Mexico: The Emergence of the Porfiriato I. Mexico Divided 1. Partisan Divides 2. “Dismemberment” 3. Civil War & Intervetion II.

The Restored Republic 1. Juarez's Shift 2. Don Porfirio's Emergence 3. Political Themes At this time Panama is part of Colombia until 1904 when we help them. Great critical divide between Liberal and Conservative party. Mexico is more typical of Spanish history than Cuba. The liberal party wanted separation of church and state, the individual, a more democratic system of government, equality in front of the law. The conservative party was different than brazil and Cuba. Wanted the opposite of the liberal party. Some people have a privilege situation, that church and state work together. Not the individual but the larger society. Society comes first. Does not like a democratic representative system. Close to an absolute monarchy. Not everyone should participate in the political process. They wanted somebody with royal blood in charge. Two distinct parties that could not talk to each other. Completely opposite. Middle class urban mestizo(s). Caudillo(s) has charismatic power that joined the liberal party because they would receive more power. The conservative party looked at the monarchy of Spain to what they wanted to be. This constant instability with the occasional foreign aggression. When they lost the Mexican-American war, Mexico lost half of it's country. Given the severity of this lost, both parties blamed each other. In 1850's they had a civil war called War of the Reform. The liberals wanted this war under the leadership of Benito Juarez. (Indian background, first language not Spanish, became lawyer). At the end of the war Juarez said he would take the debt of both sides and he would pay it off, however, they would have to wait, because there was no money left. The English and the French wanted Mexico to repay their debts, but the Spanish wanted to have an economic relationship. 1861-62 until 1867 the Mexicans were in war with the French. Prussia was engaging France in 1867, which is why they decided to cut their loses in Mexico and retreat their troops. Part II: 1867 – 1876 Juarez comes back and is disillussioned by the political realities. He lays down sevral policies to change the political future.

Domestic peace was above all else. Elections were held but he made it clear he would be reelected and he was. To pay off mexico’s debt he cut down on public work expenditures. He had to fire a lot of people from the army. He attempted to invite foreign entrepenours to come into mexico who could help rebuild the country and invest in it. He was interested in railroads. Revolts would be easier to repress. The following regime was a lot worse, however, some of the policies during that regime was because of Juarez’s previous changes just taking into action. Juarez was a nationalist inviting foreign businesses. The alternative of not doing so, was the possibility of a mexico that would be weak, undeveloped and vulnerable to foreign intervention and eventually destroyed. He put his nation’s survival ahead of his political ideas. Diaz came to power in 1876. From 1876 to 1910 the main political figure was Diaz. Succesful political dictatorships in the 19th century. Threatened by french takeover, and constant troubles. Many of the policies by Juarez were now taking effect. Political stability was the main thing. He was noted for accepting the ideas of positivism. Surrounded by a small click of advisors (cietificos / scientists). The dictator surrounded by a small group of people that were very smart and helped him thorugh policies based on science. Scientific Policies: Given the absense of capital or most up to date technology these things would have to be acquried from other nations. They also accepted ideas close to positivism. Scientific racism. They increased their european immigration in hopes to be seen as more of a white nation and not looked upon as an inferior country because of their color. The President was mestizo and was signing laws that would make his own race obsolete. The measures did not work, not enough whites came to mexico. The government governed with strong hands. Setup a federal army that was made to protect the elite from possible uprisings from the lower classes. Order was maintained. By the light of the cientificos the policies were successful. Conservatives were coopted to the lower class. A very wealthy group of people were profiting from the policies because they could invest knowing that there would be political stability. They began to be increasingly dependent on foreign markets. Industries were starting up, many railroads were being built, a multitude of foreign investors, not only british wanted petrolium, but France in commerce and banking, germans in banking, and the United States (rival of the british for mexican petrolium) and minerals such as iron, copper, and silver. U.S. also had many railroads going into mexico for cheap freight, also farming and ranching. The cientificos did not want to be dependent on just one nation. They wanted to have competition amongst countries for their market. The success was obvious because the mexicans could now get loans. Between 1890 and 1910 a change occurs.

