2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

AUGUST 2010
Energy Efficiency &
Renewable Energy
Acknowledgments
This report was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Michelle Kubik, and
designed by Stacy Buchanan of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL). We greatly appreciate the input of Mike Cliggett and Carla Frisch
of the U.S. Department of Energy; as well as Lynn Billman, Helena Chum,
Dale Gardner, Maureen Hand, Roland Hulstrom, and Jordan Macknick of NREL.
Front page background photo: Courtesy of NASA
Front page inset photos (left to right): One through six, and eight – iStock; seven – PIX 17854
Pages 2, 6, 42, 56, 66, 74, 80, 86, 90, 98, 110, 118: iStock
Page 16: PIX 14369
Page 94: PIX 17854
© 2010 U.S. Department of Energy
Key Findings

Although renewable energy (excluding hydropower) is a relatively small portion of total energy
supply both globally and in the United States, the installed renewable energy capacity in both
the world and in the United States has more than tripled between 2000 and 2009.

Including hydropower, renewable energy represents nearly 12% of total installed
capacity and more than 10% of total generation in the United States in 2009.
Installed renewable energy capacity (including hydropower) is more than 130 gigawatts (GW).
Not including hydropower, 2009 renewable electricity installed capacity has reached
about 53 GW in the United States.

In the United States, growth in sectors such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) signify an
ongoing shift in the composition of the nation's electricity supply. In 2009, cumulative wind
capacity increased by 39% and cumulative solar PV capacity grew nearly 52% from
the previous year.
Key Findings, continued

Worldwide, wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology—between
2000 and 2009, wind energy generation worldwide increased by a factor of
almost 9. The United States experienced even more dramatic growth, as installed wind
energy capacity increased by a factor of 14 between 2000 and 2009.

In the United States, renewable energy has been capturing a growing percent of new
capacity additions during the past few years. In 2009, renewable energy accounted
for more than 55% of all new electrical capacity installations in the United
States—a large contrast from 2004 when all renewable energy captured only 2% of
new capacity additions.

Since 2006, the United States has been the world’s leading ethanol producer. Between
2000 and 2009, production of corn ethanol increased by a factor of 6, and
biodiesel production increased by a factor of more than 100. Use of ethanol in
the United States has also grown substantially, and it accounts for 7.8% of the total U.S.
gasoline pool, up from 1% in 2000.
U.S. Energy Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II
Global Renewable Energy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III
Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV
Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V
Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI
Biopower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII
Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII
Advanced Water Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX
Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X
Renewable Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI
Clean Energy Investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIV
Table of Contents
I. U.S. Energy Background Information
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
7
Source: EIA; full references are provided starting on p. 123.
Note: Because hydropower is considered a conventional source of energy,
it is accounted for separate from other new renewable sources of energy.
Energy consumption is higher than energy production due to oil imports.
U.S. Energy Production and Consumption (2009)
11.3% Nuclear
3.6% Hydropower
7.0% Non-Hydro
Renewables
29.7% Coal
33.0%
Natural Gas
15.3% Crude Oil
U.S. Energy Production (2009): 73.5 Quadrillion Btu
U.S. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Production:
5.2 Quadrillion Btu
8.8% Nuclear
4
.
2
%

B
i
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m
a
s
s
5
.
4
%

B
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0
.
4
%

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.
5
%

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0
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%

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%

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.
7
%

W
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d
0
.
9
%

W
i
n
d
2.8% Hydropower
5.4% Non-Hydro
Renewables
21.1% Coal
24.7%
Natural Gas
37.1% Petroleum
U.S. Energy Consumption (2009): 94.9 Quadrillion Btu
U.S. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Consumption:
5.1 Quadrillion Btu
8 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA
* Includes natural gas plant liquids.
Note: Annual totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.
U.S. Energy Production by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal Natural Gas* Crude Oil Nuclear Hydropower
Non-Hydro
Renewables
Total Production
(Quadrillion Btu)
2000 31.8% 31.2% 17.3% 11.0% 3.9% 4.8% 71.5
2001 32.8% 31.6% 17.1% 11.2% 3.1% 4.3% 71.9
2002 32.0% 31.0% 17.1% 11.5% 3.8% 4.5% 70.9
2003 31.4% 31.4% 17.1% 11.3% 4.0% 4.7% 70.3
2004 32.5% 30.6% 16.3% 11.7% 3.8% 5.1% 70.4
2005 33.3% 30.0% 15.7% 11.7% 3.9% 5.3% 69.6
2006 33.5% 30.1% 15.2% 11.6% 4.0% 5.5% 71.0
2007 32.8% 31.0% 15.0% 11.8% 3.4% 6.1% 71.7
2008 32.5% 31.7% 14.3% 11.5% 3.4% 6.7% 73.5
2009 29.7% 33.0% 15.3% 11.3% 3.6% 7.0% 73.4
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
9
U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009
Source: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Nuclear Hydropower
Non-Hydro
Renewables
Total Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)
2000 22.8% 24.1% 38.7% 7.9% 2.8% 3.5% 99.0
2001 22.8% 23.6% 39.7% 8.3% 2.3% 3.2% 96.3
2002 22.4% 24.1% 39.1% 8.3% 2.7% 3.3% 97.8
2003 22.7% 23.3% 39.5% 8.1% 2.9% 3.4% 98.2
2004 22.4% 22.9% 40.2% 8.2% 2.7% 3.6% 100.2
2005 22.7% 22.5% 40.2% 8.1% 2.7% 3.7% 100.4
2006 22.5% 22.3% 40.1% 8.2% 2.9% 4.0% 99.7
2007  22.4% 23.3%  39.2%  8.3%  2.4%  4.3%  101.6
2008  22.5% 23.9%  37.5%  8.5%  2.5%  4.9%  99.5
2009  21.1% 24.7%  37.1%  8.8%  2.8%  5.4%  94.9
10 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Other includes: pumped storage, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch,
purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuels, and miscellaneous technologies.
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
U.S. Nameplate Capacity and Generation (2009)
9.4% Nuclear
6.9% Conv. Hydropower
4.7% Renewable Energy
30.3% Coal
41.4% Natural Gas
2.1% Other
5.5% Petroleum
U.S. Electric Nameplate Capacity (2009): 1,121 GW
1
.
1
%

