Mexico: the Revolution (1910-1917) I. Elite Reorganization a. Madero’s Revolution i. 1908 Francisco Madero 1.

member of Northern Elite 2. began challenging Diaz for the election 3. wanted to challenge the legitimacy of Diaz getting reelected every time 4. made a book about this 5. Diaz used this to see everyone who was going to go against him a. Gives an interview with an American saying he thinks someone else should run b. This brings more people out c. Begins harassment of candidates i. Reyes runs and is sent out of county ii. Madero is jailed 6. after his arrest Madero leaves Mexico in exile, and begins running a revolution a. goes to US who supposedly wanted him harbored 7. His revolution was not his – he sparked it but was not well known enough to run it – although he was identified as the leader people didn’t do it because of him 8. for those who liked to status quo (upper elite and foreign interests) – revolution is not wanted – want to find a way to quell this quietly 9. Pretty much everyone wanted Diaz out for one way or another be it for stability or revolutionary ideas ii. Zapata rises up iii. Federal army is confused as to who to follow iv. 1911 1. people around Diaz convince him that he can’t win and that the best thing for the ideas he had was to resign a. accepts this and resigns and leaves for Paris v. Adolfo De La Huerta comes in afterward in a provisional gov’t to arrange election vi. Madero becomes elected vii. Zapata refuses to put down arms and revolts against the Madero because Madero didn’t want agrarian reform viii. Reyes does this as well but is defeated, Zapata is not ix. Another Huerta is sent to quell Zapata after it becomes clear that Zapata won’t lay down arms until he gets his land back x. 1912 Zapata is still in rebellion, and more are coming up 1. Felix Diaz (son of other dicator)

a. Rebelling because he was interesting in maintaining the status quo and a new leader was too scary xi. Rebellion is going because putting Madero in power didn’t solve their problems xii. All Madero did was end a dictator not fix oppression xiii. Madero is incompetent at stopping revolutions 1. many people upset with this and lose faith in him – most of his support b. Failures & Conspiracy i. Reactionaries begin conspiracy ii. Foreign interests want to stabilize but want outcome in their favor iii. Conspiracy launched organized by the American ambassador 1. from his point of view someone had to do something and the US had the most at stake 2. tried to find someone to take him out 3. Huerta (general) is the brutal guy 4. fostered a coup c. The Coup of 1913 i. Huerta moves in for a coup ii. Kills Madero and his VP iii. Takes control and kicks US out iv. British like this v. US withholds recognition of Huerta in hopes that it would undermine his regime vi. 1913 this stuff is happening vii. Outside mexico city the revolutions shift toward Huerta 1. Caranza begins the constitutionalist revolution against Huerta because it was unconstitutional viii. Caranza is a nationalist northerner who wants to block American intervention 1. not a revolutionary just wanted to go against what had just happened ix. Pancho Villa 1. now sees an opportunity under the cloak of the constitutional revolution to get more radical change 2. joins Caranza x. Obregon is a northern political chieftain who had rose up to the middle class 1. Also sensitive to the American role and also saw madero as the best possible shelter for his interests 2. Joins Caranza 3. will seek out allies among workers 4. over time his supporters will be urban workers 5. in the beginning he quickly demonstrates military capability



6. but has different views than caranza – they are from different backgrounds Revolutionary Triumph and Dispute (1913-1916) a. Huerta & the Dissatisfied i. Has no significant support and has 3 opponents 1. Caranza in the North 2. Zapatistas in the South 3. 1914 US occupies Verz Cruz – great port that is crucial to the regime ii. Huerta is forced to flee and is killed in 1914 iii. When huerta dies there is no president but there are armies coming in iv. Here Villa breaks from Caranza 1. Villa would take the lands of those he defeated and divided them among his followers – caranza doesn’t like this – he wants the land v. 3-way struggle for Mexico City 1. Caranza with Obregon 2. Pancho Villa 3. Zapata vi. 1914 – Villa and Zapata get there first and hold a constitutionalist convention in Aguascalientes vii. Intellectuals join the revolutionaries b. Constitutionalists & Zapatistas i. Zapata decides he doesn’t want to project his local concerns on the nation and backs away form the constitutional side – he just wanted huerta out ii. This leaves Villa alone to fast Carranza & Obregon c. Triumph of Carranza & Obregon i. 1915 Villa is defeated and retreats to the north ii. Villa goes over the border in 1916 and kills a few Americans provoking the US 1. other than that his role recedes iii. 1915 with the defeat of villa Caranza is the sole revolutionary general in control and the US recognizes him in hopes of being a part of the stabilization - WRONG The Constitution of 1917 a. Carranza’s Search for Legitimacy i. Pershing (US General) is sent into Mexico to “chase Villa” but it was really another bargaining chip with negotiations 1. plans in the state dept. to take over northern mexico 2. why bother negotiating and just take what we want 3. Pershing was a forward force for that ii. In 1917 the US enters WWI and Woodrow Wilson doesn’t want to go into Mexico when he has to be in Europe

iii. Caranza is left bruised scared but in power with US recognition in 1917 iv. At that point he decides it’s time to consolidate his position domestically v. Obregon says that to do that you are going to have to find a way to appease everyone who was fighting and try to contain them or we will be constantly faced with rebellions and if we stay unstable the chance of US intervention will eventually grow vi. Caranza calls for a constituent assembly in 1917 in Queretaro vii. Obregon is sensitive to more radical ideas than Caranza – and sees this as a way Caranza could consolidate power viii. Caranza wants to consolidate power and move away from a radical governments ix. The left wing in this convention take of the title of Jacobinos (from Jacobins from France) x. Becomes obvious that there are more Jacobinos than conservatives xi. The assembly gets a radical constitution b. Meaning of the Constitution i. Anti-clerical 1. under Profirio the church got a lot of its land back, they don’t’ want the church to have power ii. Urban Workers wanted the right to organize and wanted restrictions on abuse, an 8 hour day and protections for women and children – defend urban organized labor rights 1. obregon comes in and makes this alliance and makes sure it comes through iii. MOST IMPORTANT REFORMS (both land) 1. Sub-soil – control of natural resources a. Reasserted the right that the crown owned the right to the sub-soil minerals – they belonged to the nation b. You can exploit them but you don’t own them c. US fought this and hated and kept the US and Mexico in heated debate from 1917-late 1920’s 2. Reform – redistribution of land a. More revolutionary b. Not right for the people who work the land not to own c. Should be a just redistribution of land i. From those who stole the land and exploited them, to those who fought in the revolution iv. This constitution presents a benchmark by which to measure future regimes v. The importance is that it embodies the revolutionary ideas, even though it was not enforced right away c. Fall of Carranza (1920)

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

1920 Caranza’s administration is coming to an end Seeks to impose his own successor Obregon who expected to be the next pres. Obregon overthrows Caranza and Caranza is killed in flight Obregon holds an election and is elected president