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Air Conditioning Systems Student Resource Package No: NR71314

Nominal Student Hours: Delivery: 72 Hours.


Competence in this training program can be achieved through either a formal education setting or in the workplace environment.

Recognition of Prior Learning:

The student/candidate may be granted recognition of prior learning if the evidence presented is authentic and valid which covers the content as laid out in this package. This package provides the student with the underpinning knowledge and skills to install, commission, service and fault find residential and commercial air conditioning systems. Australian Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Vol 1&2. Various Manufacturers Service and Installation Manuals.

Package Purpose:

Suggested Resources:

Assessment Strategy:

The assessment of this package is holistic in nature and requires the demonstration of the knowledge and skills identified in the student package content summary. To be successful in this package the student must show evidence of achievement in accordance with the package

Competence:

This package should be supported by workplace exposure to the various applications under the guidance of a licensed mentor.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2006 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, P. Lamond, G. Riach & R. Baker

Additional Resources:
Dossat Roy J., Horan Thomas J., Principles of Refrigeration, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall Kissel, Thomas, Motors, Control and Circuits for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems, Reston Publication Co. Inc. 1992. Langley B.C., Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Reston Publishing Co. Inc., 1986. AS 1101.5 Piping, Ducting and Mechanical Services for Buildings. AS 2913:1987 Evaporative Air Conditioning Equipment. AS 2991.1:1987 Acoustics Method for the Determination of Airborne Noise Emitted by Household and Similar Electrical Appliances. AS 3179:1993 Approval and Test Specification, Refrigerated Room Air Conditioners. AS / NZS 1668.1 - Fire and Smoke Control in Multi Compartment Buildings. AS / NZS 1668.2 Mechanical Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. AS / NZS 3000:2000 - Electrical Installation Wiring Rules. AS / NZS 3008 - Cables AS / NZS 3666.1, 2 and 3 - Air Handling and Water Systems in Buildings Microbial Control. NSW Code of Practice for the Control of Legionnaires Disease. NSW Ozone Protection Act, 1989, (As a 22 December 1999). NSW Ozone Protection Regulation, 1997, (As at 31 August 2004). NSW Public Health Act. SAA HB40.1 and 2:2001, Australian Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Code of Practice. SAA / NZ HB32 - Control of Microbial Growth in Air Handling and Water Systems of Buildings. Standards Australia, Residential Air Conditioning Code of Good Practice, 1997.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Videos:
Air Conditioning; TAFE SA Cat No 84.06 (8 mins) Air Conditioning Commissioning; TAFE SA Cat No.88.024 (12 min 38 sec) Air Conditioning Maintenance; TAFE SA Cat No.88.00 (8 min) Fan Installation; TAFE SA Cat No 84.065 (11 min) Fans and Airflow; TAFE SA Cat No 88.007 (12 min) Filters; TAFE SA Cat No 8.003 (9 min) Instruments Air Flow Measurement; TAFE SA Cat No 84.069 (11 min) Reading Site Drawings (Air Conditioning); TAFE SA Cat No.88.024 (5 min) Reverse Cycle Air Conditioning; TAFE SA Cat No.88.070 (6 min) Sounds Like Noise; TAFE SA Cat No 84.066 (8 min) 1, 2, 3 The Chilling Factor; TAFE SA Cat No.94.03 (14 min)

Assessment:
Grade Code: 72 GRADE DISTINCTION CREDIT PASS CLASS MARK (%) >=83 >=70 >=50

Assessment Events:
1. 2. 3. Residential Air Conditioning Theory Test Assignment Ventilation Commercial Air Conditioning Theory Test Total Marks: Theory Tests: 20% 20% 30% 30% 100%

Short answer Questions / electrical drawings This assessment covers the contents of this student resource package.
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Content Summary:
Assignment: Residential Air Conditioning. Occupational Health Requirements, the Codes, the Standard, the Act and Regulations. Residential Air Conditioning Systems Types of Residential Air Conditioning Systems Typical Wiring Diagram Room Air Conditioner (RAC) Split Systems Ducted Systems Package Systems Cassette Systems Evaporative Systems Air Distribution ARAC Heat Load Calculations Sizing of the System Cooling Load Estimator Calculating the Residential Air Conditioning System Capacity Air Flow Rates Supply Air Register & Duct Sizes Duct Sizes Ventilation Sick Building Syndrome Legionella Bacteria Office Buildings Mode of Transmission Prevention and Control of Legionellosis in Office Buildings The Process of Air Conditioning Ventilation Natural Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation Test Equipment Terms Associated with Air Distribution Practical Exercise: Air Balancing
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6 7 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 38 42 43

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

The Underlying Principles of Air Distribution Noise Draughts Air Stratification Ducting Dampers Fans & Fan Laws Filtration Air Conditioning Systems Air Conditioning Fundamentals Psychrometrics Package (Unitary) Units Heat Load Estimating Evaporative Coolers Central Plant Systems Heating Systems Humidification Systems Thermal Storage Systems Specialised Systems

44 44 45 45 49 53 59 64 70 70 86 109 116 124 154 164 170 176

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Residential Air Conditioning Assignment


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Draw a plan of a residential home with at least three bedrooms to be air conditioned with a split duct AC system. Determine the required cooling capacity for the residence specifying the indoor and outdoor conditions. Select a suitable split ducted air conditioning system that will have sufficient capacity for the application. On the house plan show the position of both the fan coil unit and the condensing unit. Design the supply and return air ducting for the system and show layout with all sizes on the plan. Include all sizing of supply diffusers and return air grille. Select suitable pipe sizes for the suction, liquid and condensate lines, showing all calculations and layout on the plan Prepare an electrical wiring diagram for the system indicating all field wiring that is required for both power supply and controls. Prepare a materials list for all equipment and materials that is required to complete the installation. Prepare a costing estimate including all equipment, materials and labour that is required to complete the installation. In total, a minimum of five plans of the residence will be required: Base plan. Location of fan coil unit and condensing unit. Duct layout showing sizes of ducts, supply air diffusers and return air grille. (This may be divided into two plans one for duct layout, the second for supply air diffuser and return air grille locations). Piping layout. Electrical layout.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Occupational Health Requirements, the Codes, the Standard, the Act and Regulations.
Occupational Health Requirements, the Codes, the Standard, the Act and Regulations are used to provide a standard set of guidelines which you must follow. The following codes are only a sample of the many codes that outline the standards that must be observed. AS 1668.1 - Fire and smoke control in multi compartment buildings. This code sets out the minimum requirements for the design, construction, installation and commissioning of mechanical and air conditioning systems for fire and smoke control in multi compartment buildings. AS 1668.2 Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. Sets out the requirements for air-handling systems that ventilate enclosures by mechanical means. It sets minimum requirements for preventing an excess accumulation of airborne contaminants or objectionable odours. AS 1668.2 Supp1:1991- Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality Commentary (supplements to AS 1668.2 -1991). Provides guidance in the application of the Code by explaining the intent of those clauses that could be subject of requests of interpretation. AS / NZS 3000:2000, Electrical Installation Wiring Rules. Provides requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment and design and testing of electrical installations, especially with regards to the essential requirements for safety of persons and livestock from physical injury, fire or electric shock. AS/ NZS 3666.1 Design, installation and commissioning This code outlines the minimum requirements for the design, installation and commissioning of air handling and water systems in buildings to assist in the control of micro-organisms, particularly those associated with Legionnaires Disease etc. AS/ NZS 3666.2 Operation and maintenance This code outlines the minimum requirements for the operation and maintenance of air handling and water systems in buildings to assist in the control of microorganisms, particularly those associated with Legionnaires Disease etc. AS/ NZS 3666.3 Performance-based maintenance of cooling water systems Outlines a performance-based approach to the maintenance of cooling water systems with respect to the control of micro-organisms, including water treatment with monitoring, and assessment and control strategies to help create a low risk environment within the cooling water system. NSW Ozone Protection Act, 1989. An Act to empower the regulation and prohibition of the manufacture, sale, distribution, use, emission, re-cycling, storage and disposal of stratospheric ozone depleting substances and articles which contain those substances; and for other purposes.
HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

NSW Ozone Protection Regulation, 1997. The regulations are designed for use with the Ozone Protection Act. NSW Public Health Act. This Act sets out the manner that wet areas and ductwork that must be maintained and provides for penalties against owners, occupiers and maintenance personnel of buildings. SAA HB40:2001 Australian Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Code of Practice. SAA HB40.1:2001 Reduction of Emission of Fluorocarbon Refrigerants in Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Applications. This handbook covers all systems classifiable as commercial and industrial refrigeration and air conditioning systems, including heat pumps and has been developed with the intention of reducing emissions of fluorocarbon refrigerants into the atmosphere. SAA HB40.2:2001 Reduction of Emission of Fluorocarbon Refrigerants in Residential Air Conditioning Applications. This handbook covers all systems classifiable as residential air conditioning systems, including heat pumps and has been developed with the intention of reducing emissions of fluorocarbon refrigerants into the atmosphere. SAA / NZ HB32 Control of microbial growth in air handling and water systems of buildings. Provides guidance for microbial control of both air handling and water systems of buildings. The handbook is intended to provide users with additional information to support the specific requirements of AS / NZS 3666 Parts 1 and 2. Department of Fair Trading Department of Fair Trading has no requirements relating to the installation of residential air conditioning other than that the contractor holds a contractors licence and that the contractor employs tradespersons who hold a qualified supervisors licence and hold a current Controlled Substance Licence from the relevant authority. Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) The EPA issues regulations in regard to noise pollution and clauses 45 to 47 are relevant to residential air conditioning. However, local councils usually address noise complaints using both the EPA and their own policy guidelines. The EPA also issues maximum acceptable sound levels that all equipment should comply with. This noise level must be displayed on the outdoor unit. Local Councils Local Council requirements currently differ from Council to Council with some requiring that a Building Application (BA) be submitted before the installation takes place. Some require BA only for new dwellings that have air conditioning indicated on the drawings of for ducted system over a certain capacity. Some councils; do not have any involvement unless a complaint is logged.
HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Generally, council requirements are that any noise produced from air conditioning systems must not be greater than 5dBa at the property boundary above the level of background noise that is produced from cars, trains, aeroplanes etc. Summary The number of Acts of Parliament, Regulations, Standards and local council rulings in this area reflect the necessity for stringent and diligent work by people maintaining buildings which the general public have access to. You need to consult the above references and your local authority to ensure you are complying with all requirements and are not personally liable should a problem arise. Legionella, apart from the sensational periodic outbreaks, still kills several people in Australia every year. The incidence of people suffering from Sick Building Syndrome is harder to gain reliable statistics on but the problem is very real and must be kept in mind when working on air handling units and ducting systems.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Residential Air Conditioning Systems

Types of Residential Air Conditioning Systems:


The following details the various types of residential air conditioning systems available: Room Air Conditioning (RAC). Split System. Ducted System Package System Cassette System Evaporative.

The majority of residential air conditioning systems with the exception of the evaporative come in reverse cycle. The installation of most residential air conditioning systems require a separate dedicated electrical circuit of 15 amperes and installed by a licence electrician with all work complying with AS 3000 & 3008 Wiring Rules. Note: any system that rates below 5kW can be plugged into a 10 ampere GPO. In low ambient conditions (7C and below) a de ice thermostat which is fitted to the outdoor unit cycles the indoor and outdoor fans off and switches the system back to its cooling mode until the ice is removed. It may also be necessary to have a low ambient thermostat to control a set of booster heaters. The low ambient thermostat closes when the ambient temperature falls below 7C and energises the booster heaters. The outdoor unit operates when the booster heaters are energised. Note: Refer to the attached electrical circuit diagram of a 12 kW ducted air conditioning system incorporating a 3 kW booster heater and a de-ice cycle.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Room Air Conditioner (RAC)


These units vary in capacities between 2 to 6 kW. To help reduce noise most window units are fitted with rotary compressors and fan motors that operate smooth and quiet. Motorised air swings are fitted to direct conditioned air throughout the conditioned space. A damper is provided to enable fresh air to be introduced into the room if required. Refrigerant is achieved by a capillary tube,

Exploded view of a Room Air Conditioner Split Systems


Split systems consist of two individual factory assembled units separated from each other, but interconnected by the refrigerant piping. The condensing unit is pre-charged with sufficient refrigerant to allow up to 20 metres of pipe work between the two units. Technical advances in compressor design, has led to higher refrigeration capacities between 2 to 10 kW. The condensing unit is mounted externally and contains the condenser coil, condenser fan or fans, compressor, reversing valve and associated piping and unit controls. Refrigerant control may be achieved by a capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve or accurator.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Wall Mounted Split System Cassette


The indoor fan coil unit usually consists of an air filter, evaporator coil, evaporator fan and electrical controls for system operation. Multiple evaporator split systems are now available which have up four fan coil units operating from a single condensing unit. The main advantage of split systems is the ease with which they can be installed and a low noise level in the conditioned space due to the condensing unit being remotely located.

Ducted Systems
This system is almost identical to the split system. The major difference is that the fan coil unit is mounted in the ceiling or under floor space and connected to a system of duct work to distribute the conditioned air to different areas of the building.

Ducted Reverse Cycle Air Conditioning System

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Typical Residential Outdoor Condensing Unit

Package System
Package units can be installed in residential or commercial buildings and consist of a condensing unit, evaporator cooling coil and supply air fan etc all installed together in the one unit. Package units are fully factory wired and only require electrical supply connection. These units are designed installed either internally or externally, however they are usually mounted outside to reduce the introduction of noise to the conditioned space. The conditioned air from the package unit is distributed and returned the via supply and return air ducts.

Cassette System
HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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The cassette system is similar to the wall hung split system but instead of indoor unit being mounted on the wall it is fitted flush into the ceiling.

Indoor Unit

Supply Air

Supply Air

Return Air

Outdoor Unit

Evaporative Systems
Evaporative cooling uses the effect of Latent Heat to cool the air as it passes through a water- soaked porous material. These materials can be pads of cotton covered straw and heat is absorbed from the air and changes some water to vapour. The evaporative cooler draws its water supply via a pump from a basin which is supplied with mains water by way of a float level valve.

Cross section of Porous pad that is laden with water during operation The amount of moisture already in the air will determine the amount of cooling of the air. For example in dry inland areas temperatures can be reduce by 15C therefore the system is less effective nearer the eastern coast because the incoming air will contain and absorb more moisture making it less efficient. Air should never be recirculated through an evaporative cooler because relative humidity will increase as the air is cooled and moisture added. Fresh air should only be brought through the cooler and be exhausted through the open windows etc of the conditioned space to be effective.
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Domestic type Evaporative Cooling System

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Air Distribution ARAC


Fans: There are four main types of fans used in air conditioning systems and these are as follows: Forward-curve or multi-vane centrifugal Applications: residential air conditioning systems

. These are quiet and compact with a low tip speed and are used on low to medium pressure air conditioning/ ventilation applications. They require an oversized motor as power varies with the duct resistance. Efficiency: 50-60%. Backward-curve limit load centrifugal Applications: Large commercial air conditioning system These on large systems with high duct resistance and are suitable for variable volume systems because of low power characteristics. However high tip speed results in high noise level. Efficiency: 70-75% Propeller used for condenser fan motors and ventilation fan motors. Applications: Wide variety uses in various installations.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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These are cheap and simple to install. They can move a lot of air as long as there is no resistance. Installation of a cowl ring increases efficiency. Efficiency: less than 40%. Axial flow. Suitable for installations with a run of ducting they are very compact with straight through flow. They are suitable for variable-pitch operation when used in installations with variable loads. They are suitable for low pressure installations and are more efficient than propeller types. Relatively high tip noise. Efficiency: 60-65%

Ducting: ARAC

Flexible Fire Rated Ducting The duct work is designed to transport air as economically and quiet as possible. Ducts can be rigid or flexible and come in a range of various shapes, sizes and manufacturing for a range of diverse applications. All ducts should be: As straight and smooth as possible. Fireproof Able to carry all the air required and distributed to branches outlets. Insulated to prevent loss or gain of heat.
HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Air tight. Low noise transmission to the conditioned space.

Filters: ARAC Air conditioning systems filter the air for a number of reasons eg to reduce the amount of dust, smoke and other fumes from entering the conditioned space and to help the evaporator coil from becoming blocked. The main types of filters in order of efficiency are: Absolute filters. Electrostatic filters. Metal viscous filters. Viscous filters. Dry filters. Water sprays.

Absolute filter: These are specialised filters mainly used in laboratories and hospital operating theatres. They are constructed of special materials to ensure filtration to 99.9% efficiency. They cannot be serviced or cleaned and must be replaced as necessary. Electrostatic filters: These filters use high voltage wires in the air stream to ionise an particles passing between them. This positively charges the particles which now pass between a bank of collector plates which are alternatively positive and negatively charged. The particles are repelled from the positive plates and attracted to the negative plates where they will collect. They are popular for commercial use as well as hospitals and other clean areas. Metal viscous filters: The surface of these filters is covered entirely with adhesive oil. The honeycomb shaped aluminium passages deflect the air so that it strikes the oil covered aluminium surface where it will collect. Viscous filters: These are a dry filter medium which is covered with adhesive oil. This will improve the filtration considerably regardless of quality of the filter media. Dry filters: These filters come in various grades, qualities and forms. They range from a washable pad as used in residential air conditioners that will collect dust and fluff to commercial dry filters that are thrown away when the filter has absorb its maxim quantity of dirt.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Water sprays: This type of filter is reasonably efficient but increases the space humidity therefore limiting its use. However it is successful in evaporative coolers.

Registers: The positioning of the outlets of the room being conditioned is determined by a number of factors including: The number of outlets preferred. Shape and size of the room. Location of the ducting. The importance of the outlet positioning cannot be underestimated enough. An under throw of air will result in a drop of the conditioned air in the centre of the room. However an overthrow of the air could cause it to strike the opposite wall and bounce back onto the occupants of the room causing draughts. Another disadvantage of long throw outlets is the noise level as high face velocities are necessary. Several outlets are preferable to one in large or odd shaped rooms. Stratification of air is the term used to describe formation of separate layers of warm and cold air due to poor circulation in a conditioned space.

Supply Air Duct (SA)

Package AC System

SA Register

SA Diffuser

Return Air Grille

Noise: Noise is usually associated with high air velocity, poorly designed supply and return outlets and uninsulated duct work.
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Vibration: Vibration is associated by poorly installed duct work and fittings. Where necessary flexible duct joints, spring or rubber mounted hangers to help eliminate or reduce vibration should be used.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Heat Load Calculations


Sizing of the System:
It is necessary to carry out a heat load calculation to determine the capacity for an air conditioning system. The following should be taken into account to determine the total heat load process: Amount of external glass Construction of external walls Partitions Insulation if any Floor (Slab or ventilated). Internal heat sources i.e peoples,lights,machines

Consideration should also be given as to whether the whole house is to be air conditioned or should be separated by day / night zones. Zoning reduces the total systems capacity, capital cost. Whilst minimising capital cost it can result in an unsatisfactory system if incorrectly designed and installed. Window shading and insulation Window shading / tinting, insulation (walls and ceiling) and the reduction of air infiltration or leakage can dramatically reduce the air conditioning capacity required on a new installation. Use of Air Conditioning Survey Form The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers Association of Australia (AREMA) in conjunction with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has been prepared to provide the industry with a standard air conditioning load estimation form. This form has been designed for commercial applications. For residential installations only the Solar Heat Section (items 1 7) are used. Note refer to attached survey form.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Residential Air Conditioning


Cooling Load Estimator
JOB NAME: LOCATION: TELEPHONE: ESTIMATOR: SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS: MAKE: CAPACITY: (Watts) ELECTRICAL SUPPLY (Consumer Mains): Single Phase: SINGLE PHASE REQUIREMENT: 10 Amp GPO: No. Item
External Glass - Solar Heat (Use all windows at one selected time). NIL 1. South South East East North East North North West West South West Horiz. Design db temp. diff (Kelvin) All Windows Single glass Double glass Outside Walls Cavity brick Hollow brick Brick veneer Weatherboard Partitions Internal walls Ceiling Unconditioned above Ceiling Pitched roof above (sunlit) No insulation roof 50mm insulation Floors Over unconditioned room Over enclosed crawl space Over ventilated crawl space Slab on ground 57 170 375 549 353 50 50 50 492 6K 38.0 19.0 10.5 17.0 13.0 20.0 10.0 8.5 50.0 12.0 6.5 1.0 8.5 0.0

FAX:

MODEL: Three Phase: 15 Amp GPO: Cooling Factors


10 am Shades In Out NIL 4 pm Shades In Out 16 16 13 13 28 110 154 126 129 14K 90.0 44.5 24.5 30.5 30.0 40.0 24.5 18.5 62.5 15.5 17.0 1.5 22.0 0.0

Area m2

Watts

2. 3.