B
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m
a
s
s
0
.
3
%

G
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0
.
1
%

P
V
*
3
.
1
%

W
i
n
d
U.S. Renewable Capacity: 53 GW
44.6% Coal
20.2% Nuclear
6.9% Conv. Hydropower
3.6% Renewable Energy
0.4% Other
23.3% Natural Gas
1.0% Petroleum
U.S. Electric Net Generation (2009): 3,954 billion kWh
1
.
4
%

B
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m
a
s
s
0
.
4
%

G
e
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0
.
1
%

S
o
l
a
r
1
.
8
%

W
i
n
d
U.S. Renewable Generation: 144 billion kWh
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
11 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
U.S. Electric-Generating Capacity by Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal Petroleum Natural Gas
Other
Gases
Nuclear Hydro
Renew-
ables
Hydro
Pumped
Storage
Other
Total
Capacity (GW)
2000 38.8% 7.9% 28.0% 0.3% 12.1% 8.9% 1.9% 2.2% 0.1% 867
2001 36.8% 8.0% 30.9% 0.2% 11.5% 8.4% 2.0% 2.1% 0.1% 914
2002 34.5% 6.8% 35.9% 0.2% 10.7% 7.9% 1.9% 2.0% 0.1% 980
2003 32.5% 6.5% 39.1% 0.2% 10.2% 7.5% 2.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,032
2004 31.9% 6.2% 40.2% 0.2% 10.1% 7.3% 2.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,050
2005 31.5% 6.1% 40.9% 0.2% 9.9% 7.2% 2.2% 1.8% 0.1% 1,068
2006 31.2% 6.0% 41.2% 0.2% 9.8% 7.2% 2.5% 1.8% 0.1% 1,076
2007 30.9% 5.7% 41.3% 0.2% 9.7% 7.1% 3.0% 1.9% 0.1% 1,088
2008 30.5% 5.6% 41.4% 0.2% 9.6% 7.0% 3.8% 1.8% 0.1% 1,102
2009 30.3% 5.5% 41.4% 0.2% 9.4% 6.9% 4.7% 1.8% 0.1% 1,121
12 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Source: EIA
Note: Electricity generation from hydro pumped storage is negative
because more electricity is consumed than generated by these plants.
U.S. Electricity Generation by Source (%) 2000–2009
Coal
Petroleum
Liquids
Petroleum
Coke
Natural
Gas
Other
Gases
Nuclear Hydro
Renew-
ables
Hydro
Pumped
Storage
Other
Total Generation
(million kWh)
2000 51.7% 2.7% 0.2% 15.8% 0.4% 19.8% 7.2% 2.1% -0.1% 0.1% 3,802,521
2001 50.9% 3.1% 0.3% 17.1% 0.2% 20.6% 5.8% 1.9% -0.2% 0.3% 3,737,052
2002 50.1% 2.0% 0.4% 17.9% 0.3% 20.2% 6.8% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,858,919
2003 50.8% 2.6% 0.4% 16.7% 0.4% 19.7% 7.1% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,883,783
2004 49.8% 2.5% 0.5% 17.9% 0.4% 19.9% 6.8% 2.1% -0.2% 0.4% 3,970,782
2005 49.6% 2.5% 0.6% 18.8% 0.3% 19.3% 6.7% 2.2% -0.2% 0.3% 4,056,199
2006 49.0% 1.1% 0.5% 20.1% 0.3% 19.4% 7.1% 2.4% -0.2% 0.3% 4,065,762
2007 48.5% 1.2% 0.4% 21.6% 0.3% 19.4% 6.0% 2.6% -0.2% 0.3% 4,158,267
2008 48.2% 0.8% 0.3% 21.4% 0.3% 19.6% 6.2% 3.1% -0.2% 0.3% 4,121,184
2009 44.6% 0.7% 0.3% 23.3% 0.3% 20.2% 6.9% 3.6% -0.1% 0.3% 3,953,898
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
13
* Current range of utility scale (greater than 5MW) PV in the U.S.
Sources: AEO, EPA, EPRI, NREL, McGowin, DeMeo et al.
Levelized Cost of Energy of Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)
P
V
*
C
S
P
B
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C
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p
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k
W
h
8–12
0
10
20
30
40
50
6–13 8–13
18–43
19–35
6–12
4–13
Assumptions
Currency: 2009 US $ (real)
Real Discount Rate: 10.5%
Infation Rate: 3%
Economic Lifetime: 30 years
Taxes: none
Tax credits: none
Debt/Equity Financing: none
Biomass Fuel Costs: AEO 2009
PV Degradation: none
CSP Technology: no storage
Geothermal Technology: hydrothermal
14 U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010
I
Sources: AEO, EPA, EPRI, NREL, McGowin, DeMeo et al.
Capacity Factor for Renewable Resources (2009)
100%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
80%
70%
90%
P
V
C
S
P
B
i
o
m
a
s
s
G
e
o
t
h
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r
m
a
l
O
f
f
-
S
h
o
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e

W
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-
S
h
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e

W
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d
L
a
r
g
e

H
y
d
r
o
80–85%
85–90%
40–45%
26–32%
35–44%
40–93%
21–26%
U.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 15
I
II. Renewable Electricity in the U.S.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
17
Renewable Electricity in the U.S.: Summary

Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower)
have more than tripled, and in 2009 represent 53 GW of installed capacity.

Renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) has grown at a compounded annual average
of 14% per year from 2000–2009.

Although it is a growing part of U.S. energy supply, renewable electricity (excluding
hydropower) in 2009 still represents a small percentage of overall installed electricity
capacity (4.7%) and generation (3.6%) in the United States.

Wind and solar PV are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. In 2009,
wind capacity installations increased by 39% and solar PV grew nearly 52% from
the previous year.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
18
Renewable Electricity in the U.S.: Summary, continued

In 2009, biomass produced about 38% of total renewable electricity
generation (excluding hydropower).

Wind energy accounted for about 92% of annual installed renewable
electricity capacity in 2009 (excluding hydropower).

