Unit 1 Introduction on Communication System

Structure 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Introduction to Communication System 1.4 Historical Review 1.5 Wireless Communications 1.6 The Past Fifty Years 1.7 How Computers Communicate 1.8 Communication Systems 1.9 Summary

1.10 Keywords 1.11 Exercise

It can also be defined as the inter-transmitting the content of data (speech. the most common being the telephone. in our work and in our leisure time. 1.1. and TV? Yet.1 Introduction Communications is the field of study concerned with the transmission of information through various means.3 Introduction to Communication System Every day. and receive information about various developments and events of note that occur all around the world. Here. signals.) from one node to another. . television. Through these media we are able to communicate (nearly) instantaneously with people on different continents. Electronic mail and facsimile transmission have made it possible to rapidly communicate written messages across great distances. we come in contact with and use a variety of modern communication systems and communication media.2 Objectives At the end if this chapter you will be able to:     Give Introduction to Communication System Know the Historical Review Explain Wireless Communications Define Communication Systems 1. most of these modern-day communication systems were invented and developed during the past century. radio. Can you imagine a world without telephones. It can also be defined as technology employed in transmitting messages. radio. pulses etc. transact our daily business. when you think about it. and the Internet. we present a brief historical review of major developments within the last two hundred years that have had a major role in the development of modern communication systems.

more frequently occurring letters are represented by short code words. which he demonstrated in 1837. In this code. while letters occurring less frequently are represented by longer code words. This invention made it possible for Samuel Morse to develop the electric telegraph.4 Historical Review Telegraphy and Telephony. It is remarkable that the earliest form of electrical communications that . Morse devised the variable-length binary code given in Table 1. One of the earliest inventions of major significance to communications was the invention of the electric battery by Alessandro Volta in 1799. in which letters of the English alphabet were represented by a sequence of dots and dashes (code words). The first telegraph line linked Washington with Baltimore and became operational in May 1844. The Morse code was the precursor to the variable-length source-coding methods that are described in Chapter 6.1.1.

Émile Baudot developed a code for telegraphy in which each letter was encoded into fixed-length binary code words of length 5. The first automatic switch. An important milestone in telegraphy was the installation of the first transatlantic cable in 1858 that linked the United States and Europe. was a binary digital communication system in which the letters of the English alphabet were efficiently encoded into corresponding variablelength code words having binary elements. in 1875. The invention of the triode amplifier by Lee De Forest in 1906 made it possible to introduce signal amplification in telephone communication systems and. a digital switch was placed in service in Illinois in June 1960. Telephony came into being with the invention of the telephone in the 1870s. This type of switch was used for several decades. Significant advances in the quality and range of service during the first two decades of the twentieth century resulted from the invention of the carbon microphone and the induction coil. that telephone service became available between the United States and Europe. and in 1877 established the Bell Telephone Company. A second cable was laid a few years later and became operational in July 1866. Nearly forty years later.was developed by Morse. For example.Two world wars and the Great Depression during the 1930s must have been a deterrent to the establishment of transatlantic telephone service. thus. With the invention of the transistor. Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention of the telephone in 1876. Automatic switching was another important advance in the development of telephony. It was not until 1953. to allow for telephone signal transmission over great distances. when the first transatlantic cable was laid. transcontinental telephone transmission became operational in 1915. namely telegraphy. After several years of development at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. This cable failed after about four weeks of operation. developed by Strowger in 1897. electronic (digital) switching became economically feasible. In the Baudot code the binary code elements have equal length and are designated as mark and space. Early versions of telephone communication systems were relatively simple and provided service over several hundred miles. During the past thirty years there have been numerous significant advances in telephone . was an electromechanical step-by-step switch.

