conclu sion of the stu d y therefore w as that m ost of the failu res d iscu ssed occu rred in the early op erating years, before any insp ection p lan cou ld have d etected signs of d eterioration and before any m aintenance p lan cou ld realistically be exp ected to anticip ate the failu re. Desp ite all attemp ts to establish a linkage, insp ection and maintenance d id not featu re large in the history of failu res. Design and constru ction how ever w as a d om inant factor in the overw helming m ajority. This is not to say that I&M have not a cru cial role to p lay in d etecting and rectifying incip ient failu re. The safety of systems and equ ip m ent throu ghou t the op erational life of the installation w ill d ep end ever m ore on the m aintenance and insp ection fu nction being su itable and w ell imp lem ented . H ow ever I&M strategies tend to be based on an assu m p tion of com p etent d esign and constru ction. It shou ld therefore com e as little su rp rise that, w ith the excep tion of baseline insp ections, they have a p oor record in d etecting the consequ ences of inad equ ate d esign and careless w orkm anship .

3.1.2

Design
If insp ection and maintenance cannot p revent early life failu res, w hat p art can d esign and constru ction p lay? Almost all of the significan t, and exp ensive, failu res can be attribu ted to one or the other. The table below show s som e exam p les. Damage x x x x Bow d am age Caisson Dam age Flare Damage Tank d efects Cause Inad equ ate stru ctu ral d esign and inad equ ate consid eration of en vironm ental load ings Material Selection Inad equ ate stru ctu ral d esign and inad equ ate consid eration of en vironm ental load ings Inad equ ate consid eration of environ m ental load ings. Errors in d esign p rocess Unsatisfactory constru ction tech niqu es Site sp ecific load ings not anticip ated in d esign p rocess (this is p erh ap s the excep tion to the above ru le since the load ings had been consid ered comp etently. The ou tcom e w as som ething of an u nforeseen event.) x x x Breakd ow n of Coating System s Ru d d er & steering gear d am age Sw ivel d amage Poor ap p lication and p oor selection Inad equ ate consid eration of op erating and environm ental cond itions Develop ing technology

Ta b l e 2

De s i g n & Co n s t r u c t io n a s Co n t r ib u t o r y Fa c t o r s in Fa il u r e s

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3.1.3 Conversions
The fact that tw o converted vessels requ ired stru ctu ral m od ifications in service w ou ld ind icate that the stru ctu ral load ing sp ectru m encou ntered in FPSO service d ep arted to a significant d egree from that exp erienced d u ring relatively long p eriod s as trad ing tan kers. This how ever shou ld have been foreseen. It is acknow led ged that, being p erm anently stationed offshore, the FPSO su ffers a m ore onerou s fatigu e sp ectru m . For this reason, conventional ad vice is to imp rove local d etail d esign at the conversion stage, thereby enhancing fatigu e p erform ance. While all conversions u nd ergo rep airs in th e cou rse of conversion, many have had little or no fatigu e enhancem ent carried ou t.

3.1.4

New-build
Service exp erience show s little to choose betw een the overall p erform ance of p u rp ose-bu ilt FPSOs and those d evelop ed from sp ecu lative new-bu ild hu lls. In the case of the hu ll, both new and old vessels have exp erienced stru ctu ral failu res that w ou ld ind icate that sitesp ecific environm ental load ings are in excess of those p red icted by either the d esign or the hu ll strengthening rep ort. Op erators have long been ad vised to ap p ly site-sp ecific environm ental load ings d u ring the d esign p rocess. This is d ifficu lt, bu t not imp ossible, in the case of sp ecu lative bu ilt hu lls; however, it w as not im p lemented for at least one of the p u rp ose bu ilt hu lls. Accep ting that in real life there are no d efect-free stru ctu res, it s nevertheless consid ered likely that conscientiou s ap p lication of site sp ecific environm ental load ings w ill serve to p rod u ce more robu st and resp onsive d esigns.

3.1.5

Classification
Of the six vessels consid ered in d etail, all w ere constru cted u nd er su rvey by a classification society w ith on e being rem oved from class at the tim e of d elivery. It m ay be worth enqu iring as to the relevance of class for FPSOs. It s often stated that classification is a m inimu m stand ard for ship d esign. That vessels bu ilt to class ru les su ffer stru ctu ral failu re d oes not in itself u nd erm ine the su itability of the ru les. Where vessels are intend ed for p articu lar services, ad d itional requ irem ents m ay be ad op ted by, thou gh not im p osed u p on, the ow ner. Vessels intend ed for op eration in ice can for instance op t for one of three increasingly onerou s Ice Classes. Sim ilarly, some tanker ow ners have volu ntarily ad op ted ES (enhanced scantling) d escrip tive notations, ind icating that m aterial scantlin gs are in excess of ru le requ irem ents. It is u nclear to w hat extent FPSO op erators elect to imp ose stand ard s higher than the basic level. It s also w orth noting that the p rincip al comp laint abou t classification requ irem en ts is that they are too onerou s on op erating FPSOs, not too lenient.

3.1.5.1

Trends in Classification Ship Classification is circu m scribed by ad d itional requ irem ents, p articu larly those of the International Maritim e Organisation, IMO and of the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS). Both organisations rep resent very broad interests, inclu d ing ow ners, op erators, managers, and u nd erw riters.

