2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

AUGUST 2010
Energy Efficiency &
Renewable Energy
Acknowledgments
This report was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Michelle Kubik, and
designed by Stacy Buchanan of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL). We greatly appreciate the input of Mike Cliggett and Carla Frisch
of the U.S. Department of Energy; as well as Lynn Billman, Helena Chum,
Dale Gardner, Maureen Hand, Roland Hulstrom, and Jordan Macknick of NREL.
Front page background photo: Courtesy of NASA
Front page inset photos (left to right): One through six, and eight – iStock; seven – PIX 17854
Pages 2, 6, 42, 56, 66, 74, 80, 86, 90, 98, 110, 118: iStock
Page 16: PIX 14369
Page 94: PIX 17854
© 2010 U.S. Department of Energy
Key Findings

Although renewable energy (excluding hydropower) is a relatively small portion of total energy
supply both globally and in the United States, the installed renewable energy capacity in both
the world and in the United States has more than tripled between 2000 and 2009.

Including hydropower, renewable energy represents nearly 12% of total installed
capacity and more than 10% of total generation in the United States in 2009.
Installed renewable energy capacity (including hydropower) is more than 130 gigawatts (GW).
Not including hydropower, 2009 renewable electricity installed capacity has reached
about 53 GW in the United States.

In the United States, growth in sectors such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) signify an
ongoing shift in the composition of the nation's electricity supply. In 2009, cumulative wind
capacity increased by 39% and cumulative solar PV capacity grew nearly 52% from
the previous year.
Key Findings, continued

Worldwide, wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology—between
2000 and 2009, wind energy generation worldwide increased by a factor of
almost 9. The United States experienced even more dramatic growth, as installed wind
energy capacity increased by a factor of 14 between 2000 and 2009.

In the United States, renewable energy has been capturing a growing percent of new
capacity additions during the past few years. In 2009, renewable energy accounted
for more than 55% of all new electrical capacity installations in the United
States—a large contrast from 2004 when all renewable energy captured only 2% of
new capacity additions.

Since 2006, the United States has been the world’s leading ethanol producer. Between
2000 and 2009, production of corn ethanol increased by a factor of 6, and
biodiesel production increased by a factor of more than 100. Use of ethanol in
the United States has also grown substantially, and it accounts for 7.8% of the total U.S.
gasoline pool, up from 1% in 2000.
U.S. Energy Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II
Global Renewable Energy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III
Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV
Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V
Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI
Biopower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII
Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII
Advanced Water Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX
Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X
Renewable Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI
Clean Energy Investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIV
Table of Contents
I. U.S. Energy Background Information
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
7
Source: EIA; full references are provided starting on p. 123.
Note: Because hydropower is considered a conventional source of energy,
it is accounted for separate from other new renewable sources of energy.
Energy consumption is higher than energy production due to oil imports.
U.S. Energy Production and Consumption (2009)
11.3% Nuclear
3.6% Hydropower
7.0% Non-Hydro
Renewables
29.7% Coal
33.0%
Natural Gas
15.3% Crude Oil
U.S. Energy Production (2009): 73.5 Quadrillion Btu
U.S. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Production:
5.2 Quadrillion Btu
8.8% Nuclear
4
.
2
%

B
i
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m
a
s
s
5
.
4
%

B
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0
.
4
%

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.
5
%

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0
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%

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%

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.
7
%

W
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d
0
.
9
%

W
i
n
d
2.8% Hydropower
5.4% Non-Hydro
Renewables
21.1% Coal
24.7%
Natural Gas
37.1% Petroleum
U.S. Energy Consumption (2009): 94.9 Quadrillion Btu
U.S. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Consumption:
5.1 Quadrillion Btu
8 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA
* Includes natural gas plant liquids.
Note: Annual totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.
U.S. Energy Production by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal Natural Gas* Crude Oil Nuclear Hydropower
Non-Hydro
Renewables
Total Production
(Quadrillion Btu)
2000 31.8% 31.2% 17.3% 11.0% 3.9% 4.8% 71.5
2001 32.8% 31.6% 17.1% 11.2% 3.1% 4.3% 71.9
2002 32.0% 31.0% 17.1% 11.5% 3.8% 4.5% 70.9
2003 31.4% 31.4% 17.1% 11.3% 4.0% 4.7% 70.3
2004 32.5% 30.6% 16.3% 11.7% 3.8% 5.1% 70.4
2005 33.3% 30.0% 15.7% 11.7% 3.9% 5.3% 69.6
2006 33.5% 30.1% 15.2% 11.6% 4.0% 5.5% 71.0
2007 32.8% 31.0% 15.0% 11.8% 3.4% 6.1% 71.7
2008 32.5% 31.7% 14.3% 11.5% 3.4% 6.7% 73.5
2009 29.7% 33.0% 15.3% 11.3% 3.6% 7.0% 73.4
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
9
U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009
Source: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Nuclear Hydropower
Non-Hydro
Renewables
Total Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)
2000 22.8% 24.1% 38.7% 7.9% 2.8% 3.5% 99.0
2001 22.8% 23.6% 39.7% 8.3% 2.3% 3.2% 96.3
2002 22.4% 24.1% 39.1% 8.3% 2.7% 3.3% 97.8
2003 22.7% 23.3% 39.5% 8.1% 2.9% 3.4% 98.2
2004 22.4% 22.9% 40.2% 8.2% 2.7% 3.6% 100.2
2005 22.7% 22.5% 40.2% 8.1% 2.7% 3.7% 100.4
2006 22.5% 22.3% 40.1% 8.2% 2.9% 4.0% 99.7
2007  22.4% 23.3%  39.2%  8.3%  2.4%  4.3%  101.6
2008  22.5% 23.9%  37.5%  8.5%  2.5%  4.9%  99.5
2009  21.1% 24.7%  37.1%  8.8%  2.8%  5.4%  94.9
10 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Other includes: pumped storage, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch,
purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuels, and miscellaneous technologies.
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
U.S. Nameplate Capacity and Generation (2009)
9.4% Nuclear
6.9% Conv. Hydropower
4.7% Renewable Energy
30.3% Coal
41.4% Natural Gas
2.1% Other
5.5% Petroleum
U.S. Electric Nameplate Capacity (2009): 1,121 GW
1
.
1
%

B
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m
a
s
s
0
.
3
%

G
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0
.
1
%

P
V
*
3
.
1
%

W
i
n
d
U.S. Renewable Capacity: 53 GW
44.6% Coal
20.2% Nuclear
6.9% Conv. Hydropower
3.6% Renewable Energy
0.4% Other
23.3% Natural Gas
1.0% Petroleum
U.S. Electric Net Generation (2009): 3,954 billion kWh
1
.
4
%

B
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m
a
s
s
0
.
4
%

G
e
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0
.
1
%

S
o
l
a
r
1
.
8
%

W
i
n
d
U.S. Renewable Generation: 144 billion kWh
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
11 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
U.S. Electric-Generating Capacity by Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal Petroleum Natural Gas
Other
Gases
Nuclear Hydro
Renew-
ables
Hydro
Pumped
Storage
Other
Total
Capacity (GW)
2000 38.8% 7.9% 28.0% 0.3% 12.1% 8.9% 1.9% 2.2% 0.1% 867
2001 36.8% 8.0% 30.9% 0.2% 11.5% 8.4% 2.0% 2.1% 0.1% 914
2002 34.5% 6.8% 35.9% 0.2% 10.7% 7.9% 1.9% 2.0% 0.1% 980
2003 32.5% 6.5% 39.1% 0.2% 10.2% 7.5% 2.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,032
2004 31.9% 6.2% 40.2% 0.2% 10.1% 7.3% 2.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,050
2005 31.5% 6.1% 40.9% 0.2% 9.9% 7.2% 2.2% 1.8% 0.1% 1,068
2006 31.2% 6.0% 41.2% 0.2% 9.8% 7.2% 2.5% 1.8% 0.1% 1,076
2007 30.9% 5.7% 41.3% 0.2% 9.7% 7.1% 3.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,088
2008 30.5% 5.6% 41.4% 0.2% 9.6% 7.0% 3.8% 1.8% 0.1% 1,102
2009 30.3% 5.5% 41.4% 0.2% 9.4% 6.9% 4.7% 1.8% 0.1% 1,121
12 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA
Note: Electricity generation from hydro pumped storage is negative
because more electricity is consumed than generated by these plants.
U.S. Electricity Generation by Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal
Petroleum
Liquids
Petroleum
Coke
Natural
Gas
Other
Gases
Nuclear Hydro
Renew-
ables
Hydro
Pumped
Storage
Other
Total Generation
(million kWh)
2000 51.7% 2.7% 0.2% 15.8% 0.4% 19.8% 7.2% 2.1% -0.1% 0.1% 3,802,521
2001 50.9% 3.1% 0.3% 17.1% 0.2% 20.6% 5.8% 1.9% -0.2% 0.3% 3,737,052
2002 50.1% 2.0% 0.4% 17.9% 0.3% 20.2% 6.8% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,858,919
2003 50.8% 2.6% 0.4% 16.7% 0.4% 19.7% 7.1% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,883,783
2004 49.8% 2.5% 0.5% 17.9% 0.4% 19.9% 6.8% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,970,782
2005 49.6% 2.5% 0.6% 18.8% 0.3% 19.3% 6.7% 2.2% -0.2% 0.3% 4,056,199
2006 49.0% 1.1% 0.5% 20.1% 0.3% 19.4% 7.1% 2.4% -0.2% 0.3% 4,065,762
2007 48.5% 1.2% 0.4% 21.6% 0.3% 19.4% 6.0% 2.6% -0.2% 0.3% 4,158,267
2008 48.2% 0.8% 0.3% 21.4% 0.3% 19.6% 6.2% 3.1% -0.2% 0.3% 4,121,184
2009 44.6% 0.7% 0.3% 23.3% 0.3% 20.2% 6.9% 3.6% -0.1% 0.3% 3,953,898
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
13
* Current range of utility scale (greater than 5MW) PV in the U.S.
Sources: AEO, EPA, EPRI, NREL, McGowin, DeMeo et al.
Levelized Cost of Energy of Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)
P
V
*
C
S
P
B
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C
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p
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k
W
h
8–12
0
10
20
30
40
50
6–13 8–13
18–43
19–35
6–12
4–13
Assumptions
Currency: 2009 US $ (real)
Real Discount Rate: 10.5%
Infation Rate: 3%
Economic Lifetime: 30 years
Taxes: none
Tax credits: none
Debt/Equity Financing: none
Biomass Fuel Costs: AEO 2009
PV Degradation: none
CSP Technology: no storage
Geothermal Technology: hydrothermal
14 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Sources: AEO, EPA, EPRI, NREL, McGowin, DeMeo et al.
Capacity Factor for Renewable Resources (2009)
100%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
80%
70%
90%
P
V
C
S
P
B
i
o
m
a
s
s
G
e
o
t
h
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r
m
a
l
O
f
f
-
S
h
o
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e

W
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-
S
h
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e

W
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d
L
a
r
g
e

H
y
d
r
o
80–85%
85–90%
40–45%
26–32%
35–44%
40–93%
21–26%
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 15
I
II. Renewable Electricity in the U.S.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
17
Renewable Electricity in the U.S.: Summary

Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower)
have more than tripled, and in 2009 represent 53 GW of installed capacity.

Renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) has grown at a compounded annual average
of 14% per year from 2000–2009.

Although it is a growing part of U.S. energy supply, renewable electricity (excluding
hydropower) in 2009 still represents a small percentage of overall installed electricity
capacity (4.7%) and generation (3.6%) in the United States.

Wind and solar PV are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. In 2009,
wind capacity installations increased by 39% and solar PV grew nearly 52% from
the previous year.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
18
Renewable Electricity in the U.S.: Summary, continued

In 2009, biomass produced about 38% of total renewable electricity
generation (excluding hydropower).

Wind energy accounted for about 92% of annual installed renewable
electricity capacity in 2009 (excluding hydropower).

Electricity generation from biomass, geothermal, and hydropower have
remained relatively stable since 2000.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
19
Capacity and Generation: All Renewables (including hydropower)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
130,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
500,000
550,000
Million kWh MW
Nameplate Capacity
Generation
Total Nameplate
Capacity (MW)
Total Generation
(Million kWh)
2000 93,437 356,894
2001 95,026 288,139
2002 95,908 343,904
2003 97,607 355,889
2004 98,352 351,712
2005 101,303 358,428
2006 104,299 386,832
2007 110,109 354,269
2008 119,927 382,841
2009 130,743 416,026
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
20 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
40,000 130,000
45,000 140,000
50,000 150,000
Million kWh MW
Nameplate Capacity
Generation
Total Nameplate
Capacity (MW)
Total Generation
(Million kWh)
2000 16,491 81,321
2001 18,115 71,178
2002 18,861 79,575
2003 20,587 80,083
2004 21,222 83,295
2005 23,949 88,107
2006 26,880 97,586
2007 32,677 106,759
2008 42,287 128,010
2009 53,081 143,895
Capacity and Generation: Renewables (excluding hydropower)
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
21
Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity by Source
(excluding hydropower)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
MW
2001 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2008
0
11,000
22,000
33,000
44,000
55,000
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV*
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
22
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity Added (MW)
and Percent Annual Change from Previous Year
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Total Capacity Added
(w/o Hydropower)
% Annual Change in
Growth from Previous Year
2000 18 0 66 59 (323) (180) - 128%
2001 27 0 1,697 0 (100) 1,624 + 1,002%
2002 44 0 411 0 291 746 - 54%
2003 70 0 1,667 0 (11) 1,726 + 131%
2004 86 0 372 0 177 635 - 63%
2005 112 0 2,396 30 189 2,727 + 329%
2006 142 1 2,454 3 331 2,931 + 7%
2007 205 64 5,237 106 185 5,797 + 98%
2008 335 0 8,425 104 747 9,611 + 66%
2009 571 12 9,922 46 242 10,793 + 12%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
23
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity (MW)
and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
Hydro Solar PV* CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Total (without
Hydropower)
Total U.S.
2000
76,946
0%
85
26.9%
354
0%
2,578
2.6%
2,798
2.2%
10,676
2.6%
16,491
-1.1%
93,437
-0.3%
2001
76,911
0%
112
31.7%
354
0%
4,275
65.8%
2,798
0%
10,576
0.9%
18,115
9.8%
95,026
1.7%
2002
77,047
0.2%
156
39.2%
354
0%
4,686
9.6%
2,798
0%
10,867
2.8%
18,861
4.1%
95,908
0.9%
2003
77,020
0%
226
44.8%
354
0%
6,353
35.6%
2,798
0%
10,856
0.1%
20,587
9.1%
97,607
1.8%
2004
77,130
0.1%
312
38%
354
0%
6,725
5.9%
2,798
0%
11,033
1.6%
21,222
3.1%
98,352
0.8%
2005
77,354
0.3%
424
35.8%
354
0%
9,121
35.6%
2,828
1.1%
11,222
1.7%
23,949
12.8%
101,303
3.0%
2006
77,419
0.1%
566
33.4%
355
0.3%
11,575
26.9%
2,831
0.1%
11,553
2.9%
26,880
12.2%
104,299
3.0%
2007
77,432
0%
771
36.2%
419
18%
16,812
45.2%
2,937
3.7%
11,738
1.6%
32,677
21.6%
110,109
5.6%
2008
77,640
0.3%
1,106
43.5%
419
0%
25,237
50.1%
3,040
3.5%
12,485
6.4%
42,287
29.4%
119,927
8.9%
2009
77,662
0%
1,677
51.6%
431
2.9%
35,159
39.3%
3,087
1.5%
12,727
1.9%
53,081
25.5%
130,743
9.0%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
24
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity as a
Percent of Total Electricity Generating Capacity
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Hydro
Solar
PV
CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Renewables
w/o Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 8.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 1.2% 1.9% 10.8%
2001 8.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 1.2% 2.0% 10.4%
2002 7.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 1.1% 1.9% 9.8%
2003 7.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 2.0% 9.5%
2004 7.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 2.0% 9.4%
2005 7.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.3% 1.1% 2.2% 9.5%
2006 7.2% 0.1% 0.0% 1.1% 0.3% 1.1% 2.5% 9.7%
2007 7.1% 0.1% 0.0% 1.5% 0.3% 1.1% 3.0% 10.1%
2008 7.0% 0.1% 0.0% 2.3% 0.3% 1.1% 3.8% 10.9%
2009 6.9% 0.1% 0.0% 3.1% 0.3% 1.1% 4.7% 11.7%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
25 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Annual Installed Renewable Electric Capacity Growth (excluding hydropower)
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
MW
Capacity
0
2,200
4,400
6,600
8,800
11,000
Compounded Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR)
(2000–2009)
Wind 33.7%
Solar PV 39.3%
CSP 2.2%
Biomass 2.0%
Geothermal 1.1%
Renewables
(excl. Hydro)
13.9%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
26
U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower)
Source: EIA
0
90,000
180,000
270,000
360,000
450,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
Percent of
Total Generation
Renewables as a %
of total U.S. generation
Renewable Generation
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
27
U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation (excluding hydropower)
Source: EIA
Note: The generation decrease from 2000 to 2001, in part, refects
an EIA classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic
municipal solid waste (MSW) and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as
non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
0
29,000
58,000
87,000
116,000
145,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0.0%
0.5%
1.0%
1.5%
2.0%
2.5%
3.0%
3.5%
4.0%
Percent of
Total Generation
Renewables as a %
of total U.S. generation
Renewable Generation
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
28
U.S. Renewable Generation by Technology (excluding hydropower)
Source: EIA
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
Biomass
Wind
Geothermal
Solar
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
29
Renewable Electricity as a Percent of Total Generation
Source: EIA
Hydro Solar Biomass Wind Geothermal
Renewables
w/o Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 7.2% 0.0% 1.6% 0.1% 0.4% 2.1% 9.4%
2001 5.8% 0.0% 1.3% 0.2% 0.4% 1.9% 7.7%
2002 6.9% 0.0% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 2.1% 8.9%
2003 7.1% 0.0% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 2.1% 9.2%
2004 6.8% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.4% 2.1% 8.9%
2005 6.7% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.4% 2.2% 8.8%
2006 7.1% 0.0% 1.3% 0.7% 0.4% 2.4% 9.5%
2007 6.0% 0.1% 1.3% 0.8% 0.4% 2.6% 8.5%
2008 6.2% 0.1% 1.3% 1.3% 0.4% 3.1% 9.3%
2009 6.9% 0.1% 1.4% 1.8% 0.4% 3.6% 10.5%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
30 Sources: EIA, SEIA
Renewable Electricity Generation (Million kWh)
and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year
Hydropower Solar Wind Geothermal Biomass All Renewables
Renewables without
Hydropower
2000
275,573
-13.8%
909
8.3%
5,593
24.6%
14,093
-5.0%
60,726
1.9%
356,894
-10.6%
81,321
2.0%
2001
216,961
-21.3%
952
4.7%
6,737
20.5%
13,741
-2.5%
49,748
-18.1%
288,139
19.3%
71,178
-12.5%
2002
264,329
21.8%
1,021
7.3%
10,354
53.7%
14,491
5.5%
53,709
8.0%
343,904
19.3%
79,575
11.8%
2003
275,806
4.3%
1,132
10.8%
11,187
8.0%
14,424
-0.5%
53,340
-0.7%
355,889
3.5%
80,083
0.6%
2004
268,417
-2.7%
1,267
12%
14,144
26.4%
14,811
2.7%
53,073
-0.5%
351,712
-1.2%
83,295
4.0%
2005
270,321
0.7%
1,444
13.9%
17,811
25.9%
14,692
-0.8%
54,160
2.0%
358,428
1.9%
88,107
5.8%
2006
289,246
7.0%
1,670
15.7%
26,589
49.3%
14,568
-0.8%
54,759
1.1%
386,832
7.9%
97,586
10.8%
2007
247,510
-14.4%
2,133
27.8%
34,450
29.6%
14,637
0.5%
55,539
1.4%
354,269
-8.4%
106,759
9.4%
2008
254,831
3.0%
2,662
24.8%
55,363
60.7%
14,951
2.1%
55,034
-0.9%
382,841
8.1%
128,010
19.9%
2009
272,131
6.8%
3,588
34.8%
70,761
27.8%
15,210
1.7%
54,336
-1.3%
416,026
8.7%
143,895
12.4%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
31
State Renewable Energy Information: Summary

In 2008, Texas advanced over California as having the most renewable electricity
(excluding hydropower) of any U.S. state, and continues to hold the lead in 2009.

