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Department of Environmental sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.

The study was conducted to assess the spring herbs around block c, IIUI, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan, consisting of 3 quadrats. Indication species analysis classified the herb species by composition in a sq. meter of the area for sampling. A total of 12 species that belonged to varies families were recorded. Cynadone dectylone were dominated in undisturbed green spaces.

The survey was conducted in Islamabad in spring in the month of May. The area of the field was covered with stones, stems, dry leaves, free vegetation and other kind of waste material which resulted due to human activity. Construction was also going on there, in addition some means of transportation including construction machinery, tractors, delivery vans and etc were also there. A huge car park was also around the field of observation. Urbanization and overpopulation has resulted in the destruction of natural ecosystem and it is also one of the biggest threats to biodiversity.

The main aim and purpose of this study was to provide information about the herbaceous plants of spring in IIUI campus and also it will be of great importance in future and as well as it will serve as a baseline for further development including management, planning and etc.

The department of environmental sciences Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi conducted a study in Lohi Bher Wildlife Park, to identify the species grouping in relation to environmental factors. The floristic composition was analyzed using multivariate analysis technique Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). A total of 35 herbaceous plant species from 66 quardats were recorded. The study demarcated the vegetation structure and its relationships to selected environmental factors. The most important factor influencing the herbaceous vegetation was soil moisture. Linear model response curve justified the fact that Cymbopogon jwarancusa showed least stress against soil moisture. Whereas with reference to maximum stress the species showed diverse response, indicating that soil moisture plays a major role in species assemblage. This study provides the basic information to preserve and improve the roadside vegetation, of for reservation native flora Department of Environmental Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan,:The diversity of native plant species comprising of natural vegetation is closely related to patterns of soil processes controlled by environmental conditions. This study developed a logistic model integrating the relationship between spatially distributed vegetation patterns and ecological conditions of soil explicitly based along heavy metal contamination gradients. A quadrat size of 1 x 1 m was used to analyze herbaceous plant species in the vicinity of industrial area Islamabad that has been contaminated with wastewater effluents. We identified two dominant communities comprising of Desmostachya bipinnata and Trifolium alexandrinum as initial colonizers. The canonical correspondence analysis revealed that grass species were more tolerant to soil Pb concentration that ranged from 1.03 to 3.44 mg kg1 soil. The analysis of rhizosphere soil samples indicated that spots that were rich in Cd concentration were mainly occupied by Parthenium hysterophorus along with Malvastrum coromandelianum. We further interpolated the spatial patterns of soil properties in which pH and organic matter contents emerged as significant indicators. In areas where topography was uneven and natural depression created sinks for soil water, relatively higher soil heavy metal concentrations were observed. The vegetation-soil interaction (e.g. root proliferation and phytoextraction potential) has influenced the ability of plants to maintain cover on contaminated sites and thus ecological conditions were modified accordingly. We therefore stress upon considering topographic aspects and native plants of an ecosystem into one continuum system to address the restoration processes on degraded lands.


We will use the following criteria for the survey: 1. 2. 3. 4. The total number of sample comprises of 3 quadrants around the block. The size selected of the quadrants was 1 1 m2 because most of the herbs were present in this area. Sampling was carried out in spring season. Identification of the species was quite easy, whereas the scientific naming (nomenclature) was carried out by Professor Dr. Ibrar Shinwari. 5. Disturbed area including car parks, dry woods, fire effected area and etc were avoided during sampling.

Total No. of individuals of a specie RD (Relative Density) = x 100 Total No. of individuals of all species

Total cover of specie RCC (Relative Canopy Cover) = . X 100 Total cover of all species

Frequency value of specie RF (Relative Frequency) = x 100 Total of all frequency value for all species

Where as Importance value (IV) = RD + RCC + RF


Sr# Botanical Names Quadrat 1

Quadrat 2


Quadrat 3


No. of species

%Cove No. of r species

%Cove No. of r specie s

%Cov er

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sylibum marianum Cannabis sativa Verbena officinalis Cynodon dactylon Conzya canndensis Boarhavia diffusa Calotropis procera Parthenium hystoriphorous Lathyrus aphaca Chenopodium album Centaria iberica

0 0 0 200 28 6 0 56 0 0 0 0 284

0 0 0 70 5 1 0 12 0 0 0 0 88.3

0 12 0 185 0 0 1 1 5 17 0 0 221

0 11 0 30 0 0 45 1 2 2 0 0 91

55 0 15 125 0 0 0 1 6 29 1 3 235

6 0 10 10 0 0 0 1 3 8 60 2 99.5

Total# Species In all quardat s 55 12 15 510 28 6 1 58 11 46 1 3 746

Total cover s of speci es 6 11 10 110 5 1 45 14 5 10 60 2 279

Total frequen cy






1 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 19

7.37 1.60 2.01 68 3.7 0.80 0.13 7.77 1.47 6.16 0.13 0.42

2.15 3.94 3.58 39.42 1.79 0.35 16.12 5.01 1.79 3.58 0.21 0.71

Sausurea heteromala TOTAL

First of all I am great thankful to the respected professor Dr. Ibrar Shinwari for supporting and guiding us in the whole procedure. Also thankful to my class fellow for helping me in analysis, specially my friend Abdul Mateen Qureshi for helping me picture the table perfectly.


Ahmad, S., A. Wahid and K.F. Akbar. 2010. Multivariate classification and data analysis of vegetation along Motorway (M-2), Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 42(2): 1173-1185. Ahmad, S.S. 2011. Canonical Correspondence analysis of the relationships of roadside vegetation to its edaphic factors: a case study of Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M-2). Pak. J. Bot., 43(3): 1673-1677. Ali, S. M. and S. Kauser. 2006. Plant Communities Analysis of Selected Urban Flora of Islamabad, Journal of Applied Sciences 6(1): 177-182. Ali, S.M. and R.N. Malik. 2010. Spatial Patterns Of Vegetation With Underlying Soil Properties Prevailing Along Drain Side Areas In Islamabad City. Pak. J. Bot., 42(4): 2397- 2410.

Nasir, E. and S. I. Ali, 1972. Flora of West Pakistan. (F Pak). University of Karachi. Mushtaq, N. and K.S. Khan. 2010. Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 47: 215-224. Sanita di Toppi, L. and R. Gabrielli. 1999. Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 41: 105130.