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It is w orth noting therefore that IACS and IMO requ irem ents in resp ect of hu ll strength have grow n more onerou s over the p ast few years, e.g. 1. While som e FPSO op erators p u rsu e relatively bold insp ection strategies w ith everlengthening intervals, ow ners of classed tankers are n ow requ ired to carry ou t a d etailed assessm ent of the longitu d inal strength of th eir vessels after ten years. Bu lk carriers are now requ ired to consid er fore-end im p rovem ents to p rotect from green w ater. Like FPSOs, and u nlike m ost tankers, bu lk carriers have d eck-m ou nted equ ip m ent that is su bject to d am age by green w ater. Data is available 1 to ind icate that N E Atlantic m axim u m w ave heights have increased by as m u ch as 1.5 m over the p ast 20 years. Protection & Ind emnity 2 clu bs rep ort increased occu rrence of w eather d am age to vessels. FPSO op erators ad op t novel and som ew hat u ntried bow and hu ll d esigns, and su ffer d amage. There is a grow ing gap d evelop ing betw een ship p ing p ractice and that of FPSO op erators.

2.

3.

Classification ru les are continu ally being revised and d evelop ed in the face of increased technical challenges and yet th ere is a com mon com p laint that they are too inflexible for op erators. There is som e d iscu ssion that that Class is an in ad equ ate stand ard for FPSOs, yet the w ond er is that op erators find it is so d ifficu lt to achieve the stand ard s requ ired by class, never m ind exceed ing them . Class ru les certainly requ ire to be u p grad ed bu t no m atter w hich classification society is involved , th ey d o ap p ear to p rovid e an op p ortu nity for consistency and for p ooling exp erience.

3.1.6

Risk-based Maintenance
The im p ression w as gathered d u ring the stu d y that risk based maintenance w as seen as an op p ortu nity to red u ce the am ou nt of m aintenance need ed and w ith m inim al effort. This is an inherently u nsafe assu m p tion.

3.1.6.1

Elements of a Risk-based Strategy In ord er to have a p rop er risk-based system ; certain elements are requ ired , inclu d ing: xA system m od el, line list, asset inventory, d esign/ constru ction d ata, etc. xA failu re analysis, strength and fatigu e assessm ent, FMEA, etc. xA means of ranking the highest risk item s, xA Maintenance Schem e focu sed on the highest risks AN D the related failu re m od es, xA comp rehensive method for Event Id entification. Many risk-based strategies take a very op tim istic ap p roach to th e am ou nt of effort requ ired to carry ou t the above requ irem ents. It is therefore comm on to find th at the u nd erlying assessm ents p rovid e insu fficient d etail as to the typ es of d efects and the m eans of d etecting and m itigating failu res.

3.1.6.2

If not Risk-based, what? Practice is d ivid ed betw een Risk-based and Ru le-based . A d ifficu lty of the former is that the ou tp u t is sensitive to the risk assessm ent valu es and these valu es can be qu ite su bjective. A

1 Cotton, Challoner & others, (1999). JERICHO, Joint Evaluation of Remote Sensing Information for Coastal and Harbour Organisations, BNSC Earth Observation LINK Project, Final Report, Southampton Oceanography Centre. 2 North of England P & I Club, November 2001

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p roblem w ith the latter ap p roach is that Ru le-based strategies are, by d efinition, inflexible. An intermed iate strategy m ay offer an effective w ay forw ard . x Initial exam ination and resp onse to d evelop m ents can be largely d riven by generic recom m end ations, p ooling exp erience and learning from a large fleet and bringing in relevant p ractice from ou tsid e areas, e.g. tankers, foreign FPSOs, etc. Su bsequ ent tactics shou ld be d riven m ore d irectly by vesselsp ecific exp erience. Mod elling and analysis shou ld be aim ed at id entifying a rational, thou gh not necessarily a risk basis for exam ination and m aintenance. The form er is achievable, the latter not alw ays so.

x x

3.2 3.2.1

Ballast Systems, (Pipework, Tanks, Pumps and Control Systems) Pipework


Based on the d ata gathered , over 80% of op erators u se a nom inal 5-year risk-based insp ection cycle and u tilise both non-d estru ctive and visu al exam ination over this p eriod . The rem aind er u se risk-based techniqu es to extend insp ection intervals, in som e cases to seven years.

3.2.2

Tanks
Over 80% of op erators u se a 5 year cycle to p rogram their insp ection and m aintenance rou tines, u sing close visu al insp ections - generally involving rop e access - backed u p w ith u ltrasonic thickness m easu rem ent and su rface crack d etection in sp ecific areas. Tank coating and anod es are exam ined generally for p ercentage d eterioration. H ow ever over 16% of vessels are on a 7-year risk-based cycle. From this, it cou ld be inferred that som e of the tanks w ou ld not be insp ected u ntil the end of this p eriod . While this long interval might be ju stified as p art of an overall strategy, it offers no assu rance as to the effect on ind ivid u al tanks of any d eterioration attribu table to constru ction d efects or to u nforeseen p rocess effects. It s w orth bearing in m ind that p rocess cond itions on som e FPSOs are qu ite d ynam ic, w hile the corrosion m od els often lag far behind . There is therefore the d anger that neither insp ection nor m aintenance w ill intercep t a d eterioration p rocess in good tim e.