Electricity generation from biomass, geothermal, and hydropower have
remained relatively stable since 2000.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
19
Capacity and Generation: All Renewables (including hydropower)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
130,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
500,000
550,000
Million kWh MW
Nameplate Capacity
Generation
Total Nameplate
Capacity (MW)
Total Generation
(Million kWh)
2000 93,437 356,894
2001 95,026 288,139
2002 95,908 343,904
2003 97,607 355,889
2004 98,352 351,712
2005 101,303 358,428
2006 104,299 386,832
2007 110,109 354,269
2008 119,927 382,841
2009 130,743 416,026
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
20 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
40,000 130,000
45,000 140,000
50,000 150,000
Million kWh MW
Nameplate Capacity
Generation
Total Nameplate
Capacity (MW)
Total Generation
(Million kWh)
2000 16,491 81,321
2001 18,115 71,178
2002 18,861 79,575
2003 20,587 80,083
2004 21,222 83,295
2005 23,949 88,107
2006 26,880 97,586
2007 32,677 106,759
2008 42,287 128,010
2009 53,081 143,895
Capacity and Generation: Renewables (excluding hydropower)
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
21
Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity by Source
(excluding hydropower)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
MW
2001 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2008
0
11,000
22,000
33,000
44,000
55,000
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV*
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
22
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity Added (MW)
and Percent Annual Change from Previous Year
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Total Capacity Added
(w/o Hydropower)
% Annual Change in
Growth from Previous Year
2000 18 0 66 59 (323) (180) - 128%
2001 27 0 1,697 0 (100) 1,624 + 1,002%
2002 44 0 411 0 291 746 - 54%
2003 70 0 1,667 0 (11) 1,726 + 131%
2004 86 0 372 0 177 635 - 63%
2005 112 0 2,396 30 189 2,727 + 329%
2006 142 1 2,454 3 331 2,931 + 7%
2007 205 64 5,237 106 185 5,797 + 98%
2008 335 0 8,425 104 747 9,611 + 66%
2009 571 12 9,922 46 242 10,793 + 12%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
23
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity (MW)
and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
Hydro Solar PV* CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Total (without
Hydropower)
Total U.S.
2000
76,946
0%
85
26.9%
354
0%
2,578
2.6%
2,798
2.2%
10,676
2.6%
16,491
-1.1%
93,437
-0.3%
2001
76,911
0%
112
31.7%
354
0%
4,275
65.8%
2,798
0%
10,576
0.9%
18,115
9.8%
95,026
1.7%
2002
77,047
0.2%
156
39.2%
354
0%
4,686
9.6%
2,798
0%
10,867
2.8%
18,861
4.1%
95,908
0.9%
2003
77,020
0%
226
44.8%
354
0%
6,353
35.6%
2,798
0%
10,856
0.1%
20,587
9.1%
97,607
1.8%
2004
77,130
0.1%
312
38%
354
0%
6,725
5.9%
2,798
0%
11,033
1.6%
21,222
3.1%
98,352
0.8%
2005
77,354
0.3%
424
35.8%
354
0%
9,121
35.6%
2,828
1.1%
11,222
1.7%
23,949
12.8%
101,303
3.0%
2006
77,419
0.1%
566
33.4%
355
0.3%
11,575
26.9%
2,831
0.1%
11,553
2.9%
26,880
12.2%
104,299
3.0%
2007
77,432
0%
771
36.2%
419
18%
16,812
45.2%
2,937
3.7%
11,738
1.6%
32,677
21.6%
110,109
5.6%
2008
77,640
0.3%
1,106
43.5%
419
0%
25,237
50.1%
3,040
3.5%
12,485
6.4%
42,287
29.4%
119,927
8.9%
2009
77,662
0%
1,677
51.6%
431
2.9%
35,159
39.3%
3,087
1.5%
12,727
1.9%
53,081
25.5%
130,743
9.0%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
24
Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity as a
Percent of Total Electricity Generating Capacity
Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Hydro
Solar
PV
CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Renewables
w/o Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 8.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 1.2% 1.9% 10.8%
2001 8.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 1.2% 2.0% 10.4%
2002 7.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 1.1% 1.9% 9.8%
2003 7.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 2.0% 9.5%
2004 7.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 2.0% 9.4%
2005 7.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.3% 1.1% 2.2% 9.5%
2006 7.2% 0.1% 0.0% 1.1% 0.3% 1.1% 2.5% 9.7%
2007 7.1% 0.1% 0.0% 1.5% 0.3% 1.1% 3.0% 10.1%
2008 7.0% 0.1% 0.0% 2.3% 0.3% 1.1% 3.8% 10.9%
2009 6.9% 0.1% 0.0% 3.1% 0.3% 1.1% 4.7% 11.7%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
25 Sources: EIA, AWEA, SEIA, GEA
Annual Installed Renewable Electric Capacity Growth (excluding hydropower)
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
MW
Capacity
0
2,200
4,400
6,600
8,800
11,000
Compounded Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR)
(2000–2009)
Wind 33.7%
Solar PV 39.3%
CSP 2.2%
Biomass 2.0%
Geothermal 1.1%
Renewables
(excl. Hydro)
13.9%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
26
U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower)
Source: EIA
0
90,000
180,000
270,000
360,000
450,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
Percent of
Total Generation
Renewables as a %
of total U.S. generation
Renewable Generation
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
27
U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation (excluding hydropower)
Source: EIA
Note: The generation decrease from 2000 to 2001, in part, refects
an EIA classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic
municipal solid waste (MSW) and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as
non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
0
29,000
58,000
87,000
116,000
145,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0.0%
0.5%
1.0%
1.5%
2.0%
2.5%
3.0%
3.5%
4.0%
Percent of
Total Generation
Renewables as a %
of total U.S. generation
Renewable Generation
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
28
U.S. Renewable Generation by Technology (excluding hydropower)
Source: EIA
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
Biomass
Wind
Geothermal
Solar
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
29
Renewable Electricity as a Percent of Total Generation
Source: EIA
Hydro Solar Biomass Wind Geothermal
Renewables
w/o Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 7.2% 0.0% 1.6% 0.1% 0.4% 2.1% 9.4%
2001 5.8% 0.0% 1.3% 0.2% 0.4% 1.9% 7.7%
2002 6.9% 0.0% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 2.1% 8.9%
2003 7.1% 0.0% 1.4% 0.3% 0.4% 2.1% 9.2%
2004 6.8% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.4% 2.1% 8.9%
2005 6.7% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.4% 2.2% 8.8%
2006 7.1% 0.0% 1.3% 0.7% 0.4% 2.4% 9.5%
2007 6.0% 0.1% 1.3% 0.8% 0.4% 2.6% 8.5%
2008 6.2% 0.1% 1.3% 1.3% 0.4% 3.1% 9.3%
2009 6.9% 0.1% 1.4% 1.8% 0.4% 3.6% 10.5%
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
30 Sources: EIA, SEIA
Renewable Electricity Generation (Million kWh)
and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year
Hydropower Solar Wind Geothermal Biomass All Renewables
Renewables without
Hydropower
2000
275,573
-13.8%
909
8.3%
5,593
24.6%
14,093
-5.0%
60,726
1.9%
356,894
-10.6%
81,321
2.0%
2001
216,961
-21.3%
952
4.7%
6,737
20.5%
13,741
-2.5%
49,748
-18.1%
288,139
19.3%
71,178
-12.5%
2002
264,329
21.8%
1,021
7.3%
10,354
53.7%
14,491
5.5%
53,709
8.0%
343,904
19.3%
79,575
11.8%
2003
275,806
4.3%
1,132
10.8%
11,187
8.0%
14,424
-0.5%
53,340
-0.7%
355,889
3.5%
80,083
0.6%
2004
268,417
-2.7%
1,267
12%
14,144
26.4%
14,811
2.7%
53,073
-0.5%
351,712
-1.2%
83,295
4.0%
2005
270,321
0.7%
1,444
13.9%
17,811
25.9%
14,692
-0.8%
54,160
2.0%
358,428
1.9%
88,107
5.8%
2006
289,246
7.0%
1,670
15.7%
26,589
49.3%
14,568
-0.8%
54,759
1.1%
386,832
7.9%
97,586
10.8%
2007
247,510
-14.4%
2,133
27.8%
34,450
29.6%
14,637
0.5%
55,539
1.4%
354,269
-8.4%
106,759
9.4%
2008
254,831
3.0%
2,662
24.8%
55,363
60.7%
14,951
2.1%
55,034
-0.9%
382,841
8.1%
128,010
19.9%
2009
272,131
6.8%
3,588
34.8%
70,761
27.8%
15,210
1.7%
54,336
-1.3%
416,026
8.7%
143,895
12.4%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
31
State Renewable Energy Information: Summary

