Cuba: The Emergent Struggle I. Cuba Remains a Colony a. Sugar & Slavery i. Cuba becomes a huge economic asset ii.

Because of this Spain beings in more and more slaves iii. During the period of international upheaval about slavery, the creole elite decided that they did not want to cut ties with Spain because they feared a massive slave revolt 1. there is s of the many slaves 2. this feeling exists because of Haiti a. revolt in 1790, own nation by 1804 iv. 1817 crown reforms allows cuba free trade to anyone that is neutral or an ally of Spain v. This means that aside from political freedom Cubans have everything they need vi. Most of the population of Cuba is enslaved b. Impact of Sugar on Society i. Biggest Sugar producer ii. Happens because of a consistent supply of African slaves through an illegal contraband trade iii. Changes the society iv. Used to be a rural empty island v. 1762 – 1840 1. majority of people are African vi. Sugar transforms society into an African dominance vii. Set up a racial hierarchy 1. white = person of prestige automatically a. lots of spainiards come over because they are automatically differentiated as prestigious – and can get good jobs even if poor in Spain 2. degree of african details the rest, the farther from slavery the better 3. increasingly racial in attitudes and policy viii. Wealthiest people in Cuban society are the Spanish slave traders 1. this means that the creole land holders are being surprassed, by the slavers who in turn buy land and become land holders 2. in order to maintain the sugar production means that they have to stay on the technological edge a. requires a lot of money 3. land holders don’t have it – use debt leverage to buy stuff 4. this allows the slavers(Spanish) to acquire land and power ix. by the 1850’s the commanding heights of the planting economy are Spanish x. late 40’s early 50’s british step up opposition to slave trade

II.

1. Spanish can’t defend slavery 2. Cubans seek annexation into the US a. US has been doing this by arming a group of people having them take an area and then applying for annexation – called filibustering xi. US attempts to buy Cuba from Spain 1. but they made a mistake by making the negotiations public in Ostend ( a city in Europe) and blew the deal xii. by the 1850’s the commitment to slavery in Cuba is very strong (considering US annexation) c. Impact of Sugar on Politics i. There is a gradual split on the island, the west is Spanish (agricultural area) and the east is creole (urban areas) ii. Creole elite blames slavery on the rise of Spanish power in Cuba 1. this formed a small abolitionist movement among some of the creole elite iii. Wealthy Spaniards in cuba go back and influence policy toward cuba in Spain iv. New government takes over in Spain, very liberal 1. pro abolition but also pro imperial (don’t want to lose Cuba) 2. The Ten Years’ War a. La politica de atraccion i. Attempt by the new liberal Spanish government to bring back the creole elite into loyalty ii. Creole elite given more political power because they are Spaniards as well – political equality 1. means the creoles can’t complain they are discriminated iii. both the Spanish and the creoles begin to mobilize politically in an attempt to control who represents cuba in parliament iv. CREATED A PERIOD OF POLITICAL MOBILIZATION 1. got people talking 2. led to party creation 3. though not all in agreement a. creoles are split in ideas about slavery and independence b. Spanish all agree – keep status quo b. The Struggle i. Late 60’s conservative party gets concerned with the political mobilization in Cuba 1. take away political freedom in cuba 2. also decide to increase taxes ii. directly leads to 10 Years’ War 1. creole leadership decides to break from spain

2. intend to create a republic and declare this while mobilizing militarily 3. 1868-1878 iii. Creole leadership divided 1. some want to be independent republic, and some want to annex with the US 2. but all agree with a break from spain iv. creoles impose limited abolitionist policy in Cuba during the break (freedom for military support/service) v. In 1867 Spanish gov’t begins limited abolitionist policy 1. Moret Law 2. but does not go into effect before the war vi. Antonio Maseo 1. crucial general for the creoles 2. mulato vii. Problems for Creoles 1. people of color are fighting/leading 2. can’t agree on direction 3. can’t get any support outside cuba a. US won’t lend support or recognize the Creole government i. Still wants to buy Cuba 4. most of the creole forces are using machete’s as they have no source for rifles viii. Maseo told everyone that the way to win was to go into the West, raise the slaves and level the place ix. Civilian leadership says that they can’t destroy the economy because it would be negative economically and make the country less appealing to the US 1. also afraid that Maseo would make himself a black dictator x. Maseo believes in the Republican Model, along with his generals and does not march xi. Because of this the Cubans can’t win and eventually surrender to the Spanish in 1878 and negotiate amnesty and the such 1. Maseo does not take amnesty he still opposes the Spanish Rule. xii. Shortly afterward Maseo Who would not give in to the Spanish raised another rebellion called La Guerra Chiquita (1879) xiii. Lasts about 12 months before he is put down c. The Legacy