3.2.2.1

General Visual Examination (GVE) and Close Visual Inspection (CVI) The typ e of insp ection ad op ted by m ost resp ond ents is Close Visu al Insp ection (CVI) and not General Visu al Exam ination (GVE). This assertion is at variance w ith the exp erience of the au thors. CVI is d efined as a visu al examination carried ou t w ithin arms reach or the d istance at w hich a p erson w ou ld read a new sp ap er or book, illu m inated as necessary by torch or other light sou rce. GVE is d efined as a visu al exam ination of a sp ace as a w hole and at a d istance. While GVE w ill p erm it overall estim ation of coating failu re and bu ckling of large m em bers, it cannot be exp ected to reveal crack like d efects. There ap p ear to be a nu m ber of interp retations of CVI in u se among resp ond ents, m any of them vagu e. This d istinction is im p ortant since both techniqu es have their ad vantages. Consid er coatings and their im p ortance, esp ecially in w ater ballast sp aces. Trad itionally, vessel scantlings inclu d ed a margin that allow ed for u ncertainties and p rovid ed an effective corrosion allow ance at the d esign stage. This is seld om the case now. Vessel d esigns are now highly op timised and generally u se the m inim u m scantlings that the variou s class societies state in their ru les. Und er these circu m stances, th e coatings are now vital to the

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integrity of the steelw ork. GVE w ill often p rovid e ad equ ate assu rance of the overall cond ition of coatings. By com p arison, tearing of brackets and necking of stiffeners can be highly localised and w ill not be so ap p arent. If these d efects are to be located and assessed , CVI w ill be requ ired .

3.2.3

Pumps
The cu rrent p ractice on p u mp s is sp lit evenly betw een a 5-year p lanned m aintenance and insp ection cycle and continu ou s cond ition monitoring (CM), u sing vibration-m easu ring equ ip m ent. CM u su ally com p rises visu al exam inations w ith p erformance m onitoring and vibration m onitoring of one typ e or another. While bench marking for vibration m onitoring m ay be m ore d ifficu lt on converted tankers, service exp erience ind icates that a satisfactory d egree of ad vance w arning of failu re can be achieved . There w ere no rep orted su d d en failu res of system s m onitored in this w ay. The other general p ractice entails rou tine m aintenance, d ealing w ith tim e-based d eterioration of the equ ip m ent.

3.2.4

Control Systems
Again a 50/ 50 sp lit betw een a 5-year cycle and continu ou s m onitoring. Ongoing system and comp onent test rou tines ap p ear to be the norm and there w as little to d istingu ish betw een the chosen m ethod s other than the d egree of d iligence ap p lied to their imp lem entation.

3.3 3.3.1

Oil Storage System Pipework


The rep ort ind icated sim ilar u se of 5 and 7-year cycles for p lanned m aintenance and sim ilar u se of non-d estru ctive exam inations as for ballast system s. There w ere no rep orted cases of seriou s failu res. General p ractice involves rou tine m onitoring, intend ed to ensu re early d etection of d eterioration. 50% of op erators u se rad iograp h y to su p p lem ent visu al and u ltrasonic exam inations of this p ip ew ork, reflecting the higher level of risk p erceived for these system s.

3.3.2

Tanks
Over 65% of op erators u se a 5 year cycle w ith the rem aind er d ivid ed betw een 3, 7 and 10 years. Insp ection m ethod s are broad ly sim ilar to ballast tank insp ections w ith u ltrasonic gau ging of p lates and exam ination of coatings and anod e w astage. Initial exam ination p eriod s of u p to 10 years are view ed w ith som e d egree of ap p rehension by the au thors and for tw o reasons. First, if tanks are not insp ected fu lly w ithin the first 3 to 5 years of service, no base line can be established . Second , a strategy that d elays insp ection of a p articu lar tank for ten years im p lies a d egree of accu racy in the p red iction of the behaviou r of the stru ctu re, coatings, anod es, and attachm ents not otherw ise ju stified by exp erience. The strategy for exam ining cargo tanks was qu ite sim ilar to that ad op ted for ballast tanks. This ap p ears strange becau se, w hile both have sim ilar criticality in term s of hu ll gird er strength, they often have very d ifferent su scep tibilities to corrosion and they d iffer d ram atically in resp ect of the ease, exp ense, and im p lications of internal exam inations.

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Ballast tanks can generally be accessed with m inim al d isru p tion w hile entry into cargo tanks entails m ajor d isru p tion to, even su sp ension of, p rod u ction op erations. One m ight exp ect d ifferent ap p roach es, recognisin g d ifferent threats. 3.3.2.1 Slop Tanks Slop tanks tend to su ffer accelerated d eterioration and therefore w ou ld be exp ected to receive a greater level of insp ections than cargo tanks. This d eterioration is largely attribu table to the relatively high op erating tem p eratu res, the p resence of hot p rod u ced w ater and low oxygen levels, resu lting in instances of anaerobic su lp hid e red u cing bacteria (SRB). There w ere several known, and som e su sp ected , instances of d am age inclu d ing blistering and breakd ow n of coating and rap id w astage of steel. These p roblem s w ere exacerbated in the case of FPSO conversions w here, in some cases, the slop tanks received insu fficient attention d u ring the conversion to p rep are them for a d u ty cycle more onerou s than that exp erienced by the sam e tanks in conventional tanker service. Coating system s vary from simp le coal tar ep oxy to high-grad e tw o p art system s. It was not certain from the stu d y w hether the p red ominant factor in d eterminin g the su ccess of the coating system w as the choice of coatin g or the stand ard of ap p lication. Anecd otal evid ence ind icates that normal ship yard stand ard s of p rep aration and ap p lication w ill not ensu re ad equ ate lifetim e p erformance in su ch a p rod u ction-critical and stru ctu rally critical area. Slop tanks are generally d ifficu lt to isolate and to enter. This has d riven som e op erators to em p loy external m eans of exam ination, u tilising thickness m easu rement at accessible bou nd aries in ord er to interp ret the cond ition of the inaccessible bou nd aries, i.e. m easu rem ent throu gh the forw ard cargo tank bu lkhead and throu gh the after p u mp room bu lkhead , p articu larly at the bottom. There w as a certain resignation at the instances of failu re in slop tanks. The failu re m echanism is w ell u nd erstood and the cu re reasonably simp le, how ever m aintenance team s are hamp ered by p oor initial d esign, first in failing to am eliorate the op erating cond itions and second in p rovid ing inad equ ate facilities for isolation and rep air of the tank. The knock on effect on p rod u ction of entering slop tanks for either su rvey or rep air is noted as a m ajor p roblem for maintenance staff. Cargo Oil tanks are u su ally p artially coated w ith a fu ll coating sp ecified for the bottom 3m and top 3m .