4. 5. 6A. 6B

16 60 38 38 57 38 110 41 246 95 50 32 356 139 50 32 230 88 113 72 35 13 435 284 35 13 621 404 35 13 508 331 318 123 524 341 8K 10K (12K) 51.0 64.0 (77.0) 25.5 32.0 38.0 14.0 17.5 (21.0) 24.5 26.0 28.0 17.0 20.0 26.0 27.5 31.5 38.0 12.0 17.0 (20.5) 12.0 14.5 17.0 53.0 13.0 9.0 1.0 12.0 0.0 56.0 14.0 12.0 1.0 15.5 0.0 59.5 15.0 14.5 1.0 19.0 0.0

7.

Total
HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Calculating the Residential Air Conditioning System Capacity


To calculate the air conditioning capacity of a residential house or apartment calculate each of the room areas to be condition in m2 and multiply by a load factor of between 120watts for passive areas and up to150 watts for areas with higher heat loads ie high solar, heat from appliances and occupant loads. Construction: Brick veneer Roof insulated Internal curtains on all windows Lounge Room: 5m x 6.5m x 120 watts / m2 = 3900 watts Kitchen & Dinning 4m x 5m x 140 watts / m2 Master Bed Room 5m x 4m x 130 watts / m2 = 2800 watts = 2600 watts

3.9 kW 2.8 kW 2.6 kW 1.332 kW 1.188 kW 1.728 kW

Bedroom No: 2 3.7m x 3m x 120 watts / m2 = 1342 watts Bedroom No: 3 3.3m x 3m x 120 watts / m2 = 1888 watts Sitting Room 3.6m x 4 x 120 watts / m2 = 1728 watts

Total = 13548 watts 13.548 kW In this application for energy savings we will divide the house into a day and night zone. Zone 1, Day Zone Family room = 3.9 kW Kitchen & dining room = 2.8 kW Total = 6.7 kW Zone 2, Night Zone Master bedroom Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Sitting room = 2.6 kW = 1.332 kW = 1.188 kW = 1.1728 kW Total = 6.848 kW

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Using a Panasonic Brochure: the smallest available unit with a total cooling capacity of 8.3 kW and an indoor air volume of 475 L/s.

Air Flow Rates:


Formula = Total Air Volume L/s Total Kilowatts Required = L/s per kW

Zone 1
475 L/s 6.7 kW Family room Dining & kitchen = 70.89552239 L/s per kW = 3.9 kW x 70.89552239 L/s = 2.8 kW x 70.89552239 L/s = 276.5 L/s = 198.5 L/s Total = 475 L/s

Zone 2 475 L/s 6.848 kW = 69. 36331776 L/s per kW = 2.6 kW x 69.363317776 L/s = 1.332 kW x 69.363317776 L/s = 1.188 kW x 69.363317776 L/s = 180.34 L/s = 92.4 L/s = 84.4 L/s

Master bedroom Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Sitting room

= 1.728 kW x 69.363317776 L/s = 119.9 L/s Total = 475 L/s

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Supply Air Register & Duct Sizes


Formula: Therefore: (Register velocity) Y x 1000 = X = L/s for room 1000 Y= X 2.5

the answer in mm

Zone 1
Family room (2 Registers) 276.5 L/s 2 138.25 1000 0.13825 2.5 = 138.25 L/s = 0.13825 = 0.0682 = 0.2612 x 1000 = 261mm 300 mm registers

Dining room & kitchen (2 Registers) 198.5 L/s 2 99.25 1000 0.09925 2.5 = 99.25 L/s = 0.9925 = 0.0397 = 0.199 x 1000 = 199mm 225mm registers

Zone 2
Master bedroom (1 Register) 180.34 L/s 1000 0.18034 2.5 = = 0.18034 0.072136 = 0.269 x 1000 = 267mm 300mm register

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Bedroom 2 (1 Register) 92.4 L/s 1000 0.0924 2.5 = = 0.0924 0.03696 = 0.192 x 1000 = 192 mm 225mm register

Bedroom 3 (1 Register) 82.4 L/s = 0.0824 1000 0.0824 2.5 = 0.03296 = 0.182 x 1000 = 182 mm 225mm register

Sitting room (1 Register) 119.9 L/s = 0.1199 1000 0.1199 2.5 = 0.04796 = 0.219 x 1000 = 219mm 225mm register

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Duct Sizes
Recommended Duct Velocities for Residential Applications 2.5 to 4 m/s Formula: Area (m2)` = Volume L/s Velocity m/s

Zone 1
Family room (2 Registers at 138 .25 L/s) Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 138.25 = 0.138 m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.318 = 0.046m2 3

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.046m x 4 3.142 = 0.242 x 1000 = 242mm

Diameter = Duct size = 250mm

Family room supply air duct to 300mm x 250 x 250mm branch take off (BTO). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 276.5 1000 = 0.2765 m3/s Therefore: 0.2765 = 0.079m2 3

Recommend velocity = 3.5 m/s.

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.079 x 4 3.142 = 0.317 x 1000 = 317mm

Diameter = Duct size = 300mm.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Kitchen (1 Register at 99.25 L/s). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 99.25 1000 = 0.09925 m3/s = 0.033m2

Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.09925 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.033 x 4 3.142

Diameter = Duct size = 200mm.

= 0.205 x 1000 = 205mm

Supply Air Duct family room / kitchen (276.5 L/s + 99.25 L/s) = 375 .75 L/s. Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 375.75 = 0.37575 m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.37575 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.107 x 4 3.142 = 0.369 x 1000 = 369mm = 0.107m2

Diameter = Duct size = 350mm.

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Dining Room (1 Register at 99.25 L/s). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 99.25 1000 = 0.09925 m3/s = 0.033m2

Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.09925 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.033 x 4 3.142

Diameter = Duct size = 200mm.

= 0.205 x 1000 = 205mm

Supply Duct family room, kitchen & dining (276.5 L/s + 99.25 L/s + 99.25 L/s) = 475 L/s. Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 475 1000 = 0.475 m3/s

Recommend velocity = 4 m/s. Therefore: 0.475 = 0.11875m2 4 Diameter = CSA x 4 `3.142 (PYE) 0.11875 x 4 = 0.388 x 1000 = 388mm 3.142

Diameter = Duct size = 400mm.

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Zone 2
Bedroom 3 (1 register 82.4 L/s). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 82.4 1000 = 0.0824 m3/s

Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.0824 = 0.027m2 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.027 x 4 = .187 x 1000 = 187mm 3.142

Diameter = Duct size = 200mm.

Bedroom 2 (1 register 92.4 L/s). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 92.4 1000 = 0.0924 m3/s

Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.0924 = 0.0308m2 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.0308 x 4 = 3.142 0.252 x 1000 = 252mm

Diameter = Duct size = 250mm.

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Supply air duct to bedrooms 2 & 3 BTO (92.4 L/s + 82.4 L/s) = 174.8 L/s. Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 174.8 1000 = 0.1748 m3/s Therefore: 0.1748 = 0.0499m2 3.5

Recommend velocity = 3.5 m/s.

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.0499 = 3.142 0.252 x 1000 = 198mm

Diameter = Duct size = 200mm.

Sitting room (1 Register 119.9 L/s). Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 119.9 = 0.1199m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 3 m/s. Therefore: 0.1199 = 0.03997 m2 3 Diameter = CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.03997 = 3.142 0.215 x 1000 = 215mm

Diameter = Duct size = 200mm.

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Main Air Duct to sitting room and bed room BTO (119.9 L/s + 92.4 L/s + 82.4 L/s) = 294.7 L/s. Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 297.4 = 0.2947m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 3.5 m/s. Therefore: 0.2947 = 0.0842 m2 3.5

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.0842 X 4 = 3.142 0.322 x 1000 = 322mm

Diameter = Duct size = 300mm.

Master bedroom (1 Register 180.34 L/s). . Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 180.34 = 0.18034m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 3. m/s. Therefore: 0.18034 = 0.06 m2 3

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.06 X 4 = 3.142 0.2727 x 1000 = 272mm

Diameter = Duct size = 300mm.

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Supply duct to master bedroom, sitting room bedroom 2 & bedroom3. (180.34 L/s + 119.9 L/s + 92.4 L/s + 82.4L/s) = 475 L/s. Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 475 1000 = 0.475m3/s Therefore: 0.475 = 0.11875 m2 4

Recommend velocity = 4. m/s.

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.11875 X 4 = 3.142 0.388 x 1000 = 388mm

Diameter = Duct size = 400mm.

Return Air 2 return ducts 475 L/s 2 = 237.5 L/s

Convert L/s to m3/s: m3/s = 237.5 = 0.2375m3/s 1000 Recommend velocity = 2.5. m/s. Therefore: 0.2375 = 0.095 m2 2.5

Diameter =

CSA x 4 3.142 (PYE) 0.095 X 4 = 3.142 0.3477 x 1000 = 347.7mm

Diameter = Duct size = 350mm x 2.

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Review Questions:
Q.1 What qualifications do you need to install residential air conditioning systems?

Q.2

What requirements do local councils require before you install a residential air conditioning system?

Q.3

What are the advantages of a split system when compared with a room air conditioner?

Q.4

Give two advantages a ducted system has compared to a split system:

Q.5

List one advantage and disadvantage of an evaporative cooler:

Q.6

List the four main types of fans used in air conditioning systems and give an application for each one:

Q.7

Name three types of air conditioning filters and their applications:

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Q.8

State three factors that determine the position of outlets in a conditioned space:

Q.9

Define what is meant by the term stratification:

Q.10

What could be done to reduce vibration and noise from air conditioning duct work?

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Ventilation
Sick Building Syndrome.
Sick building syndrome is mainly caused by the lack of preventative maintenance in a building. The main responsibility of a building manager is to initiate and maintain a regular preventative program to cover system checks, filter changes, drain pan cleaning, scheduling of housekeeping functions and pesticide spraying. In order to maintain the building, the building manager must monitor the maintenance and cleaning of the above, especially the use of chemicals. An inadequately maintained building can result in: Drain pans becoming reservoirs for bacteria and mould. Duct work becoming a garden for moulds and spores to grow. Cooling towers breed Legionella. Clogged filters which in turn decrease air flow and ventilation rates. As well as improper maintenance, the design of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system can be a major contributing factor to Sick Building Syndrome. Another factor that must be considered as a negative impact on indoor air quality is contaminants / pollutants. The main pollutants include: Tobacco smoke. Ozone from copy machines. Formaldehyde from new furnishings, glues, partitions or panelling. Carbon monoxide from air intakes located near loading docks, streets or parking lots. Volatile organic compounds from felt tip markers, cleaning compounds, paints and solvents.

Legionella Bacteria in Office Buildings.


Since the first documented Legionellosis outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia, numerous epidemic and sporadic Legionellosis cases have been reported. The ecology of Legionella in a water system is not fully understood, however, studies do indicate that water temperatures between 20 and 45OC favour Legionella growth. Bacteria do not multiply below 20OC and cannot survive in temperatures above 65OC. These organisms may remain dormant and proliferate when temperatures are suitable. The presence of sediment, scale, sludge and organic matter can serve as a source of nutrients for these bacteria. Legionella bacteria also colonise on certain types of water fittings, pipe work and materials used in the construction of water systems.

Mode of Transmission.
The mere presence of Legionella bacteria in the water systems does not cause the disease itself.

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Legionellosis factors: Environmental reservoirs: Lakes, streams, rivers, etc are the natural reservoirs for Legionella bacteria. Amplification factors: Showers, whirlpools, tap water faucets, water storage tanks, cooling towers, humidifiers, evaporative condensers and respiratory therapy equipment are common sources for amplification of Legionella bacteria because of the temperature ranges that they operate within. Mechanism of dissemination: The prevailing mode of transmission is through the breathing of airborne water droplets or particles (aerosol) containing viable Legionella that then passes deeply into the lung and deposited in the alveoli.

Prevention and Control of Legionellosis in Office Buildings.


The most effective control for diseases, including Legionellosis, is to break as many factors as possible in the creation of the diseases. In office buildings, the risk of Legionellosis can be minimised by measures that do not allow the proliferation of Legionella in the water systems, and reducing exposure to water droplets and aerosols. The following actions should be taken for prevention purposes: Minimise the release of water spray. Avoid water temperatures and conditions that favour the proliferation of Legionella and other micro-organisms. Avoid water stagnation. Avoid materials that harbour bacteria and other micro-organisms, or provide nutrients for microbial growth. Maintain the cleanliness of the system and the water in it. Use water treatment. Ensure the correct and safe operation, and maintenance of the water system and plant. When an outbreak of Legionella occurs, the most common control measures are: Super chlorination. The free residual chlorine levels should be greater than 2 ppm (routine chlorine treatment of the water supply may not eliminate Legionella bacteria). Heating of water systems. For heating, the temperature of the hot water system should be maintained at 55 75OC for several hours.

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The Process of Air Conditioning


Comfort levels for occupants of buildings can be achieved by a variety of processes, from the opening of windows to full air conditioning by mechanical means. Discomfort results from extremes of temperature (for which the only solution is heating or cooling) and from stuffy conditions (which result from poor air movement, high humidity and concentrations of odour or smoke). Ventilation can usually provide the remedy for stuffy conditions.

Ventilation
The word ventilation means to remove polluted air from inside a space and replace it with air from outside the space. This replenishes the oxygen supply, dilutes odours and removes smoke. Ventilation is needed for comfort and health. These places usually need ventilation: Buildings and rooms occupied by people at work Machine and plant rooms where heat is generated Process plants requiring quick cooling of foods, confectionery, print, etc Areas with toxic or unpleasant fumes. There are two methods commonly used, they are: Natural ventilation. Mechanical ventilation.

Natural Ventilation
The simplest way to provide ventilation is to open windows and / or doors. The amount of ventilation depends upon: Size and type of windows / doors Location of the windows / doors Velocity and direction of the wind Opening obstruction Temperature difference between inside and outside conditions.

Mechanical Ventilation
This method requires a mechanical device, normally a fan and motor for positive ventilation. Mechanical ventilation performs one or all of the following functions: Creation of sufficient air movement to eliminate stagnation. Removal of toxic fumes, smoke and other pollutants. Control of space air temperature. Provide fresh ventilation air for people that occupy a space. The most economical way to maintain health and comfort conditions of a space is by replacing the air. This is done by bringing in outside air to ventilate the space. Fresh air can be mechanically introduced into an area in two ways:

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Supply air systems / forced ventilation. Fresh air is pumped into the area being ventilated resulting in positive pressure, causing the stale air to be pushed out or ventilated through door grills, windows etc.

Forced draft / natural exhaust ventilation. Exhaust air systems / induced ventilation. Air is sucked out of the ventilated area resulting in negative pressure, causing fresh air from around the area to be drawn in through door grills, windows etc.

Induced draft / natural infiltration ventilation. Mechanical ventilation systems contain the following components: Fan: Designed to provide the quantity of supply or exhaust air from the ventilated space. Filters: (a) To prevent dirt particles entering the ventilated space from the outside air. (b) To prevent grease build-up in the ducting of exhaust systems. Designed to deliver or exhaust air to or from various locations within the ventilated space. Used to restrict or divert the air as it passes through the ductwork.

Ducting: Dampers:

Grills, Registers, Diffusers: Used to control the air flow to the ventilated areas and to prevent entry of objects into the ductwork. (Registers are usually in the wall, diffusers are usually in the ceiling).

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Test Equipment
Anemometer The anemometer is a device used to measure the velocity of air travelling through a duct or grille. Readings are measured in metres per second (m/s). Air flow is measured in cubic metres per second (m3/s), therefore: Air Flow (m3/s) = Velocity (m/s) x Area (m2) 1 m3/s = 1000 L/s E.g. Calculate the air flow rate in L/s, leaving a duct 300mm x 250mm, having a velocity of 2.1 m/s. Air Flow = Velocity x Area = 2.1 m/s x 0.3 m x 0.25 m = 0.1575 m3/s = 0.1575 m3/s x 1000 = 1.575 L/s The most common locations to take velocity readings are: In front of the evaporator coil in order to determine the face velocity of the coil (and ultimately the capacity). Under each of the Supply Air diffusers to determine the Discharge Air velocity (and ultimately balance the air distribution system). Under each of the Exhaust Air grilles to determine Exhaust Air velocity. There are three (3) type of anemometer: Rotating Vane Anemometer, which provides a reading in metres so it can be used in conjunction with a stop watch in order to get a velocity in metres per second (m/s).

Deflective Vane Anemometer, which provides a direct reading in metres per second (m/s).

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Hot Wire Anemometer, which provides a direct electronic readout by measuring the cooling action of moving air on a hot strand of wire.

There are two methods practised when using anemometers. They are: The Sweep Method, where the anemometer is moved at a slow and steady pace, commencing from one corner and sweeping across the entire face of the coil or area to be tested and then returning to the starting point. Upon completion of the sweep, the anemometer and the stop watch are stopped and the anemometer reading is divided by the time taken to complete the sweep resulting in an averaged reading in metres per second (m/s). Anemometers used for this method generally have an inbuilt timer, if not it will be necessary to utilise a stop watch. Total of the meter reading Velocity (m/s) = ------------------------------------------Time taken to obtain the reading The Patch Method, is predominantly used when the anemometer does not have a timing factor and a stop watch is used. In this method, a number of readings are taken across the face of the coil or area to be tested for a given time per reading. For each reading taken, divide the reading by the time taken. Next it is necessary to add all the readings together and then divide the total of the readings taken by the number of readings taken to provide an average reading.
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Reading A1 Reading A2 Reading A3 Velocity (m/s) = --------------- + ---------------- + ---------------- etc Time Time Time Total of all meter readings Average Velocity (m/s) = ---------------------------------Total number of readings

Manometer The manometer is a device used to measure relatively low pressures or more commonly, pressure devices. Manometers are made in two (2) different styles. Both are used to measure the pressure difference across an object, e.g. filter, coil, and fan: The U-Tube Manometer. In order to read the amount of pressure applied, read the value corresponding to the fluid level on one side of the tube and double it. Inclined Manometer. In order to read the amount of pressure applied, read the value according to the fluid level in the tube.