Washington is the leader in installed renewable energy capacity when
including hydropower.

In 2008, Texas became the national leader in wind power development, and in
2009 has nearly 6 GW more wind capacity installed than Iowa, the state coming in
second place.

A combination of state incentives and renewable portfolio standards for
renewable energy and renewable resource development has driven renewable
growth in some states.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
32
Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC,
SEIA, USDA

Total Renewables
(excluding hydropower)
O Texas
O California
O Iowa
O Oregon
O Minnesota

Total Renewables
(including hydropower)
O Washington
O California
O Oregon
O Texas
O New York

Per Capita Renewables
(excluding hydropower)
O North Dakota
O Wyoming
O Vermont
O Iowa
O Oregon

Per Capita Renewables
(including hydropower)
O Washington
O North Dakota
O Montana
O Oregon
O Wyoming
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
33 Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009)

Solar PV
O California
O New Jersey
O Colorado
O Arizona
O Florida

Biomass
O California
O Florida
O Maine
O Virginia
O Georgia

Geothermal
O California
O Nevada
O Utah
O Hawaii
O Idaho

CSP
O California
O Nevada
O Hawaii
O Arizona

Wind
O Texas
O Iowa
O California
O Washington
O Minnesota

Hydropower
O Washington
O California
O Oregon
O New York
O Alabama
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
34
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
NORTHEAST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
New York 1,274 33.9 0 0 367 4,654 6,392 86
Pennsylvania 748 7.3 0 0 26 775 1,557 62
Maine 175 0.3 0 0 157 722 1,054 252
Massachusetts 15 17.7 0 0 430 272 734 70
New Hampshire 26 0 .7 0 0 242 445 714 203
Vermont 6 1.7 0 0 759 309 1,075 1,233
Connecticut 0 19.7 0 0 221 119 359 68
New Jersey 8 127.5 0 0 7 13 155 16
Rhode Island 1 0.6 0 0 270 4 276 258
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
35
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
NORTHEAST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
0
300
600
900
1,200
1,500
1,800
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
c
u
t
M
a
i
n
e
N
e
w

H
a
m
p
s
h
i
r
e
N
e
w

J
e
r
s
e
y
N
e
w

Y
o
r
k
P
e
n
n
s
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l
v
a
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i
a
R
h
o
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e

I
s
l
a
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d
V
e
r
m
o
n
t
M
a
s
s
a
c
h
u
s
e
t
t
s
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
36
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
MIDWEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
South Dakota 313 0.0 0 0 175 1,598 2,087 601
Minnesota 1,809 1.9 0 0 223 186 2,220 386
Iowa 3,670 0.0 0 0 0 131 3,801 1,220
Wisconsin 449 5.3 0 0 0 506 960 80
North Dakota 1,203 0.0 0 0 140 614 1,956 2,075
Michigan 143 0.7 0 0 445 374 963 59
Missouri 309 0.2 0 0 17 499 825 54
Nebraska 153 0.0 0 0 0 327 479 85
Kansas 1,014 0.0 0 0 110 3 1,126 399
Illinois 1,547 4.5 0 0 43 38 1,632 123
Ohio 7 2.0 0 0 90 128 228 9
Indiana 1,036 0.3 0 0 15 92 1,143 164
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
37
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
MIDWEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
I
l
l
i
n
o
i
s
I
n
d
i
a
n
a
I
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w
a
K
a
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s
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s
M
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D
a
k
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S
o
u
t
h

D
a
k
o
t
a
0
800
1,600
2,400
3,200
4,000
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
38
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
SOUTH
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
Alabama 0 0.2 0 0 622 3,280 3,902 132
Texas 9,410 8.6 0 0 10 672 10,100 380
Tennessee 29 0.9 0 0 300 2,418 2,748 52
Georgia 0 0.2 0 0 210 1,932 2,142 21
North Carolina 0 12.5 0 0 10 1,828 1,850 2
Arkansas 0 0.2 0 0 374 1,309 1,683 130
South Carolina 0 0.1 0 0 0 1,363 1,363 0
Virginia 0 0.8 0 0 410 744 1,154 52
Oklahoma 1,130 0.0 0 0 363 790 2,282 405
Florida 0 38.9 0 0 711 56 806 40
Kentucky 0 0.0 0 0 426 777 1,203 99
Maryland 0 6.1 0 0 375 527 908 67
Louisiana 0 0.2 0 0 768 192 960 171
Mississippi 0 0.1 0 0 8 0 8 3
West Virginia 330 0.0 0 0 321 325 976 358
Delaware 0 3.2 0 0 7 0 10 12
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
39
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
SOUTH
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
A
l
a
b
a
m
a
A
r
k
a
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s
a
s
D
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a
w
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e

F
l
o
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d
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t
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a
M
a
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l
a
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d
M
i
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s
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p
i
N
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h

C
a
r
o
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a
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o
m
a
S
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h

C
a
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e
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n
e
s
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T
e
x
a
s
V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
W
e
s
t

V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
0
1,900
3,800
5,700
7,600
9,500
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
40
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
WEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
Washington 1,980 5.2 0 0.0 0 20,807 22,792 298
California 2,794 768.0 364 2,565.5 1,271 10,032 17,794 210
Oregon 1,758 14.0 0 0.3 564 8,240 10,577 611
Arizona 63 46.2 1 0.0 40 2,718 2,868 23
Idaho 147 0.2 0 15.8 161 2,516 2,839 209
Montana 375 0.7 0 0.0 11 2,548 2,935 397
Nevada 0 36.4 64 426.8 191 1,047 1,765 272
Colorado 1,246 59.1 0 0.0 18 649 1,972 263
New Mexico 597 2.4 0 0.2 449 87 1,136 522
Wyoming 1,101 0.1 0 0.3 0 299 1,400 2,024
Alaska 8 0.0 0 0.7 0 414 423 12
Utah 223 0.6 0 42.0 88 262 616 127
Hawaii 63 26.2 2 35.0 126 25 277 195
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
41
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
WEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
A
l
a
s
k
a
A
r
i
z
o
n
a
C
a
l
i
f
o
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n
i
a
C
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a
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a
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M
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t
o
n
W
y
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m
i
n
g
0
1,600
3,200
4,800
6,400
8,000
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
III. Global Renewable Energy Development
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
43
Global Renewable Energy Development: Summary

Global renewable electricity installations (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled
from 2000–2009.

Including hydropower, renewable energy accounts for 21% of all global electricity generation;
without hydropower, renewable energy accounts for 3.8% of global generation.

Wind and solar energy are the fastest growing renewable energy technologies worldwide.
Wind and solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 14 between 2000 and 2009.

In 2009, Germany led the world in cumulative solar PV installed capacity. The United States
leads the world in wind, geothermal, biomass, and CSP installed capacity.
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
44 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Capacity Worldwide (including hydropower)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
GW
2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Hydropower
Biomass
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
45
*Grid-tied capacity.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
GW
2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV*
Biomass
0
50
100
150
200
250
Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity Worldwide
(excluding hydropower)
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
46 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
World Renewable Cumulative Electricity Capacity
Percent Increase from the Previous Year
Hydro Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Renewables
without Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 0% 22% 0% 31% 0% 6% 11% 1%
2001 5% 29% 0% 33% 0% 8% 15% 6%
2002 2% 33% 0% 29% 2% 0% 11% 3%
2003 9% 25% 0% 29% 9% -3% 11% 9%
2004 1% 33% 0% 20% 0% 0% 10% 1%
2005 2% 38% 0% 23% 4% 13% 18% 4%
2006 2% 32% 0% 25% 3% 7% 17% 4%
2007 9% 5% 5% 27% 0% 6% 17% 10%
2008 4% 71% 14% 29% 4% 4% 22% 6%
2009 4% 62% 22% 31% 7% 4% 25% 7%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
47 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewables as a Percent of Total
Installed Nameplate Capacity Worldwide
Hydro Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
All
Renewables
Renewables
without
Hydropower
Renewable
Capacity without
Hydropower (GW)
2000 19.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.2% 1.1% 21.7% 1.9% 65
2001 20.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.7% 0.2% 1.1% 22.2% 2.1% 74
2002 19.8% 0.1% 0.0% 0.9% 0.2% 1.1% 22.0% 2.2% 82
2003 20.8% 0.1% 0.0% 1.1% 0.2% 1.0% 23.2% 2.4% 91
2004 20.2% 0.1% 0.0% 1.2% 0.2% 1.0% 22.8% 2.5% 100
2005 19.9% 0.1% 0.0% 1.4% 0.2% 1.1% 22.8% 2.9% 118
2006 19.6% 0.2% 0.0% 1.7% 0.2% 1.1% 22.8% 3.2% 138
2007 20.6% 0.2% 0.0% 2.1% 0.2% 1.1% 24.2% 3.7% 162
2008 20.6% 0.3% 0.0% 2.6% 0.2% 1.1% 24.9% 4.3% 197
2009 20.6% 0.4% 0.0% 3.3% 0.2% 1.1% 25.7% 5.1% 245
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
48 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewables Share of Total Electricity Capacity Worldwide
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Renewables Excluding Hydropower
All Renewables
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
49 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Annual Installed Renewable Electricity Growth Worldwide
(excluding hydropower)
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
GW
0
5
10
15
20
25
Capacity

Compounded Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR)
(2000–2009)
Wind 27.3%
Solar PV 35.1%
CSP 4.3%
Geothermal 3.3%
Biomass 4.3%
Renewables
(excl. Hydro)
15.9%
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
50
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% for wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

T
o
t
a
l

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Renewables as a %
of Total Generation
Renewable
Generation
0
900,000
1,800,000
2,700,000
3,600,000
4,500,000
0
5
10
15
20
25
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
51
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% of wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide (excluding hydropower)
Renewables as a %
of Total Generation
Renewable
Generation
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

T
o
t
a
l

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
160,000
320,000
480,000
640,000
800,000
0.0%
0.8%
1.6%
2.4%
3.2%
4.0%
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
52
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% of wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide by Technology (2000–2009)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
Geothermal
Solar
Wind
Biomass
0
90,000
180,000
270,000
360,000
450,000
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
53 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation
as a Percent of Total Generation
Hydro Solar PV Biomass Wind Geothermal
All
Renewables
Renewables
without
Hydropower
Renewable Generation
without Hydropower
(million kWh)
2000 16.8% 0.0% 1.2% 0.3% 0.3% 18.7% 1.9% 274,019
2001 17.3% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.3% 19.3% 2.1% 304,469
2002 17.1% 0.0% 1.2% 0.5% 0.3% 19.2% 2.1% 324,827
2003 18.0% 0.0% 1.2% 0.7% 0.3% 20.2% 2.2% 348,777
2004 17.3% 0.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.3% 19.5% 2.2% 371,028
2005 16.9% 0.0% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 19.4% 2.5% 427,880
2006 16.7% 0.1% 1.2% 1.1% 0.3% 19.4% 2.7% 485,477
2007 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 1.3% 0.3% 20.4% 2.9% 552,703
2008 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 1.6% 0.3% 20.7% 3.3% 642,327
2009 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 2.1% 0.3% 21.2% 3.8% 766,333
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
54
Sources: REN21
* Majority of China’s renewable energy is from small hydropower.
Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity

Total Renewables (2009)
O China*
O U.S.
O Brazil
O Canada
O Japan
O
O
O
O
O
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
55
Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)
Source: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

Solar PV
O Germany
O Spain
O Japan
O U.S.
O Italy

Biomass
O U.S.
O Brazil
O Germany
O China
O Sweden

Geothermal
O U.S.
O Philippines
O Indonesia
O Mexico
O Italy

CSP
O U.S.
O Spain

Wind
O U.S.
O China
O Germany
O Spain
O India
IV. Wind
Wind | August 2010
IV
57
Wind: Summary

In the United States, installed wind energy capacity increased almost 14 times
between 2000 and 2009.

In the United States, wind experienced record growth in 2009 and nearly 10 GW of
new capacity was added. Texas led the United States in wind installations in 2009,
installing more than 2,292 MW of wind capacity.

The cumulative capacity-weighted average price of wind power, including the production
tax credit, was about 4.4 cents per kilowatt hour in 2009—a price that competes
with fossil fuel-generated electricity.

In 2009, China surpassed the United States as the world leader in annual installed wind
capacity, with more than 13.8 GW added.
Wind | August 2010
IV
58 Sources: AWEA, EIA
0
15,000
30,000
45,000
60,000
75,000
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
Million kWh MW
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
U.S. Wind Capacity
Generation
2009
U.S. Total Installed Wind Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Wind Energy
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Wind Energy Capacity
and Percent Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 5,593 2,578 2.6%
2001 6,737 4,275 65.8%
2002 10,354 4,686 9.6%
2003 11,187 6,353 35.6%
2004 14,144 6,725 5.9%
2005 17,811 9,121 35.6%
2006 26,589 11,575 26.9%
2007 34,450 16,812 45.2%
2008 55,363 25,237 50.1%
2009 70,761 35,159 39.3%
Wind | August 2010
IV
59
Sources: AWEA, LBNL
Note: Prices refect cumulative capacity-weighted average wind
power prices and include state and federal incentives in the price.
The recent increase in wind power price is due to increased
demand for turbines coupled with global increases in prices for
steel, cement, copper, and other commodity materials.
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
2009 $/kWh MW
2000 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
U.S. Wind Capacity
$0.00
$0.01
$0.02
$0.03
$0.04
$0.05
$0.06
$0.07
Capacity-weighted
Average Wind Power Price
2009
U.S. Wind Power Sales Price
Wind | August 2010
IV
60 Sources: GWEC, AWEA
Wind Energy Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
P
o
r
t
u
g
a
l
F
r
a
n
c
e
U
.
K
.
I
t
a
l
y
C
h
i
n
a
D
e
n
m
a
r
k
I
n
d
i
a
U
.
S
.
S
p
a
i
n
G
e
r
m
a
n
y
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
China: 25,853 MW
India: 10,827 MW
Spain: 18,784 MW
Portugal: 3,474 MW
U.S.: 35,159 MW
U.K.: 4,340 MW
France: 4,775 MW
Denmark: 3,408 MW
Italy: 4,845 MW
Germany: 25,813 MW
Wind | August 2010
IV
61 Source: REN21, AWEA, LBNL
Turbine Manufacturing
13% Vestas (DK)
Gamesa (ES) 7%
Dongfang 7%
7%
Goldwind
9% Sinovel
12% GE Wind (US)
9%
Enercon (GE)
Suzlon (Ind.) 6%
Siemens 6%
RePower 3%
Others 21%
Global Wind Turbine
Market Share 2009
Total Turbine Installations: 38 GW
15%
Vestas (DK)
Gamesa (ES) 6.0%
40.3%
GE Wind (US)
7.1%
Suzlon (Ind.)
11.7%
Siemens (DK)
Clipper 6.1%
Acciona WP 2.1%
U.S. Wind Turbine
Market Share 2009
Total Turbine Installations: 9,922 MW
8.2%
Mitsubishi
REpower 3.3%
Nordex 0.3%
Others 0.6%
Wind | August 2010
IV
62 Source: AWEA, LBNL
Annual U.S. Wind Turbine Installations, by Manufacturer (MW)
MW
2005 2006 2007 2009 2008
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Vestas
Siemens
Suzlon
Gamesa
GE Wind
Mitsubishi
Acciona
REpower
Nordex
Other
Clipper
5,249
2,402
9,922
2,454
8,350
Wind | August 2010
IV
63 Source: AWEA, LBNL
0.71
MW
0.88
MW
1.21
MW
1.43
MW
1.60
MW
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
1
9
9
8

1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0

2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2

2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4

2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
1.65
MW
2
0
0
7
1.66
MW
1.74
MW
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

S
i
z
e

(
M
W
)
0.75 MW 0.10 MW 1.5 MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW 5.0 MW
120 m
394 ft
100 m
328 ft
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
66 m
216 ft
50 m
164 ft
18 m
60 ft
85 m
279 ft
0.71
MW
0.88
MW
1.19
MW
1.44
MW
1.6
MW
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
1
9
9
8

1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0

2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2

2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4

2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
1.65
MW
2
0
0
7
1.67
MW
2
0
0
8
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

S
i
z
e

(
M
W
)
0.75 MW 0.10 MW 1.5 MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW 5.0 MW
120 m
394 ft
100 m
328 ft
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
66 m
216 ft
50 m
164 ft
18 m
60 ft
85 m
279 ft
Average Installed Turbine Size
Wind | August 2010
IV
64 Source: AWEA
States Leading Wind Power Development

Cumulative Capacity (2009, MW)
O Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,410
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,670
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,794
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,980
O Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,809
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,758
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,547
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,274
O Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,246
G North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,203

Annual Capacity (2009, MW)
O Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,292
O Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
O North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
O Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
G Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
Wind | August 2010 65
IV
V. Solar
Solar | August 2010
V
67
Solar: Summary

Solar energy electricity generation has nearly quadrupled between 2000 and 2009,
but still represents a very small part of overall U.S. electricity generation.