3.3.3

Pump & Control Systems


The system emp loyed is sim ilar to that u sed on the ballast system.

3.4

Hull
External insp ections of the hu ll, w ind and w ater areas, sea chests and th e tu rret vary am ong the op erators. 30% op erate a 2-year cycle, wh ich equ ates to the m and atory International Maritim e Organisations (IMO) requ irem ent for In-Water Su rvey tw ice in 5 years. 30% insp ect on an annu al basis. The rem aind er w ere a little u nclear as to w hat they actu ally d o. All op erators u se sim ilar insp ection techniqu es, external exam inations via an ROV, coating and anod e insp ections, close visu al exam ination. The p rim ary d ifference is in the frequ ency at w hich these activities take p lace. All op erators insp ect tu rrets at least annu ally, w ith the extent of exam ination largely governed by m atters of ROV access. Imp ressed Cu rrent Protection, w here fitted , is u su ally m onitored continu ou sly.

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3.4.1 Steering Gear, Thrusters
It w as su rp rising to find that thru ster motors and steering gear shou ld have featu red in the failu re record s: both system s being p ractically red u nd ant on all bu t one of the vessels consid ered . With m aintenance and insp ection bu d gets u nd er constant p ressu re, it is d isap p ointing to have to com mit resou rces to m anaging system s with little or no op erational fu nction. H yd rau lic locking of steering gear is never ad visable. While the relief valves w ill p erm it the ru d d er to give u nd er w ave load ing, there is then no m eans of recovering p osition. The next w ave can then force the tiller against its stop s and can cau se severe d am age, even amou nting to total failu re of the steering gear. After the Am oco Cad iz d isaster in the 1970s, m echanical stop s w ere requ ired in ord er to restrain the ru d d er in the event of hyd rau lic failu re. Given the p hysical size of steering gears and the cond itions u nd er w hich these stop s m ight be called u p on, these m echanical stop s have p rovid ed far m ore p sychological than p hysical secu rity. It is d ifficu lt to conceive of a situ ation w here it w ou ld be feasible to install these d evices in the event of failu re. Mu ch is m ad e of the contention that ru d d ers exp erience greater forces in FPSO service than in tanker service. This ignores the fact that the ru d d er failu res encou ntered have been as a resu lt of single ep isod es, rath er than cu mu lative effects. Su ch instances of steering gear overload are an u nnerving, bu t not entirely u nu su al, occu rrence on ship s; how ever they rarely resu lt in d am age to the steering gear since the system s d esign ed to yield to the forces and then to recover. The situ ation regard ing thru sters ap p ears equ ivocal. Som e vessels have no p rovision, som e have p rovision, bu t have not fitted them, and som e vessels have them fitted bu t are u nable to maintain p osition by u sing thru sters alone. Tw o instances w ere d iscu ssed in the cou rse of the stu d y: one w here a sw ivel bearin g failed and one w here it w as requ ired to examine the sp id er at close range. In both cases, a tu g w as chartered to maintain the vessel on station. Over the range of vessels consid ered , it is qu estionable w hether the comp lication or exp ense of installing or maintaining thru sters is ju stified .

3.5

Caissons
N ot all vessels have caissons: of those that have, tw o u se a 5-year insp ection cycle and one 4 years. Insp ections are close visu al, su p p lem ented by u ltrasonic and ROV insp ections. One op erator has a p rogram m e to m onitor coatings and anod es. The only rep orted failu re w as d u e to a high p otential d ifference betw een a p u m p bod y and the caisson m aterial. This shou ld have been anticip ated at the d esign stage when selecting the m aterials to be u sed .

3.6

Deck Structures, Pallets, walkways, and upper deck plating


Insp ection cycles vary w ith 33% of op erators u sing a 5-year cycle, 33% a 1-year cycle and 33% u sing a 2 to 3-year cycle. Visu al exam inations and coating insp ections are the normal insp ection m ethod s. All op erators check the u p p er d eck thickness w ith u ltrasonic, bu t the frequ ency varies as above. Where cracking has been fou nd , it has generally been attribu ted to inad equ ate d esign or installation. Althou gh rep airs are norm ally relatively minor in scale, they can be d ifficu lt to achieve w ith the u nit in p rod u ction.

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3.7 Tank Venting System, Pipework, PV Valves and Seals
Insp ection cycles are evenly sp lit betw een 5 & 3 years. Close visu al insp ections and u ltrasonic w ou ld ap p ear to be the p rim ary insp ection m ethod s. UT is u sed to check p ip e thickness in m any, bu t by no m eans all cases. One op erator has a test p rogram m e for p ressu re testing p ip ew ork and valves. Maintenance of seals and Pressu re/ Vacu u m (P/ V) Valves ap p ears to be w ell ad d ressed in all cases. Op erational lessons ap p ear to have been learned from an incid ent of tank bu ckling som e years ago.