The Pitot-Tube The Pitot-Tube is a device that is usually used together with an inclined manometer to measure the static pressure, total pressure and velocity pressure within a ducted system. Using the Pitot-Tube Connect the inclined manometer to the Pitot-Tube so that it will measure velocity pressure. Ensure that the tube is pointing into the airflow and is held as straight as possible.

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Reading patterns for Pitot-Tubes

Taking Readings Drill a series of holes (refer above diagram) and take several readings in each hole. Find the average velocity pressure of the readings. To convert average velocity pressure (Pa) to velocity (m/s): _______________ Velocity = 1.29 x Velocity Pressure Air Flow Pressures in Ducts There are three (3) air flow pressure to consider in a duct. They are: Static pressure Velocity pressure Total pressure Static pressure is the pressure which acts equally in all directions against the walls of a tube, pipe or duct. It can best be measured by placing a probe against a small hole in the wall of the duct. It is pressure necessary to overcome the friction of the moving air, and is measured using the manometer.
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Velocity pressure is the actual pressure due to speed or velocity of the air. It is measured by using a tube facing directly into the airflow, but because the static pressure also enters the tube, another tub is placed at a small in the wall of the duct to measure static pressure. Thus the two tubes static pressure balances each other out, leaving only the velocity pressure being measured. Total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure. It is measured by the tube facing directly into the airflow.

Terms Associated with Air Distribution


Damper A device used to vary the volume of air passing through the duct by changing its CSA (Cross Sectional Area).

Turning Vanes Sheet metal blades or vanes placed in the ductwork at the point of a bend. They are shaped like the bend to help the air travel smoothly around it. Throw Drop The horizontal distance that the air will travel once it leaves the supply duct. The vertical distance that the horizontally projected air will fall.

Terminal Velocity This is the average air stream velocity at the end of the throw. It is taken at a height of 2 metres from the floor and should be approximately 0.25 m/s. Spread The distance that the air stream increases in width once it leaves the outlet. The angel of spread is usually 30O from the direction of throw. Spread can be achieved in both the vertical and horizontal planes.

Primary Air The conditioned air being delivered to the space along the supply duct. Secondary Air The air already occupying the space with which the primary air mixes.

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Practical Exercise: Air Balancing


Task To balance the supply air volume being delivered by an air-distribution system using the proportional air balance method. Equipment Suitable air handling system with a minimum of three outlets. Air measurement instruments such as: o Anemometer o Air measuring hood Tape measure. Screwdriver or Allen keys suitable to adjust air dampers. Procedure 1. Operate the air supply system and allow conditions to stabilise. 2. Fully open all air volume control dampers, branch dampers and louvers on outlets. Check that coils, filters, etc are clear and that the fan is operating to the required duty. 3. Using the correct air measuring instrument, measure the air velocity from each outlet. 4. Calculate the volume flow rates (L/s) from all outlets. Add the values together to obtain total supply air volume (L/s). 5. Calculate the proportional quantities for each outlet. 6. Starting from the outlet furthest from the fan, balance the system. Note: record all readings and calculations in the Table of Results. Number the outlets with number 1 being the furthest from the fan. Table of Results Outlet Actual 2 Area m Volume m3/s

Outlet Number

Outlet Velocity m/s

Outlet Size mm x mm

Design Volume m3/s

Proportional Factor

1 2 3 4 5 6

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The Underlying Principles of Air Distribution


The principles are to achieve control over the air movement within a space so that: Noise levels are kept to a safe minimum. Draughts at the occupied level are avoided. Air stratification is avoided. There are no stagnant pockets of air. Noise Discomfort due to monotonous low frequency sound waves or piercing high frequency sound waves can be at the very least, an annoying distraction, at worst, result in deafness. As air moves through a length of ductwork or passes through a register, irregular vibrations occur in the air. The frequency of these vibrations will determine whether or not you can hear them. As the velocity of air is increased, so the noise that is generated becomes more audible. The level of noise generated is measured in decibels (dB). Note that a degree of background noise has become desirable in many office buildings where separation between offices is provided by partitions. The noise provides a degree of privacy for the occupants in each of the booths. The sound of wind in the atmosphere is generally audible once the air velocity reaches 6 m/s (20 kph). Many registers (diffusers) tend to generate a whistling noise once the air velocity reaches 2.5 m/s. The following table provides the recommended maximum outlet velocity to expect in various building types. Application Libraries, sound studios, operating theatres Churches, domestic residences, hotel bedrooms, hospital rooms and wards, private offices. Banks, theatres, restaurants, classrooms, small shops, general offices, public buildings, ballrooms. Commercial kitchens, factories, warehouses, department stores, workshops, gymnasiums. Maximum Outlet Velocity 1.75 m/s to 2.5 m/s 2.5 m/s to 4.0 m/s 4.0 m/s to 5.0 m/s 5.0 m/s to 7.5 m/s

The noise level may be reduced by: Internally insulating the ductwork (sound absorbed). Externally insulating the ductwork (sound is attenuated). Sealing cracks and joints around windows and doors. Reducing the outlet velocity (as per the above chart).
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Draughts Air movement is required to ensure uniform distribution of the supply air throughout the zone being conditioned but if the velocity of the secondary air (air within the room) is toon high the occupants will feel a draught. A relationship exists between: The secondary air velocity. The difference between the primary air temperature and the secondary air temperature. The activity of the occupants within the room. The combination of these factors will determine whether or not the majority of people occupying the room at the moment will experience a draught. The table below shows the accepted head height velocity of the secondary air for both the heating and the cooling cycles. Activity Sitting for long periods Sitting for short periods Light work Heavy work (warm area) Example Office work Restaurants Shops, light manufacturing Dancing, cooking, factories Maximum Velocity (m/s) Cooling Heating 0.1 0.2 0.15 0.3 0.2 0.35 0.3 0.45

Air velocities below 0.075 m/s will give a feeling of stagnation. The difference between the primary air temperature and the secondary air temperature should never exceed 12K. Example: For the neck region, a velocity of 0.3 m/s at a temperature of 0.5K below the room temperature will be acceptable to 80% of the occupants. If the velocity in the same room is dropped to 0.2 m/s then 90% of the occupants will be happier. Generalisation: The maximum air velocity within a zone is generally assumed as 0.21 m/s while a minimum velocity of 0.12 m/s is necessary to ensure distribution of temperature throughout the zone. Air Stratification When air settles into layers it is said to be stratified. This is a very common problem in heating applications where the hot air rises (forming a layer of hot air near the ceiling), and the cold air falls (forming a layer of cold air near the floor).

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Air Stratification This problem can be overcome by forcing the air to circulate within the zone but, as you will see in the following diagrams, the placement of the supply and return air registers within the zone will determine whether or not you will obtain optimum air. The following diagrams illustrate the various places that the registers have been placed in relation to each other, together with the problems of each setup.

Example 1 Here you can see that during summer months the cool primary air falls to the occupied level (where it is needed), and the warm air rises to the ceiling where it is removed and returned to the cooling coil. This is ideal. However, during the winter months the warm supply air will travel straight across the ceiling and pass out through the return air duct. The cold air will remain in the occupied zone leaving the occupants quite uncomfortable. The air has become stratified.

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Example 2 In this situation you can see that during the summer months, the cool supply air will travel straight across the floor and pass out through the return air duct (possibly resulting in a draught around the lower parts of the body), while the hot air will be trapped in the ceiling area. The air will be stratified once again. However, during the winter months, the warm supply air will rise up through the zone (passing through the occupied zone), while the cold air will fall to the floor from where it is removed and returned to the heating coil. This setup is ideal for the heating cycle.

Example 3 This setup is the most common. The circulation pattern during the cooling cycle will be similar to those in Example 1 diagrams, (except that a small portion of primary air may be drawn into the return air duct if they are too close to each other). Once again the circulation pattern during winter is totally inadequate but many systems today are setup so that the primary air velocity is increased during the heating cycle in an effort to drive the warm air down into the occupied zone.

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Example 4 Stratification will occur during the cooling cycle but after a period of time will eventually settle at a fairly high level within the zone. This is generally acceptable because the separation layer is often above the occupied level. A cold spot will occur in the far side of the zone during the heating cycle, so your feeling of comfort will totally depend on where you happen to be seated within the room.

Example 5 Hot spots will occur in the top corners of the zone during the cooling cycle but a good portion of the occupants will feel comfortable because there is good circulation through the centre of the room. The main problem is that the warm air is not being returned to the cooling coil. Stratification will occur during the heating cycle but after a period of time will eventually settle at a low level within the zone. It will be acceptable to those occupants that are standing or moving around but not very acceptable to those who are sitting for long periods because they will feel a cold draught around the legs.

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Ducting Ducting is generally formed by folding sheet metal into the desired shape however; many large buildings make use of wall and roof cavities to transfer the air between floors. Both Return and Supply Air ducts may be insulated but the Supply is more commonly insulated to: Provide sound control (noise attenuation) Prevent condensation (when dewpoint temperatures are high) The duct may be any shape but is generally round, square or rectangular. The best shape is round. It has the lowest material usage and the lowest friction loss (low resistance therefore low pressure drop). The next best is square. It is the easiest to manufacture (cheapest). The most practical is rectangular. It will fit into most cavities. Calculating Duct Size Round Duct CSA = d2 4 Where CSA = Cross Sectional Area = Pi or 3.14159265 d = Diameter . Square Duct Size (each side) = CSA W=2h Rectangular Duct

Duct Layout Trunk Ducted System Uses minimum sheet metal but is complicated to manufacture and install. Provides best control of air flow.

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Extended Plenum System Uses a greater amount of sheet metal but branch ducts may be fitted after the extended plenum has been installed (making installation much easier).

Box Plenum System Cheapest to manufacture and simplest to install.

Changing the Size and Shape of Ductwork This is known as a reducer. It is used to change the size of a duct run.

This is known as a transition. It is used to change the shape (and size if necessary) of a duct run.

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Overcoming Pressure Drop in Ductwork Any ducted system is a compromise between the pressure drop created when trying to move air and the cross sectional area of the duct through which the air has to travel. The following guides should be considered in an effort to reduce resistance within a duct run.

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This is a poorly constructed supply air reducer. The eddy currents created will result in excessive pressure drop.

The eddy currents developed in this return air reducer are not as bad but still result in unwanted pressure drop.

This is the desirable way to construct a reducer in the supply air duct. Eddy currents will not form and therefore the pressure drop along the duct run will be minimal.

The guide vanes will force the air to follow the shape of the duct and thereby prevent eddy currents from forming at the point of expansion.

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Dampers A damper is used to restrict or divert the air as it passes through the duct work (i.e. it controls the amount of air flowing throughout its length). Various types have been developed for different purposes. Parallel Blade Damper This type of damper is not suitable for the control of air volume because the reduction in air volume is not proportional to the damper movement (i.e. the damper must close to approximately 80% in order to reduce the air volume by approximately 50%). It is only used when an open or closed situation is required, e.g. fire dampers. If automatic operation is required it may be fitted with a 2 position damper motor. It also tends to force air to one side of the duct.

Opposed Blade Damper This type is used where modulating volume control is required. If automatic operation is required then it is fitted with a proportional damper motor (modulating motor).

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Splitter Damper This type is generally used to balance each of the branch ducts. Once set, it does not normally need to be moved again. The travel of the damper should be restricted in order to prevent damage due to air pressure against the blade.

Butterfly Damper This damper is used in round duct to control the air volume along a branch. The handle must be locked in position once adjustments have been made.

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Fire Dampers If the ductwork passes through a fire rated wall then a fire damper must be installed inside the ductwork at that point. It is held in the open position by a fusible link. If the fire penetrates the ductwork then the link will melt and the damper will close preventing the fire from travelling into the next zone. An access panel should be located in the ductwork near the fire damper so that regular inspections may be made on the link and repaired if necessary.

The specification and installation requirements for fire dampers are covered in AS 1682 (Parts 1 & 2).

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Grilles, Registers, and Diffusers

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Review Questions
1. What is the velocity of air? _________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. What is the volume flow rate of air? _________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. What is static pressure? ___________________________________________ 4. What do the following abbreviations stand for? OA _____________________________________________________ RA _____________________________________________________ SA ______________________________________________________ EA ______________________________________________________ 5. What are eddy currents? ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6. How do we measure air in a duct? ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 7. How do we measure air leaving an outlet? _____________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 8. Which is the better duct for supplying air round, square or rectangular? Explain your answer. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 9. Find the Volume Flow Rate of air passing through the coil. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
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10. What are the two methods to measure air flow over a coil? Explain both methods; you may draw diagrams to assist your explanation. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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Fans and Fan Laws


Fans are used in the air conditioning industry to: Supply air over a cooling / heating coil; Supply fresh air from outside; Remove unwanted air from toilets, kitchens, etc; Pressurise a stairwell during the event of fire; Return air to the air conditioning units in large applications; Assist the evaporation rate in cooling towers. There are two basic types of fan: Centrifugal Axial Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal fans are capable of delivering large volumes of air against a considerable resistance. For these reasons, centrifugal fans are commonly used in the systems to overcome filter resistance and duct resistance. Types of Centrifugal Fan Forward curve Backward curve Forward Curve The most commonly used centrifugal fan type. It will move a large volume of air at a relatively slow speed. The impeller usually contains 32 to 64 narrow blades. Power consumption will increase as the volume flow rate of the fan increases (i.e. speed increases) making it possible to overload the fan motor if the speed is increased too high. The disadvantage of the fan is that if the duct runs go too long, the static pressure becomes erratic and therefore smooth air supplies are affected. Backward Curve This fan type must be run at a relatively high speed in order to achieve the desired volume flow rate and is therefore heavier in construction (usually made from steel). The impeller will generally contain 12 to 24 deep blades. Its biggest advantage is that it will develop a very high static pressure and is therefore suitable for use in high rise office buildings where duct runs are long. Air Foil construction dramatically improves the fans efficiency. Its disadvantages are: Cavitation, which occurs with excessive air volumes, thus decreasing the amount of air delivered down the duct; Noise
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Axial Fans There are three primary types of axial fan: Propeller fans provide a high volume of air but at a relatively low static pressure. They are therefore not suitable for use in moving air through ductwork. They are widely used for exhausting and ventilating purposes. A cowling placed around the fan will improve its performance quite considerably. Tube axial fans are mounted in a round section of duct (or tube). They are capable of developing higher static pressure than the propeller fan due to the airfoil blades and the small clearance between the blade tip and the tube housing. Vane axial fans are similar to the tube axial fan except that the guide vanes have been fitted to reduce the rotary motion imparted to the air by the spinning action of the blade. This allows the fan to operate at higher static pressures and improved efficiency.

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Fan Laws
The following factors play a major role in the Fan Laws: Speed Volume Flow Rate Static Pressure Power Consumption With constant Density and variable Speed, The Volume Flow Rate will vary proportionally to the speed; Static Pressure will vary to the speed, squared; Power Consumption will vary to the speed, cubed. Speed & Volume Flow Rate
V1 n1 = V2 n2

Speed & Static Pressure

Ps1 n1 = Ps2 n2
Q1 n1 = Q2 n2
3

Speed & Power Consumption

Example 1
A motor rotating at 1000 rpm n1 is delivering air at 300 L/s V1 with a static pressure of 150 Pascals Ps1 whilst consuming power of 1.5 kW Q1 What would be the new volume flow rate V2 the new static pressure Ps 2 and the new power consumption Q2 if the motor speed is increased to 1200 rpm n2 ?
n1 = 1000 rpm n2 = 1200 rpm Ps1 = 150 Pa Ps 2 = ?

V1 = 300 L/s V2 = ? Q1 = 1.5 kW Q2 = ?


V1 V2 = n1 n2

Volume Flow Rate:

V2 =

V1n2 n1

300 1200 1000

=360 L/s
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Static Pressure:

Ps1 n1 = Ps 2 n2
Ps 2 = Ps1 n1 n 2

150 1000 1200


2

150 0.6944443

=216 Pa
3

Power Consumption:

n = 1 Q2 n 2

Q1

Q2 =

Q1 n1 n 2
3

1500
1000 1200
3

1500 0.5787035

=2592 Watts =2.59 kW

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Example 2

A fan running at 650 rpm n1 supplies air at 4200 L/s V1 with a static pressure of 250 Pascals Ps1 whilst the motor is consuming 2.1 kW Q1 If the fan speed is reduced to 480 rpm n2 calculate: Volume Flow Rate:
V1 V2 = n1 n2

V2 =

V1n2 n1

4200 480 650

=3101 L/s
2

Static Pressure:

Ps1 n1 = Ps 2 n2
Ps 2 = Ps1 n1 n 2

250 650 480


2

250 1.8337671

=136 Pa Power Consumption: n = 1 Q2 n 2


Q1

Q2 =

Q1 n1 n 2
3

2100

650 480

2100 2.4832261

=846 Watts =0.85 kW

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Filtration
Sick Building Syndrome According to Honeywell, who spent years analysing some 30 typical buildings, the greatest cause of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is improperly maintained and managed HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) Systems.

Honeywell experts studied buildings with manifest problems difficult to diagnose, but over 50% reported SBS symptoms. If more than 20% of the occupants complain of fatigue, headaches, irritation of the eyes or throat, and the symptoms last more than two weeks and disappear when the occupants leave the building, SBS is suspected. In several cases, exposure to indoor contaminants may cause disease or impairment called Building Related Sickness. Often, particular pollutants are identifiable, but increasing ventilation does not get rid of the problem. Examiners found multiple problems in 11 buildings of the 30 analysed with chemical contaminants responsible for 75% of the complaints; 15% by normal thermal problems; microbiological agents and humidity that was too high or too low accounted for the remaining 10% of concern. A combination of disorders were found including design and operation problems that embrace maintenance, load and control changes. Investigators determined that dirty air intakes, dirty filters, fouled heating and cooling coils were the main culprits.
Air Cleaning Air entering an air conditioned space must be filtered to: Keep the fan, coils and registers clean and therefore ensure high operation efficiency. Prevent dirt particles from entering the air conditioned spaces. This applies especially to Precision Assembly Rooms and Operating Theatres. Reduce allergic attacks to Hay-fever and Asthma sufferers.

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Particle Sizes All particles are of different size. Typical examples are: Human hair 100 microns Smallest particles visible to the naked eye 20 microns Human blood corpuscle 10 microns Tobacco smoke particulate 0.25 micron Filter Rating The specification label of filter media will generally provide one or more of the following values: Pressure drop across the filter Velocity and rated pressure Filter capacity - % rating Washing method Filter Types 1. Dry Arrestance Filters remove particles from the air by trapping them between fibres of the filter mat. Materials may include: Cloth Felt Glass fibre Paper Synthetic

These types are usually for dust particles. To improve their efficiency, manufacturers have included adhesive compound on the entry side of filters, they are disposable when dirty.

Construction Types of Arrestance Filters Panel used in domestic and package units. Roll filters a continuous roll of filter media used on central plant air conditioning systems. The Pressure Drop (PD) as sensed across the filter activates a mechanism which rolls / advances the filter media. As the roll is expended it will require replacement.

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Bag filters used in club / pub applications, more surface area of the media is exposed to the air flow, thus improving the efficiency. They are good for acoustic control. Corrugated filters are panel filters produced in a corrugation style. This improves efficiency because of the greater surface area.