In 2008, Texas advanced over California as having the most renewable electricity
(excluding hydropower) of any U.S. state, and continues to hold the lead in 2009.

Washington is the leader in installed renewable energy capacity when
including hydropower.

In 2008, Texas became the national leader in wind power development, and in
2009 has nearly 6 GW more wind capacity installed than Iowa, the state coming in
second place.

A combination of state incentives and renewable portfolio standards for
renewable energy and renewable resource development has driven renewable
growth in some states.
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
32
Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009)
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC,
SEIA, USDA

Total Renewables
(excluding hydropower)
O Texas
O California
O Iowa
O Oregon
O Minnesota

Total Renewables
(including hydropower)
O Washington
O California
O Oregon
O Texas
O New York

Per Capita Renewables
(excluding hydropower)
O North Dakota
O Wyoming
O Vermont
O Iowa
O Oregon

Per Capita Renewables
(including hydropower)
O Washington
O North Dakota
O Montana
O Oregon
O Wyoming
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
33 Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009)

Solar PV
O California
O New Jersey
O Colorado
O Arizona
O Florida

Biomass
O California
O Florida
O Maine
O Virginia
O Georgia

Geothermal
O California
O Nevada
O Utah
O Hawaii
O Idaho

CSP
O California
O Nevada
O Hawaii
O Arizona

Wind
O Texas
O Iowa
O California
O Washington
O Minnesota

Hydropower
O Washington
O California
O Oregon
O New York
O Alabama
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
34
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
NORTHEAST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
New York 1,274 33.9 0 0 367 4,654 6,392 86
Pennsylvania 748 7.3 0 0 26 775 1,557 62
Maine 175 0.3 0 0 157 722 1,054 252
Massachusetts 15 17.7 0 0 430 272 734 70
New Hampshire 26 0 .7 0 0 242 445 714 203
Vermont 6 1.7 0 0 759 309 1,075 1,233
Connecticut 0 19.7 0 0 221 119 359 68
New Jersey 8 127.5 0 0 7 13 155 16
Rhode Island 1 0.6 0 0 270 4 276 258
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
35
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
NORTHEAST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
0
300
600
900
1,200
1,500
1,800
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
c
u
t
M
a
i
n
e
N
e
w

H
a
m
p
s
h
i
r
e
N
e
w

J
e
r
s
e
y
N
e
w

Y
o
r
k
P
e
n
n
s
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l
v
a
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i
a
R
h
o
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e

I
s
l
a
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d
V
e
r
m
o
n
t
M
a
s
s
a
c
h
u
s
e
t
t
s
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
36
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
MIDWEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
South Dakota 313 0.0 0 0 175 1,598 2,087 601
Minnesota 1,809 1.9 0 0 223 186 2,220 386
Iowa 3,670 0.0 0 0 0 131 3,801 1,220
Wisconsin 449 5.3 0 0 0 506 960 80
North Dakota 1,203 0.0 0 0 140 614 1,956 2,075
Michigan 143 0.7 0 0 445 374 963 59
Missouri 309 0.2 0 0 17 499 825 54
Nebraska 153 0.0 0 0 0 327 479 85
Kansas 1,014 0.0 0 0 110 3 1,126 399
Illinois 1,547 4.5 0 0 43 38 1,632 123
Ohio 7 2.0 0 0 90 128 228 9
Indiana 1,036 0.3 0 0 15 92 1,143 164
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
37
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
MIDWEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
I
l
l
i
n
o
i
s
I
n
d
i
a
n
a
I
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w
a
K
a
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s
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s
M
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D
a
k
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S
o
u
t
h

D
a
k
o
t
a
0
800
1,600
2,400
3,200
4,000
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
38
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
SOUTH
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
Alabama 0 0.2 0 0 622 3,280 3,902 132
Texas 9,410 8.6 0 0 10 672 10,100 380
Tennessee 29 0.9 0 0 300 2,418 2,748 52
Georgia 0 0.2 0 0 210 1,932 2,142 21
North Carolina 0 12.5 0 0 10 1,828 1,850 2
Arkansas 0 0.2 0 0 374 1,309 1,683 130
South Carolina 0 0.1 0 0 0 1,363 1,363 0
Virginia 0 0.8 0 0 410 744 1,154 52
Oklahoma 1,130 0.0 0 0 363 790 2,282 405
Florida 0 38.9 0 0 711 56 806 40
Kentucky 0 0.0 0 0 426 777 1,203 99
Maryland 0 6.1 0 0 375 527 908 67
Louisiana 0 0.2 0 0 768 192 960 171
Mississippi 0 0.1 0 0 8 0 8 3
West Virginia 330 0.0 0 0 321 325 976 358
Delaware 0 3.2 0 0 7 0 10 12
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
39
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
SOUTH
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
A
l
a
b
a
m
a
A
r
k
a
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s
a
s
D
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a
w
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e