3.8

Cranes
Cranes rep resent a significant safety risk and are comp lex, involving significant m echanical, stru ctu ral, and control and safety asp ects. The m aintenance and insp ection arrangem ents w ere how ever fou nd to be the most com p rehensive and consistent. The u se of a small nu m ber of sp ecialist p rovid ers ap p ears to be a critical factor. Systems, record s, incid ent rep orts, lessons learn ed , etc., all ap p ear to be m anaged com p etently. The m aintenance criteria inclu d e comp liance w ith the requ irem ents of LOLER, SI 1998/ 2307, and variou s classification requ irem ents. All op erators carry ou t rocking tests and grease analysis of slew rings as a m atter of rou tine.

3.9

Thrusters
Three op erators u se a 5-year cycle; one u ses a 2- year cycle and the rem aind er an annu al cycle. In som e cases, fu nction tests are carried ou t w eekly and oil analysis comp leted w here facilities p erm it. Vibration m onitoring equ ip m ent is installed in som e instances and ROV insp ections carried ou t on others. Their location and relative inaccessibility normally p reclu d es intru sive w ork. Most op erators h ave p lans in p lace to d eal w ith su d d en breakd ow n or failu re, u sin g tu gs w here necessary. Tw o op erators rep orted instances of thru ster m otor failu re d u e to thru st bearing failu re. Being inactive for long p eriod s, these motors are su bject to brinelling effects. In one case the coverage of vibration m onitoring w as increased to inclu d e these m otors after the event.

3.10 Swivels and Drag-Chains


The insp ection of sw ivels and d rag chains falls into tw o m ain categories. Three op erators op t for annu al visu al exam inations, w ith ROVs for u nd erw ater sections. Tw o have a 3-year cycle and one op erator has a 5-year cycle. At least one op erator has had to renew a set of swivel seals d u e to ingress of salt and grit p articles. The exercise involved fitting a m ore robu st system, im p lying that the original d esign m ay not have been equ al to the service requ irem ent.

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4 Recommended Practice
4.1 4.1.1 Ballast Systems Pipework
If comp leted to a comp rehensive m aintenance p lan, the 5-year cycle w ou ld be an accep table strategy tow ard ensu ring early d etection of w astage and assu rance that the system s rem ain effective.

4.1.2

Ballast Tanks
Best p ractice w ou ld ap p ear to be to u nd erstand the threats to the integrity of the tank stru ctu re and the p red ictive resp onse of the stru ctu re, then to tailor the insp ection strategy to these threats. The extent of the analysis shou ld be su fficient to id entify and rank critical highly stressed areas of the stru ctu re as w ell as fatigu e sensitive locations. The follow ing are recom m end ed : a. b. Carry ou t a fu ll GVE of all tanks w ithin the first 5 years to p rovid e a baseline for the vessel in term s of d esign and bu ild qu ality Ensu re comp lete coating of ballast tank internals: p referably ligh t colou red or w hite. This w ill p rovid e a high contrast backgrou nd and allow rap id d etection of coating breakd ow n, incip ient cracking, and blisterin g. Ensu re that ed d y cu rrent d etection is available as a first-line assessm ent tool. If there is no ed d y cu rrent ind ication, there is seld om need for fu rther investigation.

c.

d . Ensu re tanks are com p letely strip p ed p rior to entry. This w ill sp eed examination of tank bottoms, p articu larly in w ay of bell m ou ths and m ou se holes. e. Provid e good lighting, either installed or p ortable. This is seld om a consid eration on tankers since the tim e elem ent w hen carrying ou t su rveys is not so critical, w hereas the d eferm ent cost of FPSO tank entry is p articu larly high. Bear in m ind that air-d riven lanterns can be d ifficu lt to m anoeu vre w ith ease and m ore inventive lighting solu tions shou ld be consid ered .

With the above m easu res, it will generally be p ossible to carry ou t a comp rehen sive examination and to have a high d egree of confid ence in the resu lts, in term s of bu ckling, tearing, cracking, coating d am age and anod e w astage. Thereafter examination intervals can be ad ju sted to take accou nt of the tank cond itions.

4.1.3

Ballast Pumps
On the basis of th e resu lts of this stu d y, either m ethod cou ld be view ed as good p ractice, best p ractice being very mu ch a m atter of choice for ind ivid u al op erators. Where CM equ ip m ent is fitted how ever, it w ou ld be w orthw hile re-visiting the scop e of equ ip m ent covered by the system .

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4.1.4 Ballast Controls
Observe testing and insp ection rou tines rigorou sly and rectify d efects at the comp onent level, before they escalate to system d eterioration.

4.2 4.2.1

Cargo Systems Pipework


If comp leted to a comp rehensive m aintenance p lan, the 5-year cycle w ou ld be an accep table strategy tow ard ensu ring early d etection of w astage and p rovid ing assu rance that the system s rem ain effective. In ad d ition an annu al external exam ination of the d eck lines shou ld be carried ou t to d etect breakd ow n of coating system s.

4.2.2

Cargo Tanks
Best p ractice w ou ld be first of all to u nd erstand the criticality of cargo tanks, both in terms of the associated safety risks and of the all-u p cost of intervention, i.e. isolation, d eferm ent m anp ow er, p rep aration and reinstatem ent. The insp ection and m aintenance strategy shou ld acknowled ge these risks and costs. The following are recom m end ed : a. The insp ection strategy shou ld be fou nd ed on u nd erstand ing the threats to the integrity of the tank stru ctu re and on p red icting the resp onse of the stru ctu re. The insp ection p lan shou ld then be tailored to these threats. The extent of the analysis shou ld be su fficient to id entify and rank critical areas of stress in the stru ctu re as w ell as fatigu e sensitive locations. Provid e a flexible and com p rehensive m eans of isolating, inerting, and ventilating ind ivid u al tanks. Trad itional tanker p ractice w ill generally be insu fficient for this p u rp ose since FPSOs su ffer from d ifferent tim e and resou rce constraints in exam ining tanks. It shou ld be p ossible, at th e least, to isolate two ad jacent tanks withou t having to shu t d ow n p rod u ction. Carry ou t a fu ll assessm ent of all tanks w ithin the first 5 years to p rovid e a baseline for the vessel in term s of d esign and bu ild qu ality. This shou ld inclu d e visu al exam ination to an ap p rop riate extent to establish actu al cond itions at each frame interval along the cargo area. There may be a case for inferring the cond ition of a p ort tank from th e starboard and vice versa. Where p ossible, u se high contrast coating on tank bottom and roof. This w ill allow rap id d etection of coating breakd ow n, incip ient cracking and blistering.