2. HEPA Filters (High Efficiency Particle Arrestance) This type of filter construction is achieved under strict guidelines. They MUST provide an average filtering efficiency of 99.998%. They are made from a glass paper media that is packed in a very dense concertina fashion. When looked through, you will see no light at all. 3. Wet and Viscous Filters The filter media is impregnated with oil. Cleaning is very difficult. Small applications kitchen exhausts using panel construction. Large applications high rise office air conditioning using continuous roll filters rotating slowly through an oil bath. Cleaning is an extremely messy job. Avoid if possible, or give to an apprentice. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators The air is passed through a wire grid arrangement that is connected to a DC power supply of between 13,000 to 20,000 Vdc. The grid is known as the ioniser because it causes the dust particles to become electrostatically charged. Once the particles have become charged they pass through a set of collector plates (cells) that are placed parallel to the air stream and connected to a DC power supply of approximately 6,000 Vdc. The charged particles are attracted to the plates that have been covered with an adhesive. The plates must be washed and the adhesive re-applied during maintenance.

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Review Questions
1. Explain what is meant by Sick Building Syndrome. ____________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________
2. List four (4) actions that can be taken to overcome the causes of Sick Building Syndrome. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. If most occupants of a building are complaining of being tired after being in the building for a short period what is the most likely cause? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. What is the most likely cause of dirty smudging around ceiling diffusers? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. What is the name given to the study of the properties of air? _______________________________________________________________ 6. Define metabolic rate. _______________________________________________________________ 7. Define occupied zone. _______________________________________________________________ 8. What is the term given for the introduction of fresh air in an enclosed space? _______________________________________________________________
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HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

9.

List the following properties of standard air. Dry bulb temperature ___________C Relative humidity ___________% Barometric pressure ____________hPa

10.

Define the term comfort conditions. _______________________________________________________________

11.

What is the full name of the following abbreviations? OA ___________________________________________________________ RA ___________________________________________________________ MA ___________________________________________________________ SA ____________________________________________________________

12.

In what part of a split system is the supply fan found? _______________________________________________________________

13.

List three factors that affect human comfort in a conditioned space. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ c) _____________________________________________________________

14.

Name two methods used to move the air in an enclosed space. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________

15.

What is the name of the refrigeration component that reverses the flow of refrigerant in a reverse cycle system? _______________________________________________________________

16. 17.

Will solar heat penetrate glass?

Yes

No

Why do you feel cold when the temperature is below comfort conditions? _______________________________________________________________
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18.

Match each piece of equipment with its correct use by placing the number of the Use next to the equipment name. (It is possible for a piece of equipment to have more than one use).
Equipment Use

19.

Chiller set Evaporative cooler Room air conditioner Split air conditioner Packaged air conditioner

1 2 3 4 5

House Small offices Office building Factory Shop

List four factors that affect the quantity of heat lost by perspiration. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ c) _____________________________________________________________ d) _____________________________________________________________

20.

Why do you feel hot when there is no air movement around you on a hot day? _______________________________________________________________

21.

On the following diagram show: a) the air movement (by drawing arrow heads on the indicator lines) b) the type of air, either OA, RA or SA

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Air Conditioning Systems


Air Conditioning is defined as the process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, distribution and noise to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.
Purpose of Air Conditioning The purpose of Air Conditioning is to serve two primary applications. These include: The promotion of human physical well being The improvement of industrial processes.

Psychrometrics
Introduction Psychrometrics is the study of the properties of mixtures of air and water vapour and is the basis for all Air Conditioning process calculations. Terminology Dry Bulb Temperature (OC DB) The temperature of air measured by an ordinary thermometer

Wet Bulb Temperature (OC WB) The temperature of mixtures of air and water vapour measured by a thermometer whose bulb is covered with a wetted wick and exposed to a rapidly moving air stream Relative Humidity (RH %) The ratio of the actual water vapour in the air compared to the water vapour in the air when the air is completely saturated at the same temperature Saturation Temperature (Dew Point Temperature) (OC) The temperature at which condensation of moisture begins. Specific Humidity (Moisture Content) (g / kg) The ratio of mass of water vapour to mass of dry air in a given volume of moist air. Enthalpy Total Heat (kJ / kg) A thermal property indicating the quantity of heat in the air. Specific volume of dry air ( L / kg OR m3 / kg) The volume occupied by 1 kg of dry air.

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Revision of psychrometric chart There are various conditions of air that may be studied using the assistance of a psychrometric chart.

These conditions include: Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Relative humidity Enthalpy Specific volume of Dry Air Specific humidity (Moisture Content) Saturation temperature (Dew Point Temperature) See ARAC for further details of how the conditions listed above can be found on a psychrometric chart.
Psychrometric process The psychrometric chart can also be used to study various processes in Air Conditioning.

These processes include: 1. Cooling and Dehumidification 2. Sensible Cooling 3. Sensible Heating 4. Dehumidification 5. Evaporative Cooling 6. Humidification 7. Heating and Humidification 8. Chemical Dehumidification

(Note: 6, 7 and 8 are not done by a standard Air Conditioning Unit)


See ARAC for further details of where the processes are located on a psychrometric chart.

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The air conditioning process The air conditioning process can be shown on a psychrometric chart. The process shown below is a cooling process.

Psychrometric calculations Air Conditioning calculations may be assisted by a psychrometric chart. Some common calculations drawn from a psychrometric chart include the following: Mixed air dry bulb condition The Health Act of NSW regulations and AS1668, Part 2 requires a minimum percentage of fresh air to be introduced into a conditioned space, to offset stale air and odours.

When this process is put into practice the cooling capacity would be influenced by the condition of the air entering the coil. This air is made up of return air (B) from the conditioned space and air from outside (C) and is known as Mixed Air (D). A formula that may be used to calculate this condition is:

t MA.DB =
Where:

(V

RA

t RA. DB ) + (VOA t OA.DB ) (VRA + VOA )

t MA.DB = Mixed air dry bulb temperature VRA VOA = = Volume flow rate of the return air Volume flow rate of the outside air t RA.DB = Return air dry bulb temperature tOA.DB = Outside air dry bulb temperature

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Apparatus dew point temperature Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) refers to the effective surface temperature of the conditioning coil.

Put simply, the ADP is the lowest achievable temperature of the air leaving the cooling coil if the coil apparatus was 100% efficient and no air bypassed the coil. (WB = DB = Saturation Temperature) The ADP is found by extending the coil process line, from the nixed air (D) to the air leaving the coil (A), through to the saturation temperature line. The intersection is the ADP.

In practice, the air leaving the cooling coil is never as cold as the ADP due to the Bypass Factor.
Bypass Factor The bypass factor is the portion of the air that is considered to pass through the conditioning coil completely unaltered.

The formula for the bypass factor is:


BF = t LDB t ADP t EDB t ADP

Where: BF = Bypass Factor t LDB = Dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the coil (oC) t EDB = Dry bulb temperature of the air entering the coil (oC) t ADP = Apparatus due point temperature (oC)

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Total Heat Total heat of the coil is the amount of heat (both sensible and latent) that is added or removed during the process. The total heat of a process can be found: From the psychrometric chart By calculation. If the latent and sensible heat of the process is known.

From the psychrometric chart


TH = hMA - hSA

Where: TH = Total heat (kJ/kg) hMA = Enthalpy of the mixed air (kJ/kg) hSA = Enthalpy of the supply air (kJ/kg)

By calculation:
TH = SH + LH

Where: TH = Total heat (kJ/kg) SH = Sensible heat (kJ/kg) LH = Latent heat (kJ/kg)

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Sensible Heat Sensible heat is when there is a change in temperature but there is no change in moisture. Sensible heat of the coil can be found using the following methods: From the psychrometric chart By calculation if the latent and sensible heat of the process is known By calculation using the sensible heat ratio

From the psychrometric chart


SH = hE - hSA

Where: SH = Sensible heat hE = Enthalpy of the process if there was no moisture content change (kJ/kg) hSA = Enthalpy of the supply air (kJ/kg) By calculation:
SH = TH LH

Where: SH = Sensible Heat (kJ/kg) TH = Total heat (kJ/kg) LH = Latent heat (kJ/kg) Calculation using the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR)
SH = TH X SHR

Where: SH = Sensible heat (kJ/kg) TH = Total heat (kJ/kg) SHR = Sensible Heat Ratio (see below on how to attain)
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Sensible heat ratio Sensible heat ratio is the ratio of sensible heat to the total heat load on the room or coil. The remaining proportion is latent heat.

Sensible heat ratio can be found using the following methods: By calculation if the latent heat and sensible heat of the process is known From the psychrometric chart (see ARAC for details).
Latent heat Latent heat takes into account the change in moisture content that takes place through a process. The latent heat of the coil can be found: From the psychrometric chart By calculation if the latent heat and sensible heat of the process is known

From the psychrometric chart


LH = hMA - hF

Where: LH = Latent heat (kJ/kg) hMA = Enthalpy of the mixed air (kJ/kg) hF = Enthalpy of the process if there was no change in dry bulb temperature

By calculation
LH = TH SH

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Where: LH = Latent heat (kJ/kg) TH = Total heat (kJ/kg) SH = Sensible heat (kJ/kg)
Determining the refrigerating capacity Plot the psychrometric chart locating the mixed air and supply air Determine the enthalpy change between the mixed air and the supply air Calculate the volume of the circulating air

V = A
Where: V = Volume flow rate (m3/s or L/s) A = Duct area (m2) = Velocity (m/s)

Calculate the mass flow rate of the air through the coil This is the mass of air flowing through the cooling coil.

m=
Where:

V v

V = Volume flow rate (L/s) m = Mass flow rate (kg/s) v = Specific volume (m3/kg or L/kg) Note: The specific volume is measured from the same condition on the psychrometric chart as the point where the velocity was determined. That is the supply air duct, return air duct, etc Calculate the coil capacity The coil capacity relies on two major factors, these being the mass flow rate of the air flowing through the coil and the enthalpy difference between the air entering the coil and the coil and the air leaving the coil. Q = m x h Where: Q = Coil capacity (kJ/.s or kW) m = Mass flow rate (kg/s) h = Difference in enthalpy (kJ/kg)

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Moisture removal rate This is used to theoretically determine the condensate capacity.

A simple calculation can approximate the amount of water deposited on the coil during full load conditions within a specified environment.

mw = m SA X (wEA wLA )
Where:

mW = Moisture removal rate (g/s) m SA = Mass flow rate of the supply air (kg/s) wEA = Moisture content of the air entering the coil (g/kg) wLA = Moisture content of the air leaving the coil (g/kg)
To transform these units to litres per hour

g 60 X 60 kg = = s 1000 hr
1kg = 1 litre of water, therefore: 1kg 1L = hr hr

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Practical exercise: Plotting a psychometric chart


Task To plot the conditions on the chart record various values Procedure Plot the following conditions +30OC DB / 24OC WB on the psychrometric chart. From the plotted points, draw and record the related conditions listed below.

Conditions Moisture Dew Point Temperature Relative Humidity Specific Volume of Dry Air Enthalpy of the Air

Results

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Calculation exercise:
Task

Psychrometric calculations

To plot a systems operation conditions on a psychrometric chart and calculate various values using the formulas learnt in this module.
Procedure

1.

Plot the following conditions on a psychrometric chart Outside Air (OA) = 30OC DB / 24OC WB Return Air (RA) = 24 OC DB / 50% RH Supply Air (SA) = 12OC DB/11OC WB Supply Air Quantity = 1500 L/s Outside Air Quantity = 150 L/s

2.

Determine the following: a. Mixed Air Conditions Formula =

b. Apparatus Dew Point temperature (ADP) Show plotting on psychrometric chart. c. Coil Bypass Factor Formula =

d. Amount of Total Heat absorbed by the cooling coil. Total heat may be found from the psychrometric chart. e. The Sensible Heat Ratio of the (a) cooling coil (b) room. This may be found from the psychrometric chart

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f. Amount of Sensible Heat absorbed by the cooling coil. Formula =

g. Amount of Latent Heat absorbed by the cooling coil Formula =

h. Mass flow rate of the air through the cooling coil Formula =

i. Cooling coil capacity. Formula =

j. Amount of water (in litres) deposited in the condensate tray in one hour at full load operation, under the specified conditions Formula =

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Review questions
1. What is meant by the term Psychrometric?

2.

List the important gases that mix to form dry air.

3.

What is meant by the term Mixed Air Condition?

4.

List five factors that need to be addressed if the calculated bypass factor is higher than the rated design of the cooling coil

5.

Define Apparatus Dew Point.

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6.

A cooling coil has an ADP of 10OC and the mixed air condition onto the cooling coil is 23OC DBG, 60% RH. What will happen to the moisture content of the air? Explain your answer.

7.

An electric reheat coil is located in the supply air duct. Will this device remove moisture from the air stream? Explain your answer.

8.

List the two major factors that determine the capacity of a cooling coil.

9.

What is meant by the term Sensible Heat Ratio, (SHR) and what is the purpose of identifying the Room Sensible Heat Ratio?

10.

List the seven air conditioning processes that may be identified on the psychrometric chart.

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Package (Unitary) Units


Applications Package units are installed into various commercial applications, including small office buildings, computer rooms or a single floor of a multi-storey building. Types Package units are self contained systems that are either air-cooled or water-cooled.

In air-cooled package units, the condenser is remotely located outside to ensure good heat transfer.

In water-cooled package units, the condenser is located adjacent to the compressor with the ancillary water piping and cooling tower located externally from the package unit.

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General information Advantages Cheap installation cost in comparison to a central plant, ease of service and all components are centrally located together in one housing. Disadvantages The disadvantages of using a package unit in multi-storey buildings are the energy consumption costs, noise control, service accessibility (i.e. fan bearing changes) and equipment failure. Air distribution The package unit may be installed within the conditioned space with a free blow system, or it may be installed internally or externally with ductwork for air distribution. Air filtration The units are usually fitted with panel type filters and electrostatic filters may also be fitted for ducted systems. Refrigerant The refrigerant found in the majority of package units is R22, although some early Carrier systems (50K series) employed R500 to overcome inefficient performance from those units imported from America designed for 60Hz electrical supply. Other refrigerants will be and are used as R22 is phased out. Fans The fans are commonly forward curved blade, centrifugal fans with a static pressure of 200 to 600 Pascals. Cooling capacity Package units may vary in capacity from 1 kW to 1000 kW. Heating methods The Package Unit Air Conditioning system may provide heating as well as cooling. Heating can be achieved by means of electric heating elements or for package units incorporating air cooled condensers by means of reverse cycle operation.

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Operating conditions

TABLE 1: RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS OF AIR CONDITIONING PACKAGE UNITS Apparatus Condition Consideration Depends on location & fresh Air on cooling coil 24OC 27OC air intake. Depends on coil bypass factor Air off cooling coil 10OC 15OC and airflow rate through coil. An excellent split would be 12 to 15 Kelvin but 12 is Coil split Approximately 12 K common. Depends on coil bypass factor, condition of coil and airflow rate. No greater than 2.5 m/s as Cooling coil face Optimum of 2.5 m/s condensation droplets will be velocity thrown down the air stream. These conditions are Saturated suction commonly found on package On R22 +4OC @ 464 kPa operating conditions units using R22. Depends on location and water Water cooled on R22 approx. 38OC @ 1360 kPa flow rate. Saturated condensing temperatures Air cooled on R22 approx. Depends on airflow rate and 45OC @ 1630 kPa coil condition. No lower than 150 kPa Depends on compressor type above operating suction Oil pressure and recommended oil pump pressure (semi hermetic & pressure ratings. open drive) Depends on location, Condenser condition of condenser coil, temperature difference 12 to 15 Kelvin ambient conditions and (air cooled) airflow rate over coil. Depends on water flow rate, Condenser cooling tower fan setting, and temperature difference 8 to 10 Kelvin efficiency of the cooling tower (water cooled) and water supply. Depends on ambient wet bulb Tower approach Recommended 6 K conditions. Depends on cooling tower fan Tower range Approx. 4 to 6 Kelvin temperature setting and water flow rates.
Maintenance procedures General information The extent of any preventative maintenance program varies according to location and actual operating conditions. After a suitable trial period, local conditions may determine some modification to the program, i.e. clean air filters weekly instead of monthly.
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Monthly inspection generally includes the following 1. Clean air filters, inspect media for damage and ensure that filters are clear of debris. NOTE: Filter media should be replaced annually as efficiency reduces following repeated washing, or replaced to filter manufacturers specifications where non washable medias are used.

2. Check refrigerant charge. The sight glass in the liquid line indicates the correct balance. Care should be taken when viewing the glass from the initial start up, as it requires approximately 10 15 minutes for the system to fully circulate the refrigerant. During this time a bubbling sight glass can occur. 3. Inspect all drive belts for tightness and wear. Do not over tighten, as excessive bearing wear will occur. 4. Check blower wheels for tightness on shafts, dust build up, etc. 5. Check condensate tray and drain for cleanliness. If necessary flush tray out thoroughly. 6. Check all cabinet components and ensure all panels are adjusted correctly to close onto the door seals. 7. Check thermostat for the correct set point.
Annual inspection generally includes the following 1. Fit gauges to the compressor and note operating pressures. Check efficiency of compressor.

2. Test the superheat setting of the TX valve by placing a digital thermometer on the suction line at the TX bulb and comparing with the saturated suction temperature. Correct temperature difference settings should be between 4 and 7 K. 3. Where heating elements are fitted into the ductwork and connected via heater safeties into the electrical control circuit, check the manual reset safety thermostat for correct operation by removing the evaporator motor fan fuses, and allowing still air heating to activate the safety control. To reduce the time taken to cut out the heating elements, re-position the bulb closer to the element surface. 4. Using a tong type ammeter, check all motor amperages and compare against nameplate ratings. Record voltages between phases and neutral. 5. Replace filter media.

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6. Check pressure of high and low pressure cut out settings as follows: High Pressure Water cooled unit cut out: Average water temperature through condenser 32OC Condenser temperature difference + 8K Safety margin + 5K Cut out temperature 45OC O 45 C = 1630 kPa (R22) cut out setting manual reset
Air cooled unit cut out: Designed ambient condition i.e. Penrith (different locations will have different design ambient conditions) 35OC Condensing temperature difference + 15 K Safety Margin + 5K Cut out temperature 55OC 55OC = 2080 kPa (R22) cut out setting manual reset Low Pressure Cut out any pressure above 0 kPa i.e. 150 kPa Suggested cut in (auto reset) 350 kPa

7. Check cabinet base and panels for paint damage and rust. Apply corrective treatment as necessary.
Package unit system servicing The following information discusses the major safety controls fitted to a package unit and identifies the major causes for them to trip.

It is by no means a complete analysis of the reciprocating system. Instead, its intention is to familiarise you with the operation of the package unit and provide the necessary background for you to analyse and accurately report any developing problems.

High pressure control Sensing the compressor discharge pressure, the high pressure control monitors the efficiency of the condensing process. Poor efficiency, reflected by high condensing pressure conditions, is usually caused by: - Dirty condenser - Excessive refrigerant charge - Reduced water flow rate (water cooled condenser) - Reduced air flow rate (air cooled condenser) Low pressure control The low pressure control monitors the pressure at which the refrigerant is evaporating in the evaporator tubes. Low evaporator pressure is generally caused by: - Refrigerant shortage - Faulty expansion valve - Restricted liquid line filter drier - Failure of compressor to unload - reduced supply air flow rate
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Oil pressure control The oil pressure control senses the difference between the oil pump discharge pressure and the pressure within the compressor crankcase. The difference is net oil pressure or effective oil pressure. Low oil pressure is usually the result of: - Oil shortage - Faulty or worn oil pump - Faulty crankcase heater allowing refrigerant to condense in the compressor sump.

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Practical Exercise 1:
Task

Reading an electrical circuit diagram of a package unit.

To read an electrical diagram of a package unit and identify its operation by answering a series of questions.
Procedure

From the electrical schematic diagram below of a Package Unit Air Conditioning System, answer the questions which follow.