F
l
o
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d
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t
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a
M
a
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l
a
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d
M
i
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s
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p
i
N
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h

C
a
r
o
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a
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o
m
a
S
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h

C
a
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e
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n
e
s
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T
e
x
a
s
V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
W
e
s
t

V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
0
1,900
3,800
5,700
7,600
9,500
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
40
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW)
WEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC, USDA
* Does not include off-grid installations
Wind PV* CSP Geothermal Biomass Hydropower
Total
Renewables
(incl. hydro)
Per capita RE
(excl. hydro)
watts/person
Washington 1,980 5.2 0 0.0 0 20,807 22,792 298
California 2,794 768.0 364 2,565.5 1,271 10,032 17,794 210
Oregon 1,758 14.0 0 0.3 564 8,240 10,577 611
Arizona 63 46.2 1 0.0 40 2,718 2,868 23
Idaho 147 0.2 0 15.8 161 2,516 2,839 209
Montana 375 0.7 0 0.0 11 2,548 2,935 397
Nevada 0 36.4 64 426.8 191 1,047 1,765 272
Colorado 1,246 59.1 0 0.0 18 649 1,972 263
New Mexico 597 2.4 0 0.2 449 87 1,136 522
Wyoming 1,101 0.1 0 0.3 0 299 1,400 2,024
Alaska 8 0.0 0 0.7 0 414 423 12
Utah 223 0.6 0 42.0 88 262 616 127
Hawaii 63 26.2 2 35.0 126 25 277 195
Renewable Electricity in the U.S. | August 2010
II
41
Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower)
WEST
Sources: EIA, AWEA, GEA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
A
l
a
s
k
a
A
r
i
z
o
n
a
C
a
l
i
f
o
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n
i
a
C
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a
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a
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M
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t
o
n
W
y
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m
i
n
g
0
1,600
3,200
4,800
6,400
8,000
MW
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Biomass
III. Global Renewable Energy Development
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
43
Global Renewable Energy Development: Summary

Global renewable electricity installations (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled
from 2000–2009.

Including hydropower, renewable energy accounts for 21% of all global electricity generation;
without hydropower, renewable energy accounts for 3.8% of global generation.

Wind and solar energy are the fastest growing renewable energy technologies worldwide.
Wind and solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 14 between 2000 and 2009.

In 2009, Germany led the world in cumulative solar PV installed capacity. The United States
leads the world in wind, geothermal, biomass, and CSP installed capacity.
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
44 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Capacity Worldwide (including hydropower)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
GW
2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV
Hydropower
Biomass
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
45
*Grid-tied capacity.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
GW
2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal
Wind
CSP
PV*
Biomass
0
50
100
150
200
250
Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity Worldwide
(excluding hydropower)
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
46 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
World Renewable Cumulative Electricity Capacity
Percent Increase from the Previous Year
Hydro Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
Renewables
without Hydro
All
Renewables
2000 0% 22% 0% 31% 0% 6% 11% 1%
2001 5% 29% 0% 33% 0% 8% 15% 6%
2002 2% 33% 0% 29% 2% 0% 11% 3%
2003 9% 25% 0% 29% 9% -3% 11% 9%
2004 1% 33% 0% 20% 0% 0% 10% 1%
2005 2% 38% 0% 23% 4% 13% 18% 4%
2006 2% 32% 0% 25% 3% 7% 17% 4%
2007 9% 5% 5% 27% 0% 6% 17% 10%
2008 4% 71% 14% 29% 4% 4% 22% 6%
2009 4% 62% 22% 31% 7% 4% 25% 7%
- annual decrease annual increase +
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
47 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewables as a Percent of Total
Installed Nameplate Capacity Worldwide
Hydro Solar PV CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass
All
Renewables
Renewables
without
Hydropower
Renewable
Capacity without
Hydropower (GW)
2000 19.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.2% 1.1% 21.7% 1.9% 65
2001 20.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.7% 0.2% 1.1% 22.2% 2.1% 74
2002 19.8% 0.1% 0.0% 0.9% 0.2% 1.1% 22.0% 2.2% 82
2003 20.8% 0.1% 0.0% 1.1% 0.2% 1.0% 23.2% 2.4% 91
2004 20.2% 0.1% 0.0% 1.2% 0.2% 1.0% 22.8% 2.5% 100
2005 19.9% 0.1% 0.0% 1.4% 0.2% 1.1% 22.8% 2.9% 118
2006 19.6% 0.2% 0.0% 1.7% 0.2% 1.1% 22.8% 3.2% 138
2007 20.6% 0.2% 0.0% 2.1% 0.2% 1.1% 24.2% 3.7% 162
2008 20.6% 0.3% 0.0% 2.6% 0.2% 1.1% 24.9% 4.3% 197
2009 20.6% 0.4% 0.0% 3.3% 0.2% 1.1% 25.7% 5.1% 245
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
48 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewables Share of Total Electricity Capacity Worldwide
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Renewables Excluding Hydropower
All Renewables
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
49 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Annual Installed Renewable Electricity Growth Worldwide
(excluding hydropower)
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
GW
0
5
10
15
20
25
Capacity

Compounded Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR)
(2000–2009)
Wind 27.3%
Solar PV 35.1%
CSP 4.3%
Geothermal 3.3%
Biomass 4.3%
Renewables
(excl. Hydro)
15.9%
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
50
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% for wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

T
o
t
a
l

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Renewables as a %
of Total Generation
Renewable
Generation
0
900,000
1,800,000
2,700,000
3,600,000
4,500,000
0
5
10
15
20
25
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
51
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% of wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide (excluding hydropower)
Renewables as a %
of Total Generation
Renewable
Generation
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