b.

f.

g.

h. Ensu re that ed d y cu rrent d etection is available as a first-line assessm ent tool. i. j. Ensu re tanks are com p letely strip p ed p rior to entry. This w ill sp eed examination of tank bottoms, p articu larly in w ay of bellm ou ths and m ou se holes. Ensu re that tan ks are clean p rior to entry. This can best be achieved by retaining, m aintaining and op erating tank-cleaning system s. This p ractice has the ad d itional ad vantage of p reventing the bu ild -u p of slu d ge, w ith the associated risk of SRB attack. Provid e good p ortable lighting. Tank entry d u ration can be shortened consid erably by this sim p le m easu re.

k.

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With the above m easu res, it will generally be p ossible to carry ou t a comp rehen sive examination and to have a high d egree of confid ence in the resu lts, in term s of bu ckling, tearing, cracking, coating d am age and anod e w astage. Thereafter examination intervals can be ad ju sted to take accou nt of the tank cond itions.

4.2.3

Pumps, Controls
Recomm end ed p ractice is similar to that emp loyed on Ballast systems.

4.3

Hull
Best p ractice is consid ered a 2-year ROV insp ection, m easu ring hu ll p otential. Op erators shou ld have a m eans of cleaning sea chests grid s and shou ld retain blanking arrangem ents for sea valve m aintenance. Consid eration shou ld be given to rem oving item s d u ring conversion w hich are u nlikely to be u sed ru d d ers, p rop ellers etc.

4.3.1

Steering Gear
Unless th ere are convincing op erational reasons to retain, ru d d ers shou ld be rem oved if p ossible. If they are retained , best p ractice w ill be to keep steering motors ru nning. The d esign of the steering gear allow s for the effect of w ave slam and w ill p erm it the ru d d er to both give u nd er w ave load ing and to recover after im p act.

4.4

Caissons
A p rogram of thickness d eterm ination, u sin g variations on riser insp ection tools, can p rovid e early d etection of w astage. Wastage rates can how ever be excep tionally high and the cost of intervention m eans that a materials review wou ld be recom m end ed , taking ap p rop riate action in resp ect of material change ou t insu lation, shield ing or other p reventive m easu res.

4.5

Deck Structures, Pallets, walkways, and upper deck plating


GVE is u su ally ad equ ate, w ith su p p lem entary Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of m ain d eck p lating.

4.6

Tank Venting System, Pipework, PV Valves and Seals


Conventional techniqu es for examining and m aintaining these system s ap p ear ad equ ate. It is im p ortant how ever to continu e to stress the criticality of these system s in relation to hu ll strength, fire and exp losion.

4.7

Cranes
Total Vend or Maintenance p rogram s are recom m end ed . Service exp erience here u nd erlines the benefits of em p loying exp erts w ith the associated critical m ass in investm ent in technology and training.

4.8

Swivels, Drag-Chains
While sw ivel seal and bearing failu res have been encou ntered , th ere w as little inform ation available from w hich to d raw gen eric lessons. As both system s m ay be consid ered to be based on p rop rietary d esigns, m anu factu rer ad vice w ou ld ap p ear to constitu te best p ractice at p resent.

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Given the severe consequ ences of seal failu re, it is recomm end ed that the criticality of seal m onitoring and p rotection system s head er tanks, p ressu risation systems, etc. be review ed .

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FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance


Average Inspection Interval (months)

Ultrasonic Examination

General Examination

Coating Examination

ROV Examination

Anode Inspection

General Visual

Vibr Monitoring

Close Visual

Radiography

System

Component 60 GRP Cunifer Pipework Tanks Carbon Steel WB Tanks WB Tanks Forepeak Forepeak Afterpeak Afterpeak Pumps Control Systems Pipework Carbon Steel Cargo Tanks Cargo Tanks 48 48 54 54 12 0 54 12 0 54 12 0 25 34 54 53 12 0 43 12 0 25 27 Continuous Survey Hull Subsea External Sea Chests Sea Chests Turret Cathodic Protection External Wind & Water Area 72 30 33 45 27 30 25 52 Pallets 33 33 38 19 Pipework P/V Valves Seals 50 34 26 42 3 6 33 21 Swivels - Leak recuperation 1 54 60 33 33 % 33 % 33 % 33 % 3 3% 3 3% 3 3% 3 3% 33 % 6 7% 8 3% 6 7% 3 3% 17 % 1 7% 33 % 1 00 % 1 7% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 3 3% 3 3% 10 0% 8 3% 8 3% 17 % 17 % Walkways Deck Plating 1 0 0% 3 3% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 10 0% 1 7% 3 3% 3 3% 8 3% 1 7% 1 0 0% 8 3% 8 3% 1 00 % 33 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 1 00 % 50 % 83 % 8 3% 8 3% 10 0 % 1 00 % 1 00 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 6 7% 1 7% 1 0 0% 8 3% 1 7% 8 3% 1 7% 8 3% 1 7% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 1 0 0% 8 3% 1 7% 8 3% 1 7% 8 3% 1 0 0% 8 3% 1 00 % 8 3% 8 3% 1 00 % 8 3% 8 3% 5 0% 8 3% 1 00 % 10 0% 1 00 % 10 0% 8 3% 1 00 % 1 00 % 17 % 10 0% 8 3% 1 00 % 1 00 % 17 % 8 3% 10 0% 3 3% 8 3% 1 00 % 1 00 % 17 % 17 %

