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BIL717 Image Processing Course Project

Serta Bura Kaya Zahit Evren Kaya

Comparison of Image Segmentation Algorithms: Segmentation by Weighted Aggregation (SWA) and gpb-owt-ucm

Image Segmentation Problem Summary

Process of clustering pixels into salient image regions Regions corresponding to individual objects, surfaces, natural parts Label each pixel Pixels with same label share common characteristics

Image Segmentation Problem Summary

Simplify/change the representation of an image Easier to analyze First step of more complex image processing tasks Obtain results close to human visual system

Image Segmentation Common Approaches

PDE-based methods

Snakes, Level Set Normalized Cut

Graph-based methods

Contour-based methods

gPb-ucm-owt, cannyucm-owt

Thresholding Region based methods

Splitting, merging

Compared Methods gPb-owt-ucm

Global Probability of Boundary (gPb): Determine how likely that one point belongs to a boundary Oriented Watershed Transform (owt): Convert probability scores to line segments Ultrametric Contour Map: Hierarchical segmentation from contours

Compared Methods SWA

Segmentation by Weighted Aggregation Graph-based Automated method, no predefinition of size or number of categories Hierarchical approach reduces complexity Utilizes resemblence in luminance

Benchmark Berkeley Segmentation Dataset 500 (BSDS500)

12000 hand labeled segmentations constitues the ground-truth Segmentation quality will be compared Boundary map of a segmentation result is compared to ground-truth Multi-scale thresholding Precision-Recall framework

gPb-owt-ucm Test Results

MATLAB Code and executables are available on Berkeley CV Group website (MATLAB Mex files for Unix platform) Automated and interactive options are available Interactive segmentation run without problems

gPb-owt-ucm Test Results: gPb-owt

gPb-owt-ucm Test Results: gPb-owt

gPb-owt-ucm Test Results: gPb-owt-ucm

gPb-owt-ucm Test Results: gPb-owt-ucm

Problems arise in automated segmentation Eigen-value decomposition is costly Out-of-memory Two methods for approximation:

Stochastic Algorithm Clustered Low Rank Approximation

Graph Based Methods Summary

All pixels of image nodesEdge is formed between nodes. Weight of node Similarity between pixels The image is partitioned into separate sets by removing the edges connecting the segments Partition Method === New Graph Based Segmentation Method

Graph Based Segmentation Summary Graph Based G=(V,E) where V set of n nodes Vi(i=1,2,3,4, ,n) and E set of undirected weighted edges of wij, connecting neighbouring nodes vi, vj Wi,j =e^[- (Ii-Ij)] where Ii and Ij are intensity W matrix is symetric since Wii=0

Pixel Graph

Normalized-Cut Measure

Normalized-Cut Measure

Minimizin Problem creates Sailent Segments where similarity across its boundaries is small in segment is large

Decreasing Computational Cost of Normalized-Cut Measure

Weighted Aggregation In addition to significantly reducing the number of nodes in the graph, this coarsening creates small aggregates of pixels adapted to the image at hand, the intensities of which are similar. Every pixel belongs to either one or several aggregates, each centered at one seed,

Weighted Aggregation

Hierarchy in SWA