Countries with aggressive solar policies—such as Germany, Spain, and Japan—
lead the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment. Similarly, U.S. states
with aggressive solar incentives lead the United States in installations
(California, New Jersey, Nevada, and Colorado).

U.S. manufacturers currently have a small share of the world PV market.
China is the market leader with nearly 40% of the global PV cell production.

A number of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants came online in 2009, including
12 MW in the United States and 120 MW in Spain.
Solar | August 2010
V
68
Sources: SEIA
Note: Generation numbers calculated from installed capacity using
a 18% capacity factor for PV and 25% capacity factor for CSP.
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
2,200
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
MW
GWh
CSP
PV
Generation
U.S. Total Installed Solar Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation
U.S. Solar
Energy
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Solar Energy Capacity (MW)
and % Increase from Previous Year
PV* CSP Total Increase
2000 909 85 354 439 4.3%
2001 952 112 354 466 6.2%
2002 1,021 156 354 510 9.4%
2003 1,132 226 354 580 13.7%
2004 1,267 312 354 666 14.8%
2005 1,444 424 354 778 16.8%
2006 1,670 566 355 921 18.4%
2007 2,133 771 419 1,190 29.2%
2008 2,662 1,106 419 1,525 28.2%
2009 3,588 1,677 431 2,108 38.2%
Solar | August 2010
V
69
Source: Solarbuzz LLC, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
Note: Data from Solarbuzz is corrected for infation.
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$
/
k
W
h
M
W
h
Solar Price Range
Generation
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
U.S. PV Power Sales Price
Solar | August 2010
V
70
Source: SEIA
* Includes PV and CSP
Solar Energy Installed Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
B
e
l
g
i
u
m
C
z
e
c
h

R
e
p
u
b
l
i
c
F
r
a
n
c
e
I
t
a
l
y
S
p
a
i
n
U
.
S
.
J
a
p
a
n
G
e
r
m
a
n
y
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Japan: 2,628 MW
Spain: 3,595 MW
France: 465 MW
U.S.: 2,108 MW
Belgium: 362 MW
Czech Republic: 465 MW
Germany: 9,677 MW
Italy: 1,158 MW
Solar | August 2010
V
71
Source: Modifed from Photon International
* Based on location of facilities
Photovoltaic Manufacturing
57.3%
Others
Sanyo (Japan) 2.1%
Solarfun (China) 2.1%
Ningbo Solar Electric (China) 2.1%
Kyocera (Japan) 3.3%
Yingli Green Energy (China) 4.3%
JA Solar (China) 4.2%
Q-Cells (Malaysia) 4.5%
Trina Solar (China) 3.3%
Sharp (Japan) 4.9%
Suntech Power (China) 5.7%
FirstSolar (Malaysia) 6.2%
Global Solar PV Production 2009:
12,258 MW cell production
19,631.9 MW production capacity
25.3%
First Solar
18.3%
Evergreen Solar
21.8%
United Solar Ovonic
Solarworld
8.8%
Global Solar 1.8%
Schott Solar 1.9%
Miasole 2.3%
Solyndra 5.3%
Other 4.8%
Emcore 5.3%
Suniva 4.4%
U.S. Cell Production 2009:
566 MW cell production
1,871.5 MW production capacity
Solar | August 2010
V
72
States Leading Solar Energy Development (2009)
Source: SEIA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
Note: Grid-tied capacity only.

PV Cumulative Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . 768.0
O New Jersey . . . 127.5
O Colorado . . . . . . 59.1
O Arizona . . . . . . . . 46.2
O Florida . . . . . . . . . 38.9
O Nevada . . . . . . . . 36.4
O New York . . . . . . 33.9
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . 26.2
O Connecticut . . . 19.7
G Massachusetts 17.7

PV Annual Capacity
Additions (2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . 212.1
O New Jersey . . . 57.3
O Florida . . . . . . . . . 35.9
O Colorado . . . . . . 23.4
O Arizona . . . . . . . . 21.1
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . 12.7
O New York . . . . . . 12.1
O Massachusetts 9.5
O Connecticut . . . 8.7
G North Carolina 7.8

CSP Cumulative Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . 364
O Nevada . . . . . . . . . 64
O Arizona . . . . . . . . . 1
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . 2
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
G
Solar | August 2010 73
V
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
74
VI. Geothermal
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
75
Geothermal: Summary

U.S. geothermal energy generation has remained relatively stable from 2000 to 2009,
with the past 10 years experiencing an average of 1.2% growth.

Geothermal energy generates power for between 5 and 10 cents / kilowatt-hour.

The United States leads the world in installed geothermal electricity capacity
and generation, with most of that power installed in California.

As a base-load source of energy, geothermal is distinct from other renewables such as wind
and solar, because it can provide electricity 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
76 Source: GEA, EIA
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
Million kWh MW
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Geothermal Electricity Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Geothermal
Electricity
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Geothermal Electricity
Capacity and % Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 14,093 2,798 2.2%
2001 13,741 2,798 0.0%
2002 14,491 2,798 0.0%
2003 14,424 2,798 0.0%
2004 14,811 2,798 0.0%
2005 14,692 2,828 1.1%
2006 14,568 2,831 0.1%
2007 14,637 2,937 3.7%
2008 14,951 3,040 3.5%
2009 15,210 3,087 1.5%
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
77 Source: GEA
U.S. Geothermal Capacity and Cost Trends
Cost
Capacity
500
0
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
M
W
e
)
0
2
4
6
8
10
C
o
s
t


(
F
l
a
s
h

P
l
a
n
t
,

c
e
n
t
s
/
k
W
h
)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
78 Source: GEA
Global Geothermal Electricity Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
E
l

S
a
l
v
a
d
o
r
K
e
n
y
a
I
c
e
l
a
n
d
N
e
w

Z
e
a
l
a
n
d
J
a
p
a
n
I
n
d
o
n
e
s
i
a
I
t
a
l
y
M
e
x
i
c
o
P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s
U
.
S
.
0
700
1,400
2,100
2,800
3,500
Japan: 536 MW
Philippines: 1,904 MW
El Salvador: 204 MW
U.S.: 3,087 MW
Mexico: 958 MW
Kenya: 167 MW
New Zealand: 628 MW
Indonesia: 1,197 MW
Iceland: 575 MW
Italy: 843 MW
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
79 Source: GEA
State Geothermal Energy Development (2009)

Total Installed Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . 2,565.5
O Nevada . . . . . . . . . 426.8
O Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.0
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . 35.0
O Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8
O Alaska . . . . . . . . . . 0.7
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . 0.3
O Wyoming . . . . . . . 0.3
O New Mexico . . . 0.2
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Biopower | August 2010
VII
80
VII. Biopower
Biopower | August 2010
VII
81
Biopower: Summary

Biopower generation has remained steady during the past seven years,
and currently accounts for 38% of all renewable energy generated in
the United States (excluding hydropower).

Biomass electricity primarily comes from wood and agricultural residues that
are burned as a fuel for cogeneration in the industrial sector (such as in the
pulp and paper industry).
Biopower | August 2010
VII
82
Source: EIA
Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 refects an
EIA classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic
municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as non-
renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
MW
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Biopower Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Biopower
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Biopower
Capacity and % Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Change
2000 60,726 10,676 - 2.9%
2001 49,748 10,576 - 0.9%
2002 53,709 10,867 2.8%
2003 53,340 10,856 - 0.1%
2004 53,073 11,033 1.6%
2005 54,160 11,222 1.7%
2006 54,759 11,553 2.9%
2007 55,539 11,738 1.6%
2008 55,034 12,485 6.4%
2009 54,336 12,727 1.9%
Biopower | August 2010
VII
83 Source: EIA
States Leading Biopower Energy Development (2009)

Total Installed Capacity (2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,271
O Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
O Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759
O Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
O Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
O New Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
O Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
O Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
G Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
O
O
Biopower | August 2010
VII
84
Source: EIA
Note: LFG stands for Landfll Gas and MSW stands for Municipal Solid Waste
Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 refects an EIA
classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic municipal
solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as non-renewable
energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0
13,000
26,000
39,000
52,000
65,000
Wood & Derived Fuels
Other Biomass
LFG/MSW
U.S. Biopower Generation Sources (2000–2009)
LFG/MSW
Other
Biomass
Wood and
Derived Fuel
TOTAL
2000 20,305 2,826 37,595 60,726
2001 12,714 1,834 35,200 49,748
2002 13,398 1,646 38,665 53,709
2003 13,383 2,428 37,529 53,340
2004 13,281 2,216 37,576 53,073
2005 13,470 2,009 38,681 54,160
2006 14,106 2,004 38,649 54,759
2007 14,462 2,063 39,014 55,539
2008 15,520 2,214 37,300 55,034
2009 15,834 2,259 36,243 54,336
Biopower | August 2010 85
VII
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
86
VIII. Hydropower
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
87
Hydropower: Summary

Hydropower capacity has remained constant between 2000–2009, with
generation fuctuation depending on water supply.

Hydropower remains the largest source of renewable energy generation, and
an important component of the energy mix; primarily large-scale hydropower
accounts for 6.9% of U.S. electricity generation.
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
88
Source: EIA
*Note: Excludes pumped storage.
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
MW
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
Million kWh
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Hydropower
*
Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Hydropower
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Hydropower Capacity
and % Increase from
Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 275,573 76,946 0.0%
2001 216,961 76,911 0.0%
2002 264,329 77,047 0.2%
2003 275,806 77,020 0.0%
2004 268,417 77,130 0.1%
2005 270,321 77,354 0.3%
2006 289,246 77,419 0.1%
2007 247,510 77,432 0.0%
2008 254,831 77,640 0.3%
2009 272,131 77,662 0.0%
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
89 Source: EIA
States Leading Hydropower Generation (2009)

Capacity (2009, MW)
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,807
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,032
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,261
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,654
O Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,280
O Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,718
O Montana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,548
O Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,516
O Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,418
G Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,932
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
90
IX. Advanced Water Power
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
91
Advanced Water Power: Summary

U.S. interest in advanced water power—such as tidal, river and ocean
current, and ocean wave energy—is just beginning to grow, with many
prototype projects in testing stages and permits being fled at the Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

One wave and two tidal plants came online in 2009 in New South Wales,
Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
92
Worldwide Advanced Water Power
Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation
RITE Project
= Tidal
= Wave
Islay Project
Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station
Xingfuyang
Aguçadora Wave Park
Port Kembla Wave Energy Project
Fall of Warness
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
Sources: FERC, Global Data
La Rance Tidal Power Plant
Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant
Jiangxia Tidal Power
Generation Plant
Bay of Fundy
Mutriku Wave Power Plant
Billia Croo Test Site
Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project
¤
14
¤
13
¤
12
¤
11
O
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
93 Sources: FERC, Global Data
Worldwide Advanced Water Power
Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation
PROJECT NAME Type Location Technology Size Year of Oper.
Aguçadora Wave Park WAVE Povoa de Varzim, Portugal Pelamis Wave Energy Converter 2.25 MW 2007
Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant TIDAL Nova Scotia, Canada Dam and Tidal Turbine 20 MW 1984
Bay of Fundy TIDAL Nova Scotia, Canada In-stream tidal tubine 1.0 MW 2009
Billia Croo Test Site WAVE United Kingdom N/A 200 kW 2003
Fall of Warness TIDAL United Kingdom Open Hydro Centre Turbine 250 kW 2008
Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project TIDAL United Kingdom Oscillating Hydrofoils 100 kW 2009
Islay Project WAVE United Kingdom Wavegen Limpet Device 500 kW 2000
Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant TIDAL China N/A 3.2 MW ~1980
Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station TIDAL Barents Sea, Russia Orthogonal roto 1.7 MW 1968
La Rance Tidal Power Plant TIDAL France Turbine 240 MW 1966
Mutriku Wave Power Plant WAVE New South Wales Oscillating Water Column 300 kW 2009
Port Kembla Wave Energy Project WAVE Australia Oceanlinx Wave Energy System 500 kW 2006
RITE Project TIDAL East River, New York Verdant Free Flow Turbines 120 kW 2007
Xingfuyang TIDAL China N/A 1.3 MW ~1980
FERC Permitted and Licensed Projects
in the U.S. (2009)
Permitted Pending Permit Licensed Pending licenses
130 40 2 0
= Commercial Plants
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
¤
14
¤
13
¤
12
¤
11
Hydrogen | August 2010
X
94
X. Hydrogen
X
Hydrogen | August 2010 95
Hydrogen: Summary

As of April 2010, there are approximately 68 hydrogen fueling stations
in the United States.

An estimated 223 fuel cell vehicles are available in the United States to date.

There are close to 1,000 stationary fuel cell installations worldwide, 23 of
which are greater than 1 MW in capacity.
Hydrogen | August 2010 96
Hydrogen – Transportation
Hydrogen Production
50 million tons of
hydrogen are produced each
year worldwide, with 9 million
tons being consumed in the
United States.
Approximately 60% is used for
making ammonia for fertilizer;
23% is used to make gasoline
cleaner by removing sulfur;
9% is used to make methanol;
and the remainder is for
chemical processing, metal
production, electronics, and
for space exploration.
Sources: NHA, EIA
Number of Operational U.S. Hydrogen Fueling Stations
(April 2010 – Total of 68)
Number of recorded fuel cell vehicles in the United States = 223
26
8
2
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
DE
3
1
X
X
Hydrogen | August 2010 97 Sources: FuelCells.org
Hydrogen – Electricity
Number of stationary
fuel cells >1 MW = 23
Located in the U.S. (16),
Italy (1), Japan (2), Korea (4)
527 Non-U.S.
Installations
418 U.S.
Installations
38 U.S.
Stationary Fuel Cell Installations (2009)
30 Non-U.S.
Planned Projects = 68
Worldwide Installations
= 945
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
98
XI. Renewable Fuels
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
99
* Most U.S. ethanol is currently produced from corn (in contrast to
Brazil’s ethanol coming from sugar cane); but efforts are underway by
the U.S. Department of Energy and others to commercialize cellulosic
ethanol, which is produced from non-food crops.
Note: Ethanol is blended with gasoline and generally comprises up
to 10% of the fuel with gasoline as the other 90% (E10). Additionally,
fex-fuel vehicles use a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85).
Renewable Fuels – Ethanol: Summary

Corn ethanol production continues to expand rapidly in the United States.
Between 2000 and 2009, production increased more than 6 times.

Ethanol production grew nearly 20% in 2009 to reach 10,750 million
gallons per year.

Ethanol has steadily increased its percentage of the overall gasoline pool, and in
2009 was estimated to be 7.8%.

In 2009, the United States* produced 62.0% of the world’s ethanol, followed by
Brazil at 37.9%, the European Union at 6.0%, China at 3.1%, and Thailand at 2.5%.
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
100 Sources: RFA, EERE
Corn Ethanol Price
(energy-equivalent basis)
Corn Ethanol Production
0
1,000
3,000
2,000
4,000
5,000
7,000
6,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$0.00
$1.00
$2.00
$3.00
$4.00
9,000
8,000
11,000
10,000
$5.00
$6.00
$
/
g
a
l
l
o
n
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

g
a
l
l
o
n
s
/
y
e
a
r
Gasoline Price (avg. retail)
U.S. Corn Ethanol Production and Price Trends
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
101
* Includes ethanol
Sources: EIA, Renewable Fuels Association, DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center
Gasoline Pool*
(Million gallons/yr)
Ethanol
Production
(Million gallons/yr)
Annual
Growth (%)
Percent of
Gasoline Pool
2000 128,662 1,630 11% 1.3%
2001 129,312 1,770 9% 1.4%
2002 132,782 2,130 20% 1.6%
2003 134,089 2,800 31% 2.1%
2004 137,022 3,400 21% 2.5%
2005 136,949 3,904 15% 2.9%
2006 138,378 4,855 24% 3.5%
2007 142,287 6,500 34% 4.6%
2008 137,797 9,000 39% 6.5%
2009 137,736 10,750 19% 7.8%
U.S. Ethanol Production and Growth in Gasoline Pool by Volume
U.S. Ethanol
Distribution and Utilization
2,030 E85 stations (April 2010)
E85 average retail price (January 2010):
$3.36/gallon (gasoline gallon equivalent
basis), gasoline price: $2.65/gallon

Approximately 8 million fex-fuel
vehicles (FFV) are on the road
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
102
Note: No sugarcane ethanol is currently produced in the United States.
Sources: RFA
U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity and Ethanol Yields and Emissions

Top Five States for U.S. Ethanol
(operating) Production Capacity in 2009
(millions of gallons)
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,183
O Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,454
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,350
O Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,113
O South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,016
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
103 Source: RFA
U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity
Total U.S. Ethanol Operating Production Capacity (2009): 11,877.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Five Ethanol Companies
—Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)
O Poet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,526
O Archer Daniels Midland Co. . . . . . . . . . . 1,070
O Valero Renewable Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
O Green Plains Renewable Energy . . . . . 480
O Hawkeye Renewables LLC . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
104
Global Ethanol Production
United States: 10,750
Brazil: 6,578
EU: 1,040
China: 542
O
O
O
O
O
Top Five Countries (2009) Ethanol Production (millions of gallons)

Global Ethanol Production
(millions of gallons)
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,770
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,150
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,489
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,102
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,335
2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,535
Source: RFA
Thailand: 435
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
105
Renewable Fuels – Biodiesel: Summary

Biodiesel has expanded from a relatively small production base in 2000,
to a total U.S. production of 545 million gallons in 2009.

Biodiesel production in 2009 is 109 times what it was in 2000.