De-ice cycle Each outdoor coil has its own de-ice unit. A remote sensor is positioned to initiate a de-ice cycle at a coil temperature of -5OC. The de-ice cycle will be terminated when the temperature rises to 10OC. A timer safety limits the de-ice period to 10 minutes.

The de-ice control has a lockout that limits de-icing to once every 33 minutes.

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Abbr. CCH
CM CMC CST CT HP

Description
Crankcase Heater Compressor Motor Compressor Contactor Compressor Start to Start Timer 10 mins Cooling Thermostat High Pressure Control

Abbr. HT
IFC IFM IFOL LP OFM

Description
Heating Thermostat Indoor Fan Contactor Indoor Fan Motor Indoor Fan Thermal Overload Low Pressure Control Outdoor Fan Motor

Abbr. OFR
OTOL RVC TD TM
Outdoor Fan No 1 FLA 1.6

Description
Outdoor Fan Relay Outdoor Thermal Overload Reverse Cycle Valve Time Delay Internal Motor Thermostat Outdoor Fan No 2 FLA 1.6 Outdoor Fan No 3 FLA 1.6

Comp No 1 FLA Amps Per Phase 2 x 14 LRA 2 x 78

Comp No 2 FLA 2 x 14 LRA 2 x 78

Supply Air Fan FLA 11 LRA 66

1. The indoor fan motor trips out on thermal overload, will the compressors be able to run, YES or NO? Explain your answer.

2. What is the purpose of CST1 and CST2 coils?

3. Explain in step form the De-ice cycle.

4. How many condenser fan motors will operate if condenser fan motor No. 2 trips out on internal motor thermostat?

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5. The systems cooling thermostat is calling for full cooling. How long will it take before compressor No. 4 would start after compressor No. 1 is energised?

6. Compressor CM1 fails to start when called for full cooling because of a burnt out contactor coil. From the diagram determine how many compressors would be able to operate during this fault condition.

7. Do the four crankcase heaters cycle off during compressor operation? Explain your answer.

8. It states that compressor No.1 has a LRA rating of 2 x 78. What does the LRA stand for and what does LRA rating mean?

9. Compressor No. 1 is very short of refrigerant causing Low Pressure Control to perform its safety operation. What would be the operating characteristics of the system having this fault? (Note that the LP controls are manual reset).

10. What will happen to the system during the heating cycle if the neutral wire connected to the De-ice control on stage 1 heating mode breaks?

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11. In the space provided, reproduce the schematic wiring diagram into an Electrical Ladder control circuit diagram. Also identify the electrical components.

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Practical Exercise 1:
Task

System operating characteristics

To determine the standard operating conditions of a package unit.


Equipment

Package unit Service manifold gauges Thermometers Trade tools


Safety

Remember to work safely at all times. Wear protective clothing, footwear and safety glasses when working around machinery and refrigerants. Do not play around when working around machinery. Be aware that machinery may start at any time. Practice safe working procedures at all times.
Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Inspect unit. Open all necessary valves and run unit. Fit manifold gauges. Allow system to equalise after 15 minutes of operation. In the space provided below record the following information: kPa kPa
O O

Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Saturated Suction Conditions Saturated Condensing Conditions Cooling coil air ON Cooling coil air OFF Condenser Temperature Difference Supply air quantity Return air quantity Outside air quantity Percentage of fresh air
99
O O

C C

kPa kPa
O O

C DB C DB K

C WB C WB

L/s L/s L/s %

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

Pressure difference across the return air filters Ambient conditions Current draw on compressor motor Unit Model No. Unit Make Brand Name Cooling load (nameplate) Heating load (nameplate) Type of fan shaft bearings Type of fan pulley Fan belt size
Conclusions
O

Pascals C DB % RH Amperes

Watts Watts

1. Plot the necessary operating condition on a psychrometric chart. 2. Calculate - Cooling Coil Operating Capacity (Psychrometric) - Coil Sensible Heat Ratio - Coil Operating Bypass Factor - Coil ADP

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Practical Exercise 2:
Task

Maintenance procedures for package units

To construct a preventative maintenance program.


Procedure

Complete the maintenance schedule for a water cooled package unit with semi hermetic compressors and electric heating elements. Note: Tick only one column for each item.
ITEMS MONTHLY 3 MONTHLY 6 MONTHLY ANNUALLY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Compressor Shaft sea Safety controls Operating Pressures Oil Level Conditioners Filters Bearings / Grease Fan belts Condensate drain Evaporator coil Refrigeration System Leak test Refrigerant charge Operating conditions Cooling Tower / Condenser Clean sprays Grease bearings Drain, clean basin Clean water strainer Electrical Supply and Control Circuit Tighten connections Calibrate / set controls Check overloads Check amperage

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Practical Exercise 3:
Task

Troubleshooting for package units

To practice the skills of identifying faults based on symptoms.


Procedure

1. For the chart of a commercial air conditioning system, list in each of the boxes, faults that you would expect to find for each of the symptoms listed. Note: Only use each FAULT once. 2. Answer the problems listed after the chart.

FAULT 1

FAULT 2

FAULT 3

High ambient conditions. TX valve hissing and superheat is high. Short cycling and current draw on compressor is low.

Condenser fan running, refrigerant charge OK and there is no evidence of non-condensables.

Space temperature too high. Initial operating pressures normal then after a short time period low suction pressures occur, high suction superheat, sight glass showing full.

Runs but not cooling efficiently

Tripping out on HP control

Intermittent short cycling

COMPRESSOR

Not Running

Running continuously

Short cycling

Condenser fan running, compressor contactor deenergised, coil shows continuity and resistance normal

High back pressure, low head pressure, gas charge OK, superheat normal.

System cycling on LP control, ice formation on coil, very low suction superheat, high room temperatures, filters clean. No air movement through room.

FAULT 4

FAULT 5

FAULT 6

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Problem 1
On inspection of a large DX package unit you find the package unit pumped down and cut out on Low Pressure Control, but the unit is not short of refrigerant What two possible TX valve faults could cause this symptom?

What could cause these faults?

How would you rectify these faults?

Problem 2
On a service call you find a lecture theatre with a package A/C system that has an air cooled condenser on the roof with all four condenser fans running. A low ambient temperature exists and there is insufficient cooling in the conditioned space. What is the fault?

How would you rectify this problem?

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Problem 3
On a hot and humid day, you are called to a package unit with a water cooled condenser. The operating head pressure is 1700 kPa on R22 and the supply condenser water entering the condenser is 36OC. What are two possible causes of this problem?

How would you rectify these two possible faults?

Problem 4
The suction pressure on a package unit is too low, ice has built up on the coil and the plant performance has reduced. What are three possible causes for this condition?

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Practical Exercise 4:

Fault finding

On a package unit that has been tricked up with faults by your teacher, analyse the system and record the symptoms, possible faults and the method of rectifying these faults. (Remember to work safely at all times).

Fault 1
Symptoms

Possible faults

Remedies

Fault 2
Symptoms

Possible faults

Remedies

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Fault 3
Symptoms

Possible faults

Remedies

Fault 4
Symptoms

Possible faults

Remedies

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2005 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, G. Riach and R. Baker.

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Fault 5
Symptoms

Possible faults

Remedies

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Review questions
1. What components make up an air conditioning package unit?

2.

Where is the package unit designed to be installed?

3.

What are the common types of compressors found in a package unit?

4.

What type of metering device is commonly used in large capacity package units?

5.

When are water cooled condensers used in package units?

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6.

List four applications where an air conditioning package unit is likely to be found.

7.

Give three reasons why a package unit would be chosen rather than any other type of air conditioner.

8.

Name two types of fans commonly used with package units and where in the unit you would find them.

9.

What type of filtration medium is used to clean the air through a package unit?

10.

Many package units are fitted with lockout relays. What is their purpose?

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11.

List three advantages and three disadvantages of package units in commercial office applications. Advantages

Disadvantages

12.

Solid state crankcase heater relays are commonly fitted to package units. What is their function?

13.

List the two most common types of heating systems used in Package Units.

14.

From the diagram Typical package air conditioning unit with service panels removed in ARAC, Volume 2, Chapter 20, design a maintenance check sheet and report form to be used by the employees od a fictitious firm when carrying out the maintenance to a package unit air conditioning system.

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Notes

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A.R.E.M.A heat load estimating sheet


A.R.E.M.A is the acronym for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers Association. This Association and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) combined their expertise and developed an Air Conditioning Heat Load Estimation Sheet in the interests of providing the HVAC industry with a standard air conditioning load estimation procedure. This Heat Load Estimating Sheet is a basic estimating procedure and is recommended only for use on domestic and small to medium commercial heat load applications. There are more in depth heat load estimation sheets that are used on more complex heat load designs. Many design engineers consult such methods as the Carrier AIRAH Heat Load Design Sheet format found in their System Design Manual.
A.R.E.M.A heat load estimation example (ARAC, Volume 2, Chapter 22) Using your text to guide you, carefully go through the procedures in the example while referring to the A.R.E.M.A Heat Load sheet on the next page.

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No.

Item External Glass - Solar Heat (Use all windows at one selected time).

Area m2

Air Conditioning Survey Form


Cooling Factors 10 am Shades NIL In 38 110 246 356 230 35 35 35 318 8K 51.0 25.5 14.0 24.5 17.0 27.5 12.0 12.0 53.0 13.0 73.0 18.0 9.0 1.0 12.0 0.0 12.0 Out 16 41 95 139 88 13 13 13 123 NIL 60 57 50 50 113 435 621 508 524 10K 64.0 32.0 17.5 26.0 20.0 31.5 17.0 14.5 56.0 14.0 77.0 19.0 12.0 1.0 15.5 0.0 14.4 Fluor x 1.25 4 pm Shades In 38 38 32 32 72 284 404 331 341 (12K) (77.0) 38.0 (21.0) 28.0 26.0 38.0 (20.5) 17.0 59.5 15.0 80.0 19.5 14.5 1.0 19.0 0.0 16.8 Out 16 16 13 13 28 110 154 126 129 14K 90.0 44.5 24.5 30.5 30.0 40.0 24.5 18.5 62.5 15.5 84.0 20.5 17.0 1.5 22.0 0.0 19.2 Compiled By Date HEATING Factors 12K 77.0 38.0 21.0 28.0 26.0 38.0 20.5 17.0 51.5 6.0 23.0 9.0 Watts Watts Client Address

1.

South .x. South East .x. East ...x. North East .x. North .x. North West x. West ..x. South West x. Horiz. x. Design db temp. diff (Kelvin) All Windows Single glass Double glass Outside Walls Cavity brick Hollow brick Brick veneer Weatherboard Partitions Internal walls Ceiling Unconditioned above Ceiling Pitched roof above No insulation 50mm insulation Flat roof above No insulation 50mm insulation

............

2. 3.

57 170 375 549 353 50 50 50 492 6K 38.0 19.0 10.5 17.0 13.0 20.0 10.0 8.5 50.0 12.0 69.0 17.0 6.5 1.0 8.5 0.0 9.6

4.

5. 6A. 6B

Ceiling 6C

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Floors Over unconditioned room Over enclosed crawl space Over ventilated crawl space Slab on ground Infiltration (S.H.) Refer Table 1 l/s Lights Watts Special heat sources Refer Table 2 (Sens. Heat) People (Sens.Heat) Quantity Room S.H. sub total (Items 1 to 11) Duct Gain Room total sens. Heat (Items 12 + 13 Outside Air [Use highest quantity only]

14.5

14.4 Not Used Not Used Not Used R.S.H. R.T.H 14.4 Sub total Factor Table 5 Heating Design Conditions Summer OC Ambient db wb Room db wb Diff. db wb Winter OC Ambient db Room db Diff. db Room Area Room Volume

Incand. x 1.0

Sitting 72.0

Activity Light 80.5

Heavy 89.5

Add 10% if duct external to conditioned space Cooling Factors for design Temp. Diff. 8K 9.6 10K 12.0 12K 14.4 14K 16.8 16K 19.2 Cooling

15.

A. Room volume m3 x 0.5 = ..l/s B. People x Rate Table 3 = ..l/s

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Total Sensible Heat (Items 14 + 15) LATENT GAINS COOLING Infiltration from 8 .l/s Special heat sources Refer Table 1 (Latent Heat) People (Latent.Heat) Quantity Room total latent heat (Items 18 to 20) Outside Air from 15.l/s Total Latent Heat (Items 21 + 22) Grand Total Heat (16 + 23) X Factor from Table 4

X Factor from Table 4 ...

Sitting 45.5

Activity Light 80.5

Heavy 160 Cooling Cooling Cooling

wb wb wb m2 m3

S.H.R. Room 14/(14 + 21) = .Equipment 16/24 =

TOTAL

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2006 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, P. Lamond, G. Riach & R. Baker

Table 1 - Infiltration
Item Description
Swing med. Use

l/s (Item 8)

Table 4 Outside Air Latent Heat


Table 4A Less Table 4B Factor = . . (Items 18 & 22)

Doors (standard)

Windows (one wall only) Exhaust Canopy

No. people x 1.0 No. people x Swing heavy use 4.0 No. people x Revolving 1.0 Open 282 Tight fitting Area m2 x 0.5 Average fitting Area m2 x 1.0 Poor fitting Area m2 x 3.5 Use manufacturers rating l/s

Table 4A Ambient

Table 2 Special Heat Sources


Description
Conditioner fan motor Hair dryer (helmet) Coffee percolator 5kW Electronic equipment Other motors Refrigerators

Watts
Sens. Heat Item 10
Input Watts 548 1900 Input Watts Input Watts Input Watts

Latent Heat Item 10


Nil 97 585 Nil Nil Nil

Wet Dry bulb temperature OC bulb 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 temp. O 18 C 26.1 23.7 21.0 18.6 16.2 13.5 11.1 20OC 33.9 31.2 28.8 26.1 23.7 21.0 18.6 22OC 42.3 39.9 37.2 34.5 32.1 29.4 27.0 24OC 51.6 49.8 46.2 43.8 41.1 38.4 36.0 26OC 61.5 59.1 56.4 54.0 51.3 48.6 45.9 28OC 72.6 61.9 67.2 64.8 61.1 59.4 56.7 -81.9 79.2 76.5 73.8 71.1 68.4 30OC You may interpolate if necessary.

42
8.4 15.9 24.3 33.3 43.5 54.0 66.0

Table 4B Room Condition

Table 3 Outside Air Smoking


Smoking rate
None Low Medium High

l/s
3.5 7.0 10.0 20.0

Check Factors Watts m 2 floor

Wet Dry bulb temperature OC bulb 20 22 24 26 28 temp. O 16.2 13.8 11.1 8.9 6.0 12 C 22.5 20.1 17.4 15.0 12.3 14OC 29.1 26.7 24.0 21.6 18.9 16OC 36.3 33.9 31.2 28.8 26.1 18OC 44.4 41.4 39.0 36.3 33.9 20OC -50.4 47.7 45.0 42.3 22OC You may interpolate if necessary.

Table 5 Heating Factors


Factors for other Temp. Diff. Temp. Diff. Factor
10K 0.85 14K 1.17 16K 1.33 18K 1.50

l/s = Room volume m 3

Calculate a 12K load and multiply by the factor above for the selected Temp. Diff.

NOTE: Major totals approximated to


nearest 10 watts. Total Air Supply =

Item 14 1.2 x Temp. Rise

A.R.E.M.A heat load on computer The basic AREMA Heat Load procedure has been applied by various manufacturers / suppliers to operate various Heat Load computer programs. Once familiar with a program, the computer makes it easier to use than the paper sheet because t does all the calculations for you.

Some of these programs include: Camel A.R.E.M.A load estimating Carrier E2-II

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Practical Exercise 1:
Task

A.R.E.M.A heat load estimation

To practice the skills of using an AREMA heat load estimation sheet to determine the heat load in a conditioned space.
Specifications

Application Design Room Conditions Windows

Office space 22OC DB / 50% RH All windows are single glass Window height is 1.6 meters Shading is provided by Venetian blinds

Outside wall material Ceiling and floors Lighting Auditioned heat sources

Hollow Block Wall height is 2.6 meters The office is unconditioned above The office is above an open space The office has 10 fluorescent lights each rated at 40 watts One tea urn One refrigerator One microwave oven (1000 watts)

People load Office hours


o Summer: o Winter:

There are five office staff and one manager 9am to 5pm, 5 days per week 35.5OC DB and 24OC WB 7OC DB

Design ambient conditions for Sydney

Note: Design ambient conditions for summer and winter are available for all major cities throughout Australia (and the world). Many of these tables can be found in the Carrier Design Manual 1 as well as on computer system analysis heat load programs.
Procedure Referring to specifications above and the diagram on the next page, complete with the AREMA sheet provided, determine: Grand total heat load for cooling Sensible heat ratio for the room Total heating load for winter

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2006 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, P. Lamond, G. Riach & R. Baker

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2006 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, P. Lamond, G. Riach & R. Baker

No.

Item External Glass - Solar Heat (Use all windows at one selected time).

Area m2

Air Conditioning Survey Form


Cooling Factors 10 am Shades NIL In 38 110 246 356 230 35 35 35 318 8K 51.0 25.5 14.0 24.5 17.0 27.5 12.0 12.0 53.0 13.0 73.0 18.0 9.0 1.0 12.0 0.0 12.0 Out 16 41 95 139 88 13 13 13 123 NIL 60 57 50 50 113 435 621 508 524 10K 64.0 32.0 17.5 26.0 20.0 31.5 17.0 14.5 56.0 14.0 77.0 19.0 12.0 1.0 15.5 0.0 14.4 Fluor x 1.25 4 pm Shades In 38 38 32 32 72 284 404 331 341 (12K) (77.0) 38.0 (21.0) 28.0 26.0 38.0 (20.5) 17.0 59.5 15.0 80.0 19.5 14.5 1.0 19.0 0.0 16.8 Out 16 16 13 13 28 110 154 126 129 14K 90.0 44.5 24.5 30.5 30.0 40.0 24.5 18.5 62.5 15.5 84.0 20.5 17.0 1.5 22.0 0.0 19.2 Compiled By Date HEATING Factors 12K 77.0 38.0 21.0 28.0 26.0 38.0 20.5 17.0 51.5 6.0 23.0 9.0 Watts Watts Client Address

1.

South .x. South East .x. East ...x. North East .x. North .x. North West x. West ..x. South West x. Horiz. x. Design db temp. diff (Kelvin) All Windows Single glass Double glass Outside Walls Cavity brick Hollow brick Brick veneer Weatherboard Partitions Internal walls Ceiling Unconditioned above Ceiling Pitched roof above No insulation 50mm insulation Flat roof above No insulation 50mm insulation

............

2. 3.

57 170 375 549 353 50 50 50 492 6K 38.0 19.0 10.5 17.0 13.0 20.0 10.0 8.5 50.0 12.0 69.0 17.0 6.5 1.0 8.5 0.0 9.6

4.

5. 6A. 6B

Ceiling 6C

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Floors Over unconditioned room Over enclosed crawl space Over ventilated crawl space Slab on ground Infiltration (S.H.) Refer Table 1 l/s Lights Watts Special heat sources Refer Table 2 (Sens. Heat) People (Sens.Heat) Quantity Room S.H. sub total (Items 1 to 11) Duct Gain Room total sens. Heat (Items 12 + 13 Outside Air [Use highest quantity only]

14.5

14.4 Not Used Not Used Not Used R.S.H. R.T.H 14.4 Sub total Factor Table 5 Heating Design Conditions Summer OC Ambient db wb Room db wb Diff. db wb Winter OC Ambient db Room db Diff. db Room Area Room Volume

Incand. x 1.0

Sitting 72.0

Activity Light 80.5

Heavy 89.5

Add 10% if duct external to conditioned space Cooling Factors for design Temp. Diff. 8K 9.6 10K 12.0 12K 14.4 14K 16.8 16K 19.2 Cooling

15.