We describe current wireless systems along with emerging systems and standards. The explosive growth of wire less systems coupled with the proliferation of laptop and palmtop computers indicate a bright future for wireless networks. and remote telemedicine. In this introductory chapter we will briefly review the history of wireless networks. including the technical challenges that must be overcome to make this vision a reality. cellular phones have become a critical business tool and part of everyday life in most developed countries. automated highways and factories. from the smoke signals of the pre-industrial age to the cellular. However. The gap between current and emerging systems and the vision for future wireless applications indicates that much work remains to be done to make this vision a reality. and other wireless networks of today. and are rapidly supplanting antiquated wire line systems in many developing countries. the fastest growing segment of the communications industry. satellite. . are emerging from research ideas to concrete systems. smart homes and appliances. We then discuss the wireless vision in more detail. by any measure. As such. many technical challenges remain in designing robust wireless networks that deliver the performance necessary to support emerging applications. Many new applications. and campuses.5 Wireless Communications Wireless communications is. including wireless sensor networks. wireless local area networks currently supplement or replace wired networks in many homes. Indeed. Fiber optic cables are rapidly replacing copper wire in the telephone plant and electronic switches have replaced the old electromechanical systems. businesses. both as stand-alone systems and as part of the larger networking infrastructure. 1. In addition.communications. it has captured the attention of the media and the imagination of the public. Cellular systems have experienced exponential growth over the last decade and there are currently around two billion users worldwide.

such as data. Cellular and cordless phones rapidly became mass-market consumer products.The invention of the vacuum tube was especially instrumental in the development of radio communication systems. The projected growth of the number of Internet users to 500 Million worldwide indicates potential when wireless and computing technologies are merged. better quality. AM radio broadcasting grew rapidly across the country and around the world. The invention of the triode made radio broadcast possible in the early part of the twentieth century. There were about 250 Million subscribers in the year 2000. was invented by Edwin Armstrong during World War l. However. The vacuum diode was invented by Fleming in 1904 and the vacuum triode amplifier was invented by De Forest in 1906. Products for enhanced communication services. wider coverage. went on the air. electronic mail. Services such as the GSM Short Message Service greatly extent the capabilities of pagers. such as UMTS. with many issues still to be resolved. more bandwidth. This development remains a technical challenge. high resolution digital video or even full multimedia communication entered the market. Around that year many operators invested Billions of Euros on spectrum for Third Generation (3G) systems. Another significant development in radio communications was the invention of Frequency modulation (FM). as we know it today. and Europe is betteing on WAP: The Wireless Application Protocol. as previously indicated. From that date. lower power consumption and more services. The superheterodyne AM radio receiver. The (r)evolutionary development of such systems appeared is focussed towards larger capacity. and a market of 500 to 600 Million handhelds per year. the insight that these could only be recouped over periods of rapid growth for ten years or more may have accelatered the malaise in the telecomm markets after 2001. . I-mode is a successful text and multimedia service in Japan. Pittsburgh. Amplitude modulation (AM) broadcast was initiated in 1920 when radio station KDKA.

NetBEUI and NetBIOS. IPX/SPX. most of the wireline communication systems are being replaced by fiber optic cables which provide extremely high bandwidth and make possible the transmission of a wide variety of information sources. There are several historical treatments in the development of radio and telecommunications covering the past century.6 The Past Fifty Years Currently. In the Ethernet networking. and video transmission. data. buses. For two computers to communicate each other it is important that both the computers should understand a common language known as protocols. Satellite and fiber optic networks provide high-speed communication services around the world. 1. data. There are different types of protocols such as TCP/IP. including voice. Computers can talk to each other to send and receive the voice. video and data signals. and trains. this is the dawn of the modern telecommunications era. . Cellular radio has been developed to provide telephone service to people in automobiles. Today we are witnessing a significant growth in the introduction and use of personal communications services.1. High-speed communication networks link computers and a variety of peripheral devices literally around the world.7 How Computers Communicate Data communication is the most important branch of the information technology. Today no business can be successful with the proper implementations of the communication systems. and video. It is used both in the LAN and WAN. Following is the basic requirement of every computer in a network to communicate. Indeed. including voice. TCP/IP is the most commonly used suite of protocols.