Europe leads the world in biodiesel production, with most production
in France and Germany.
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
106 Sources: National Biodiesel Board, EERE
0
150,000
300,000
450,000
600,000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
$0.00
$1.00
$2.00
$3.00
$4.00
750,000 $5.00
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d

G
a
l
l
o
n
s
$
/
G
a
l
l
o
n
Price
Production
2008 2009
U.S. Biodiesel Demand and Price (2000–2009)
Annual
Growth
Total Production
(thousand gallons)
2000 300% 2,000
2001 150% 5,000
2002 200% 15,000
2003 33% 20,000
2004 25% 25,000
2005 200% 75,000
2006 233% 250,000
2007 100% 500,000
2008 40% 700,000
2009 (22%) 545,000
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
107
Source: National Biodiesel Board, REG, Renewable Biofuels Inc,
Imperium Renewables, Green Earth Fuels LLC
U.S. Biodiesel Production Capacity
Total U.S. Biodiesel Production Capacity (2009): 2,175.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Six Biodiesel Companies —
Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)
O Renewable Energy Group, Inc 362
O Renewable Biofuels, Inc 180
O/O Imperium Renewables, Inc / Biodiesel of Las Vegas 100
O Green Earth Fuels, LLC 90
O Louis Dreyfus Agricultural Industries 85
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
108
Top Five Countries (2009) Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons)
United States: 545
Germany: 687
France: 687
Brazil: 423
Argentina: 370
O
O
O
O
O

Global Biodiesel Production
(millions of gallons)
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,030
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,585
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,378
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,170
2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,385
Sources: REN21, National Biodiesel Board
Global Biodiesel Production
Renewable Fuels | August 2010 109
XI
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
110
XII. Clean Energy Investments
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
111
Clean Energy Investments: Summary

U.S. investment in renewable energy has grown dramatically in the past decade,
and in 2009 investment reached more than $9 billion.

U.S. investment in wind energy projects grew from $250 million in 2001 to more
than $2 billion in 2009.

In 2009, U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in renewable energy
technology companies was $3.4 billion—up from $30 million in 2001.

U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in solar technology companies
has increased from $5 million in 2001 to more than $1 billion in 2009.
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
112
Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance
Completed and disclosed deals only.
Includes VC/PE, public market activity, asset fnancing, and acquisition transactions.
U.S. and Global Total Investment in Renewable Energy, 2009 ($ millions)
1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$26,938
$2,070
Biopower
Marine
Fuel Cells
Power Storage
Efciency
Geothermal
Wind
Solar
Biofuels
$3,236
$15,812
$3,969
$47,858
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
0
700
1,400
2,100
2,800
3,500
$2,614
$1,224
Global Total Investment U.S. Total Investment
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
113
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Wind Energy Project Asset Financing Transactions ($ millions),
2001–2009
$250 $230
$750
$2,525
$7,180
$8,170
$940
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
$11,128
$1,593
2008 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
114
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Renewable Energy Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$4,282
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$1,823
$6,250
$525
$3,375
$2,289
Biopower
Power Storage
Efciency
Marine
Fuel Cells/Hydrogen
Geothermal
Wind
Solar
Biofuels
$720
$321
$440
0
1,300
2,600
3,900
5,200
6,500
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
115
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Solar Energy Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$40 $38
$56
$214
$2,700
$1,079
$62
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
$1,570
$398
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
116
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Biofuels Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$25 $24
$40
$75
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$602
$827
$1,110
$238
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
$425
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
117 Public data
Public Renewable Energy Index Performance, 2009 (Indexed to 100)
Jan
2009
Mar
2009
May
2009
July
2009
Sept
2009
Nov
2009
Dec
2009
17%
26%
32%
33%
WilderHill New Energy Global Index (DJIA: ^NEX)
New Alternatives Fund (NALFX)
Calvert Global Alternative Energy Fund (CGAEX)
Guinness Atkinson Alternative Energy Fund (GAAEX)
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
140%
XIII
Glossary | August 2010 119
Glossary
Base-load capacity
The generating equipment normally operated to
serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
Biodiesel
Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel
substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender.
Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such
as soybeans, rapeseed, or sunfowers; or from
animal tallow. Biodiesel can also be made from
hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products
such as rice hulls.
Biofuels
Liquid fuels and blending components produced
from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily
for transportation.
Biomass
Organic non-fossil material of biological origin
constituting a renewable energy source.
British Thermal Unit (Btu)
The quantity of heat required to increase the
temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1
degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which
water has its greatest density (approximately
39 degrees Fahrenheit).
Capacity Factor
The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a
generating unit for the period of time considered
to the electrical energy that could have been
produced at continuous full power operation during
the same period.
Compound Annual Growth Rate
The year-over-year growth rate applied during a
multiple-year period. The formula for calculating
CAGR is (Current Value/Base Value)^(1/# of years) - 1.
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
A solar energy conversion system characterized
by the optical concentration of solar rays through
an arrangement of mirrors to heat working fuid
to a high temperature. Concentrating solar power
(but not solar thermal power) may also refer to a
system that focuses solar rays on a photovoltaic
cell to increase conversion effciency.
Cost
The amount paid to produce a good or service.
Cost represents the sum of the value of the inputs
in production
Direct Use
Use of electricity that (1) is self-generated, (2) is
produced by either the same entity that consumes
the power or an affliate, and (3) is used in direct
support of a service or industrial process located
within the same facility or group of facilities that
house the generating equipment. Direct use is
exclusive of station use.
E85
A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol
and 15 percent gasoline.
Glossary | August 2010
XIII
120
Ethanol
A clear, colorless, fammable oxygenated
hydrocarbon. Ethanol is typically produced
chemically from ethylene, or biologically from
fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates
found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues
from crops or wood. It is used in the United States
as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate
(blended up to 10 percent concentration). Ethanol
can also be used in high concentrations (E85) in
vehicles designed for its use.
Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission (FERC)
The federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate
electricity sales, wholesale electric rates,
hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, oil
pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certifcation. FERC
is an independent regulatory agency within the
Department of Energy (DOE) and is the successor
to the Federal Power Commission.
Flexible-Fuel Vehicles
Vehicles that can operate on (1) alternative fuels
(such as E85); (2) 100 percent petroleum-based
fuels; (3) any mixture of an alternative fuel (or
fuels) and a petroleum-based fuel. Flexible-fuel
vehicles have a single fuel system to handle
alternative and petroleum-based fuels.
Fuel Cell
A device capable of generating an electrical
current by converting the chemical energy of a fuel
(e.g., hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. Fuel cells
differ from conventional electrical cells in that the active
materials such as fuel and oxygen are not contained
within the cell but are supplied from outside. It
does not contain an intermediate heat cycle, as do
most other electrical generation techniques.
Gasoline Pool
All gasoline produced by volume, including any
additions such as ethanol or methyl tertiary-butyl
ether (MTBE).
Generation
The total amount of electric energy produced by
generating units and measured at the generating
terminal in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or megawatt-
hours (MWh).
Geothermal Energy
The heat that is extracted from hot water or steam
that is mined from geothermal reservoirs in the
earth’s crust. Water or steam can be used as a
working fuid for geothermal heat pumps, water
heating, or electricity generation, and then is
reinjected back into the earth.
Geothermal Heat Pump
A heat pump in which the refrigerant exchanges heat
(in a heat exchanger) with a fuid circulating through
an earth connection medium (ground or ground
water). The fuid is contained in a variety of loop
(pipe) confgurations depending on the temperature
of the ground and the ground area available. Loops
may be installed horizontally or vertically in the
ground or submersed in a body of water.
Glossary
XIII
Glossary | August 2010 121
Gigawatt (GW)
One billion watts or one thousand megawatts.
Gigawatt-hour (GWh)
One billion watt-hours.
Incremental Capacity
Capacity added on an annual basis.
Insolation
The amount of radiation from the sun received at
the surface of the Earth in a particular geographic
location or region.
Kilowatt (kW)
One thousand watts.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
A measure of electricity defned as a unit of work
or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of
power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent
to 3,412 Btu.
Landfll Gas
Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic
material at landfll disposal sites. The average
composition of landfll gas is approximately 50%
methane and 50% carbon dioxide and water vapor
by volume. The methane in landfll gas may be
vented, fared, or combusted to generate electricity
or useful thermal energy on-site, or injected into a
pipeline for combustion off-site.
Levelized Cost
The present value of the total cost of building and
operating a generating plant over its economic life,
converted to equal annual payments. Costs are
levelized in real dollars (i.e., adjusted to remove the
impact of infation).
Megawatt (MW)
One million watts of electricity.
Megawatt-hour (MWh)
One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Residential solid waste and some nonhazardous
commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes.
Nameplate Capacity
The maximum rated output of a generator under
specifc conditions designated by the manufacturer.
Nameplate capacity is usually indicated in units of
kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and in kilowatts (kW) on a
nameplate physically attached to the generator.
Ocean Energy
Energy conversion technologies that harness the
energy in tides, waves, and thermal gradients in
the oceans.
Photovoltaic (PV) Cell
An electronic device consisting of layers of
semiconductor materials fabricated to form a
junction (adjacent layers of materials with different
electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts
and being capable of converting incident light
directly into electricity (direct current).
Glossary
Glossary | August 2010
XIII
122
Price
The amount paid to acquire a good or service.
Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant
A plant that usually generates electric energy
during peak load periods by using water previously
pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during
off-peak periods when excess generating capacity
is available to do so. When additional generating
capacity is needed, the water can be released
from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine
generators located in a power plant at a lower level.
Renewable Energy Resources
Energy resources that are naturally replenishing
but fow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in
duration but limited in the amount of energy that
is available per unit of time. Renewable energy
resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar,
wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action.
Solar Thermal Collector
A device designed to receive solar radiation and
convert it to thermal energy. Normally, a solar thermal
collector includes a frame, glazing, and an absorber,
together with appropriate insulation. The heat collected
by the solar collector may be used immediately or
stored for later use. Solar collectors are used for space
heating; domestic hot water heating; and heating
swimming pools, hot tubs, or spas.
Thermoelectric Power Plant
A term used to identify a type of electric generating
station, capacity, capability, or output in which the
source of energy for the prime mover is heat.
Wind Energy
Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be
converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps,
mills, and electric power generators.
Glossary
References
XIV
References | August 2010 123
U.S. Energy Production and Consumption — Pages 7–9
• Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Monthly Energy Review
• Production: EIA – Monthly Energy Review, April 2010, Table 1.2, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html
• Consumption: EIA – Monthly Energy Review, April 2010, Table 1.3, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html
U.S. Nameplate and Generation Pie Charts — Pages 10–12
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
Price of Technology and Capacity Factor — Pages 13–14
• AEO 2009, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo09/index.html
• EPRI MERGE Study 2009, http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?space=CommunityPage&cached=true&parentname=ObjMgr&parentid=2&control=
SetCommunity&CommunityID=404&RaiseDocID=000000000001019539&RaiseDocType=Abstract_id
• Data used in the EPA IPM model 2009, http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/epa-ipm/index.html
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
124
• Data used in NREL ReEDS Analyses. Citation: Logan, J., Sullivan, P., Short, W., Bird, L., James, T., and M. Shah. Evaluating a Proposed 20% National Renewable
Portfolio Standard. NREL Technical Report. NREL/TP-6A2-45161. February 2009.
• Data used in NREL ReEDS analyses associated with the Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) study. Forthcoming.
• McGowin C., (2007). "Renewable Energy Technical Assessment Guide-TAG-RE:2007," EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
• DeMeo, D.A. and J. F. Galdo (1997). "Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations," EPRI-TR109496, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
• EPRI (1993). "EPRI-Technical Assessment Guide, Electricity supply-1993," EPRI TR-10226-V1R7m EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
Capacity and Generation — Pages 19–25
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
References
XIV
References | August 2010 125
Generation — Pages 26–30
• Solar – Numbers calculated using capacity factors of 18% for PV and 25% for CSP based on installed capacity
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, March 2010, Chapter 1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf”
State Numbers by Technology — Pages 32–41
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
• Larry Sherwood/Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC)
• USDA Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets, http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/
World Renewable Energy — Pages 44–51
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
126
• GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update, May 2010, http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• EIA - http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=2&pid=2&aid=7&cid=&syid=2000&eyid=2008&unit=MK (estimated for 2008 and 2009)
World Electricity Generation — Pages 52–53
• World capacity data used, with generation derived through using capacity factors of 14% for solar power, 30% for wind, 70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25%
for CSP and 41% for hydropower.
Top Countries — Pages 54–55
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
• GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update, May 2010, http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
U.S. Total Installed Wind Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 58
• Capacity Numbers: AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• Generation Numbers: EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
References
XIV
References | August 2010 127
U.S. Wind Power Sales Price — Page 59
• AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.pdf
Wind Energy Generation, Manufacturing, Turbine Size, Leading States — Pages 60–64
• AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
• LBNL, 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.pdf
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
U.S. Total Installed Solar Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 68
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
PV Power Sales Price — Page 69
• Solarbuzz LLC, Solar Energy Industry Electricity Prices, http://www.solarbuzz.com/SolarPrices.htm
• GDP Defator Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/categories/18/downloaddata
Solar Energy Capacity, Select Countries — Page 70
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
128
PV Manufacturing — Page 71
• Modifed from Photon International, March 2010.
Top States: Solar Energy Development PV and CSP — Page 72
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• 2009 State Data: Larry Sherwood/IREC
Geothermal Capacity and Generation — Page 76
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
• Generation: EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
U.S. Geothermal Power Sales Price and Global Geothermal Capacity — Page 77, 78
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
State Geothermal Generation — Page 79
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
References
XIV
References | August 2010 129
Biopower Capacity and Generation — Pages 82–84
• EIA, Existing 2008 capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html plus planned 2009 capacity (table ES3),
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• EIA, various publications of Electricity Net Generation from Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source
Hydropower Capacity and Generation, State Rankings — Page 88, 89
• EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
Other Water Power: Wave and Tidal — Pages 92–93
• Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), http://www.ferc.gov/industries/hydropower/indus-act/hydrokinetics.asp
• GlobalData Alternative Energy E-Track desktop tool
Hydrogen — Pages 96–97
• National Hydrogen Association, http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/fuelingSearch.asp#null
• FuelCells.org, http://www.fuelcells.org/db/index.php
• EIA, Table S7, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/atftables/afv_atf.html#inuse
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
130
Ethanol Production and Price — Page 100–101
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2009 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/pdf/outlook/RFA_Outlook_2009.pdf
• U.S. DOE EERE – Alternative Fuel Price Report, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/price_report.html
• U.S. DOE EERE - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/fexible_fuel.html, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/stations_counts.html
• EIA, Gasoline Pool, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MGFUPUS2&f=M (converted from thousand barrels per day, average over 12
months of data)
Top States Production Capacity and Top U.S. Ethanol Companies — Page 102–103
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2010 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/outlook/RFAoutlook2010_fn.pdf
Global Ethanol Production — Page 104
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2010 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/outlook/RFAoutlook2010_fn.pdf
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
Biodiesel Production and Price — Page 106
• U.S. DOE EERE – Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2010, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/price_report.html
• Note: Biodeisel price is an average between B20 and B99–B100.
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/faqs/,
http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Estimated_Production_Calendar_Years_05-09.ppt
References
XIV
References | August 2010 131
Top U.S. Biodiesel Companies — Page 107
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/plants/showall.aspx
• Renewable Energy Group Inc, http://www.regfuel.com/updates.asp
• Renewable Biofuels Inc, http://www.rbfuels.com/
• Imperium Renewables, http://www.imperiumrenewables.com/
• Green Earth Fuels LLC, http://www.greenearthfuelsllc.com/projects.php
Top Biodiesel Countries — Page 108
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Production_Graph_Slide.pdf,
http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Estimated_Production_Calendar_Years_05-09.ppt
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
U.S. Investments in Clean Energy — Page 112–116
• Bloomberg New Energy Finance desktop database, http://bnef.com/
• Completed and disclosed deals only.
Public Renewable Energy Index Performance — Page 117
• Public data
For more information contact:
EERE Information Center
1-877-EERE-INF (1-877-337-3463)
www.eere.energy.gov/informationcenter
Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at
least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste.
DOE/GO-102010-3074
August 2010
Energy Efficiency &
Renewable Energy

Acknowledgments
This report was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Michelle Kubik, and designed by Stacy Buchanan of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). We greatly appreciate the input of Mike Cliggett and Carla Frisch of the U.S. Department of Energy; as well as Lynn Billman, Helena Chum, Dale Gardner, Maureen Hand, Roland Hulstrom, and Jordan Macknick of NREL.

Front page background photo: Courtesy of NASA Front page inset photos (left to right): One through six, and eight – iStock; seven – PIX 17854 Pages 2, 6, 42, 56, 66, 74, 80, 86, 90, 98, 110, 118: iStock Page 16: PIX 14369 Page 94: PIX 17854 © 2010 U.S. Department of Energy

Key Findings

Although renewable energy (excluding hydropower) is a relatively small portion of total energy supply both globally and in the United States, the installed renewable energy capacity in both the world and in the United States has more than tripled between 2000 and 2009. Including hydropower, renewable energy represents nearly 12% of total installed capacity and more than 10% of total generation in the United States in 2009. Installed renewable energy capacity (including hydropower) is more than 130 gigawatts (GW). Not including hydropower, 2009 renewable electricity installed capacity has reached about 53 GW in the United States. In the United States, growth in sectors such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) signify an ongoing shift in the composition of the nation's electricity supply. In 2009, cumulative wind capacity increased by 39% and cumulative solar PV capacity grew nearly 52% from the previous year.

gasoline pool.Key Findings. up from 1% in 2000. and it accounts for 7. the United States has been the world’s leading ethanol producer. • • . In 2009. Since 2006.S. Use of ethanol in the United States has also grown substantially. renewable energy accounted for more than 55% of all new electrical capacity installations in the United States— a large contrast from 2004 when all renewable energy captured only 2% of new capacity additions. wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology— between 2000 and 2009. production of corn ethanol increased by a factor of 6. In the United States. and biodiesel production increased by a factor of more than 100. The United States experienced even more dramatic growth. renewable energy has been capturing a growing percent of new capacity additions during the past few years. wind energy generation worldwide increased by a factor of almost 9. Between 2000 and 2009. continued • Worldwide. as installed wind energy capacity increased by a factor of 14 between 2000 and 2009.8% of the total U.

...............S.S............................... V Geothermal .................................. IX Hydrogen .............................................. II Global Renewable Energy Development ................... X Renewable Fuels .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. IV Solar . XIII References ................................................................................................... VIII Advanced Water Power .............................................................................. VII Hydropower ........................................................................................ Energy Background Information .............. .................. XII Glossary ................... VI Biopower .................................. XI Clean Energy Investments ............................................................................................... I Renewable Electricity in the U....... XIV ....................................Table of Contents U.................................................................................. III Wind ..........