A. Room volume m3 x 0.5 = ..l/s B. People x Rate Table 3 = ..l/s

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Total Sensible Heat (Items 14 + 15) LATENT GAINS COOLING Infiltration from 8 .l/s Special heat sources Refer Table 1 (Latent Heat) People (Latent.Heat) Quantity Room total latent heat (Items 18 to 20) Outside Air from 15.l/s Total Latent Heat (Items 21 + 22) Grand Total Heat (16 + 23) X Factor from Table 4

X Factor from Table 4 ...

Sitting 45.5

Activity Light 80.5

Heavy 160 Cooling

Cooling Cooling

wb wb wb m2 m3

S.H.R. Room 14/(14 + 21) = .Equipment 16/24 =

TOTAL

HVAC & Refrigeration, Ultimo 2006 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Compiled by S. Doumanis, P. Lamond, G. Riach & R. Baker

Table 1 - Infiltration
Item Description
Swing med. Use

l/s (Item 8)

Table 4 Outside Air Latent Heat


Table 4A Less Table 4B Factor = . . (Items 18 & 22)

Doors (standard)

Windows (one wall only) Exhaust Canopy

No. people x 1.0 No. people x Swing heavy use 4.0 No. people x Revolving 1.0 Open 282 Tight fitting Area m2 x 0.5 Average fitting Area m2 x 1.0 Poor fitting Area m2 x 3.5 Use manufacturers rating l/s

Table 4A Ambient

Table 2 Special Heat Sources


Description
Conditioner fan motor Hair dryer (helmet) Coffee percolator 5kW Electronic equipment Other motors Refrigerators

Watts
Sens. Heat Item 10
Input Watts 548 1900 Input Watts Input Watts Input Watts

Latent Heat Item 10


Nil 97 585 Nil Nil Nil

Wet Dry bulb temperature OC bulb 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 temp. 18OC 26.1 23.7 21.0 18.6 16.2 13.5 11.1 20OC 33.9 31.2 28.8 26.1 23.7 21.0 18.6 22OC 42.3 39.9 37.2 34.5 32.1 29.4 27.0 24OC 51.6 49.8 46.2 43.8 41.1 38.4 36.0 26OC 61.5 59.1 56.4 54.0 51.3 48.6 45.9 28OC 72.6 61.9 67.2 64.8 61.1 59.4 56.7 -81.9 79.2 76.5 73.8 71.1 68.4 30OC You may interpolate if necessary.

42
8.4 15.9 24.3 33.3 43.5 54.0 66.0

Table 4B Room Condition

Table 3 Outside Air Smoking


Smoking rate
None Low Medium High

l/s
3.5 7.0 10.0 20.0

Check Factors Watts m 2 floor

Wet Dry bulb temperature OC bulb 20 22 24 26 28 temp. 16.2 13.8 11.1 8.9 6.0 12OC 22.5 20.1 17.4 15.0 12.3 14OC 29.1 26.7 24.0 21.6 18.9 16OC 36.3 33.9 31.2 28.8 26.1 18OC 44.4 41.4 39.0 36.3 33.9 20OC -50.4 47.7 45.0 42.3 22OC You may interpolate if necessary.

Table 5 Heating Factors


Factors for other Temp. Diff. Temp. Diff. Factor
10K 0.85 14K 1.17 16K 1.33 18K 1.50

l/s = Room volume m 3

Calculate a 12K load and multiply by the factor above for the selected Temp. Diff.

NOTE: Major totals approximated to


nearest 10 watts. Total Air Supply =

Item 14 1.2 x Temp. Rise

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Evaporative Coolers
Evaporative coolers utilise the evaporation of water to cool the air stream through a conditioned space. They are said to cool up to the wet bulb line. Evaporative coolers are very effective in cooling dry locations, e.g. inland country areas away from lakes, dams, etc. In coastal areas the air has higher moisture content; therefore the efficiency of an evaporative cooler is dramatically reduced.
Components The components that make up an evaporative cooler include:

Water pump. Water distributors. Panel fill (Aspen). Centrifugal fan with cowling (volute). Simple water regulating method. Water make-up valve. 1, 2, or 3 speed fan motor. Water holding basin.
Basic operation A water pump located in the sump of the cooler pushes water up into the distribution trays. The trays disperse the water evenly over the fill that is held in the panels of the cooler walls.

As the surface water evaporates, the temperature of the air (sensible heat) flowing through the material in the panels drop. The lowest possible temperature that the water can drop to is that of the wet bulb temperature of the ambient air entering the cooler. The loss of sensible heat is equal to the gain in latent heat. (ADIABATIC, heat energy is neither lost nor gained during the process). In some instances additional cooling can be achieved by adding in a cooling coil before the wet medium. The coil has water recirculated through it from a conventional cooling tower. Such two stage systems add significantly to the cost of a system and seldom can be economically justified. They do however result in a lower humidity in the conditioned space.

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Advantages Lower capital cost than refrigerated air conditioning systems. Lower energy consumption. Large fresh air ventilation rate excellent in areas of higher exhaust air requirements, e.g. kitchens. Disadvantages Conditions inside are largely dependant on those outside. Suitable for hot and dry climatic areas. Provision must be made for the exhaust of large air quantities. Larger ducts are required to handle the higher air quantities. Precautions Evaporative coolers are a cheap alternative to refrigerated air conditioning (about 25% of the running cost and much cheaper to install), but a number of limitations apply to their use.

They add a great deal of moisture to the air, therefore problems with mould can occur. The room must be well ventilated in order to exhaust the room air. The unit must never be undersized for the load. Room air must not be circulated.
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Units are best suited to dry inland areas where high Wet Bulb Depressions are experienced. Performance is poor in coastal areas.
The psychrometric process of evaporative coolers As mentioned, the cooling process of an evaporative cooler is achieved up to the wet bulb line. As air flows through the wetted pads, the air remains at the same heat content but the moisture content increases. This is displayed on the psychrometric chart below.

The drier the air the greater the ability the air has of absorbing this moisture. The wetter the air, the less effective it is of absorbing the moisture and this results in higher supply air temperature. This ability of absorbing the moisture is referred to as the Saturation Efficiency. Therefore, if an evaporative cooler was used in inland regions with low Relative Humidity it would be more efficient than an evaporative cooler used in coastal areas or near large water ways with high air Relative Humidity levels.

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Review Questions
1. Explain the basic operation of an evaporative cooler.

2. List the six major components that make up an evaporative cooler.

3. The evaporative cooler operates mainly by cooling the water flowing over the pads. Answer: True /False

4. Evaporative cooler performance is very susceptible to changes in the ambient wet bulb temperature. Answer: True /False

5. The amount of water circulated over the pads is of little concern to the effective operation of an evaporative cooler. Answer: True /False

6. What causes the Wet Bulb temperature to be lower than the Dry Bulb temperature?

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7. Define the term WET BUL DEPRESSION.

8. Unlike conventional Air Conditioning systems, all windows and doors of the conditioned space should remain open. Why?

9. For an evaporative cooler to be effective, recirculated air should not be introduced into the conditioned space through the cooler. Explain why.

10. Explain why an evaporative cooler is less effective in coastal regions compared to inland regions.

11. Many registered Bowling Clubs, Leagues Clubs and RSL Clubs in coastal regions employ the use of evaporative coolers. Other than some direct cooling, what is their other main purpose for using these evaporative cooler applications?

12. Why can the evaporative cooler only cool the air passing over the pads to a maximum of approximately 80% of the difference between dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures?

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13. In accordance to the Australian Standard 3666.1:1995 where can an evaporative cooler be located?

14. In accordance to the Australian Standard 3666 and the NSW Code of Practice for the Control of Legionnaires Disease, what must be done to an evaporative cooler if it is not in use during the winter months?

15. Why should a water filter be fitted to the underside of the water pump of an evaporative cooler?

16. From the diagram in ARAC Volume 2 Chapter 19 of an evaporative cooler, design a maintenance check sheet and report form to be used when maintaining an evaporative air cooling system.

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Notes

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Central Plant Systems


As the name implies, central plant systems refer to Air Conditioning equipment being situated in a centrally located, sound controlled plant room.

They may also be referred to as built up systems, as not all central plants have the same components as the package unit. Instead they are all individual applications to meet medium to large commercial applications. Such factors as cost, design parameters, cooling and heating load requirements, and humidity control, and customer preference determine what equipment is found in an Air Conditioning plant room.

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Basic types There are 2 basic types of central plant systems. They are:

Direct expansion system The surface of the aluminium finned evaporator is cooled by the direct expansion of a refrigerant within the copper tubing (usually metered by an Externally Equalised TX valve). The coil has a multi-pass configuration to keep the pressure drop in the coil as low as possible and to keep the coil surface temperature as even as possible. It is also close tubed to encourage as much turbulence as possible (reduces the Bypass Factor). The fin spacing is generally between 300 to 500 fins per metre (2 to 3 mm per fin) which is much closer than can be used in medium and low temperature refrigeration coils because ice is not formed on the high temperature (5OC) air conditioning coils. The coils Face Velocity is generally maintained at around 2.5 m/s. If this is exceeded, then moisture may be blown off the coil and into the ductwork or conditioned space. The air off (or Supply Air) temperature varies between 10OC and 14OC.

Chilled water (Chiller) system The water is passed through the cooling coil delivered from the chiller unit at a temperature between 5OC and 7OC. The coils are normally bottom fed and self venting (by an air trap and a vent port that is provided at the top of the trap).
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The water flow rate is generally maintained at around 1 m/s resulting in a water temperature rise of around 6K to 8K through the coil. The air off temperature varies between 10OC and 14OC. Whether it is the Direct Expansion or Chilled water system they both require ducting to deliver the air into the air conditioned space.

Central plant air distribution systems There are various designs of ducting systems that meet the specific needs of each individual application. Some of the more common duct design practices include: Single zone low velocity system This is the simplest form of all air system designs. The single zone low velocity system, as the name implies responds to only one set of space conditions in a single zone. The unit may be installed within or remotely from the space it serves and may operate with or without distributing ductwork. Properly designed systems can maintain temperature and humidity closely and efficiently and can be shut down when desired without affecting the operation of adjacent areas.

Its use is limited to situations where variations occur almost uniformly throughout the zone served or where the load is stable. A single zone system would be applied to small department stores, individual shops in an arcade, computer rooms, warehouses, churches, auditoriums and cafeterias. Controlling the single zone system is accomplished by sequential operation of the cooling and heating coils. Dehumidification can be accomplished by a deep cooling coil condensing out some of the water content (latent heat removal), sensibly cooling the air and then re-heating to comfort levels. Single zone systems without reheat offer
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cooling flexibility but cannot control summer humidity independent of temperature requirements.
Terminal air conditioning unit A variant of the single zone low velocity unit is the terminal air conditioning unit.

Terminal air conditioning units can be fitted with both chilled water and hot water coils. Where more than one terminal air conditioning unit is fitted, they can be interconnected with four types of water circuit piping arrangements, they are the: One pipe system Two pipe system, either reverse return or the direct return Three pipe system Four pipe system
One pipe system This is where one pipe is looped around the building and acts as both the supply and the return. The size of the piping is the same throughout because all the water flows through this one pipe run. The length of the supply and return piping to each unit is the same.

At each branch a take-off is used to direct water from the main line to flow through the coil as required. The water temperature will vary throughout the pipe. The coils must be designed to have a low pressure drop in order to keep the pump head of the system within reasonable limits. One pipe systems are extensively used for heating in residences and small commercial buildings. They are not extensively used for cooling.

Two pipe system Similar to the one pipe system but has instead two main water circuits, a supply and a return. There are two configurations used, the direct return and the reverse return.

The direct return is the cheaper of the two systems to install due to it having shorter pipe runs but has the additional cost of having to balance the system to ensure it works correctly. The reverse return though is more costly to install but has the advantage of being selfbalancing.
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Two pipe systems are used for either heating or cooling in residences and small commercial buildings. Change over from heating to cooling for seasonal variances is done either automatically or manually.

Three pipe system This arrangement uses two supply pipes (one for hot water and one for chilled water) and one return. A three way valve is used for each unit to control the temperature in each unit. Additional control valves (not shown below) are required to prevent excessive flow of water through either the chiller or the boiler.

Not commonly used due to the potential problems of extreme temperature returns back to the chiller or boiler, high operating costs and maintenance problems.

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Four pipe system Though more expensive to install due to additional piping costs, this system offers the better control of all the piping arrangements. This arrangement consists of two supply pipes (one for hot water and one for chilled water) and two return pipes (again one for hot water and one for chilled water). In this arrangement there is no mixing of the two water circuits, cold water will return to the chiller and hot water will return to the boiler or heat exchanger.

An additional benefit of this arrangement is that dehumidification is also made available at all units simultaneously. The four pipe system is often used in large building applications.

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Multi zone system The multi zone system is applicable for serving a relatively small number of zones from a single, central air handling unit. The requirements of the different zones are met by mixing cold and warm air through dampers at the central air handler in response to zone thermostats. The mixed conditioned air is distributed through the building by a system of single zone ducts. Either packaged units complete with all components or field fabricated apparatus casings may be used. Smaller low heat load zones sharing the system are affected by lower space temperatures therefore reheat coils are needed to overcome these problems. Expense in running costs gets charged to the consumer, storeowner, etc.

New multi zone units are now being used which have individual heating and cooling coils for each zone supply duct. These systems use less energy than units with common coils; the supply air is heated or cooled only to that degree required to meet the zone load. Individual space thermostats control the zone mixing dampers. Applications: small office buildings, schools, stores, etc.
Dual duct systems The dual duct high velocity system is an all air system that gives very close control of zone temperatures. Although it is a highly expensive system to install it has been applied to a number of important public works buildings in Australia. The central plant comprises of a single fan, usually of the backward-curved type for high pressure supply (1000 to 1500 Pascals). The fan directs air to two ducts, one containing the heating coil and the other the cooling coil. The ducts contain the high pressure air that is then piped to the air distribution units throughout the building. These are usually round and much smaller than the more typical low velocity, low pressure ducts of other systems.

These ducts run throughout the buildings and branch off into smaller lines supplying the mixing boxes that proportion the hot and cold air according to the needs of the area being supplied. In the boxes, the velocity pressure is also reduced, to pressures of about 100 Pascals, so that normal ceiling distribution outlets can be used. The beauty of this design is the ability of this system to maintain constant volume of air to the mixing boxes and the way in which this is uniquely controlled within the mixing box. Within the mixing box are two actuating motors, one for hot air damper control and one for cool air damper control. For full heating, the heating damper would be fully open and the cooling damper closed. As the heating load reduces, the room thermostat senses the temperature rise, and calls for some cooling by opening the cold air damper/valve. The immediate result is an increased air volume. The extra air raises the box pressure. The increased pressure is sensed by a pressure measuring device, (Static Pressure Regulator) which controls the hot air damper, and it closes proportionally to the opening of the cooling valve. As further cooling is required, the room thermostat opens the cold air damper and the static pressure regulator closes the hot duct in response to pressure changes. The
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mixing box may supply air to one or up to six outlets, depending on the size of the zone under control of one thermostat. Most valves and dampers, when half open will supply more than 50% of the fully open flow. Therefore the volume supplied by a mixing box will increase when both dampers are partly open. In all cases, a pressure reducing baffle in the middle of the box ensures good mixing and reduces the downstream air velocity.

Face and bypass system A face and bypass damper control set up may be used with direct refrigerant or secondary refrigerant coils. When a face and bypass damper is used, the coil does a better job of moisture removal as the coil is maintained at a lower temperature.

The important facet of the duct design and size is that the bypass damper is to be sized to offer the same pressure drop across the cooling coil to avoid all the airflow bypassing the coil.
Economiser cycle The economiser cycle makes sure of free conditioning by avoiding the use of mechanical cooling during periods of low ambient (outside) temperatures.

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Variable air volume system

Variable air volume systems have one distinct advantage over the constant volume design systems. That is the VAVs ability to conserve energy of the operation of the entire air conditioning plant. The principal of Variable Air Volume (VAV) operation is, as the name implies, varies the air volume to suit the desired conditions. VAVs are located within a box and are the last component before the air is discharged from the outlets, (Terminal VAV Units). A space thermostat which if it senses the room is down to temperature, signals the VAV to close the air off. In most cases this can be as low as 20% of maximum air volume. When the thermostat senses undesirable warm room temperatures, the VAV is opened up to allow full volume flow rate of air. Because the VAV systems modulate the air volume, the pressure in the ducts will modulate as well. This modulating static pressure can be used to reduce or increase the air supplied and the power consumed. This can be through one of the accepted fan modulating techniques. These include: 1. Fan bypass or spill air, whereby a static pressure regulator senses an increase in static pressure and modulates a control bypass damper that recirculates the air back to the return air duct or to a wasted area, i.e. roof space. 2. Variable speed fan. Using a supply air static controller to vary the speed of the fan. Becoming the most common of the stated applications. 3. Inlet vane control. This is where the inlet vanes on the fan itself are positioned by an actuator responding to a signal from the static pressure sensor. Although the principal is the same for all VAVs the manufacturing designs differ. Two commonly used terminal VAV units are: Expanding bellows design, whereby the expansion of a bellows is used to restrict the airflow into the conditioned space. Air pressures may be supplied either from the pneumatic control system, or from the supply duct air which is always at a higher pressure than the air in the VAV bow (system powered). A regulator and room thermostat in each case controls Bellows pressure. Air valve design, whereby two components make up the air valve. The damper is moved back and forth across the air slots in the cylinder to vary the airflow. The power to move the damper coming either from the system air pressure, or pneumatic or electric motor. The ability of a large control unit to supply a number of satellite terminals can be achieved by the Air valve design.
Induction units Induction units are specially designed air water systems that are fitted around the perimeter of buildings. They are fitted to remove the sensible heat load (primarily solar heat load) through the windows, removing this load from the main air conditioning system.

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Maintenance procedures Like the package unit, Central Plant Air Conditioning Systems require preventative maintenance programs to ensure the highest performance of operation and prevent unnecessary faults and avoid excessive expense to the owner of the plant.

The central plant and associated equipment installed within a central plant system has been designed to give long trouble free service when operated and maintained correctly. To gain optimum performance and maximum service life, it is important that a regular inspection and maintenance program be carried out. This section is a guide only to establish such a program. In all instances, you should refer to the appropriate sections of the manufacturers manual. Their recommendations will take first priority. All electrical, mechanical and rotating machinery constitute a potential hazard, particularly for those not familiar with its design, construction and operation. Accordingly, the operation, maintenance and repair of any such items of plant should be undertaken only by personnel qualified to do so. All such personnel should be thoroughly familiar with the equipment, the associated systems and controls, and the procedures set out in the relevant literature from the manufacturers.
Safety Maintenance personnel must exercise good judgement along with proper safety practices to avoid damage to equipment and prevent personal injury.