Ballast Water System

Oil Storage System Tanks Pumps Control Systems Tanks & Above Water

Slops Tanks Slops Tanks

Hull

Internal

Caissons Deck structures Tank Venting System

Cranes Thrusters

Grease Sampling Rocking Test

Swivels & Drag Chains

Swivels - Instrumentation Swivel Stack (mechanical) Chains / stoppers / anchors

Table 3 Application of Maintenance and Inspection Techniques on FPSOs

MPI

The table above gives an ind ication of the range of generic techniqu es ap p lied to IRM on FPSOs. The conclu sion is that, w hile there are som e ou tlying cases, op erators are relatively consistent in their p ractices. The table also ind icates that general p ractice rem ains relatively conservative d esp ite the ap p arent novelty of some riskbased strategies. This wou ld ap p ear to leave am p le scop e for d evelop m ent and im p rovem ent.

This table considers six vessels. The percentage figures relate to the number of vessels, not the number of owners/operators

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System Test

Rocking Test

Grease Analysis

FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance

5 Suppliers and Repairers


Ap p end ix A contains a list of IRM p rovid ers. The list is not extensive bu t it serves to illu strate a range of service organisations w ith d irect exp erience of in-service rep air to FPSOs.

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FPSO Inspection Repair & Maintenance

Appendix A List of Repairers

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List of Repair Organisations

Su inBsPce tdt e rac yo t t i

List of Repair Organisations

Glasgow

AJT Engineering Ltd

G52 4PQ Craigshaw Crescent West Tullos Industrial Estate Aberdeen AB12 3TB 6 Wellheads Road Farburn Industrial Estate Aberdeen AB21 7HG Unit 4 Howe Moss Avenue Kirkhill Industrial Estate Dyce Aberdeen AB21 0GP Hydropark Tern Place, Denmore Road Aberdeen AB23 8JX Howe Moss Crescent Kirkhill Industrial Estate Aberdeen AB21 0GN Pitmedden Road Dyce Aberdeen AB21 0DP Blackburn Industrial Estate Kinellar Aberdeen AB21 0RK Greenbank Crescent East Tullos Aberdeen AB12 3BG

+44 (0) 1224 871791

+44 (0) 1224 890251

Alfa Laval Ltd., Oilfield Division

+44 (0) 1224 424300

+44 (0) 1224 725213

Caledonian Petroleum Services Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 725345

+44 (0) 1224 725406

Grayloc

+44 (0) 1224 222790

+44 (0) 1224 222780

Hydra Tight Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 770739

+44 (0) 1224 724175

Mach-Ten Offshore Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 773565

+44 (0) 1224 773568

Micron Eagle Hydraulics Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 790970

+44 (0) 1224 790970

S&D Fabrications Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 895564

+44 (0) 1224 899065

Schoolhill Hydraulic Engineering Co Ltd Transmark Valves Ltd

3 Greenbank Place East Tullos Aberdeen AB12 3RJ Anglian Lane Bury St Edmunds Suffolk IP32 6SR Hindwells Stonehaven Kincardineshire AB39 3UT

+44 (0) 1224 871086

+44 (0) 1224 897135

+44 (0) 1284 701206

+44 (0) 1284 705596

Whittaker Engineering

+44 (0) 1569 762018

+44 (0) 1569 766701

List of Repair Organisations

Pumps
Centrilift
Howe Moss Drive Kirkhill Industrial Estate Aberdeen AB21 0ES Unit 1, The Meadows Oldmeldrum Aberdeenshire AB51 0EZ CH - 8023 Zurich Switzerland 149 Newlands Road Cathcart Glasgow G44 4EX +41 / 1- 278 29 89 +44 (0) 1224 772233 +44 (0) 1224 771021

Buchan Technical Services

+44 (0) 1651 872130

+44 (0) 1651 872133

Sulzer Turbo Ltd

+41 / 1-278 22 11

Weir Pumps Ltd

+44 (0) 141 637 7141

+44 (0) 141 637 7358

ShipRepairers & Marine Engineers


Aker McNulty Ltd
Commercial Road South Shields Tyne & Wear NE33 1RZ PO Box 10 05 26 D - 20004 Hamburg PO Box 11.3100 AA Schiedam The Netherlands P de la Castellana, 55 28046 Madrid PO Box 4 Logans Road Motherwell ML1 3NP PO Box 1001 3180 AA Rozenburg The Netherlands NOORDHOEK Offshore B.V. Industrieweg 23-29 4301 RS Zierikzeehe Netherlands P.O. Box 200 4300 AE Zierikzee The Netherlands Glasgow Road Deanside Renfrew PA4 8XZ PO Box 18 Loughborough Leics. +31(0)111 456000 +31(0)111 456001 info@noordhoek.net +44 (0) 191 401 5800 +44 (0) 191 401 5802

Blohm & Voss Repair Gmbh Gusto Engineering Izar

+49 (40) 31 19 8000 +31 10 10 2466800 +34 91 335 8467

+49 (40) 31 19-3305 +31 10 2466900

+34 91 335 8638

Motherwell Bridge Group

+44 (0) 1698 266111

+44 (0) 1697 269774

Verolme Botlek bv

+31 181 234300

+31 181 234346

Thrusters / Electrical
Balfour Kilpatrick Ltd
+44 (0) 141 885 4321 +44 (0) 141 0717