S. U. Energy Background Information .I.

Sola 7% r W in d Bi om as s ot Ge ot h 0.5 Quadrillion Btu 29.S. Energy Production (2009): 73. 4% 4. 123. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Production: 5.6% Hydropower 7. Energy Production and Consumption (2009) U.S.S.S.7% Coal 11.S.8% Hydropower 5.9 Quadrillion Btu 21. Energy consumption is higher than energy production due to oil imports.7% Natural Gas 2. Energy Consumption (2009): 94. 7 0.S. 5% U. 2% Source: EIA. full references are provided starting on p. Note: Because hydropower is considered a conventional source of energy.U. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Consumption: 5. it is accounted for separate from other new renewable sources of energy.1% Petroleum U.0% Non-Hydro Renewables 33. Ge h 0.1 Quadrillion Btu 0.3% Nuclear 3.2 Quadrillion Btu 4% U.1% Coal 8.8% Nuclear 24. Sola 9% r W in d Bi om as s .0% Natural Gas 15. erm 1% a l 0. Energy Background Information | August 2010 5.3% Crude Oil I U.4% Non-Hydro Renewables 37. erm 1% a l 0.

1% 3.2% 11.2% 31.7% 7.0% 31.4% 30.0% Crude Oil 17.3% Hydropower 3.3% 5.3 70.5% 6.7% 33.4 31.6% 30.9% 3.7% 11.1% 16.5% 11.1% 5.0% 3.9 70.6% Non-Hydro Renewables 4. Energy Production by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: EIA * Includes natural gas plant liquids.4% 3.8% 32.6 71.7% 15.6% 11.7% 11.0 71.1% 17.5 73.5% 29.0% 14.4% 32.2% 15.7 73.3% 4.0% 30.8% 11.1% 17.8% 4.3% 15.8% 3.8% 4.3% 33.0% 3.3% 15.U.7% 8 U.0% 31.S.6% 31. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .5% 32.1% 6.8% 32.S.5 71.3% Nuclear 11.0% Total Production (Quadrillion Btu) 71.5% 11.3% 17. Note: Annual totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.9 70.5% 33.4% 3.4 69.5% 4.8% 32.3% 11.0% 31.7% 5. Natural Gas* 31.1% 31.9% 4.0% 11.

9% 8.0% 4.8% 2.3%  23.S.6 99.2% 8.7%  Petroleum 38.7% 39.1%  Nuclear 7.7% 22.5%  2.3% 22.7% 2.5% 22.5%  21.8%  Hydropower 2.7% 22.7% 2.4% 3. SEIA.2% 40.0 96.9% 2.3%  8.7% 39.8% 22.9%  24.5%  8.4%  2.5 94.7% 4.7 101.3% 3.3% 8.7% 2.3% 2.2 100.2%  37.9 Source: EIA. Energy Consumption by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 22.8% 22.5%  37.S.4%  Total Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) 99.2% 8.6% 3.6% 24.2% 3.3% 8.1% 23.8 98.3%  4. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .8%  Non-Hydro Renewables 3.1% Natural Gas 24. AWEA.1% 39.1% 8.5% 40.U.3% 23.2% 40.4%  22.4% 22.1% 23.3 97.1% 8.5%  22.4 99. GEA 9 U.9%  5.5% 3.9% 2.2 100.4% 22.1% 39.9% 22.

4% 23. Nameplate Capacity and Generation (2009) I U. 8% Bi W 3. 3. chemicals.3% Coal 9.7% Renewable Energy 2.S. rma 1% l PV * U.9% Conv. 41.S.4% Nuclear 6. sulfur.4% Other 1. SEIA. * Includes on.S. Renewable Capacity: 53 GW 1.6% Renewable Energy 0. batteries. pitch. Hydropower 44. 1% 3% Bio Ge ma ot ss he 0. Hydropower 4. Renewable Generation: 144 billion kWh om as s rm al So la r he ot 1% Source: EIA.121 GW 30.5% Petroleum U.9% Conv.954 billion kWh 20.3% Natural Gas 1. AWEA. 1.S.U. 10 0. and miscellaneous technologies.and off-grid capacity. Energy Background Information | August 2010 Ge 0. Electric Net Generation (2009): 3. purchased steam.S.6% Coal U.2% Nuclear 6.1% Other 5.4% Natural Gas 1% W in d in d . 4% U. hydrogen. tire-derived fuels. Electric Nameplate Capacity (2009): 1.0% Petroleum 0. GEA Other includes: pumped storage.S.

9% 7.1% 6.2% 2.1% Total Capacity (GW) 867 914 980 1.1% 0.9% Renewables 1.1% 0.8% 36.9% 39.4% Hydro 8.0% 1.9% 30.8% 1.1% 0.2% 41.8% 9.2% 10.8% 4.7% Hydro Pumped Storage 2.0% 3.5% 31.102 1.7% 5.0% 6.6% 9.068 1.U.9% 2.5% 6.1% 0.5% 32.121 Sources: EIA.8% 6.0% 2.076 1.9% 8.2% 0.1% 0.5% 31.1% 7. SEIA.9% 1.9% 35.2% 0.0% 5.4% Other Gases 0.8% I Other 0.032 1.5% Natural Gas 28.5% 3.9% 1. AWEA.0% 6.2% 30.3% 7.3% 41.2% 7.9% 1.1% 11.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 40.5% 7.0% 1.2% 0.2% 0.8% 34.1% 0.5% 10.0% 30.9% 41.8% 1.4% 41.8% 1.9% 2.2% 7. Electric-Generating Capacity by Source (%) 2000–2009 Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 38.1% 40.1% 0.2% 2.1% 9.1% 2.9% 8.0% 2.5% 30.2% 0.3% 0.050 1.2% Nuclear 12.7% 10.2% 0.2% 6.2% 0.6% 5. GEA 11 U.3% Petroleum 7.9% 9. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .7% 9.088 1.S.4% 7.S.9% 31.

4% 2.919 3.521 3.3% 0.2% 44.3% 0.6% 2.1% 50.2% -0.4% 19.953.0% 6.5% 1.0% 48.S.2% -0.4% 23.7% 50.8% 0.6% 0.3% 0.1% 2.199 4.2% 6.6% 3.6% 12 U.6% 21.2% -0.1% 0.4% 0.9% 16.1% 2.158.5% 48.1% 2.S.2% 0.4% 0.8% 20.0% 2.1% -0.782 4.9% 18.802.3% 0.8% 20.1% 6.3% Other Gases 0.052 3.883.3% Total Generation (million kWh) 3.9% 2.7% 0.898 51.1% Other 0.267 4.2% 2.3% 0.1% 1.8% 17.4% 0.1% 2.3% 0.4% 0.1% 6.4% 0.1% 17.2% 5.2% 0.9% Renewables 2.3% 19.1% 3.4% 0.4% 0.8% 49.1% 21.9% 50.5% 0.8% 49.858.2% -0.U.783 3.6% 20.3% 0.056.2% -0. Petroleum Petroleum Liquids Coke 2.6% 20.3% Natural Gas 15. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .7% 19.065.6% Hydro Pumped Storage -0.7% 17.737.3% 0.3% Nuclear 19.8% 7. Electricity Generation by Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: EIA Note: Electricity generation from hydro pumped storage is negative because more electricity is consumed than generated by these plants.8% 6.8% 6.7% 7.1% 1.2% 19.184 3.2% -0.3% 0.121.970.4% 19.9% 19.2% -0.2% Hydro 7.4% 0.2% -0.2% 0.3% 0.762 4.6% 49.5% 0.7% 3.3% 0.5% 2.4% 0.3% 0.

NREL. DeMeo et al.5% Inflation Rate: 3% Economic Lifetime: 30 years Taxes: none Tax credits: none Cents per kWh 30 20 8–12 6–13 8–13 6–12 4–13 Debt/Equity Financing: none Biomass Fuel Costs: AEO 2009 PV Degradation: none CSP Technology: no storage Geothermal Technology: hydrothermal 10 0 ind al PV CS ind as rm eW om eW Bi or ot or fsh Ge sh * Current range of utility scale (greater than 5MW) PV in the U.Levelized Cost of Energy of Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009) I 50 18–43 40 19–35 Assumptions Currency: 2009 US $ (real) Real Discount Rate: 10. EPRI. Sources: AEO.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 he yd ro P * s .S. EPA. 13 On Of La rg eH U. McGowin.

S.Capacity Factor for Renewable Resources (2009) I 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 21–26% 26–32% 40–45% 35–44% 85–90% 80–85% 40–93% ind al CS ind PV as rm om W W re Bi ot re ho Ge ho f-S Sources: AEO. NREL. McGowin. Energy Background Information | August 2010 La rg eH he yd ro P s . DeMeo et al. EPRI. 14 On Of -S U. EPA.

S.I 15 U. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .

Renewable Electricity in the U. .S.II.

In 2009. Although it is a growing part of U.Renewable Electricity in the U. Renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) has grown at a compounded annual average of 14% per year from 2000–2009. II • • • 17 Renewable Electricity in the U.S. wind capacity installations increased by 39% and solar PV grew nearly 52% from the previous year.7%) and generation (3. renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) in 2009 still represents a small percentage of overall installed electricity capacity (4.6%) in the United States. | August 2010 .S. Wind and solar PV are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled. and in 2009 represent 53 GW of installed capacity.S. energy supply.: Summary • Since 2000.

S.Renewable Electricity in the U. Electricity generation from biomass. | August 2010 . • • 18 Renewable Electricity in the U. biomass produced about 38% of total renewable electricity generation (excluding hydropower). continued II • In 2009. and hydropower have remained relatively stable since 2000. geothermal.S.: Summary. Wind energy accounted for about 92% of annual installed renewable electricity capacity in 2009 (excluding hydropower).

712 358.139 343.109 119.299 110.Capacity and Generation: All Renewables (including hydropower) II MW 130.026 Nameplate Capacity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA.889 351. AWEA.000 100.000 300.832 354.000 100.428 386.894 288.000 400.904 355.026 95.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Nameplate Capacity (MW) Total Generation (Million kWh) 93.000 500.437 95.000 Generation 450.841 416.269 382.908 97.607 98. SEIA.000 20.000 50.000 80.352 101.000 120.S.000 350.000 200.000 40. | August 2010 .303 104.000 250.000 0 Million kWh 550.000 60. GEA 19 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 150.743 356.927 130.

321 71.000 20. SEIA.491 18.000 120.000 40.587 21.895 80.000 35.295 88.081 81.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Nameplate Capacity 40.010 143. | August 2010 .861 20.586 106.677 42.287 53.115 18.178 79.000 10.Capacity and Generation: Renewables (excluding hydropower) MW Million kWh 150.000 II 50. AWEA.083 83.000 60.000 130.S.949 26.000 5.000 2000 Total Nameplate Total Generation Capacity (MW) (Million kWh) 16.000 Generation 100.000 25.759 128.107 97.222 23.000 45.000 0 Sources: EIA.000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 15.880 32.000 140. GEA 20 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 30.000 20.575 80.

S.000 33.000 22. GEA * Includes on.and off-grid capacity.Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity by Source (excluding hydropower) II MW 55. SEIA. 21 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA.000 11.000 PV* CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass 44. AWEA. | August 2010 .

002% .237 8.931 5.396 2.128% + 1.922 Geothermal 59 0 0 0 0 30 3 106 104 46 Biomass (323) (100) 291 (11) 177 189 331 185 747 242 Total Capacity Added (w/o Hydropower) (180) 1. AWEA.797 9.S. | August 2010 .624 746 1.793 % Annual Change in Growth from Previous Year .727 2.63% + 329% + 7% + 98% + 66% + 12% .Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity Added (MW) and Percent Annual Change from Previous Year II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Solar PV 18 27 44 70 86 112 142 205 335 571 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 64 0 12 Wind 66 1.611 10.425 9.697 411 1. SEIA.726 635 2.54% + 131% .667 372 2.annual decrease annual increase + Sources: EIA. GEA 22 Renewable Electricity in the U.454 5.

7% 156 39.115 9.8% 98.9% 11.949 12.5% Biomass 10.676 2.6% 12.Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity (MW) and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 76.587 9.8% 18.677 51.130 0.6% 11.3% 419 18% 419 0% 431 2.1% 35.6% 119.106 43.020 0% 77.033 1.6% 6.725 5.8% 566 33.798 0% 2.8% 4.485 6.677 21.5% 1.831 0.828 1.9% Total (without Hydropower) 16. SEIA.9% 130.2% 25.9% 112 31.0% 104.419 0.946 0% 76.911 0% 77.4% 12.299 3.8% 10.4% 53.2% 1.553 2.575 26.432 0% 77.109 5.303 3.798 0% 2.121 35. | August 2010 .798 0% 2.662 0% Solar PV* 85 26. GEA * Includes on.and off-grid capacity.437 -0.3% 95.867 2.040 3.159 39.856 0.686 9.9% 10.1% 2.087 1.5% Total U.743 9.0% 110.352 0.7% 11.6% 6.9% Wind 2.1% 2.798 2.222 3.S.937 3.576 0.4% 771 36.8% 26.0% annual increase + II .081 25.812 45.1% 20.927 8.9% 97.S.640 0.222 1.908 0.047 0.798 0% 2. 23 Renewable Electricity in the U.3% Geothermal 2.026 1.287 29.353 35.2% 32.3% 77.6% 4.annual decrease Sources: EIA.607 1.1% 23.6% 42.237 50.3% 77.2% 77.2% 226 44.7% 3.6% 10.1% 21. AWEA.9% 9.1% 77.2% 2.6% 11.8% 101.275 65.6% CSP 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 355 0.738 1.861 4.1% 77.9% 16.880 12.7% 95.491 -1.578 2.727 1.1% 18.354 0.1% 11.8% 312 38% 424 35. 93.5% 3.

5% 9.7% All Renewables 10.0% 0.1% 1.0% 6.S.5% 3.9% 1.3% 0.1% Geothermal 0.3% 0.7% Sources: EIA.4% 9.3% Biomass 1.3% 0.2% 7.1% Renewables w/o Hydro 1. | August 2010 .1% 1.9% 2.1% CSP 0.0% 0.2% 1.0% 0.0% 0. SEIA.0% 2.1% 0.1% 1.0% 0.0% 2.0% 3.0% 0.Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity as a Percent of Total Electricity Generating Capacity II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Hydro 8.8% 10.6% 0.9% 2.1% 0.2% 7.0% 0.9% Solar PV 0.0% 0.4% 9.1% 10.5% 9.5% 0.1% 1.8% 4.9% 11. AWEA.3% 7.2% 2.0% 0.3% 3.9% 7.0% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 1.5% 0.3% 0.0% 0.1% 7.0% Wind 0.3% 0.0% 0.9% 8.3% 0.1% 1.4% 7.8% 9.3% 0.1% 1.5% 2.7% 10.3% 0.5% 7.1% 1.0% 0.0% 0.2% 1.0% 0. GEA 24 Renewable Electricity in the U.6% 0.3% 0.0% 1.

0% 1.9% 4.2% 2.600 Wind Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) (2000–2009) 33. | August 2010 .200 Biomass Geothermal Renewables (excl.Annual Installed Renewable Electric Capacity Growth (excluding hydropower) MW 11. AWEA.000 II 8.400 Capacity Solar PV CSP 2.7% 39.S.1% 13. Hydro) 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA. GEA 25 Renewable Electricity in the U.3% 2. SEIA.800 6.

| August 2010 .S.U. generation 6% 4% 180.S.000 Renewables as a % of total U. Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower) II Percent of Total Generation Renewable Generation 12% 10% 8% 270.S.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2% 0% Source: EIA 26 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 90.000 Million kWh 450.000 360.

U.000 Renewable Generation 3.5% 29.000 0 2000 Source: EIA Note: The generation decrease from 2000 to 2001. non-biogenic municipal solid waste (MSW) and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).5% 1.0% 3.0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 27 Renewable Electricity in the U.5% 2. generation 1.S.000 58.000 Renewables as a % of total U.0% 0.0% 87. Beginning with 2001 data.000 Percent of Total Generation 4.S.0% 2. Renewable Electricity Generation (excluding hydropower) Million kWh 145. reflects an EIA classification change. 0. | August 2010 . in part.5% II 116.S.

000 Geothermal 10.S.000 60.000 20. | August 2010 .000 40.U. Renewable Generation by Technology (excluding hydropower) II Million kWh 70.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Solar Source: EIA 28 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 Wind Biomass 50.S.000 30.

4% 0.4% 0.1% 0.Renewable Electricity as a Percent of Total Generation Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 7.4% 0.3% 1.6% All Renewables 9.1% 2.0% 0.4% 0.3% 1.3% 10.4% 0.0% 0.4% 1.4% Renewables w/o Hydro 2.5% 8.9% 7.9% 9.1% 3.9% 8.1% 0.3% 1.9% 2.0% 0.0% 0.4% 2.2% 5.4% Wind 0.5% 9.1% 2.3% 1.0% 0.3% 0.4% 1.3% 1.3% 1.1% 2.2% 2.1% Biomass 1.2% 8.9% Solar 0.4% 0.1% 0.8% 6.2% 0.0% 6.6% 3.8% 1.8% 9.4% 0.4% 0.1% 6.4% 0.7% 8.5% II Source: EIA 29 Renewable Electricity in the U.3% 1.0% 0.8% 6.4% 0. | August 2010 .6% 1.S.7% 0.1% 1.3% 0.7% 7.4% 0.0% 0.1% 6.2% 6.4% 7.8% Geothermal 0.

