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The difference between fault tolerance and high availability, is this: A fault tolerant environment has no service interruption but a significantly higher cost, while a highly available environment has a minimal service interruption. Fault tolerance relies on specialized hardware to detect a hardware fault and instantaneously switch to a redundant hardware component—whether the failed component is a processor, memory board, power supply, I/O subsystem, or storage subsystem. Although this cutover is apparently seamless and offers non-stop service, a high premium is paid in both hardware cost and performance because the redundant components do no processing. More importantly, the fault tolerant model does not address software failures, by far the most common reason for downtime. High availability views availability not as a series of replicated physical components, but rather as a set of system-wide, shared resources that cooperate to guarantee essential services. High availability combines software with industry-standard hardware to minimize downtime by quickly restoring essential services when a system, component, or application fails. While not instantaneous, services are restored rapidly, often in less than a minute. Many sites are willing to absorb a small amount of downtime with high availability rather than pay the much higher cost of providing fault tolerance. Additionally, in most highly available configurations, the backup processors are available for use during normal operation. High availability systems are an excellent solution for applications that must be restored quickly and can withstand a short interruption should a failure occur. Some industries have applications so time-critical that they cannot withstand even a few seconds of downtime. Many other industries, however, can withstand small periods of time when their database is unavailable. For those industries, HACMP™ can provide the necessary continuity of service without total redundancy.
Event notification 9. and archive text data and multimedia information -Frequently takes the form of multimedia catalogs of product information -Works with profiling tools to personalize the content of the website -May be expanded to include product configuration processes that support mass customization of a company’s products (6) Electronic Payment Processes -Processes are complex -Near anonymous nature of transactions Security issues -Wide variety of debit and credit alternatives -Wide variety of financial institutions and intermediaries Web payment processes Credit cards Purchase orders Electronic shopping cart .2) Essential e-Commerce Processes: Nine key components of an e-commerce process architecture 1.Payment 7.Profiling and personalizing 3. generate.Content management 5.Collaboration and training .Access control and security 2. deliver.Catalog management 6.Search management 4. (1) Access control and security: Processes MUST establish mutual trust and secure access -Authenticating users -Authorizing access -Enforcing security features Must protect the resources of e-commerce sites from threats -Hackers -Theft of passwords or credit card numbers -System failures (2) Profiling and personalizing -One-to-one marketing strategy --Personalized view of the website ----Based on… -----Personal data -----Website behavior and choices -Used to help authenticate your identity for account management and payment purposes (3) Search management -Helps customers find the specific product or service they want -Software may include a search engine component or a company may acquire a customized e-commerce search engine (4-5) Content and catalog management -Content management software helps companies develop. update.Workflow management 8.
decisions.Most applications are event driven --New customer’s first visit --Payment and delivery processes --Customer relationship & supply chain management activities -Notifies those concerned when an event occurs that might affect their status in a transaction (9) Collaboration and training -Supports the collaboration arrangements & trading services needed by customers. suppliers. & other stakeholders -May be provided by Internet-based trading services .Electronic funds transfer (EFT) Uses a variety of IT to capture and process money and credit transfers between banks and businesses and their customers ---ATMs ---Pay-by-phone ---Web-based -------PayPal & Bill Point (cash transfers) -------CheckFree and PayTrust (automatic bill paying services) ---Electronic bill payment ---Point-of-sale terminals linked to bank EFT systems Secure electronic payments -Addresses vulnerability to network sniffers ---Encrypt data passing between customer and merchant ---Encrypt the data passing between the customer and the company authorizing the credit card transaction -------Secure Socket Layer (SSL) -------Digital Wallet -------Secure Electronic Transaction standard (7) Workflow management -Workflow software engine --Predefined sets of business rules --Roles of stakeholders --Authorization requirements --Routing alternatives --Databases used --Sequence of tasks Workflow systems ensure that. and other business stakeholders (8) Event notification . -Proper transactions.. & work activities are performed -Correct data and documents are routed to the right employees. suppliers. customers.
3) Difference between m commerce and e commerce Technically speaking. Despite obvious similarities.cost of the system. using m commerce is costlier than using e commerce. .. It is sometimes referred to as next generation m commerce. also the modules and each modules importance etc. and creating indexes is faster. there are many differences between m commerce and ecommerce. It enables a person to shop from anywhere. Getting all details about the system advantages disadvantages and all. › E commerce not only needs internet but also electricity whereas there is no such requirement with m commerce. how to work it. You usually have more tables. Difference between m commerce and e commerce › E commerce is available to only those places where we have net connectivity. and how it can be achieved. The design should give the desired output.. It also enables companies and sellers to come closer to the end users. › Video conferencing has become possible with m commerce even in places where there is no internet. and more rows fit on a data page. System design : Designing the system means. Here also discuss about the goals to be achieved. but with m commerce we are free from all such boundaries. sorting. Benefits of normalization Normalization produces smaller tables with smaller rows: More rows per page (less logical I/O) More rows per I/O (more efficient) More rows fit in cache (less physical I/O) The benefits of normalization include: Searching.. 5) What is Normalization? Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. since tables are narrower. m commerce is a part of e commerce which allows a person to conduct transactions using his mobile phone.. › M commerce is easier to get to in comparison to e commerce but at present. to create the design of the system that achieve the goals. storing the same data in more than one table) and ensuring data dependencies make sense (only storing related data in a table). Each module is analysed after designing also. and how it shows the output or result. Both of these are worthy goals as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored. 4) System analysis : Anlyse the system requirement(resources). There are two goals of the normalization process: eliminating redundant data (for example.
You usually have fewer indexes per table.You can have more clustered indexes (one per table). Fewer null values and less redundant data. More tables allow better use of segments to control physical placement of data. since indexes tend to be narrower and shorter. The cost of finding rows already in the data cache is extremely low. Triggers execute more quickly if you are not maintaining redundant data. joins are generally very fast if indexes are available on the join columns. so each join performs only one or two physical I/Os for each matching row. Adaptive Server is optimized to keep higher levels of the index in cache. 6) . so you get more flexibility in tuning queries. Data modification anomalies are reduced. making your database more compact. so data modification commands are faster. Normalization is conceptually cleaner and easier to maintain and change as your needs change. While fully normalized databases require more joins. Index searching is often faster.
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