Brush Electrical Machines Ltd

+44 (0) 1509 611511

+44 (0) 1509 610440

List of Repair Organisations

Deebridge Electrical Engineers Ltd

LE11 1HJ Craigshaw Road West Tullos Industrial Estate, Tullos Aberdeen AB12 3AR Lochlands Industrial Estate Larbert Central FK5 3NS Campus 1 Science & Technology Park Bridge of Don Aberdeen AB22 8GT Wrecclesham Farnham Surrey GU10 4JS Hareness Road Altens Aberdeen AB12 3LE Howe Moss Drive Kirkhill Industrial Estate Dyce Aberdeen AB21 0GL Wrecclesham Farburn Terrace Dyce Aberdeen Unit 8 Woodlands Drive Kirkhill Industrial Estate Dyce Aberdeen AB21 0GW Unit 2 Howe Moss Drive Kirkhill Industrial Estate Dyce Aberdeen

+44 (0) 1224 871548

+44 (0) 1224 899910

Dowding & Mills (Scotland) Ltd Kongsberg Simrad

+44 (0) 1324 556511

+44 (0) 1324 552830

+44 (0) 1224 226500

+44 (0) 1224 226501

Stephenson Marine

+44 (0) 1252 714199

+44 (0) 1252 733662

Inspection/Repair General
CAN Offshore
+44 (0) 1224 870100 +44 (0) 12224 870101

Also offer riser inspection tool for caissons, as well as risers

CORE Technical Services

+44 (0) 1224 771118

+44 (0) 1224 771112

E M & I Marine Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 771077

+44 (0) 1224 771049

Hi-Rope

+44 (0) 1224 772161

+44 (0) 1224 772156

TRAC International Ltd

+44 (0) 1224 725800

+44 (0) 1224 725801

Appendix B Blank Questionnaire

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e `

Location (Block No.) Field Name License Holder Operator Owner Duty Holder Age (years from New Build/Conversion) FPSO Name

*XLGDQFH RQ &RPSOHWLQJ WKH 4XHVWLRQQDLUH Build Conversion

FPSO IRM Questionnaire


System Can maintenance and inspection routines be made available (yes / no) Manufacturers Recommendations Operational Experience Risk -Based Class Require ments How was the maintenance and inspection regime derived (tick more than one box if applicable)? Major failures / repairs encountered (yes / no) Note : for each major failure / repair please complete the failure/repair questionnaire Do you uses Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) in your maintenanc e strategy Do you use Reliability Centred Maintenanc e (RCM) in your maintenanc e strategy Do you use condition monitoring in your maintenance strategy

1. 2.

Thrusters Ballast & Cargo Systems Pipework Pumps Control Systems Tank Venting Systems Swivels & drag chains Hull External (including sea-chests and discharges) Hull Internal (Tanks, Frames, Stringers, etc.) Deck Structures (including protection against green water damage) Caisson systems Cranes

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

M a i n t e n a n c e Sy s t e m
Who manages maintenance for the installation Who manages repairs for the installation List any significant changes to your Maintenance Strategy, if any Note 1 9 relates to the systems listed on Page 2 Did you originally use vendors/OEMs to service the systems, i.e. during warranty period Do you still use vendors to service the system If not, why not Do you use campaign maintenance squads Where Do you have Health-Care contracts in place for any of the systems Why Have you changed your vendor/campaign strategy Why Do you have a Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) Philosophy If so, what is it based on Who manages inspection In respect of the systems below, do the following factors influence Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Operability 1. Thrusters 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hull Internal Cargo & Ballast Systems Tank Venting Swivels, Drag Chains Hull External Deck Structures Caissons Cranes
Weather

Vessel Motion

Vibration

Access

Design

Material Selection / Corrosion

Others (Please Specify)

Comments Note Availability Reliability Operability Maintainability The matrix above should be filled in with respect to the effect that the items in the horizontal row (a to g) have on the items in the vertical column (1 to 9). (Total Hrs in Period (Scheduled Downtime + Unscheduled Downtime))/ Total Hrs in Period (Total Hrs in Period Unscheduled Downtime)/ Total Hrs in Period The degree to which the operation of the system is influenced by the factor, e.g. weather, vibration, etc. The degree to which the ease of maintenance of the system is influenced by the factor, e.g. weather, vibration, etc.

Fa i l u r e s / Re p a i r s 1
I n r e s pe c t of s y s t e m f a i lu r es in t h e a re a s of in t e re st o n Pa g e 2 a b o v e

Identify the component that failed What was the root cause What was the consequence of failure (tick more than one box if applicable) Safety or Environmental Incident Lost Production - number days lost production High Repair Cost - cost of repair Was a Repair/Reinstatement carried out (provide details of the repair on separate sheet) Like for like Re-design Could the failure have been prevented by Maintenance or foreseen by Inspection Was the failure

Peculiar to FPSOs Generic to Oil & Gas installations

In the course of the repair/reinstatement, were you aware of any conflict between

Verification and Classification Verification & North Sea Practice

Was the repair successful Who carried out the repair Has the failure driven a change to your Inspection or Maintenance practice What inspection and maintenance techniques have you adopted to monitor / prevent the failure from recurring Were repairs/reinstatement carried out by

Vendor/OEM Main contractor Specialist Contractor Local Vendor/Non-Specialist Contractor

What recommendations did you feed back into design to eliminate these failures Have you an established Lessons Learned/ Good Engineering Practice system to capture this information Is this information available Internally Is this information available Externally

Related Interests