Mexico. The Por Pirato’s Opposition and Revolution. I. The Growth of Opposition a. Success Brings Dependence b. Elite Dissatisfaction As the economy was tied to political stability any instabilty became very costly to businesses. There was a dramatic interruption in trade because of recessions around the world. The mexican elite were weaked by the independce and left them vulnerable to american companies that could buy them out. In the northern part of the country the penetration of the cientificos policies was something with which they could not compete. There was a growth of dissatisfaction against the americans particularly by the elites because they did not see them as increasing jobs, rather as competition. The Mexicans fought the Indians in the north and sold their lands in public auctions. So wealthy people in the north became very large land owners. The Mexican north can be thought of as being increased economically by both the Mexicans and Americans. The elites wanted a change in policy but they did not have leverage against the cientificos that made the policies. This created political anxiety. They knew the best way to make changes was to create fair elections. All the elites wanted was political reform, the law of the land to be fulfilled. The principle spokesman was Francisco Maderto. Another supporter was tired waiting for Profirio to die, military support, a general Reis. A federal general that wants to be president. Some people are afraid that if Profirio dies there would be political instability so they want an easy transition to another president. c. Growth of Middle Class Alienation With the success of the economy the urban cities keep growing and growing. The middle class also grows. They begin increasingly dissatisfied with the regime. There are two ways, they are educated and know they live in a society that is corrupt. II. 1906 – Revolutionary Party. The Plight of the Masses a. Preferring Land Hacienda owners wanted a group of people that lived in the hacienda basically for the rest of their lives. They got paid but spent their money on the store kept there. They were in constant debt. The small family farm kept being eroded by the large land holding families and haciendas. Liberals wanted the land to be owned by the individuals. What happened was that they gave land to the individual families but once they could not cope with the debt they had to sell it off to the large land holding families anyway. Most of Mexico City lands were part of natives that were just taken away.

1883 and 1894 land was surveyed, marked up, divided up, and sold to the highest bidder. Steady concentration of land to the hands of a few. In all 4 sections, rural, urban, mining proletariat and urban middle class are being alienated. Francisco “Pancho” Villa. Knowns how to handle a horse and a weapon, and worked in an hacienda. He wants land he never owned. A radical. Emiliano Zapata. He wants land that used to be his and was encroached upon. Peons are worst than Proletariat. Land Reform was a desire of the poor. For a revolution to happen you must have a interest of change that transcends the classes. That’s what you have in México at this time. The last 10 years were extremely bad. b. Impact of Foreign Dependence The dependece on foreign markets kept growing and growing. Because of the dependency the impact was dramatic. The main policy of Proriat was on export. Principally through the United States, which meant there was less food for Mexicans. The Mexicans were eating less in 1910 than 1876 because of exports. With decades without wars or troubles meant that more Mexicans were alive. When the whole economy slows down creates an immediate impact in both rural and urban areas. Haciendas are producing less along with the factories. The proletariats are coming back home because they can’t make it in the cities and the small farms can’t feed that many people. In the lower united states, the same thing is occurring at that time. Between 1900 and 1910 the amount of money being invested in México 3 times as before. The rate of inflation has grown three times. So the wages are now worth less. The only way to iimprove your situation is to get a better job, however, most people could not. The government to compensate with inflation is actually raising taxes. This is the combustion social and economically. c. Distinctions between North and South

México: The Revolution (1910 – 1917)

I.

Elite Reorganization a. Madero’s Revolution Madero jailed in 1910, and called for revolution from exile. There was discussion that the United States would shelter madero and his brother because they did not like profirio anymore. Upon the call for revolution he has not organized any structure at all. All he has is his name and personal draw in status. The revolution that rose after his call was not in support for him, but support for a change. A revolution on the status quo was very unlikely and unwanted. They wanted a way for revolution without changing the status quo for the elite. By 1911 the people around profirio told him that he was unable to stand a revolution and the best thing for him to do was to resign. He accepted this and resigned the office and went in exile. After this, Madero came into office legitimately in 1911. There was a provisionary President before Madero called Adolfo de la Huerta. Zapata and Madero met and told Zapata to lay down his men’s weapons, the revolution was over. Huerta, Reyes and Zapata (story about assassination) Madera’s rebellion simply dealt with the issue of a dictator. But it did nothing about the greater social questions. He asked for patience while he looked into the matters. b. Failures & Conspiracy Madero could not satisfy the revolutionary or the reactionaries. The embassies in México began to get involved because they did not want political instability since that would put in jeopardy their economic investments. The French, English and Americans were all trying to make the government stable, they were also afraid that the new leader would be leaning toward the French or English. The American ambassador had secret meetings with Huerta since he was the best assassin in the location. The Americans said that Madero and his people were shot because they were trying to escape México. Huerto took over the government and we thought he would under our control. However, behind the scenes he was trying to get a better deal with the British. Huerto’s government has no recognition from the Mexicans and the Americans wanted him out since he would not play ball. Diaz and Huerto are all supported by the ambassadors to take down Madero. Diaz is supposed to become President but Huerto pushes him out and became “President.” The consensus amongst the ambassadors then breaks down. He is immediately faced with American hostility, Zapata still fighting and the elite of the north wanting him out as well. Carranza was a prominent member of the regional elite and starts constitutional revolution. He wants to take down Huerto. Carranza just wants to take Huerto out. Not interested in power. Under the shield and cloak of the constitutional revolution, Diaz, tries to push for a stronger revolution which is unlike the one that Carraza wants.