T
o
t
a
l

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
160,000
320,000
480,000
640,000
800,000
0.0%
0.8%
1.6%
2.4%
3.2%
4.0%
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
52
Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV, 30% of wind,
70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25% for CSP, and 41% for hydro.
Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide by Technology (2000–2009)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
W
h
Geothermal
Solar
Wind
Biomass
0
90,000
180,000
270,000
360,000
450,000
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
53 Sources: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA, EIA
Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation
as a Percent of Total Generation
Hydro Solar PV Biomass Wind Geothermal
All
Renewables
Renewables
without
Hydropower
Renewable Generation
without Hydropower
(million kWh)
2000 16.8% 0.0% 1.2% 0.3% 0.3% 18.7% 1.9% 274,019
2001 17.3% 0.0% 1.3% 0.4% 0.3% 19.3% 2.1% 304,469
2002 17.1% 0.0% 1.2% 0.5% 0.3% 19.2% 2.1% 324,827
2003 18.0% 0.0% 1.2% 0.7% 0.3% 20.2% 2.2% 348,777
2004 17.3% 0.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.3% 19.5% 2.2% 371,028
2005 16.9% 0.0% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 19.4% 2.5% 427,880
2006 16.7% 0.1% 1.2% 1.1% 0.3% 19.4% 2.7% 485,477
2007 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 1.3% 0.3% 20.4% 2.9% 552,703
2008 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 1.6% 0.3% 20.7% 3.3% 642,327
2009 17.4% 0.1% 1.3% 2.1% 0.3% 21.2% 3.8% 766,333
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
54
Sources: REN21
* Majority of China’s renewable energy is from small hydropower.
Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity

Total Renewables (2009)
O China*
O U.S.
O Brazil
O Canada
O Japan
O
O
O
O
O
Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010
III
55
Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)
Source: REN21, GWEC, GEA, SEIA
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O O O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

Solar PV
O Germany
O Spain
O Japan
O U.S.
O Italy

Biomass
O U.S.
O Brazil
O Germany
O China
O Sweden

Geothermal
O U.S.
O Philippines
O Indonesia
O Mexico
O Italy

CSP
O U.S.
O Spain

Wind
O U.S.
O China
O Germany
O Spain
O India
IV. Wind
Wind | August 2010
IV
57
Wind: Summary

In the United States, installed wind energy capacity increased almost 14 times
between 2000 and 2009.

In the United States, wind experienced record growth in 2009 and nearly 10 GW of
new capacity was added. Texas led the United States in wind installations in 2009,
installing more than 2,292 MW of wind capacity.

The cumulative capacity-weighted average price of wind power, including the production
tax credit, was about 4.4 cents per kilowatt hour in 2009—a price that competes
with fossil fuel-generated electricity.

In 2009, China surpassed the United States as the world leader in annual installed wind
capacity, with more than 13.8 GW added.
Wind | August 2010
IV
58 Sources: AWEA, EIA
0
15,000
30,000
45,000
60,000
75,000
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
Million kWh MW
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
U.S. Wind Capacity
Generation
2009
U.S. Total Installed Wind Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Wind Energy
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Wind Energy Capacity
and Percent Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 5,593 2,578 2.6%
2001 6,737 4,275 65.8%
2002 10,354 4,686 9.6%
2003 11,187 6,353 35.6%
2004 14,144 6,725 5.9%
2005 17,811 9,121 35.6%
2006 26,589 11,575 26.9%
2007 34,450 16,812 45.2%
2008 55,363 25,237 50.1%
2009 70,761 35,159 39.3%
Wind | August 2010
IV
59
Sources: AWEA, LBNL
Note: Prices refect cumulative capacity-weighted average wind
power prices and include state and federal incentives in the price.
The recent increase in wind power price is due to increased
demand for turbines coupled with global increases in prices for
steel, cement, copper, and other commodity materials.
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
2009 $/kWh MW
2000 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
U.S. Wind Capacity
$0.00
$0.01
$0.02
$0.03
$0.04
$0.05
$0.06
$0.07
Capacity-weighted
Average Wind Power Price
2009
U.S. Wind Power Sales Price
Wind | August 2010
IV
60 Sources: GWEC, AWEA
Wind Energy Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
P
o
r
t
u
g
a
l
F
r
a
n
c
e
U
.
K
.
I
t
a
l
y
C
h
i
n
a
D
e
n
m
a
r
k
I
n
d
i
a
U
.
S
.
S
p
a
i
n
G
e
r
m
a
n
y
0
6,000
12,000
18,000
24,000
30,000
36,000
China: 25,853 MW
India: 10,827 MW
Spain: 18,784 MW
Portugal: 3,474 MW
U.S.: 35,159 MW
U.K.: 4,340 MW
France: 4,775 MW
Denmark: 3,408 MW
Italy: 4,845 MW
Germany: 25,813 MW
Wind | August 2010
IV
61 Source: REN21, AWEA, LBNL
Turbine Manufacturing
13% Vestas (DK)
Gamesa (ES) 7%
Dongfang 7%
7%
Goldwind
9% Sinovel
12% GE Wind (US)
9%
Enercon (GE)
Suzlon (Ind.) 6%
Siemens 6%
RePower 3%
Others 21%
Global Wind Turbine
Market Share 2009
Total Turbine Installations: 38 GW
15%
Vestas (DK)
Gamesa (ES) 6.0%
40.3%
GE Wind (US)
7.1%
Suzlon (Ind.)
11.7%
Siemens (DK)
Clipper 6.1%
Acciona WP 2.1%
U.S. Wind Turbine
Market Share 2009
Total Turbine Installations: 9,922 MW
8.2%
Mitsubishi
REpower 3.3%
Nordex 0.3%
Others 0.6%
Wind | August 2010
IV
62 Source: AWEA, LBNL
Annual U.S. Wind Turbine Installations, by Manufacturer (MW)
MW
2005 2006 2007 2009 2008
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Vestas
Siemens
Suzlon
Gamesa
GE Wind
Mitsubishi
Acciona
REpower
Nordex
Other
Clipper
5,249
2,402
9,922
2,454
8,350
Wind | August 2010
IV
63 Source: AWEA, LBNL
0.71
MW
0.88
MW
1.21
MW
1.43
MW
1.60
MW
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
1
9
9
8

1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0

2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2

2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4

2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
1.65
MW
2
0
0
7
1.66
MW
1.74
MW
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

S
i
z
e

(
M
W
)
0.75 MW 0.10 MW 1.5 MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW 5.0 MW
120 m
394 ft
100 m
328 ft
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
66 m
216 ft
50 m
164 ft
18 m
60 ft
85 m
279 ft
0.71
MW
0.88
MW
1.19
MW
1.44
MW
1.6
MW
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
1
9
9
8

1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0

2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2

2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4

2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
1.65
MW
2
0
0
7
1.67
MW
2
0
0
8
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

S
i
z
e

(
M
W
)
0.75 MW 0.10 MW 1.5 MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW 5.0 MW
120 m
394 ft
100 m
328 ft
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
66 m
216 ft
50 m
164 ft
18 m
60 ft
85 m
279 ft
Average Installed Turbine Size
Wind | August 2010
IV
64 Source: AWEA
States Leading Wind Power Development

Cumulative Capacity (2009, MW)
O Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,410
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,670
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,794
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,980
O Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,809
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,758
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,547
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,274
O Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,246
G North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,203

Annual Capacity (2009, MW)
O Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,292
O Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
O North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
O Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
G Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
Wind | August 2010 65
IV
V. Solar
Solar | August 2010
V
67
Solar: Summary

Solar energy electricity generation has nearly quadrupled between 2000 and 2009,
but still represents a very small part of overall U.S. electricity generation.