It is assumed that your company has established a safety program based upon a thorough analysis of industrial hazards. Before operating or performing maintenance on the plant and associated components described in this manual, it is suggested that the safety program be reviewed to ensure that it covers the hazards arising from high speed rotating machinery. It is also important that due consideration be given to those hazards which arise from the presence of electrical power, hot oil, high pressure and temperature liquids, toxic liquids and gases, and flammable liquids and gases. Proper installation and care of protective guards, shutdown devices and other pressure protection equipment should also be considered an essential part of any safety program. Also essential are special precautionary measures to prevent the possibility of applying power to the equipment at any time when maintenance work is in progress. In general, all personnel should be guided by all basic rules of safety associated with the equipment.
General maintenance procedures The maintenance instructions that follow are general in nature and assume adequate trade knowledge on the part of you to engage in these maintenance procedures.
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The schedules for routine preventative maintenance activities are based on the expected plant usage rates for a twelve (12) month period. Refrigeration leaks All joints should be checked with a reliable leak detector. When the plant is new, these checks should be made frequently. It is recommended that a general inspection be carried out at least every six (6) months. Watch for any traces of oil on fittings or under the refrigeration equipment, compressor, etc. as this may indicate gas leaks. Check with a detector if in doubt. In particular, check joints such as flanges, valves, flare nuts. Always keep the valve bonnets and caps securely closed when not operating the valve. Check around the coil and the return bend and headers. Electric motors Check where necessary for motor casing temperature rise. Blow through motor terminal boxes to remove accumulated dust and if possible, check motors for current input at full load and for insulation resistance. Check the operation of motor overloads. Bearing lubrication For general purposes the following instructions can be followed: Grades of grease acceptable for the general lubrication of bearings, for fans, pumps, etc. are: Castrol EPL 2 Castrol EPL 3 Shell Oil Co. Aust Ltd. Alvania No: 2 Shell Oil Co. Aust Ltd. Alvania No: 3 The interval between lubrication depends on: The grade of grease used. Temperatures at which the bearing operates. The size and speed of the bearings. The hours and severity of use. It is not possible to give definite figures on lubricating intervals because grease in a bearing does not suddenly lose its lubricating ability; rather the loss is gradual. Lubrication intervals should be determined by experience but the following information may be used as a guide. It may be found that the intervals established could be safely extended, particularly where the unit is operated intermittently. But it is possible that they may be found to be too long where operating conditions are extremely severe. Washing out and repacking bearings Generally, all open type bearings should be completely washed out and repacked at least every three (3) years. This can be satisfactorily done by washing out housings, bearings and caps with a mixture of oil and petrol or other degreaser. Before opening
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up the bearings, all dirt and foreign matter should be removed from the vicinity of the bearing caps. After washing, the bearing should be examined for signs of wear. If in good condition, it should be repacked by pressing fresh grease well into the case, race and balls and rollers and all spaces within the bearing itself should be completely filled. After repacking the bearing, any surplus grease should be wiped off. The labyrinth grooves (shaft seals) in the bearing, should be scraped out, cleaned with petrol and when dry, refilled with fresh grease. The bearing caps should be filled half to two-thirds full with grease. Greased for life bearings (sealed bearings) These bearings require no servicing as they are sealed and are to be replaced completely when no longer serviceable. These bearings need only to be checked regularly for unusual noise or overheating, which if evident, indicates that the bearing requires replacement. For equipment undergoing a general overhaul, (e.g. 3 years) it may be advisable at that time to replace all such bearings. Vee-belt (v-belt) drive maintenance V-belts should be tightened only sufficiently to prevent slip on starting. Too tight a drive will cause undue wear and possible bearing failure. Correct tension may be gauged approximately by depressing the belts with the hand when deflection should be 12 mm to 25 mm, depending on the length of the drive. When adjusting the tension make sure alignment of pulleys is maintained. In renewing belts, renew all belts in the one drive, with a matched set to obtain even tension. The size of the belts is stamped into the top of each belt. Refer to the relevant commissioning sheet for belt sizes. Refrigeration chillers The systems are fully charged with oil at start-up and levels should be checked regularly. Regularly check operating pressures as indicated on plant and record oil data. At least once a year, check operation and set points of all operating and safety controls. Ask the chiller manufacturer to provide their yearly maintenance and service programme. Pump maintenance Refer at all times to the manufacturers instructions for maintenance procedures for the pump installed. For general purposes however, the following should be observed at all times: Pumps should never be run dry. Pump couplings must be properly aligned at start-up and be checked regularly. Glands (packed and mechanical) must be properly lubricated (refer manufacturers instructions) and checked regularly. Bearings (pump and drive) to be lubricated as under Bearing Maintenance. Bearings MUST be treated as per manufacturers instructions. Do not over grease.
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Pump cavitation must be investigated and stopped immediately. Pumps should not vibrate. Chilled and condenser water piping systems All joints should be checked for leaks. When the plant is new, these checks should be made frequently. It is recommended that a general inspection be carried out at least every six (6) months. Regularly check operating pressures and temperatures, as indicated on appliance, and record all data. At least once a year, check operation and set points of all operating and safety controls and record all results. Water systems should be completely drained and flushed with cleaning agents whenever water treatment has not been carried out for a prolonged period, or if system performance indicates that the pipes or heat exchangers need cleaning. Regularly check operation of all chemical feed devices and repair as necessary and check condition of all control devices such as thermostats and valves. Disposable panel air filters Check filter media regularly and shake out dust. When static pressure across the filter exceeds 125 Pa replace the media with new media. When a filter is being installed, it must be first installed over the inner frame, then the assembly inserted into the holding frame. Be very careful to ensure a seal is formed between the media and the mounting frame. Equipment, especially air conditioning units, should not be run without filters. Fan Coil Unit Panel Filters fitted with dry media, cleanable type, should be cleaned as follows: Remove surface lint and loose dirt with a vacuum cleaner attachment or by gently rapping over a newspaper. Flush water through inlet (dirty) side of filter. In severe cases, immersion and agitation in cold water, mild detergent may be necessary. Rinse thoroughly and dry. If filters are of a different type, follow filter manufacturers instructions.

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Practical Exercise 1:
Task

Interlock circuit operation

To practice the skills of reading and interpreting an electrical circuit diagram to determine the operation of an air conditioning system.
Procedure

1. Read the central plant circuit diagram that incorporates interlocking, located after the following questions. 2. Answer the following questions. a. What type of air conditioning system is operated by the circuit diagram? List the main components.

b. Explain the operation of the Oil Pressure Safety Switch.

c. The evaporator fan motor trips on O/L, will the compressor run? Why?

d. The flow switch sensed low water flow in the condenser water circuit. List in sequence, what will happen to the operation of this system.

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e. The cooling tower fan thermostat is out of calibration and the water temperature in the tower has risen to 38OC. What will happen to this system while this condition remains under full load cooling?

f. The compressor motor contactor coil has 180 volts supply. What could cause this problem and how will the system react to this fault situation?

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Practical Exercise 2: Central plant system operating characteristics


Task

To observe and record the normal operating characteristics of a central plant system.
Equipment

Central plant air conditioning system. Sling psychrometer. Anemometer. Digital thermometers.
Safety

Remember to work safely at all times. Wear protective clothing, footwear and safety glasses when working around machinery and refrigerants. Do not play around when working around machinery. Be aware that machinery may start at any time. Practice safe working procedures at all times.
Procedures

1. Start the system and allow the central plant to operate for 15 minutes before recording readings. 2. Observe the start sequence of plant and note the interlocking procedures below in step form.

3. Record the following: I. SA I. Dry Bulb Temperature II. Wet Bulb Temperature III. Volume Flow Rate

O O

C DB C WB

L/s

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II. OA I. Dry Bulb Temperature II. Wet Bulb Temperature III. Volume Flow Rate III. RA I. Dry Bulb Temperature II. Wet Bulb Temperature III. Volume Flow Rate

O O

C DB C WB

L/s

O O

C DB C WB

L/s

IV. Water Flow rate through cooling coils under full load conditions. L/s . V. Saturated Suction I. Pressure II. Temperature VI. Saturated Condensing I. Pressure II. Temperature VII. Chilled water temperature I. Supply II. Return VIII. Condenser water temperature I. Supply II. Return IX. Pressure drop across air filtration system in fan coil unit Pa 4. Plot the air conditioning process on a psychrometric chart. 5. Determine the following: i. Mixed Air Dry Bulb Temperature

kPa
O

kPa
O

C C C C C

O O

O O

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ii. Condenser Heat Rejection Capacity

iii. Cooling Coil Capacity

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Practical Exercise 3:
Task

Routine preventative maintenance

To identify what preventative maintenance should be carried out and how often.
Procedure

In the following tables, indicate the time intervals (one, three, si and twelve monthly) for each maintenance procedure activity. Note: Only tick one box for each maintenance activity.

Cooling Tower General mechanical maintenance (not microbial control). Maintenance Item Check operation Fan motor and fan Inspect structure Lubricate fan shaft bearings Check motor voltage and current Check fan bearing locking collars Inspect unit and record the following details: General condition, date of last service, any environmental or physical changes in the area including new installations, any recommendations. Frequency in months 1 3 6 12

Plant Cooling Tower

Centrifugal water pumps The mechanical seal should not require attention, however, if the seal leaks check their rubber components are clean and seated properly. Mating surfaces may require inspection for damage. During inspection handle all parts carefully. Plant Water Pumps Maintenance Item 1 Check for leaks Check coupling Check seal or gland packing Check motor Check strainer Check current Lubricate bearings Overhaul pump and motor every 3 years.
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Frequency in months 3 6 12

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The fan coil unit Plant Fan Coil Units Maintenance Item Check operation Check belt tension Recalibrate controls and record settings Check and clean filters Check condensate trays and drains Check all cabinets and all coils etc. for corrosion or damage Check all motor currents and record results Check room temperature by sling psychrometer Check all safety circuits Check fan and motor bearings every 5 years Dry media, cleanable type. Plant Air Filters Maintenance Item Check condition of all filters Inspect air media and issue report on all filters FAN COIL UNITS Check, clean or replace air filters as necessary Frequency in months 1 3 6 12 Frequency in months 1 3 6 12

Filters

Chiller Always refer to the chiller manufacturers Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, before commencing maintenance on a chiller. General maintenance procedures Use the periodic maintenance program to ensure maximum performance and efficiency from the chiller units. Daily and weekly maintenance. Log each chiller unit. Check oil level. Check oil and refrigerant pressures as per manual. Inspect liquid line sight glass. Visually inspect the entire system for noisy operation, loose panels, leaks and chattering.

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Plant

Maintenance Item
Weekly

Frequency
3 monthly 6 monthly 12 monthly

Chillers

Check oil level Check operating pressures and temperatures Check water temperature Check operation Check refrigerant leakage Check refrigeration strainers Manufacturers service Oil analysis Check operation and setting of all controls

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Practical Exercise 4:
Task

Fault finding exercise

To practice the skills on the following hypothetical faults that may be encountered in a central plant air conditioning system.
Procedure

For each problem and symptoms, identify a possible cause and recommended action. Compressor fails to start Problem and symptoms Full voltage at motor terminals but motor will not run Inoperative motor starter Open contacts of safety control or thermal overload Electric circuit test shows no current on line side of motor starter Electric circuit test shows current on line side but not on motor side of fuse Motor starter holding coil is not energised Compressor will not operate Open contacts on high side pressure switch. Discharge pressure above cut-in setting System will restart by resetting oil pressure control switch Starter will not pull in Control circuit will not energise Compressor stops Problem and symptoms High pressure control has cut out Low pressure control has cut out Thermal overload has cut out Winding thermostat has cut out Oil pressure control has cut out Freeze protection has cut out Probable cause Recommended action Probable cause Recommended action

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Compressor short cycles Problem and symptoms Compressor will not load or unload, cuts out on freeze protection control Normal operation except too frequent stopping and starting Valve may hiss when closed. Also temperature change in refrigerant line through valve Normal operation except too frequent stopping and starting on low pressure control switch. Bubbles in sight glass Suction pressure too low and frosting at drier. Motor starts and stops frequently Probable cause Recommended action

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Practical Exercise 5:
Task

Fault finding

To practice the skills of recording information, recognising symptoms and identifying faults.
Equipment

Air conditioning unit Thermometers Service gauges Anemometer Tools Calculator Pressure/Temperature chart
Safety

Remember to work safely at all times. Wear protective clothing, footwear and safety glasses when working around machinery and refrigerants. Do not play around when working around machinery. Be aware that machinery may start at any time. Practice safe working procedures at all times.
Procedure

1. The teacher will set up a fault on an air conditioning system that you will fault find, repair, and report on below. 2. Use the form below to record the system readings. 3. Determine and record below the symptoms, the fault and the remedy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Ambient temperature Air on condenser Air on evaporator Air off evaporator Temperature split across evaporator coil Saturated suction temperature Equivalent saturated suction temperature Saturated condensing temperature Discharge temperature Evaporator temperature difference Condenser temperature difference Suction line pressure drop Evaporator superheat
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14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Answers:

Suction line superheat Condenser sub-cooling Liquid line sub-cooling Airflow through evaporator Outside air quantity Liquid indicator condition Receiver level

Fault Diagnosis

Symptoms

Remedy

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Review Questions
1. Explain the difference between a constant volume, variable temperature central plant system and a variable volume, constant temperature central plant system.

2. List two major types of compressors and their refrigerants used in large flooded evaporator chiller sets.

3. What device would be used to determine low water flow in a chilled water supply? Explain how it functions, mechanically and electrically.

4. List three secondary refrigerants that may be used to cool an air conditioned space.

5. List two advantages and two disadvantages of the multi zone air conditioning system over a split zone air conditioning system.

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6. What is the purpose of reheat in the supply duct of a multi zone air conditioning system?

7. Explain the purpose of the mixing boxes in a dual duct system.

8. What is the design purpose of a Face and Bypass system?

9. What is an Economy Cycle when referring to a central plant air conditioning system and what are its benefits?

10. When would the economiser cycle open on the modulating OA damper to 100%?

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11. Why must the operation of fresh air, spill air and mixing dampers be coordinated in large air handling systems?

12. Explain two advantages of Variable Air Volume systems over a constant volume air conditioning system in a general office space.

13. List two methods used to maintain the static pressure in the duct once the VAV begins to reduce the airflow into the room.

14. What type of diffuser is recommended for VAV systems? Explain why.

15. Describe the difference in application between a basic shut-off VAV box and a VAV box fitted with a reheat coil.

16. Where would an induction unit be located in reference to the air conditioned space?

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17. Describe the importance of selecting the correct secondary chilled water temperature for induction systems.

18. An induction unit mixes primary and secondary air. Explain with a diagram where this mixing takes place.

19. Explain the difference between a central plant and a terminal air conditioning unit.

20. List three advantages of terminal air conditioning units over central fan systems.

21. A centrifugal chilled water set operates on a suction pressure below 0 kPa gauge pressure. If a refrigerant leak occurred, how would the leak be found?

22. What governs the maximum pressure that the chiller set can be checked for leaks?

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Heating Systems
Heating systems are included in most air conditioning applications. There are various forms of heating systems used in the HVAC industry. They range from electric heater elements, steam and hot water to reheat reclamation. The installation of any one of these systems depends on cost, efficiency, specifications and system reliability.
Hot water coils An aluminium finned copper coil, usually 2 or 3 rows deep, is placed in the supply air stream. The face area of the hot water coil is generally lower than that of the cooling coil in order to increase the air velocity to approximately 3.5 m/s. The velocity of the hot water that is travelling through the coil is usually maintained at around 1.0 m/s. The water generally enters the heating coil at around 85OC and leaves at around 75OC. A rise in temperature of around 20 K is usually achieved across the heating coil. A three way modulating valve may be used to maintain a constant supply air temperature by diverting the supply water around the coil when the desired conditions are almost achieved.

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Steam coils Steam at a pressure of approximately 100 kPa (a saturation temperature of approximately 120OC), is supplied from a boiler to a finned tube coil mounted in the air handler.

As the steam passes through the coil it gives up its Latent Heat of Condensation to the air (approximately 2200 kJ/kg) and leaves the coil as hot water. A coil only 1 row deep is all that is generally needed due to the high efficiency of this system (the latent heat transfer is extremely high and the temperature of the steam is also high). Air velocity over the coil face is generally maintained at 3.5 m/s with a steam flow rate of around 0.15 kg/s through the coil.

Electric elements Usually installed in the zone ducts, with stages of capacity across 1, 2 or all 3 phases to balance the current draw of the system and provide a degree of capacity control (with the aid of a Step Controller).

The ductwork in the immediate vicinity of the heater elements must be fire rated (Millboard is a popular insulator). A high limit (hi-limit) thermostat with manual reset must be fitted in case of: Fan motor seizure. Fan motor burnout. Fan belt breakage. Air blockage (filters, etc).
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They are generally not used in systems over 35kW.

Reverse cycle A four way solenoid valve known as a Reversing Valve is fitted into the refrigerant circuit. During heating, the energised valve connects the suction line to the condenser and the discharge line to the evaporator.

This is the most efficient method of generating heat, however it is heavily dependant upon the temperature of the outside air. Many reverse cycle systems are designed to operate in ambient temperatures as low as -8OC but they tend to go through a De-Ice cycle too often and they rely heavily upon electric element heaters to achieve comfort conditions. As a general rule, this style of heating is not used when the ambient temperature falls below 0OC. The coils are no longer referred to as the evaporator and condenser, but the indoor and outdoor the coils.

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Larger systems should not be fitted with a Capillary Tube metering device. They should instead use two TX valves (one at the inlet to each coil), and two check valves (to provide a path around each TX valve when flow is required in the opposite direction). An Accurator also can be used as a reversing valve. It is like a check valve and capillary built into one. It is cheaper than two (2) TX valves and check valves.

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Heat reclaim Similar in design to the hot water coil except that a boiler is not used to generate the hot water.

The warm water that is normally sent to the cooling tower from refrigeration equipment is instead redirected to the hot water coil in the air handler. The quantity of water being redirected to the hot water coil is generally controlled by a three way modulating bypass valve (normally located near the tower). Heat energy required for the heating of the air conditioned space is thereby reclaimed from the refrigeration plant. This type of system is generally only found in supermarkets where the refrigeration plant is large enough to provide the heating requirements of the building.

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Practical Exercise 1:
Task

Hot water coil capacity

To calculate the capacity of a hot water coil.


Procedure

Answer the following questions:

1. A hot water pump is supplying hot water to a heating coil at 5 L/s. The water

is returning to the boiler system at 75OC. The hot water supply temperature is 85OC. Calculate the heating coil capacity.

2. A heating coil has a rated capacity of 3.5 kW. The water temperature entering
the coil is 75OC and the leaving temperature is 180OC. Calculate the required mass flow of water to achieve this rated capacity.

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Practical Exercise 2:
Task

Fault finding

To practice the skills of fault finding on heating systems.


Procedure

Answer the following questions: 1. When checking a boiler having a rated capacity of 150 kW, it was found that the water flow was 1.8 L/s with water entering at 59OC and leaving at 78.5OC. Would you consider this to be operating as it should? Why?

2. An electric reheat system has tripped out on hi-limit thermostat. The technician checked the fan motor and electric elements and found them to be functional. What are three possible causes for the heater to be tripped on hi-limit thermostat?

3. A customer complained that conditions are cold in the conditioned space served by Air Handling Unit No. 1 0f the system shown in the diagram below. List five possible faults that could cause this complaint and how you would check them before you can rectify the fault.

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Review Questions

1.

List four methods used to heat air in an air conditioning application.

2.

What is heat reclamation?

3.

List two uses for heat reclamation.

4. List two main reasons for using individual duct heating elements or coils instead of reverse cycle air conditioning, to heat an office space.