709 8.961 -21.7% 1.951 2.139 19.8% Solar 909 8.3% 34.7% 53.510 -14.5% 14.8% 2.894 -10.3% All Renewables 356.S.131 6.4% 382.246 7.8% Wind 5.806 4.3% 264.5% 10.0% 14.4% 254.5% 54.021 7.9% 386.4% 55.424 -0.Renewable Electricity Generation (Million kWh) and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Hydropower 275.1% 416.321 2.737 20.568 -0.831 3.026 8.083 0.539 1.3% 355.9% 49.7% 270.4% annual increase + Sources: EIA.575 11.759 9.9% 354.741 -2.895 12.4% 17.761 27.132 10.8% 216.8% 14.354 53.073 -0.662 24.7% 289.5% 14.8% 1.1% 15.0% 272.9% 1.107 5.0% 71.6% 288.093 -5.588 34.6% 55.0% 88.0% 54.0% 13.0% 53.8% 275.6% 83.8% Geothermal 14.9% 54.321 0.748 -18.3% 268.5% 351.4% 128.712 -1.1% 55.7% 11. SEIA 30 Renewable Electricity in the U.586 10.8% 3.428 1.3% 343.5% 79.670 15.5% 14.267 12% 1.8% 106.759 1.491 5.8% 14.450 29.8% 97.9% 143.336 -1.295 4.444 13.269 -8.904 19.692 -0.417 -2.811 25.832 7.2% 358.034 -0.annual decrease Renewables without Hydropower 81.363 60.9% 26.637 0.0% 247.187 8.811 2.6% 6.1% 53.340 -0.010 19.7% 70.133 27.589 49.8% 80.593 24.841 8.3% 1. | August 2010 .3% 952 4.210 1.7% 2.7% .726 1.5% 14.573 -13.160 2.178 -12.329 21.144 26.7% 14.7% Biomass 60.889 3.

the state coming in second place.S. A combination of state incentives and renewable portfolio standards for renewable energy and renewable resource development has driven renewable growth in some states.State Renewable Energy Information: Summary • In 2008. state. In 2008.S. Texas advanced over California as having the most renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) of any U. and continues to hold the lead in 2009. Washington is the leader in installed renewable energy capacity when including hydropower. | August 2010 . II • • • 31 Renewable Electricity in the U. Texas became the national leader in wind power development. and in 2009 has nearly 6 GW more wind capacity installed than Iowa.

GEA.Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) II                   Total Renewables (excluding hydropower) Per Capita Renewables (excluding hydropower) Total Renewables (including hydropower) Per Capita Renewables (including hydropower)  Texas  California  Iowa  Oregon  Minnesota  North Dakota  Wyoming  Vermont  Iowa  Oregon  Washington  California  Oregon  Texas  New York  Washington  North Dakota  Montana  Oregon  Wyoming Sources: EIA. Larry Sherwood/IREC. SEIA. AWEA.S. | August 2010 . USDA 32 Renewable Electricity in the U.

AWEA.Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) Solar PV  California     CSP  California     New Jersey  Colorado  Arizona  Nevada  Hawaii  Arizona  II   Florida  Biomass  California  Florida  Maine  Virginia  Georgia     Wind  Texas  Iowa  California      Washington  Minnesota  Geothermal        Hydropower  Washington  California  Oregon   California  Nevada  Utah  Hawaii  Idaho    New York  Alabama Sources: EIA. GEA. | August 2010 . Larry Sherwood/IREC 33 Renewable Electricity in the U.S.

6 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 367 26 157 430 242 759 221 7 270 Hydropower 4.9 7. | August 2010 .654 775 722 272 445 309 119 13 4 Total Renewables (incl.233 68 16 258 Sources: EIA.3 17.557 1. GEA. hydro) watts/person 86 62 252 70 203 1.3 0. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 34 Renewable Electricity in the U.S.7 127.274 748 175 15 26 6 0 8 1 PV* 33.5 0.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) NORTHEAST II Wind New York Pennsylvania Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Vermont Connecticut New Jersey Rhode Island 1. AWEA.7 0 . hydro) 6.7 19.392 1.7 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC.075 359 155 276 Per capita RE (excl.054 734 714 1.

GEA. | August 2010 Ve r m eI m on t .Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) NORTHEAST MW 1.800 1.500 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC 35 Rh od Renewable Electricity in the U.200 900 600 300 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II ut e ts e ey k ia nd ain hir Yo r tic an et rs sla us ps Je M ylv ec w ch Ne nn ns w sa Ha Co Ne Pe n as M Ne w Sources: EIA.S. AWEA.

| August 2010 . AWEA.S.036 PV* 0.087 2.0 0. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 36 Renewable Electricity in the U.203 143 309 153 1.5 2. hydro) 2.547 7 1.9 0.0 1.0 4.801 960 1.3 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 175 223 0 0 140 445 17 0 110 43 90 15 Hydropower 1.632 228 1.956 963 825 479 1.075 59 54 85 399 123 9 164 Sources: EIA.0 0.809 3. Larry Sherwood/IREC. GEA.598 186 131 506 614 374 499 327 3 38 128 92 Total Renewables (incl.0 5.670 449 1.220 3.014 1.220 80 2.3 0.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) MIDWEST II Wind South Dakota Minnesota Iowa Wisconsin North Dakota Michigan Missouri Nebraska Kansas Illinois Ohio Indiana 313 1. hydro) watts/person 601 386 1.126 1.2 0.7 0.0 0.143 Per capita RE (excl.

200 2. Larry Sherwood/IREC 37 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 3. AWEA.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) MIDWEST MW 4.S. | August 2010 So ut W isc on sin io ta .600 800 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II is a as n a ri a ka ta ian Io w iga ot no ou Oh ko ns as ko es Ind ich iss Illi Da Ka Da br inn M Ne M rth h M No Sources: EIA. GEA.400 1.

hydro) 3.1 0. AWEA.683 1.280 672 2.282 806 1. hydro) watts/person 132 380 52 21 2 130 0 52 405 40 99 67 171 3 358 12 Sources: EIA.902 10.410 29 0 0 0 0 0 1.418 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC.0 38.1 0.6 0.363 1.2 0.100 2.S.8 0. GEA.932 1.1 0.748 2.2 12.142 1.9 0.850 1.9 0.309 1.2 8.828 1. | August 2010 .0 3.0 6.5 0.363 744 790 56 777 527 192 0 325 0 Total Renewables (incl.130 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 PV* 0.2 0. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 38 Renewable Electricity in the U.2 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 622 10 300 210 10 374 0 410 363 711 426 375 768 8 321 7 Hydropower 3.203 908 960 8 976 10 Per capita RE (excl.154 2.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) SOUTH II Alabama Texas Tennessee Georgia North Carolina Arkansas South Carolina Virginia Oklahoma Florida Kentucky Maryland Louisiana Mississippi West Virginia Delaware Wind 0 9.

| August 2010 tV Al irg ro ini a i .800 1. AWEA.600 5.900 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II as ky a ee gia nd as a a a ia gin W es a ipp e a lin am rid ian lin uc ns om ar Te x yla or ro ss la w Flo uis ab iss lah ka ne nt Ge Ca Ca Vir ar Ke Ar iss rth M No Sources: EIA.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) SOUTH MW 9.S.700 3.500 7. Larry Sherwood/IREC 39 So ut Te n Lo De Ok M h Renewable Electricity in the U. GEA.

0 46.839 2.868 2.3 0.794 1. hydro) watts/person 298 210 611 23 209 397 272 263 522 2.0 35.972 1.5 0.516 2.980 2.0 15.807 10.136 1.4 59.1 2.577 2.1 0.565.758 63 147 375 0 1.S.0 0. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 40 Renewable Electricity in the U.2 0.0 14.8 0. Larry Sherwood/IREC. hydro) 22.246 597 1. | August 2010 .101 8 223 63 PV* 5.024 12 127 195 Sources: EIA.2 0.765 1.032 8.3 0. GEA.7 36.2 0.548 1.271 564 40 161 11 191 18 449 0 0 88 126 Hydropower 20.0 0.4 0.8 0.0 2.792 17.718 2.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) WEST II Wind Washington California Oregon Arizona Idaho Montana Nevada Colorado New Mexico Wyoming Alaska Utah Hawaii 1.6 26.400 423 616 277 Per capita RE (excl.794 10.240 2.047 649 87 299 414 262 25 Total Renewables (incl.0 Biomass 0 1.0 426.2 CSP 0 364 0 1 0 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 2 Geothermal 0. AWEA.7 42.2 768.935 1.

600 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II na ico ka ia o ii ho na da on on gt hin W as izo wa rn ad ta va Ida eg ex Ut lifo lor Ha on Al Ne Or Ar Co Ca M Sources: EIA.400 4.000 6.800 3. | August 2010 W as w yo M m ing ah . GEA.S. AWEA.200 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC 41 Ne Renewable Electricity in the U.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) WEST MW 8.

Global Renewable Energy Development .III.

biomass. Wind and solar energy are the fastest growing renewable energy technologies worldwide. III • • • 43 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . geothermal. In 2009.8% of global generation. Wind and solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 14 between 2000 and 2009. without hydropower.Global Renewable Energy Development: Summary • Global renewable electricity installations (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled from 2000–2009. Germany led the world in cumulative solar PV installed capacity. The United States leads the world in wind. renewable energy accounts for 3. and CSP installed capacity. Including hydropower. renewable energy accounts for 21% of all global electricity generation.

GEA. EIA 44 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .200 1. SEIA. GWEC.000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21.Renewable Electricity Capacity Worldwide (including hydropower) GW Hydropower PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass III 1.

Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity Worldwide (excluding hydropower) GW 250 PV* CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass III 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 *Grid-tied capacity. Sources: REN21. EIA 45 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . GEA. GWEC. SEIA.

World Renewable Cumulative Electricity Capacity Percent Increase from the Previous Year Hydro Solar PV 22% 29% 33% 25% 33% 38% 32% 5% 71% 62% CSP 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 14% 22% Wind 31% 33% 29% 29% 20% 23% 25% 27% 29% 31% Geothermal 0% 0% 2% 9% 0% 4% 3% 0% 4% 7% Biomass 6% 8% 0% -3% 0% 13% 7% 6% 4% 4% III Renewables without Hydro 11% 15% 11% 11% 10% 18% 17% 17% 22% 25% All Renewables 1% 6% 3% 9% 1% 4% 4% 10% 6% 7% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0% 5% 2% 9% 1% 2% 2% 9% 4% 4% . GEA. SEIA. EIA 46 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .annual decrease annual increase + Sources: REN21. GWEC.

1% 1.2% 0.2% 0.0% 1.0% 0.1% 1.8% 20.0% 0.6% 20.2% 0.0% 23.1% 0.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.7% 4.7% 22.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.4% CSP 0.1% All Renewables 21.9% 1.2% 22.1% 1.2% 0. GEA.0% 0.0% 0.1% 1.8% 20.1% Renewable Capacity without Hydropower (GW) 65 74 82 91 100 118 138 162 197 245 III Sources: REN21.8% 20.2% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 2.6% Solar PV 0.4% 2.6% 20.3% Geothermal Biomass 0.2% 22.3% 5.9% 25.2% 1. SEIA.1% 2.2% 0.8% 22. GWEC.5% 0.9% 3.7% 0.2% 1.2% 0.5% 2.6% 3.1% 1.1% 0.2% 19.8% 22.Renewables as a Percent of Total Installed Nameplate Capacity Worldwide Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 19.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 20.0% 0.2% 0.7% 2.7% Renewables without Hydropower 1.2% 24.0% Wind 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 1.4% 1.9% 2.9% 19.1% 19.0% 1.2% 3.1% 1. EIA 47 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .8% 24.

0% 20.0% 25.0% 10. SEIA.Renewables Share of Total Electricity Capacity Worldwide III 30. GEA. GWEC.0% 0.0% 15.0% Renewables Excluding Hydropower All Renewables 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21. EIA 48 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .0% 5.

1% 4. Hydro) 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21. GEA.3% 15. EIA 49 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .Annual Installed Renewable Electricity Growth Worldwide (excluding hydropower) GW 25 III 20 Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) (2000–2009) 15 Wind 27.3% 4.9% 10 Solar PV CSP 5 Capacity Geothermal Biomass Renewables (excl. GWEC. SEIA.3% 35.3% 3.

000 20 Percent of Total Generation Million kWh 2. SEIA.000 Renewable Generation 15 1. 30% for wind. 70% for geothermal.000 5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV.500.800. 54% for biomass.Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower) III 4. GWEC. GEA.600.000 Renewables as a % of Total Generation 25 3. Sources: REN21.000 10 900. 25% for CSP.700. and 41% for hydro. EIA 50 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .

GWEC. 70% for geothermal.000 Renewables as a % of Total Generation 3.000 0. Sources: REN21. 30% of wind. EIA 51 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .6% 160.0% III Percent of Total Generation 640.4% 320.000 4. SEIA. and 41% for hydro.0% Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV.8% 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0. GEA.000 Renewable Generation 1. 25% for CSP. 54% for biomass.Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide (excluding hydropower) 800.000 2.2% Million kWh 480.

Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide by Technology (2000–2009) 450.000 III 360. GEA.000 Biomass 180.000 Geothermal Solar 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV. 70% for geothermal. EIA 52 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . 30% of wind. Sources: REN21. and 41% for hydro. 54% for biomass. 25% for CSP.000 90. GWEC.000 Wind Million kWh 270. SEIA.

2% 20.1% 1.3% 19.4% 0.3% 3.703 642.0% 0.2% 1.2% 1.019 304.1% 2.1% 0.8% 17.7% 17.9% 16.3% 0.3% 1.1% 1.4% 17. SEIA.477 552.3% 0.333 III Sources: REN21.5% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3% 1.7% 2.1% 18.8% 0.4% 20.0% 0.2% 2.3% 0.327 766.3% 17.3% 0.028 427.3% 0.Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation as a Percent of Total Generation Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 16.4% 17.1% Geothermal 0.3% 0.3% All Renewables 18.1% 1.3% 16.2% 1.8% Renewable Generation without Hydropower (million kWh) 274.2% 1. GWEC.4% 19.2% 1. GEA.3% 0.3% 1.1% 0.7% 0.2% Renewables without Hydropower 1.880 485.469 324.0% 17.827 348. EIA 53 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .4% 20.3% 0.3% Wind 0.4% Solar PV Biomass 0.9% 3.3% 0.6% 2.7% 19.5% 2.777 371.9% 2.2% 2.3% 1.7% 21.0% 0.0% 0.9% 1.3% 0.0% 0.1% 2.5% 19.2% 19.

Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity  III    Total Renewables (2009)  China*  U.  Brazil  Canada  Japan  Sources: REN21 * Majority of China’s renewable energy is from small hydropower. 54 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .S.

 Brazil  Germany  China  Sweden 55 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .S. SEIA Wind  U.  Spain Biomass  U.S.  Italy CSP  U.Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)               III Geothermal  U.S.S.  Philippines  Indonesia  Mexico  Italy Source: REN21. GEA.  China  Germany  Spain  India Solar PV  Germany  Spain  Japan  U.S. GWEC.

Wind .IV.

292 MW of wind capacity. including the production tax credit. with more than 13. In 2009.4 cents per kilowatt hour in 2009— a price that competes with fossil fuel-generated electricity. wind experienced record growth in 2009 and nearly 10 GW of new capacity was added. was about 4.8 GW added. Texas led the United States in wind installations in 2009. In the United States. IV • • • 57 Wind | August 2010 . installing more than 2. China surpassed the United States as the world leader in annual installed wind capacity.Wind: Summary • In the United States. The cumulative capacity-weighted average price of wind power. installed wind energy capacity increased almost 14 times between 2000 and 2009.

686 6.000 6.000 24.275 4.1% 39.9% 45.353 6.2% 50.144 17.000 Million kWh 75.6% 35.U.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 5.S. Wind Energy Generation (Million kWh) U.6% 26.121 11.761 2. Total Installed Wind Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 36. Wind Energy Capacity and Percent Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase IV 30.6% 5.187 14.593 6.000 12.000 15.000 60.589 34.000 45.159 2.811 26. EIA 58 Wind | August 2010 . Wind Capacity 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Sources: AWEA.450 55.S.575 16.000 18.725 9.8% 9.6% 65.578 4.812 25.363 70.000 U.S.9% 35.3% Generation 30.237 35.S.737 10.354 11.000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.

07 $0.000 $0.S.S. copper.03 2009 $/kWh $0.U. LBNL Note: Prices reflect cumulative capacity-weighted average wind power prices and include state and federal incentives in the price.04 IV 12.000 30.000 18. cement.000 $0. Wind Power Sales Price MW 36.02 $0. Wind Capacity 0 $0.00 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: AWEA.06 Capacity-weighted Average Wind Power Price $0.05 $0. 59 Wind | August 2010 . The recent increase in wind power price is due to increased demand for turbines coupled with global increases in prices for steel.000 24. and other commodity materials.01 U.000 6.

000 12.827 MW IV 36.Wind Energy Capacity (2009) – Select Countries U. K.000 6. Fr an ce ain Ita Ind an ina Sp De Ge rm Ch U. AWEA 60 Wind | August 2010 .159 MW France: 4.K.: 35. ly ia y Sources: GWEC.: 4.340 MW U.853 MW India: 10.000 MW 24.000 18.S.775 MW Portugal: 3. S.813 MW Italy: 4.408 MW Germany: 25.000 0 nm ar Po k rtu ga l U.474 MW Spain: 18.000 30.845 MW China: 25.784 MW Denmark: 3.

2% Mitsubishi Source: REN21.0% Clipper 6.6% Nordex 0.3% GE Wind (US) IV 12% GE Wind (US) 15% Vestas (DK) 8. LBNL 61 Wind | August 2010 .3% Acciona WP 2.Turbine Manufacturing Global Wind Turbine Market Share 2009 Total Turbine Installations: 38 GW Others 21% RePower 3% Siemens 6% Suzlon (Ind.1% REpower 3. Wind Turbine Market Share 2009 Total Turbine Installations: 9.1% Suzlon (Ind.7% Siemens (DK) U.1% 7.) 6% Gamesa (ES) 7% Dongfang 7% 7% Goldwind 9% Sinovel 9% Enercon (GE) 13% Vestas (DK) Others 0.) 11.922 MW 40.3% Gamesa (ES) 6.S. AWEA.

Annual U.S. Wind Turbine Installations, by Manufacturer (MW)

MW
10,000

IV
8,000

6,000

4,000 2,402 2,000

Other Nordex Acciona REpower Gamesa Clipper Suzlon Mitsubishi Siemens Vestas GE Wind

9,922 8,350

5,249

2,454

0

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Source: AWEA, LBNL

62

Wind | August 2010

Average Installed Turbine Size

1.8

Average Turbine Size (MW)

1.6

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Average Turbine Size (MW)

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

1.21 MW MW 1.19

1.74 1.66 1.60 1.65 MW MW 1.65 1.67 1.43 MW 1.6MW MW MW 1.44 MW MW
66 m

85 m

85 m 279 ft

100 m 328 ft

100 m 328 ft

120 m 394 ft

120 m 394 ft

IV

MW 0.88 MW 0.88 0.71 1.0 0.71 MW MW MW
18 m 60 ft 60 ft

164 ft

50 m 216 ft 50 m 164 ft

66 m 279 ft 216 ft

18 m

–1 201 999 00 99 8– –2 1 0 2 20 0 90919 0 020 ––20 2 20 0001 20 0 3 04 2– –2 20 20003 04 05

20 06 0 2 7

20 05 06 2

0 20 7 0 20 8

0

0

0

–2

20

0.10 MW 0.75 MW 1.5 2.5 0.10 MW 0.75 MW MW1.5 MW MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW

3.5 MW 5.0 MW

5.0 MW

08

09

19

CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART

98

Source: AWEA, LBNL

63

Wind | August 2010

States Leading Wind Power Development
Cumulative Capacity (2009, MW)
 Texas ........................  Iowa .........................
9,410 3,670 2,794 1,980 1,809 1,758 1,547 1,274 1,246 1,203



 California ....................