Countries with aggressive solar policies—such as Germany, Spain, and Japan—
lead the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment. Similarly, U.S. states
with aggressive solar incentives lead the United States in installations
(California, New Jersey, Nevada, and Colorado).

U.S. manufacturers currently have a small share of the world PV market.
China is the market leader with nearly 40% of the global PV cell production.

A number of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants came online in 2009, including
12 MW in the United States and 120 MW in Spain.
Solar | August 2010
V
68
Sources: SEIA
Note: Generation numbers calculated from installed capacity using
a 18% capacity factor for PV and 25% capacity factor for CSP.
* Includes on- and off-grid capacity.
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
2,200
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
MW
GWh
CSP
PV
Generation
U.S. Total Installed Solar Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation
U.S. Solar
Energy
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Solar Energy Capacity (MW)
and % Increase from Previous Year
PV* CSP Total Increase
2000 909 85 354 439 4.3%
2001 952 112 354 466 6.2%
2002 1,021 156 354 510 9.4%
2003 1,132 226 354 580 13.7%
2004 1,267 312 354 666 14.8%
2005 1,444 424 354 778 16.8%
2006 1,670 566 355 921 18.4%
2007 2,133 771 419 1,190 29.2%
2008 2,662 1,106 419 1,525 28.2%
2009 3,588 1,677 431 2,108 38.2%
Solar | August 2010
V
69
Source: Solarbuzz LLC, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
Note: Data from Solarbuzz is corrected for infation.
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$
/
k
W
h
M
W
h
Solar Price Range
Generation
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
U.S. PV Power Sales Price
Solar | August 2010
V
70
Source: SEIA
* Includes PV and CSP
Solar Energy Installed Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
B
e
l
g
i
u
m
C
z
e
c
h

R
e
p
u
b
l
i
c
F
r
a
n
c
e
I
t
a
l
y
S
p
a
i
n
U
.
S
.
J
a
p
a
n
G
e
r
m
a
n
y
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Japan: 2,628 MW
Spain: 3,595 MW
France: 465 MW
U.S.: 2,108 MW
Belgium: 362 MW
Czech Republic: 465 MW
Germany: 9,677 MW
Italy: 1,158 MW
Solar | August 2010
V
71
Source: Modifed from Photon International
* Based on location of facilities
Photovoltaic Manufacturing
57.3%
Others
Sanyo (Japan) 2.1%
Solarfun (China) 2.1%
Ningbo Solar Electric (China) 2.1%
Kyocera (Japan) 3.3%
Yingli Green Energy (China) 4.3%
JA Solar (China) 4.2%
Q-Cells (Malaysia) 4.5%
Trina Solar (China) 3.3%
Sharp (Japan) 4.9%
Suntech Power (China) 5.7%
FirstSolar (Malaysia) 6.2%
Global Solar PV Production 2009:
12,258 MW cell production
19,631.9 MW production capacity
25.3%
First Solar
18.3%
Evergreen Solar
21.8%
United Solar Ovonic
Solarworld
8.8%
Global Solar 1.8%
Schott Solar 1.9%
Miasole 2.3%
Solyndra 5.3%
Other 4.8%
Emcore 5.3%
Suniva 4.4%
U.S. Cell Production 2009:
566 MW cell production
1,871.5 MW production capacity
Solar | August 2010
V
72
States Leading Solar Energy Development (2009)
Source: SEIA, Larry Sherwood/IREC
Note: Grid-tied capacity only.

PV Cumulative Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . 768.0
O New Jersey . . . 127.5
O Colorado . . . . . . 59.1
O Arizona . . . . . . . . 46.2
O Florida . . . . . . . . . 38.9
O Nevada . . . . . . . . 36.4
O New York . . . . . . 33.9
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . 26.2
O Connecticut . . . 19.7
G Massachusetts 17.7

PV Annual Capacity
Additions (2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . 212.1
O New Jersey . . . 57.3
O Florida . . . . . . . . . 35.9
O Colorado . . . . . . 23.4
O Arizona . . . . . . . . 21.1
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . 12.7
O New York . . . . . . 12.1
O Massachusetts 9.5
O Connecticut . . . 8.7
G North Carolina 7.8

CSP Cumulative Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . 364
O Nevada . . . . . . . . . 64
O Arizona . . . . . . . . . 1
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . 2
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
G
Solar | August 2010 73
V
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
74
VI. Geothermal
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
75
Geothermal: Summary

U.S. geothermal energy generation has remained relatively stable from 2000 to 2009,
with the past 10 years experiencing an average of 1.2% growth.

Geothermal energy generates power for between 5 and 10 cents / kilowatt-hour.

The United States leads the world in installed geothermal electricity capacity
and generation, with most of that power installed in California.