5. Describe the purpose and operation of de-ice controls fitted to reverse cycle air conditioning systems. Purpose:

Operation:

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6.

List three electrical safety features that can be incorporated into an electric heater control circuit. `

7.

What is the major advantage of reverse cycle air conditioning?

8.

List three types of hot water boilers.

9.

What is the importance of boiler fluing?

10.

What are photo-electric cells used for in hot water boilers?

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Humidification Systems
Humidity is life! Man, beast and plant need the right air humidity for their well being. Many production processes, modern computer techniques, proper storage of all kinds of goods and the preservation of works of art would be unthinkable without controlled air humidity. Insufficient humidity is corrected by humidification and steam humidification is eminently suited to bringing the air humidity to the proper level. The humidity present in the air consists of water vapours; that is water in gaseous state. Humidification means raising the content of water vapour in the air and humidification employing steam is the best and obvious route because it has no detrimental side effects.
Humidity control The humidity controller is selected according to the permitted (or economical) humidity tolerances.

Room control is preferred in air conditioning systems, locating a humidity sensor either in the room itself or in the return air duct. Supply air humidity control should be used only where room humidity control is impracticable for technical reasons. The humidifier must be controlled continuously. Close humidity tolerances can be maintained only by using a proportional-integral (PI) controller. The controllability of the humidifier depends on the stability of the control loop under continuous control and on sufficiently long switching intervals under on/off control. This calls for careful selection and adjustment of both the humidifier and the control device.
Types of humidification systems There are three basic types of humidification systems:

Water spray method. A fine spray of water is injected into the air stream generally after it has passed through the Heating Coil (to improve moisture absorption). Spray eliminators must be fitted downstream of the spray header to prevent excess water from entering the ductwork. Atomising humidifiers are more effective because the water is broken into very small droplets making it easier for the air to absorb more moisture.

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Open pan method. A pan of water is located in the ductwork and heated by an electric element. The energy input is generally controlled by a humidistat. It may be a two position (either On or Off) control or a Proportional (modulating) control. Scale tends to form quickly on the heated surfaces, therefore regular water treatment is necessary.

Direct steam method. A number of various designs have been developed but all primarily inject wet steam into the air stream. Control may be achieved by switching the boiler on and off (only on small boilers), or by the use of a two way modulating valve in the steam line. A humidistat provides the switching in each case.
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Air humidification by steam: Is hygienically irreproachable (sterile). Causes no smells. Avoids deposits of mineral constituents from the water in air ducts and rooms. Allows optimal regulation of the air humidity. Involves almost no change in the air temperature (i.e. it is isothermal). And is simple to dimension.
Installation Careful planning and installation are necessary to ensure sterile humidification with steam. The steam must be absorbed properly by the air to avoid condensation because damp surfaces are an ideal breeding ground for micro-organisms! Water vapour absorption capacity of air The absorption capacity of the air for water vapour is determined by the particular state of the air in question. The air stream will absorb the moisture offered to it in the form of water vapour only up to the saturation limit of 100% relative humidity. For air conditioning, a safety margin from the saturation point must be maintained in the air after humidification, in order to avoid condensation on the duct walls.

Condensate is precipitated if: The saturation limit falls below the value of the calculated air state under falling temperature, with supply air temperature fluctuations before the humidifier. The humidifier performance is not adapted or not controlled adequately to the part load demand during the transition periods. The operating airflow is greatly reduced, as in plants with variable volume flow, or with badly fouled air filters. The air ducts run through cold rooms; here what matters is the inside wall temperature of the duct, where the dew point may be under stepped, and not the saturation limit at air temperature.

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Humidification distance The installation location of the steam distributor is predetermined by the design of the air conditioning system. During operation, the water vapour emerging from the steam distributor pipe is visible in the form of mist for a certain distance.

Only after covering this humidification distance is steam/air mixing sufficient to prevent condensation on downstream parts of the system. The appropriate minimum distance from the steam distributor must be maintained for the various parts of the system.
Safety provisions Compulsory safety devices are fitted according to instructions given by the responsible project engineer.

To avoid possible costly moisture damage, the following safety provisions are indispensable: Interlock with ventilation switch-on. Flow is monitored for air delivery (differential pressure switch etc). Safety humidistats are fitted in the supply air duct and rooms. Additional safety provisions: Continuous supply air humidity limitation necessary for humidification under certain operating conditions. Separate monitoring of the room air humidity by minimum and maximum humidistat with fault signalling. Selective remote indication for monitoring the humidifier function. Connection to PC, building management system via serial interface.

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Review Questions
1. List four methods to humidify air.

2.

What controls the Relative Humidity in the conditioned space? Where should this device be located?

3.

Why is it recommended to fit water sprays prior to a cooling coil?

4.

List three advantages of direct steam humidifiers over the other types.

5.

List the minimum maintenance requirements as stated by AS/NZS 3666.2:1995.

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6.

List the two major factors that need to be considered as to where to locate the humidifier.

7.

List the three minimum considerations required of AS/NZS 3666.1:1995 for the operation of humidifiers.

8.

List three applications of humidifiers.

9.

What are humidifiers used to prevent in computer rooms?

10.

What are the major limitations on reticulated air humidification systems?

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Thermal Storage Systems


The concept of thermal storage as applied to cooling systems is not new. Not long after mechanical refrigeration for air conditioning became a practical reality in the 1930s, the technology was extended to include thermal storage. Thermal storage was / is used to handle infrequent short term cooling loads such as those in churches and theatres, and process applications such as dairies. The reason for using thermal storage was to minimise the initial cost of the cooling system. For example, a church might have a cooling load of 150 kW over a five hours period, occurring once a week. Rather than install a 150 kW system to operate for 5 hours, thus producing 750 kW-hours of cooling, a 15 kW system could be installed to operate and store cooling for 50 hours. The same total cooling capacity (750 kW-hours) was produced and the system cost was substantially reduced, even when the cost of the storage equipment was included. This concept was practical as long as the time available to generate cooling storage was much greater than the time of cooling use. Only under these circumstances would the reduction in the cost of the refrigeration system more than offset the cost of storage. Thermal storage continues to be applied to cooling systems with these characteristics. Thermal storage is now drawing interest for broader application in comfort and process cooling systems because of major changes in rate structures in the electric power industry. Many electric utility companies experience the greatest demand for electricity during the summer, largely to satisfy the comfort cooling needs of their customers. Consequently, the amount of power that the utility must generate peaks during daylight hours when the cooling requirements are the highest. Many comfort and process cooling loads exist for only a few hours each day and commonly occur during hours of peak power demand. Since conventional cooling systems produce cooling when it is needed, they operate when power costs are the highest. Thermal storage systems however, minimise energy costs by generating cooling capacity at off peak times and storing it for future use. Cooling load applications that can benefit from thermal storage are office buildings, schools and college buildings, religious institutions, laboratories, large retail stores, libraries, museums and the public use areas of hotels (such as meeting rooms). Thermal storage can also be used for many industrial processes, such as occur in dairies, breweries and other types of plants with batch cooling cycles.
Thermal storage systems Thermal storage systems for cooling produce chilled water that can be pumped to comfort cooling coils or some other heat exchanger. There are two basic types of thermal storage systems that will provide chilled water for cooling:

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Chilled Water Storage Systems Chilled water storage systems commonly utilise a packaged refrigeration system consisting of a compressor, condenser, and an evaporator that chills water. Frequently, the condenser is water cooled and requires condenser water pumping system and a cooling tower to reject the condenser heat to the atmosphere. As shown in Figure 1, the chilled water is pumped into water storage tanks, which are usually constructed of concrete or steel at the jobsite. When chilled water is required for cooling, it is pumped out of the tanks to the load and returned to the storage tanks. Although this system is simple in concept, it becomes more complex when executed. This is primarily due to the limited cooling storage capacity of chilled water, which achieves cooling by raising the temperature of the stored chilled water. With an 8 K temperature rise, 33kJ can be stored per kg of water, which translates into about 0.1 m3 per kW hour of cooling. For example, on an installation requiring a 2100 kW conventional system, 1840 m3 of space would be needed for storage! Another major consideration in the design of chilled water storage systems is blending of the warm water returning from the system with the stored chilled water. If water is returned from the system to the same tank where the chilled water is stored, the two masses mix, thereby raising the temperature of the water being pumped to the cooling coils. It therefore becomes imperative to minimise the blending process. Several antiblending techniques have been developed and implemented with varying degrees of success. The most successful techniques are also the most expensive; the cost of the storage tanks increases, as does the cost and complexity of the control system. So while it would appear that chilled water storage is a natural marriage of cooling system technology and the thermal storage concept, closer examination shows that there are substantial cost, operational and space problems that must be solved. Ice Storage Systems Ice storage systems are designed to form ice on the surface of the evaporator tubes, and to store it until chilled water is needed for cooling. The ice is melted by the warm water when the chilled water pump is on, thereby re-cooling the water before it is pumped back out to the heat load. It consists of a multiple tube serpentine coil, submerged in a tank of water, with a water agitation device included to provide uniform ice build-up and melt-down. The tank is fully insulated and provided with covers to minimise infiltration of foreign matter.
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As seen earlier, the space required to store adequate quantity of chilled water can be enormous. In this regard, ice storage has a decided advantage over chilled water storage, since the basis for storage is the latent heat of fusion of water, which is 335 kJ per kg. This means that each kilogram of water can provide 335 kJ of cooling when it is frozen into ice compared to chilled water which has a capacity of 4.19 kJ/kg K. Theoretically, the reduction in storage volume is inversely proportional to the increase in cooling capacity per kg of water. In practice however, it is less due to the presence of the evaporator coil and water in the Ice Chiller. The end result is that chilled water with an 8 K range requires 100 litres per kW-hour of storage, while an ice builder requires just 25 litres per kW-hour, or one fourth the volume of chilled water storage. Therefore the cost of the required Ice Storage System is substantially less than the cost of chilled water storage systems. The return water flows into the ice builder and is cooled by the melting ice, providing a leaving water temperature of approximately 2OC. A potential disadvantage of ice storage systems is hat more energy is required to make ice than is required to chill water because a lower evaporator temperature is require to produce ice than to produce chilled water at 5OC. The penalty for the lower evaporator temperature however can be greatly reduced by choosing the most efficient condensing method, the evaporative condenser. For example, at 26OC design wet bulb temperature, an evaporative condenser can be selected to operate on an ice storage system at 35OC condensing temperature where a water cooled chiller would be selected for 40OC condensing temperature. The lower condensing temperature nearly offsets the power penalty caused by the lower evaporator temperature on an ice storage system. On the basis of initial cost and space advantages, with essentially no penalty in power consumption, ice storage is usually the best choice in the selection of a thermal storage system for cooling.
Ice storage system design flexibility Ice storage systems can be designed to operate in a variety of ways to meet specific application requirements.

These range from full storage to compressor aided modes.

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A full storage system is one which has been selected to generate all of the cooling capacity for the facility or process during the hours when off-peak electrical rates are in effect, which is usually during evening and early morning. The refrigeration system is operated and ice forms on the coil surface of the Ice Thermal Storage System until a predetermined thickness is obtained. A sensor then shuts down the refrigeration system. When cooling for the building or process is required, the chilled water pump circulates water from the ice chiller to the load. The return water is cooled by the melting ice, and this process continues until the daily cooling requirement is satisfied. After the electricity rates return to the off-peak schedule, a timer permits the refrigeration to re-starts and the ice is then rebuilt during off-peak hours for use in the next cooling cycle. By definition then, a full storage system makes maximum use of the thermal storage concept. Its objective is to achieve minimum operating cost by avoiding high demand charges and/or higher energy charges. However, since all of the cooling capacity is stored, the total ice storage system is the most costly to install. Quite frequently, the operating cost savings will not be sufficient to justify the initial cost.
Heating storage system In the Northern Hemisphere, thermal storage for heating purposes is often as popular as cooling storage systems are in Australia. There are a number of methods used, the Earth storage and geothermal heat exchanger system being one of the more popular.

Earth storage and geothermal heat exchanger One method of thermal storage little used in Australia is the use of the earth for both heat storage and geothermal heat exchange. The Earth storage and geothermal heat exchanger system uses the earth mass for storage of thermal energy as well as heat exchange using heat contained in the earth mass. Large steel tanks filled with liquid are buried into the earth. Thermal energy is gained from the ground itself and/or solar collectors and/or other heat producing equipment (i.e. heat pump condensers). Most thermal exchange occurs within one metre of the tank while the effects from the thermal process could reach as far as 10 metres from the tank/s. The temperature of the tank can range from approximately 11OC to 30OC. The heat stored is reused for heating during cooler periods in place of the more expensive heating methods described in Heating Systems. Different variants of this system can be found around the world. Should you wish to investigate this method of thermal storage further, you should see the Internet for details.

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Review Questions
1. What is the main purpose for using thermal storage?

3. Briefly explain the operation of either a chilled water or ice thermal storage system.

3.

List three major types of thermal storage systems.

4.

Why use ice storage, rather than merely cooling water or brine?

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5.

List two major advantages of thermal storage systems.

6.

List three applications which would benefit from using chilled water or ice thermal storage.

7.

Would you need a larger or smaller refrigeration system compared to a conventional air conditioning system to cool in the building?

8.

Describe the difference between block tariff and demand tariff.

9.

Describe the purpose of adding glycol to the primary chilled water of a thermal storage system.

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Specialised Systems
Specialised Systems are systems specially designed for applications which have their own unique requirements. Types of specialised systems may include: Bowling alleys. Clean rooms. Libraries and museums. Laboratories, etc. Two specific types of specialised systems are:
Computer Rooms NOTE: Due to technological advances, the requirements for computer rooms are constantly changing; for example: under Air Cleanliness, reel to reel tapes are mentioned as is, under Relative Humidity, nylon carpet; neither of which are commonly in use today.

The major concerns with modern computer rooms are: The heat generated within the server racks Consistency of temperature and relative humidity with minimal fluctuations. In general, temperature is maintained with a differential of 1 K of the set-point usually 21OC plus or minus 1 K,) whilst relative humidity is maintained with a differential of 3 to 5% of the set-point (usually 50%RH plus or minus 3 to 5%). Computer rooms, both large and small, are treated as close control, high sensible heat load applications (as are electronic telephone exchanges). All computer oriented equipment operates at very high levels of performance and must therefore be located within a correct and closely controlled environment. Air conditioning systems used to provide this environment must be capable of achieving high control over: Air cleanliness. Relative humidity. Temperature (in this order of importance). Air cleanliness The disk drives and reel to reel tapes used for data storage on modern computers are capable of travelling at extremely high speeds, with extremely close tolerance between the head and the surface of the disk or tape. Any minute airborne particles picked up and caught between these two surfaces will instantly destroy a large section of the data held on the disk and possibly damage the reading / writing heads of the drive. Particles the size of a single grain of tobacco smoke are capable of causing this! Any technician servicing or maintaining this type of air conditioning system must not only be aware of the conditioning requirements for the environment but also aware
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that he/she is probably carrying harmful dust particles into the environment on their body, clothes and equipment. The following precautions should always be observed to minimise this risk: Do not smoke or consume food or beverages in a computer room. Always advise the operators before commencing any task that may result in the production of airborne particles (e.g. lighting an oxy-acetylene torch, blowing out coils, etc). Avoid wearing dirty or dusty clothing into the room, (consider keeping a clean set of clothes in the van). Some of the larger computer rooms provide additional safeguards against these problems, such as: Air locks at the entrance of the room. Personal vacuum cleaners to remove any loose dust on clothing. Sticky floor pads to remove dirt from the soles of shoes. Relative humidity The strict control of Relative Humidity in a computer room is of vital importance to the efficient operation of the high speed printers commonly found in modern premises. If the RH% is too high then the paper will expand and clog or jam the printer head. If the RH% is too low then static electricity may develop in the paper resulting in the failure of the solid state components within the printer. Another source of static build-up due to low RH% levels is the nylon carpet used in the room. (Static earth straps are often worn by the operators and also placed in the carpet to minimise the problem). The air conditioning system must therefore be capable of providing humidification and dehumidification control in order to prevent these problems. Humidification is usually provided by a separate steam humidifier, (sometimes located remotely from the refrigeration unit). Dehumidification is often obtained by altering the airflow rate through the evaporator coil (usually by changing the supply air fan speed). Temperature The main concern is the internal temperature of the computer itself. The computer system functions through the use of solid state components which tend to suffer from self heating. High operating temperatures will cause these devices to literally self destruct so a relatively cool environment must be provided to ensure efficient, long term operation. Older computers required fairly close temperature control but the later models are capable of operating within a fairly broad range of temperatures. Most will not experience overheating problems until the room temperature exceeds 32OC. The main reason for close temperature control in these rooms is the effect that temperature change can have on relative humidity.
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Another consideration is the people that must work within this environment. Most modern computers will provide adequate performance within the human comfort environment (i.e. 22OC: 50% - 55%RH). General design considerations Computer room systems should only provide enough outside air to satisfy the requirements of the workers occupying the room and to maintain a positive pressure within the room relative to the surrounding rooms. In most situations, 5% OA is sufficient. Because the occupancy levels and fresh air requirements are usually low, a Sensible Heat Ratio of approximately 0.9 should be sufficient when calculating the heat load on the plant. This will ensure that the system can handle the minimum moisture loads placed on it but, at the same time, will not cause false humidification of the room. Air supply systems Air supply systems generally fall into one of the following two types: Overhead systems Air is generally discharged across the top of the room directly from a package unit. These units generally have a throw of approximately 10 metres and care should be taken to ensure that the supply air is not obstructed in any way. Floor plenum systems These systems supply air under a false floor that has been erected a minimum of 300mm above the original floor. The raised floor is made using a steel frame over which are placed high strength tiles. Supply air grilles are installed wherever required by simply removing a tile and inserting the grille.

Raised Floor (Floor Plenum) Computer Room Installation


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This system has many advantages in that great flexibility is provided in the location of the supply air grilles. Conditioned air may be passed directly into the computer housing by placing a grille under the computer, (many large computers are designed to take full advantage of this). Air conditions are generally maintained at around 18OC and 45%RH for these systems, (please refer earlier notes at commencement of Computer Rooms).
Hospitals The ventilation requirements within a hospital are very diverse. For this reason, the Ventilation Code should be consulted for further information on the actual requirements of each different room within the hospital. Operating theatre The air supplied to this room is recommended to be 100% Outside Air but recent filtration capabilities allows 50% Outside Air to be used in operating theatres. The return air removed from this room must be exhausted to the outside of the building. The filters used to clean the supply air must have a filtering efficiency of 99.99%. The only filter capable of providing this is the Absolute Filter. Most ventilation systems will use a number of different types in front of the primary filter in order to maximise its functional life. The pressure within the room must be maintained at 25 Pa above the pressure of the rooms immediately surrounding it. Temperature and relative humidity levels are maintained at 22OC and 50%. General wards The return air must be filtered (and preferably deodorised with active carbon beads). The pressure within these rooms should be maintained at 25 Pa above the atmospheric pressure. Temperature and relative humidity levels are maintained to meet comfort conditions. The air supplied to these rooms may be a mixture of return air and outside air.

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Review Questions
1. What type of air filter is recommended for an operating theatres air conditioning system?

2.

How would a mechanic identify if the filter media is blocked or dirty in an operating theatre?

3.

What is the minimum percentage of outside air to be introduced into an operating theatre?

4.

What type of unit is used in operating theatres?

5.

What may occur in a computer room if the RH% is 30%?

6.

What may occur in a computer room if the RH% is 65%?

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