o o Application Presentation . PC-2. Both end of any cable should not properly inserted in the computer and in the Hub or switch. subnet mask and gateway address to every computer. Wireless LAN cards and access points if you want to have wireless communication between the computers. it is important to learn about the layers model. o A workgroup or domain should be created to allow the computers to communicate. o A Hub or switch is required when you have more than two computers in your network. Apply unique and meaningful computer name to every computer such as PC-1. Apply unique IP address. Name-Server1. Any computer in the networks either be a part of a workgroup or domain.  Coaxial. Gateway etc. There are seven layers in the OSI layers model. which is known as OSI layers model. TCP/IP must be properly installed and configured in every computer. There are some predefined rules. Every computer must possess a LAN card with updated driver and exact configurations. The above are the minimum basic requirements of the computers to be able to communicate with each other in a network. data and resources with each other. OSI layers model tells us that how data reaches from source to destination. In the data communication. standards and devices that are involved in the overall communication process. ISO has introduced a layer model. Twisted Pair UTP/STP or Fiber optic cables. PC-2. A wireless router.     Computer must understand the common languages known as protocol such as TCP/IP. o o A DSL router is required if you want to have high speed Internet connectivity. When two or more computers communicate they are basically sharing the information.

you need to understand the common network communication devices such as hub. Also. data. it is easy to understand the data communication flow and to troubleshoot the problems. Examples  people. cell phones. The nature of the communication. 1. etc. Hub and Switch are the LAN communication devices and Router is a LAN/WAN communication device.  Computer communication systems The information exchanged between devices on a network or other communications medium is governed by rules or conventions that can be set out in a technical specification called a communication protocol standard. computers. With the layered model.o o o o o Session Transport Network Data Link Physical These are the logical layers are data packets travels through all the layers to reach its destination. . instructions between one or more systems through some media. model and CSU/DSU. router. switch. the actual data exchanged and any state-dependent behaviors are defined by the specification.8 Communication Systems Process describing transfer of information.

etc.In digital computing systems. the rules can be expressed by algorithms and data structures. Expressing the algorithms in a portable programming language. makes the protocol software operating system independent. Signals passing through the communication channel can be Digital. mainframe computers. or analog  Analog signals: continuous electrical waves  Digital signals: individual electrical pulses (bits) Receivers and transmitters: desktop computers. Communications Components Basic components of a communication system  Communication technologies  Communication devices  Communication channels  Communication software .

the protocol software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system. . because there is no common memory.1. The nature of the communication. layering was applied to the protocols as well. given the similarities between programming languages and communication protocols. At the time the Internet was developed. makes the protocol software operating system independent. Transmission is not necessarily reliable and can involve different hardware and operating systems on different systems. layering had proven to be a successful design approach for both compiler and operating system design and. Operating systems are usually conceived of as consisting of a set of cooperating processes that manipulate a shared store (on the system itself) to communicate with each other. This framework implements the networking functionality of the operating system. the actual data exchanged and any state-dependent behaviors are defined by the specification. This gave rise to the concept of layered protocols which nowadays forms the basis of protocol design. Expressing the algorithms in a portable programming language. This communication is governed by well-understood protocols. In contrast. These protocols can be embedded in the process code itself as small additional code fragments. the rules can be expressed by algorithms and data structures. In digital computing systems. communicating systems have to communicate with each other using shared transmission media.9 Summary The information exchanged between devices on a network or other communications medium is governed by rules or conventions that can be set out in a technical specification called a communication protocol standard. To implement a networking protocol. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model.

11 Exercise 1) Give Introduction to Communication System.10 Keywords            Communication System TV Telegraphy Telephony AM FM TCP/IP LAN WAN Digital Analog 1.1. . 2) What is Wireless Communications? 3) How Computers Communicate? 4) Define Communication Systems.

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