IV

  



 Washington .................

      

 Minnesota ...................  Oregon ......................  Illinois .......................  New York ....................  Colorado ....................  North Dakota ...............

Annual Capacity (2009, MW)
 Texas ........................
2,292 905 879 691 632 568 542 488 425 388



 Indiana ......................  Iowa .........................  Oregon ......................  Illinois .......................  New York ....................  Washington .................  North Dakota ...............  Wyoming ....................  Pennsylvania................

Source: AWEA

64

Wind | August 2010

IV 65 Wind | August 2010 .

Solar .V.

and Japan— lead the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment.S. Countries with aggressive solar policies—such as Germany.Solar: Summary • Solar energy electricity generation has nearly quadrupled between 2000 and 2009. 67 Solar | August 2010 • V • • . China is the market leader with nearly 40% of the global PV cell production. states with aggressive solar incentives lead the United States in installations (California. New Jersey. A number of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants came online in 2009. electricity generation. and Colorado). U.S. Spain. manufacturers currently have a small share of the world PV market. U. Nevada. including 12 MW in the United States and 120 MW in Spain. Similarly.S. but still represents a very small part of overall U.

S.2% 9.190 1. * Includes on.200 2. Total Installed Solar Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 2.4% 13.021 1.3% 6.4% 29.000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 PV* 85 112 156 226 312 424 566 771 1.000 2.500 1.7% 14.200 1.U.800 GWh 3.500 2.525 2.106 1.S.132 1. Solar Energy Capacity (MW) and % Increase from Previous Year V 1.267 1.133 2.444 1.and off-grid capacity.000 1.500 3.2% 38.677 CSP 354 354 354 354 354 354 355 419 419 431 Total 439 466 510 580 666 778 921 1.600 1.8% 18.108 Increase 4.2% 909 952 1.670 2.2% 28. Solar Energy Generation (Million kWh) U.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.588 Generation 1. 68 Solar | August 2010 .S.8% 16.000 CSP PV 0 Sources: SEIA Note: Generation numbers calculated from installed capacity using a 18% capacity factor for PV and 25% capacity factor for CSP.400 1.662 3.

000 500 0 Generation 0. Note: Data from Solarbuzz is corrected for inflation.10 0.000 Solar Price Range 0.S.25 0.15 V MWh 2.500 3.30 $/kWh 0.45 3. 69 Solar | August 2010 .00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: Solarbuzz LLC.500 1.20 0.U.40 4.05 2006 2007 2008 2009 0.35 0.000 1.000 2.500 0. Federal Reserve Bank of St.50 0. Louis. PV Power Sales Price 0.

000 2.677 MW Czech Republic: 465 MW Italy: 1.000 8.000 4.: 2. ain Sp c e ly n um nc lgi pu Ita pa Fr a Be Re Ge rm Ja an bli U.000 MW 6.628 MW V 10. y Source: SEIA * Includes PV and CSP Cz ec h 70 Solar | August 2010 .S.000 0 S.158 MW Japan: 2.108 MW France: 465 MW Spain: 3.595 MW Germany: 9.Solar Energy Installed Capacity (2009) – Select Countries Belgium: 362 MW U.

8% United Solar Ovonic 18.3% Solarworld 8.3% Evergreen Solar Source: Modified from Photon International * Based on location of facilities 71 Solar | August 2010 .8% U.8% Global Solar 1.3% Suniva 4.4% Solyndra 5.5% Sharp (Japan) 4.8% Schott Solar 1.631.2% 57.9% Miasole 2.3% JA Solar (China) 4.1% Sanyo (Japan) 2.258 MW cell production 19.3% Q-Cells (Malaysia) 4.1% Trina Solar (China) 3.3% First Solar V Other 4.9 MW production capacity Solarfun (China) 2.1% Ningbo Solar Electric (China) 2. Cell Production 2009: 566 MW cell production 1.3% Others Emcore 5.3% Kyocera (Japan) 3.S.2% Yingli Green Energy (China) 4.Photovoltaic Manufacturing Global Solar PV Production 2009: 12.871.5 MW production capacity 25.7% FirstSolar (Malaysia) 6.9% Suntech Power (China) 5.3% 21.

.0  New Jersey .... MW) 364  California .8  North Carolina V                    Source: SEIA. 23...3  New Jersey .1  New York ..... 2  Hawaii .5 59..4  Nevada ... 17..7  Connecticut .. 768. 12.... 35.....2  Hawaii ....4  Colorado .2  Arizona ... 38. 64  Nevada .........9  Florida .....1  Arizona .............7  Hawaii .9  New York .. 127........7  Massachusetts CSP Cumulative Capacity (2009........ MW)  California .1 57....States Leading Solar Energy Development (2009) PV Cumulative Capacity (2009.... 36... 12..9  Florida .. 1  Arizona ..7  Connecticut ... 72 Solar | August 2010 ... 26........ 46.. 33. 19. Larry Sherwood/IREC Note: Grid-tied capacity only....... 212.. 9. PV Annual Capacity Additions (2009........1  Colorado . 7....... MW)  California ... 21..5  Massachusetts 8...........

V 73 Solar | August 2010 .

Geothermal 74 Geothermal | August 2010 .VI VI.

with the past 10 years experiencing an average of 1.Geothermal: Summary • U. 365 days a year. because it can provide electricity 24 hours a day.S. • VI • • 75 Geothermal | August 2010 . geothermal energy generation has remained relatively stable from 2000 to 2009. The United States leads the world in installed geothermal electricity capacity and generation. As a base-load source of energy.2% growth. with most of that power installed in California. Geothermal energy generates power for between 5 and 10 cents / kilowatt-hour. geothermal is distinct from other renewables such as wind and solar.

637 14.500 3.000 2.5% Capacity 1.1% 3.5% 1.811 14.798 2. Geothermal Electricity Generation (Million kWh) U.937 3.491 14.692 14. Geothermal Electricity Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 3.741 14.0% 0.000 14.210 2.798 2.S.S.093 13.500 1.798 2.000 6.000 500 0 8.000 12.S.2% 0.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: GEA.000 2.040 3.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.568 14.798 2.951 15.424 14.000 10. EIA 76 Geothermal | August 2010 . Geothermal Electricity Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase VI 14.1% 0.087 2.500 2.0% 1.7% 3.000 4.U.0% 0.828 2.000 Million kWh Generation 16.798 2.0% 0.831 2.

000 500 0 Cost 6 VI 4 Capacity 2 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Source: GEA 77 Geothermal | August 2010 .500 8 Cost (Flash Plant.500 3.000 1. Geothermal Capacity and Cost Trends 10 3.S.000 2. cents/kWh) Capacity (MWe) 2.500 1.U.

904 MW 3.Global Geothermal Electricity Capacity (2009) – Select Countries Iceland: 575 MW U.087 MW Japan: 536 MW Italy: 843 MW Mexico: 958 MW VI El Salvador: 204 MW Kenya: 167 MW Indonesia: 1. a ly n r Geothermal | August 2010 .500 2.: 3.400 700 0 New Zealand: 628 MW I Ne cela n w Ze d ala nd on es ilip ia pin es Ph ny do pa Ita ico lva Ke Ja Sa M El Source: GEA 78 Ind ex U.S.800 MW 2. S.197 MW Philippines: 1.100 1.

0 15.  New Mexico ..5 426.....State Geothermal Energy Development (2009)     Total Installed Capacity (2009.....  Oregon .......  Alaska .3 0....0 35.......  Utah ......  Nevada ........8 42......7 0..565.... MW)  California ....  Wyoming ..8 0. 2.....  Idaho .......2   VI    Source: GEA 79 Geothermal | August 2010 ..3 0.  Hawaii ..........

VII VII. Biopower 80 Biopower | August 2010 .

81 Biopower | August 2010 .Biopower: Summary • Biopower generation has remained steady during the past seven years. and currently accounts for 38% of all renewable energy generated in the United States (excluding hydropower). VII • Biomass electricity primarily comes from wood and agricultural residues that are burned as a fuel for cogeneration in the industrial sector (such as in the pulp and paper industry).

S.000 12. Beginning with 2001 data.000 2.6% 1.034 54.727 .160 54.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 60.000 10.000 6.033 11.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Capacity 20.2.539 55.000 4.S.4% 1. non-biogenic municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as nonrenewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).867 10.9% 1.073 54. Biopower Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 14.1% 1.000 30.000 10.000 Generation U.726 49.9% VII 8.6% 6.676 10.336 10.7% 2.709 53.S.856 11.000 Million kWh 70.576 10.000 50.U.738 12.748 53.9% 2.000 0 Source: EIA Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 reflects an EIA classification change.0.8% .000 40.759 55.553 11.9% . Biopower Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Change 60. 82 Biopower | August 2010 .340 53.485 12.0.222 11. Biopower Generation (Million kWh) U.

........................... VII     Michigan .....  Oregon ...........  Vermont ................ 1..........States Leading Biopower Energy Development (2009)     Total Installed Capacity (2009......  Massachusetts .................. Source: EIA 83 Biopower | August 2010 .......  Florida ...................................... MW)  California ......271 768 759 711 622 564 449 445 430 426     Alabama.  New Mexico .........  Louisiana .....  Kentucky ........................................

063 2.160 54.340 53.336 39.073 54.S.305 12.595 35.646 2.576 38.214 2.281 13.106 14.462 15. Beginning with 2001 data.649 39.834 2.200 38.520 15.243 60.U.681 38.529 37. non-biogenic municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).834 1.004 2.665 37.709 53.398 13.216 2.009 2. 84 Biopower | August 2010 .383 13.000 Other Biomass 13.259 37.726 49.000 2000 LFG/MSW TOTAL 20.826 1.000 Other Biomass Wood and Derived Fuel 52.470 14. Biopower Generation Sources (2000–2009) Million kWh 65.759 55.428 2.000 Wood & Derived Fuels 2001 2002 2003 2004 VII 26.034 54.539 55.014 37.748 53.714 13.300 36.000 2005 2006 2007 LFG/MSW 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009 Source: EIA Note: LFG stands for Landfill Gas and MSW stands for Municipal Solid Waste Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 reflects an EIA classification change.

VII

85

Biopower | August 2010

VIII . Hydropower

86

Hydropower | August 2010

Hydropower: Summary

Hydropower capacity has remained constant between 2000–2009, with generation fluctuation depending on water supply. Hydropower remains the largest source of renewable energy generation, and an important component of the energy mix; primarily large-scale hydropower accounts for 6.9% of U.S. electricity generation.

VIII

87

Hydropower | August 2010

354 77.U.0% 0.432 77.000 80.000 300.419 77.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Capacity 100.573 216.000 30.321 289.000 Generation 250.0% 0.3% 0.510 254.130 77. Hydropower* Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 90.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.0% 0.000 20.1% 0.961 264.000 60.329 275.000 10.0% VIII 40.417 270.000 150.1% 0.000 0 Source: EIA *Note: Excludes pumped storage.0% 0.3% 0. Hydropower Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase 275.000 200.000 Million kWh 350.020 77.S.S.000 50.047 77.662 0.246 247.831 272.911 77.806 268. 88 Hydropower | August 2010 .000 70. Hydropower Generation (Million kWh) U.2% 0.640 77.946 76.000 50.131 76.S.

...........  New York .....................  California ......548 2..  Georgia ............States Leading Hydropower Generation (2009)      Capacity (2009................... 20.....932       Oregon .......................................  Tennessee.261 4..................654 3....516 2........718 2........ MW)  Washington .  Alabama .  Idaho ..  Montana....................................418 1... VIII Source: EIA 89 Hydropower | August 2010 .032 8...280 2............807 10.....  Arizona ..

IX IX. Advanced Water Power 90 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 .

and ocean wave energy—is just beginning to grow. with many prototype projects in testing stages and permits being filed at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). river and ocean current. IX • 91 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 . interest in advanced water power—such as tidal. and the United Kingdom. Canada.S.Advanced Water Power: Summary • U. One wave and two tidal plants came online in 2009 in New South Wales.

Worldwide Advanced Water Power Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station Mutriku Wave Power Plant Bay of Fundy Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant 13  Islay Project 11       Fall of Warness Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project La Rance Tidal Power Plant Xingfuyang   Billia Croo Test Site  Aguçadora Wave Park RITE Project  14  Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant IX   = Wave = Tidal Port Kembla Wave Energy Project 12  Sources: FERC. Global Data 92 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 .

Russia France New South Wales Australia East River. Canada Nova Scotia. Portugal Nova Scotia.S. (2009) 93 Permitted 130 Pending Permit 40 Licensed 2 Pending licenses 0 Sources: FERC.Worldwide Advanced Water Power Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation PROJECT NAME Type WAVE TIDAL TIDAL WAVE TIDAL TIDAL WAVE TIDAL TIDAL TIDAL WAVE WAVE TIDAL TIDAL Location Povoa de Varzim.2 MW 1. 2007 1984 2009 2003 2008 2009 2000 ~1980 1968 1966 2009 2006 2007 ~1980  Aguçadora Wave Park  Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant  Bay of Fundy  Billia Croo Test Site  Fall of Warness  Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project  Islay Project  Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant  Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station  La Rance Tidal Power Plant 11  12  13  14  IX Mutriku Wave Power Plant Port Kembla Wave Energy Project RITE Project Xingfuyang = Commercial Plants FERC Permitted and Licensed Projects in the U. Global Data Advanced Water Power | August 2010 . Canada United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom China Barents Sea.25 MW 20 MW 1.3 MW Year of Oper.0 MW 200 kW 250 kW 100 kW 500 kW 3. New York China Technology Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Dam and Tidal Turbine In-stream tidal tubine N/A Open Hydro Centre Turbine Oscillating Hydrofoils Wavegen Limpet Device N/A Orthogonal roto Turbine Oscillating Water Column Oceanlinx Wave Energy System Verdant Free Flow Turbines N/A Size 2.7 MW 240 MW 300 kW 500 kW 120 kW 1.

Hydrogen 94 Hydrogen | August 2010 .X X.

000 stationary fuel cell installations worldwide. There are close to 1. X • • 95 Hydrogen | August 2010 . there are approximately 68 hydrogen fueling stations in the United States.Hydrogen: Summary • As of April 2010. 23 of which are greater than 1 MW in capacity. An estimated 223 fuel cell vehicles are available in the United States to date.

Approximately 60% is used for making ammonia for fertilizer. 2 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 DE Number of Operational U. with 9 million tons being consumed in the United States.Hydrogen – Transportation Hydrogen Production 50 million tons of hydrogen are produced each year worldwide. and the remainder is for chemical processing.S. electronics. Hydrogen Fueling Stations (April 2010 – Total of 68) 8 1 26 X 1 2 1 Number of recorded fuel cell vehicles in the United States = 223 Sources: NHA. 23% is used to make gasoline cleaner by removing sulfur. 9% is used to make methanol. metal production. EIA 96 Hydrogen | August 2010 . and for space exploration.

(16). Italy (1). 38 U. Japan (2). 418 U.org 97 Hydrogen | August 2010 .S. Korea (4) X Sources: FuelCells. Installations Number of stationary fuel cells >1 MW = 23 Located in the U. Installations Worldwide Installations = 945 Planned Projects = 68 30 Non-U.Hydrogen – Electricity Stationary Fuel Cell Installations (2009) 527 Non-U.S.S.S.S.

Renewable Fuels 98 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .XI XI.

Department of Energy and others to commercialize cellulosic ethanol.S.0%.0% of the world’s ethanol. Ethanol production grew nearly 20% in 2009 to reach 10.S. and Thailand at 2. production increased more than 6 times. and in 2009 was estimated to be 7.5%.Renewable Fuels – Ethanol: Summary • Corn ethanol production continues to expand rapidly in the United States. In 2009. Note: Ethanol is blended with gasoline and generally comprises up to 10% of the fuel with gasoline as the other 90% (E10).8%. 99 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 . but efforts are underway by the U. the European Union at 6. • • • XI * Most U. flex-fuel vehicles use a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85). ethanol is currently produced from corn (in contrast to Brazil’s ethanol coming from sugar cane). which is produced from non-food crops. followed by Brazil at 37.750 million gallons per year. the United States* produced 62. China at 3.9%. Ethanol has steadily increased its percentage of the overall gasoline pool.1%. Between 2000 and 2009. Additionally.

00 $5. retail) $1.000 Corn Ethanol Price (energy-equivalent basis) $4.000 8.000 4.000 0 2000 2001 2002 Corn Ethanol Production $0.00 XI 2.00 2003 2004 100 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: RFA.000 1.00 $/gallon $3.000 10.00 3.S.000 6.00 Million gallons/year 7. EERE Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .000 5. Corn Ethanol Production and Price Trends 11.000 $6.00 $2.000 Gasoline Price (avg.000 9.U.