Huerto is also not wanted by three groups. The Zapatistas, the constitutionalists and the Americans take over Veracruz (main source of revenue, greatest port of México) Huerta is finally killed in 1914. c. The Coup of 1913 II. Revolutionary Triumph & Disputes (1913 – 1916) a. Huerta & the Dissatisfaction b. Constitutionalist & Zapatistas c. Triumph of Corranza & Obrigon The Constitution of 1917 a. Carianza’s Search for Legitimacy b. Meaning of the Constitutio c. Fall of Corranza (1920)

III.

Corranza did not like how Pancho Villa distributed land that he took over amongst his supporters. Now there is a three-way struggle for México city, pancho villa, emiliano Zapata, or corranza. In 1914 villa and Zapata and carranza are all coming to México city. Villa and Zapata both get there first. They have a convention trying to come out with a revolutionary system in Aguascalientes in Veracruz. The intellectuals are about to setup a revolutionary constitition for México. However, Zapata says that he does not want this. He felt uncomfortable trying to project his view as a national view. Pancho Villa went to the mat with Obrigon, however, he is defeated. 1915 Villa is defeated. 1916 Carranza is the only revolutionary general left and takes over México city and the United States recognizes him hoping that he would support what the Americans say. They were wrong. The Americans send Pershing to chase down villa and eliminate him. There were plans in the state department to take over northern México for their oil. Why keep playing this game of governments and backing them when we could just take over their land. The Americans put pershing in the north so if things go bad we can just take over the northern lands. 1917. We go in WWI and take pershing out since we have to rescue Europe. Carranza is left bruised, scared, but with American recognition. Obrigon says that if Corranza wants to unite all Mexicans then he has to please all of his opponents. Otherwise, the Americans will eventually come back and intervene again. Obrigon was more sensitive toward revolutionary ideas than Carraza. So he may have seen this time as a way to consolidate his power and move toward a more revolutionary ideas. After 7 years of war all the revolutionary fronts unite for a convention. Americans had agents in this convention speaking for what the Americans wanted. We wanted our property to be left alone. We knew there were radicals that believed Mexican resources belonged to Mexicans. The Mexicans wanted a package of things that would improved the urban organized sector. The most

important reforms concerned land in two different ways. Subsoil and reform (redistribution). With subsoil the resources under the land belonged to the nation of México, not the land owners on top. People could still exploit the land but they would have to pay the Mexican government to take the resources from the land. The more revolutionary policy was that of land redistribution.

The First Post-Revolutionary Era I. Obregon’s Administration a. Nature of His Politics b. Morones & Labor c. Cultural Trends Calles’ Regime (1924 – 1934) a. Tendencies of Contradiction b. The Cristeros Rebellion (1926 – 1929) c. Repproachment with the

II.

Obregon will seek to consolidate his personal power to put an end to Mexican civil war. Strong perception in state department (US) that the people that took power in México were bolshevist (communist/socialist). Obrigon will seek to put an end to violent rivalry between the revolutionary leaders. Obrigon was the leader of the northern revolutionary chiefdom so the north is getting a few more things than the other groups. There was also a continual threat of American intervention. Morones became ally of obrigon. He emphasized this alliance because it makes him look as a friend of organized labor. Morones starts to become corrupted and will only have the labor groups support Obrigon if he pays Morones. In return the labor groups will do what Morones says and that is what Obrigon tells him to say. Diego Rivera (muralism) – started to make paintings in walls to become accessible to the common man. Murals gave the story of Mexican revolution and the American interventions. Jose Casconcellos (cosmic race) – the mestizo represents the Mexican of the future and a superior race. Mixed from both race and this would be a good future. One of the most difficult things after a neo-colonialism is to get the people think of themselves as a country and not as a European colony. Calles is another revolutionary from the north. He deals with Obrigon by taking turns. Obrigon would be President first then Calles would be second and so on. He

tried to get the industry and urban construction going again he tried to used organized labor to promote those things. He would say one thing and do another. He spent a lot of time promoting the arts while he beefed up the economy and tried to improve relations with the Americans. He also attacked the Church as a way to show that he was still a revolutionary, however, he went too far. The Church close down all their churches for the first time since the 1500’s. Most of the regular people in México are Catholics, and priests are mostly wealthy land owners in México. Cristero Rebellion (Viva Cristo Rey). Bloody civil war in the rural areas because of the lack of Church because teachers and others were teaching school children things that the Church did not like. The Cristeros saw the regime as godless and was going to destroy the Catholic Church in México. Through informal communications with the American embassy, Obrigon explains that he is going to tax the export of petroleum, but he is not going to take it away. Dwight Morrow – banker, ambassador to the united states in México. He put an end to the hostility between the Vatican and México. There was still the question of Presidential succession. In 1928 Obrigon is assassinated by a Cristero in a café. Calles then setup the PNR in 1929 where all the revolutionary leaders could join. No matter who was President the members of the PNR would get what they needed. Even if none of the members of the PNR was President they would put somebody whom they could control easily, or else the President might get “sick” or go on “vacation.”

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