U.S. Ethanol Production and Growth in Gasoline Pool by Volume

Gasoline Pool* (Million gallons/yr)

Ethanol Production (Million gallons/yr)

Annual Growth (%)

Percent of Gasoline Pool

U.S. Ethanol Distribution and Utilization
2,030 E85 stations (April 2010) E85 average retail price (January 2010): $3.36/gallon (gasoline gallon equivalent basis), gasoline price: $2.65/gallon Approximately 8 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) are on the road

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

128,662 129,312 132,782 134,089 137,022 136,949 138,378 142,287 137,797 137,736

1,630 1,770 2,130 2,800 3,400 3,904 4,855 6,500 9,000 10,750

11% 9% 20% 31% 21% 15% 24% 34% 39% 19%

1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 2.1% 2.5% 2.9% 3.5% 4.6% 6.5% 7.8%

XI

* Includes ethanol Sources: EIA, Renewable Fuels Association, DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center

101

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity and Ethanol Yields and Emissions

    
Top Five States for U.S. Ethanol (operating) Production Capacity in 2009 (millions of gallons)
 Iowa .........................  Nebraska ....................  Illinois .......................  Minnesota ...................  South Dakota ...............
3,183 1,454 1,350 1,113 1,016

XI

Note: No sugarcane ethanol is currently produced in the United States. Sources: RFA

102

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity
Total U.S. Ethanol Operating Production Capacity (2009): 11,877.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Five Ethanol Companies —Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)  Poet ....................................  Archer Daniels Midland Co. ..........  Valero Renewable Fuels ..............  Green Plains Renewable Energy .....  Hawkeye Renewables LLC ........... 1,526 1,070 780 480 420

XI

Source: RFA

103

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

2005 ......................102 17..................... 10..... 2006 .........040   United States: 10........................335 19................ 2007 ...150 13.......Global Ethanol Production Top Five Countries (2009) Ethanol Production (millions of gallons) EU: 1.489 13... 2008 ..........535 Source: RFA 104 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 ......750  China: 542  Thailand: 435  XI Brazil: 6....................770 12............. 2009 ...........578 Global Ethanol Production (millions of gallons) 2004 .......

XI • • 105 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 . with most production in France and Germany. production of 545 million gallons in 2009. to a total U.S. Europe leads the world in biodiesel production. Biodiesel production in 2009 is 109 times what it was in 2000.Renewable Fuels – Biodiesel: Summary • Biodiesel has expanded from a relatively small production base in 2000.

000 75.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Annual Growth Total Production (thousand gallons) Thousand Gallons 450.S.000 $3. EERE 106 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .00 150. Biodiesel Demand and Price (2000–2009) 750.000 Price $4.000 500.000 Production $1.000 $5.000 $/Gallon 300.00 Sources: National Biodiesel Board.000 15.00 300% 150% 200% 33% 25% 200% 233% 100% 40% (22%) 2.000 250.00 XI 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 $0.000 700.000 $2.000 20.000 25.000 5.00 600.000 545.U.

S. Inc / Imperium Renewables. Renewable Biofuels Inc. Inc  Renewable Biofuels.U. Biodiesel Production Capacity (2009): 2.4 million gallons/year (mmgy) Top Six Biodiesel Companies — Production Capacity 2009 (millions of gallons/year)  Renewable Energy Group. Imperium Renewables. Biodiesel Production Capacity Total U. REG. LLC  Louis Dreyfus Agricultural Industries 362 180 100 90 85 XI Source: National Biodiesel Board. Green Earth Fuels LLC 107 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .S. Inc / Biodiesel of Las Vegas  Green Earth Fuels.175.

.....030 1.......... 2008 ....Global Biodiesel Production Top Five Countries (2009) Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons) Germany: 687    United States: 545 France: 687 Brazil: 423 XI  Global Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons) 2004 ........170 4................. 2006 . 555 1..... 2009 .585 2............378 3.. Sources: REN21............................ 2005 ..................................385  Argentina: 370 2007 ........... National Biodiesel Board 108 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .

XI 109 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .

XII XII. Clean Energy Investments 110 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .

S.S.S. U. venture capital and private equity investment in renewable energy technology companies was $3. investment in renewable energy has grown dramatically in the past decade. and in 2009 investment reached more than $9 billion.4 billion—up from $30 million in 2001. venture capital and private equity investment in solar technology companies has increased from $5 million in 2001 to more than $1 billion in 2009. XII • • • 111 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 . U. In 2009.S.Clean Energy Investments: Summary • U. investment in wind energy projects grew from $250 million in 2001 to more than $2 billion in 2009. U.

Includes VC/PE.100 $2. Total Investment 3.S.000 30.858 2. asset financing. 112 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .400 $1. public market activity.000 $26. 2009 ($ millions) U.812 700 10.S.614 $ in Millions $ in Millions 2.U.236 Global Total Investment 50. and Global Total Investment in Renewable Energy.969 XII 0 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 0 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance Completed and disclosed deals only.224 Power Storage Ef ciency Marine Fuel Cells Biopower Geothermal Wind Solar Biofuels 40.938 20.070 1.000 $15.800 $2.000 $47. and acquisition transactions.500 $3.000 $3.

000 4.000 11. 113 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .000 10.000 2.000 5.000 9.180 $11.128 $ in Millions 7.000 6. 2001–2009 12.000 $8.000 0 $940 $250 $230 $750 $2.170 $7.000 8. Wind Energy Project Asset Financing Transactions ($ millions).000 1.S.000 3.593 XII 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.U.525 $1.

S. 2001–2009 6.200 $4.289 1.600 $1.282 $3.250 5.375 $ in Millions 3.U.300 XII 0 $440 2001 $321 2002 $525 $720 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.500 Marine Fuel Cells/Hydrogen Power Storage Ef ciency Biopower Geothermal Wind Solar Biofuels $6. 114 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .900 2. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Renewable Energy Technology Companies.823 $2.

U.S.500 1. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Solar Energy Technology Companies.500 2. 115 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .079 $2.000 1.570 $1.000 500 0 $40 2001 $38 2002 $56 2003 $62 2004 $398 $214 $1.700 $ in Millions XII 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database. 2001–2009 3.000 2.

S. 2001–2009 1.110 $ in Millions XII 0 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.000 $827 800 600 $425 400 $238 200 $25 2001 $24 2002 $75 2003 $40 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 $602 $1. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Biofuels Technology Companies.200 1. 116 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .U.

2009 (Indexed to 100) 140% 120% 100% 80% 60% WilderHill New Energy Global Index (DJIA: ^NEX) 33% 32% 26% 17% 40% 20% 0% Jan 2009 Mar 2009 May 2009 New Alternatives Fund (NALFX) Guinness Atkinson Alternative Energy Fund (GAAEX) Calvert Global Alternative Energy Fund (CGAEX) July 2009 Sept 2009 Nov 2009 Dec 2009 XII Public data 117 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .Public Renewable Energy Index Performance.

.

Biomass Organic non-fossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source.Glossary Base-load capacity The generating equipment normally operated to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis. E85 A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. Concentrating solar power (but not solar thermal power) may also refer to a system that focuses solar rays on a photovoltaic cell to increase conversion efficiency. Biodiesel Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender. or from animal tallow. The formula for calculating CAGR is (Current Value/Base Value)^(1/# of years) . British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) A solar energy conversion system characterized by the optical concentration of solar rays through an arrangement of mirrors to heat working fluid to a high temperature. (2) is produced by either the same entity that consumes the power or an affiliate. Compound Annual Growth Rate The year-over-year growth rate applied during a multiple-year period. Cost The amount paid to produce a good or service. Biodiesel can also be made from hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products such as rice hulls. rapeseed. Capacity Factor The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a generating unit for the period of time considered to the electrical energy that could have been produced at continuous full power operation during the same period. Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such as soybeans. Cost represents the sum of the value of the inputs in production Biofuels Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks. Direct Use Use of electricity that (1) is self-generated. and (3) is used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. used primarily for transportation. or sunflowers. XIII 119 Glossary | August 2010 .1. Direct use is exclusive of station use.

Fuel cells differ from conventional electrical cells in that the active materials such as fuel and oxygen are not contained within the cell but are supplied from outside. Generation The total amount of electric energy produced by generating units and measured at the generating terminal in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or megawatthours (MWh). or electricity generation. It does not contain an intermediate heat cycle.g. hydroelectric licensing. natural gas pricing.Glossary Ethanol A clear. water heating. flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon. Water or steam can be used as a working fluid for geothermal heat pumps. hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. and gas pipeline certification. (2) 100 percent petroleum-based fuels. Ethanol can also be used in high concentrations (E85) in vehicles designed for its use. Ethanol is typically produced chemically from ethylene. Gasoline Pool All gasoline produced by volume. Geothermal Energy The heat that is extracted from hot water or steam that is mined from geothermal reservoirs in the earth’s crust. Fuel Cell A device capable of generating an electrical current by converting the chemical energy of a fuel (e. Flexible-Fuel Vehicles Vehicles that can operate on (1) alternative fuels (such as E85). colorless. wholesale electric rates. (3) any mixture of an alternative fuel (or fuels) and a petroleum-based fuel. Geothermal Heat Pump A heat pump in which the refrigerant exchanges heat (in a heat exchanger) with a fluid circulating through an earth connection medium (ground or ground water). FERC is an independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy (DOE) and is the successor to the Federal Power Commission. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) The federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales. oil pipeline rates. Flexible-fuel vehicles have a single fuel system to handle alternative and petroleum-based fuels. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (blended up to 10 percent concentration). as do most other electrical generation techniques. Loops may be installed horizontally or vertically in the ground or submersed in a body of water. and then is reinjected back into the earth. The fluid is contained in a variety of loop (pipe) configurations depending on the temperature of the ground and the ground area available.. including any additions such as ethanol or methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). XIII 120 Glossary | August 2010 . or biologically from fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood.

The methane in landfill gas may be vented. Incremental Capacity Capacity added on an annual basis.000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. XIII 121 Glossary | August 2010 .e. institutional. The average composition of landfill gas is approximately 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide and water vapor by volume. converted to equal annual payments. Gigawatt-hour (GWh) One billion watt-hours. Levelized Cost Insolation The amount of radiation from the sun received at the surface of the Earth in a particular geographic location or region. One kWh is equivalent to 3. Kilowatt-hour (kWh) A measure of electricity defined as a unit of work or energy. Nameplate Capacity The maximum rated output of a generator under specific conditions designated by the manufacturer. Costs are levelized in real dollars (i. Megawatt-hour (MWh) One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours. The present value of the total cost of building and operating a generating plant over its economic life. or injected into a pipeline for combustion off-site. Ocean Energy Energy conversion technologies that harness the energy in tides.. Landfill Gas Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. Photovoltaic (PV) Cell An electronic device consisting of layers of semiconductor materials fabricated to form a junction (adjacent layers of materials with different electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts and being capable of converting incident light directly into electricity (direct current). and industrial wastes.Glossary Gigawatt (GW) One billion watts or one thousand megawatts. and thermal gradients in the oceans. Megawatt (MW) One million watts of electricity. waves. Kilowatt (kW) One thousand watts. measured as 1 kilowatt (1. Nameplate capacity is usually indicated in units of kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and in kilowatts (kW) on a nameplate physically attached to the generator. or combusted to generate electricity or useful thermal energy on-site. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Residential solid waste and some nonhazardous commercial.412 Btu. flared. adjusted to remove the impact of inflation).

Solar Thermal Collector A device designed to receive solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. a solar thermal collector includes a frame. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. and an absorber. Thermoelectric Power Plant A term used to identify a type of electric generating station. geothermal. the water can be released from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine generators located in a power plant at a lower level. and tidal action. Renewable Energy Resources Energy resources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. XIII 122 Glossary | August 2010 . glazing. Solar collectors are used for space heating. hydro. ocean thermal. and heating swimming pools. capability. When additional generating capacity is needed. and electric power generators. Normally. wind. or output in which the source of energy for the prime mover is heat. hot tubs. or spas. mills. capacity.Glossary Price The amount paid to acquire a good or service. Wind Energy Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps. domestic hot water heating. together with appropriate insulation. Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant A plant that usually generates electric energy during peak load periods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods when excess generating capacity is available to do so. solar. Renewable energy resources include: biomass. The heat collected by the solar collector may be used immediately or stored for later use. wave action.

doe.1.eia.pdf Price of Technology and Capacity Factor — Pages 13–14 • AEO 2009.eia.html U.S. http://www.pt?space=CommunityPage&cached=true&parentname=ObjMgr&parentid=2&control= SetCommunity&CommunityID=404&RaiseDocID=000000000001019539&RaiseDocType=Abstract_id • Data used in the EPA IPM model 2009.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/epa-ipm/index. Table 1.awea.html • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity.doe.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. April 2010.gov/emeu/mer/overview. 2009.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.eia. http://www.References U. http://www.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo09/index.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.3.html • EPRI MERGE Study 2009. http://www.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html XIV References | August 2010 123 .eia. Energy Production and Consumption — Pages 7–9 • Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Monthly Energy Review • Production: EIA – Monthly Energy Review. April 2010.eia.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report.doe.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.com/portal/server.S.epri.html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions. http://www.eia. http://www.html • EIA – Electric Power Annual. http://geo-energy.eia.2.doe.html • Consumption: EIA – Monthly Energy Review.gov/emeu/mer/overview. Nameplate and Generation Pie Charts — Pages 10–12 • EIA – Electric Power Monthly. http://www.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity. Table 1. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. http://seia.epa.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009. Table 1. http://www. http://www. http://my.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).

James. L. Sullivan. Palo Alto.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009. http://www.pdf XIV 124 References | August 2010 . Forthcoming.eia..References References • Data used in NREL ReEDS Analyses.A. Short. Shah. CA • DeMeo.html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions. J.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.eia. and J." EPRI-TR109496. http://seia. Palo Alto. "Renewable Energy Technical Assessment Guide-TAG-RE:2007. (2007).1.doe. Electricity supply-1993. F.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review. T.doe.. Citation: Logan.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum. http://www. P..gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum. http://www." EPRI TR-10226-V1R7m EPRI. http://www. NREL/TP-6A2-45161.awea. "EPRI-Technical Assessment Guide. February 2009. CA Capacity and Generation — Pages 19–25 • EIA – Electric Power Monthly. D.eia. "Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations. Palo Alto. Evaluating a Proposed 20% National Renewable Portfolio Standard.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). NREL Technical Report. • McGowin C.html • EIA – Electric Power Annual. • Data used in NREL ReEDS analyses associated with the Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) study.html • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity. 2009. and M.doe. CA • EPRI (1993). EPRI. http://www. Table 1.. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010...gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. http://geo-energy. W. Galdo (1997).eia.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final." EPRI.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report. Bird.

http://www. http://www.eia.html • EIA – Electric Power Annual.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report.awea.doe.usda.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.doe. http://www.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). March 2010.pdf” State Numbers by Technology — Pages 32–41 • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.ers.ren21. http://seia.html#one • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010.eia.gov/StateFacts/ World Renewable Energy — Pages 44–51 • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum. 2009.References Generation — Pages 26–30 • Solar – Numbers calculated using capacity factors of 18% for PV and 25% for CSP based on installed capacity • EIA – Electric Power Monthly. http://www..org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review. http://geo-energy.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.pdf • Larry Sherwood/Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) • USDA Economic Research Service.doe.eia. State Fact Sheets.pdf XIV 125 References | August 2010 .org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.gwec.%20Apr. Chapter 1. http://www. http://seia.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. http://www. http://www.

1A.pdf • Generation Numbers: EIA.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. http://www. http://www.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.eia. http://seia. Top Countries — Pages 54–55 • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report.pdf • EIA .doe.pdf • GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update.html#one XIV 126 References | August 2010 . 25% for CSP and 41% for hydropower.References References • GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update. Total Installed Wind Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 58 • Capacity Numbers: AWEA.%20Apr.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.ren21.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th. http://geo-energy. http://seia.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full. http://www.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.gwec. 2010. May 2010.org/publications/reports/4Q09. http://geo-energy.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3. May 2010.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.awea.cfm?tid=2&pid=2&aid=7&cid=&syid=2000&eyid=2008&unit=MK (estimated for 2008 and 2009) World Electricity Generation — Pages 52–53 • World capacity data used.http://tonto. Electric Power Monthly. http://www. with generation derived through using capacity factors of 14% for solar power.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010. Table 1.eia. 30% for wind. 54% for biomass. Year End 2009 Market Report.. 70% for geothermal.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.S.pdf U.doe.

pdf Wind Energy Generation.gwec.pdf PV Power Sales Price — Page 69 • Solarbuzz LLC. http://www.pdf XIV References | August 2010 127 . 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report. http://www. Total Installed Solar Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 68 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.ren21. Wind Power Sales Price — Page 59 • AWEA.%20Apr..org/publications/reports/4Q09.awea. Year End 2009 Market Report. http://www. Manufacturing.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.org/publications/reports/4Q09. http://eetd.pdf • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). http://www.References U. http://research.pdf U.awea.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.htm • GDP Deflator Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. http://eetd.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review. Select Countries — Page 70 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. Solar Energy Industry Electricity Prices.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.lbl. http://www.org/fred2/categories/18/downloaddata Solar Energy Capacity. http://seia.S.pdf • LBNL.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review. Turbine Size. http://seia.com/SolarPrices. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report.stlouisfed.pdf • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report. Year End 2009 Market Report.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.lbl. Leading States — Pages 60–64 • AWEA.S.solarbuzz.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.

http://geo-energy. Table 1.pdf State Geothermal Generation — Page 79 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).S. http://seia. http://geo-energy. Electric Power Monthly.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum. Geothermal Power Sales Price and Global Geothermal Capacity — Page 77.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.html#one U.pdf • Generation: EIA. 2010. http://www.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. Top States: Solar Energy Development PV and CSP — Page 72 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.eia. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. March 2010.References References PV Manufacturing — Page 71 • Modified from Photon International. http://geo-energy. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010.doe.pdf XIV 128 References | August 2010 . 78 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).pdf • 2009 State Data: Larry Sherwood/IREC Geothermal Capacity and Generation — Page 76 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).1A.

http://www.html plus planned 2009 capacity (table ES3).doe.doe.html#one • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity.doe. http://www. http://www. http://www.org/db/index.org/general/fuelingSearch. various publications of Electricity Net Generation from Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source Hydropower Capacity and Generation.ferc.html#inuse XIV 129 References | August 2010 . Existing 2008 capacity.eia.eia.html#one • EIA. Table 1.doe.eia.doe.html Other Water Power: Wave and Tidal — Pages 92–93 • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).eia.asp#null • FuelCells. Table S7. http://www.References Biopower Capacity and Generation — Pages 82–84 • EIA.1A. http://www.eia.org.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum. Electric Power Monthly. 89 • EIA.fuelcells.hydrogenassociation. http://www.html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.asp • GlobalData Alternative Energy E-Track desktop tool Hydrogen — Pages 96–97 • National Hydrogen Association.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/atftables/afv_atf.doe. http://www.eia.gov/industries/hydropower/indus-act/hydrokinetics.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.php • EIA. 2010. http://www. State Rankings — Page 88.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.

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.Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy For more information contact: EERE Information Center 1-877-EERE-INF (1-877-337-3463) www.gov/informationcenter DOE/GO-102010-3074 August 2010 Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper.energy. including 10% post consumer waste.eere.

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