As a base-load source of energy, geothermal is distinct from other renewables such as wind
and solar, because it can provide electricity 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
76 Source: GEA, EIA
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
Million kWh MW
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Geothermal Electricity Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Geothermal
Electricity
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Geothermal Electricity
Capacity and % Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 14,093 2,798 2.2%
2001 13,741 2,798 0.0%
2002 14,491 2,798 0.0%
2003 14,424 2,798 0.0%
2004 14,811 2,798 0.0%
2005 14,692 2,828 1.1%
2006 14,568 2,831 0.1%
2007 14,637 2,937 3.7%
2008 14,951 3,040 3.5%
2009 15,210 3,087 1.5%
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
77 Source: GEA
U.S. Geothermal Capacity and Cost Trends
Cost
Capacity
500
0
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
M
W
e
)
0
2
4
6
8
10
C
o
s
t


(
F
l
a
s
h

P
l
a
n
t
,

c
e
n
t
s
/
k
W
h
)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
78 Source: GEA
Global Geothermal Electricity Capacity (2009) – Select Countries
M
W
E
l

S
a
l
v
a
d
o
r
K
e
n
y
a
I
c
e
l
a
n
d
N
e
w

Z
e
a
l
a
n
d
J
a
p
a
n
I
n
d
o
n
e
s
i
a
I
t
a
l
y
M
e
x
i
c
o
P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s
U
.
S
.
0
700
1,400
2,100
2,800
3,500
Japan: 536 MW
Philippines: 1,904 MW
El Salvador: 204 MW
U.S.: 3,087 MW
Mexico: 958 MW
Kenya: 167 MW
New Zealand: 628 MW
Indonesia: 1,197 MW
Iceland: 575 MW
Italy: 843 MW
Geothermal | August 2010
VI
79 Source: GEA
State Geothermal Energy Development (2009)

Total Installed Capacity
(2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . 2,565.5
O Nevada . . . . . . . . . 426.8
O Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.0
O Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . 35.0
O Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8
O Alaska . . . . . . . . . . 0.7
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . 0.3
O Wyoming . . . . . . . 0.3
O New Mexico . . . 0.2
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Biopower | August 2010
VII
80
VII. Biopower
Biopower | August 2010
VII
81
Biopower: Summary

Biopower generation has remained steady during the past seven years,
and currently accounts for 38% of all renewable energy generated in
the United States (excluding hydropower).

Biomass electricity primarily comes from wood and agricultural residues that
are burned as a fuel for cogeneration in the industrial sector (such as in the
pulp and paper industry).
Biopower | August 2010
VII
82
Source: EIA
Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 refects an
EIA classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic
municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as non-
renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
MW
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Biopower Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Biopower
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Biopower
Capacity and % Increase
from Previous Year
Total (MW) % Change
2000 60,726 10,676 - 2.9%
2001 49,748 10,576 - 0.9%
2002 53,709 10,867 2.8%
2003 53,340 10,856 - 0.1%
2004 53,073 11,033 1.6%
2005 54,160 11,222 1.7%
2006 54,759 11,553 2.9%
2007 55,539 11,738 1.6%
2008 55,034 12,485 6.4%
2009 54,336 12,727 1.9%
Biopower | August 2010
VII
83 Source: EIA
States Leading Biopower Energy Development (2009)

Total Installed Capacity (2009, MW)
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,271
O Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
O Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759
O Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
O Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
O New Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
O Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
O Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
G Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
O
O
Biopower | August 2010
VII
84
Source: EIA
Note: LFG stands for Landfll Gas and MSW stands for Municipal Solid Waste
Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 refects an EIA
classifcation change. Beginning with 2001 data, non-biogenic municipal
solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassifed as non-renewable
energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Million kWh
0
13,000
26,000
39,000
52,000
65,000
Wood & Derived Fuels
Other Biomass
LFG/MSW
U.S. Biopower Generation Sources (2000–2009)
LFG/MSW
Other
Biomass
Wood and
Derived Fuel
TOTAL
2000 20,305 2,826 37,595 60,726
2001 12,714 1,834 35,200 49,748
2002 13,398 1,646 38,665 53,709
2003 13,383 2,428 37,529 53,340
2004 13,281 2,216 37,576 53,073
2005 13,470 2,009 38,681 54,160
2006 14,106 2,004 38,649 54,759
2007 14,462 2,063 39,014 55,539
2008 15,520 2,214 37,300 55,034
2009 15,834 2,259 36,243 54,336
Biopower | August 2010 85
VII
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
86
VIII. Hydropower
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
87
Hydropower: Summary

Hydropower capacity has remained constant between 2000–2009, with
generation fuctuation depending on water supply.

Hydropower remains the largest source of renewable energy generation, and
an important component of the energy mix; primarily large-scale hydropower
accounts for 6.9% of U.S. electricity generation.
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
88
Source: EIA
*Note: Excludes pumped storage.
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
MW
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
Million kWh
Generation
Capacity
U.S. Hydropower
*
Nameplate Capacity and Generation

U.S. Hydropower
Generation
(Million kWh)
U.S. Hydropower Capacity
and % Increase from
Previous Year
Total (MW) % Increase
2000 275,573 76,946 0.0%
2001 216,961 76,911 0.0%
2002 264,329 77,047 0.2%
2003 275,806 77,020 0.0%
2004 268,417 77,130 0.1%
2005 270,321 77,354 0.3%
2006 289,246 77,419 0.1%
2007 247,510 77,432 0.0%
2008 254,831 77,640 0.3%
2009 272,131 77,662 0.0%
Hydropower | August 2010
VIII
89 Source: EIA
States Leading Hydropower Generation (2009)

Capacity (2009, MW)
O Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,807
O California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,032
O Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,261
O New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,654
O Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,280
O Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,718
O Montana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,548
O Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,516
O Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,418
G Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,932
O
O O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
90
IX. Advanced Water Power
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
91
Advanced Water Power: Summary

U.S. interest in advanced water power—such as tidal, river and ocean
current, and ocean wave energy—is just beginning to grow, with many
prototype projects in testing stages and permits being fled at the Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

One wave and two tidal plants came online in 2009 in New South Wales,
Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
92
Worldwide Advanced Water Power
Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation
RITE Project
= Tidal
= Wave
Islay Project
Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station
Xingfuyang
Aguçadora Wave Park
Port Kembla Wave Energy Project
Fall of Warness
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
O
Sources: FERC, Global Data
La Rance Tidal Power Plant
Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant
Jiangxia Tidal Power
Generation Plant
Bay of Fundy
Mutriku Wave Power Plant
Billia Croo Test Site
Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project
¤
14
¤
13
¤
12
¤
11
O
Advanced Water Power | August 2010
IX
93 Sources: FERC, Global Data
Worldwide Advanced Water Power
Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation
PROJECT NAME Type Location Technology Size Year of Oper.
Aguçadora Wave Park WAVE Povoa de Varzim, Portugal Pelamis Wave Energy Converter 2.25 MW 2007
Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant TIDAL Nova Scotia, Canada Dam and Tidal Turbine 20 MW 1984
Bay of Fundy TIDAL Nova Scotia, Canada In-stream tidal tubine 1.0 MW 2009
Billia Croo Test Site WAVE United Kingdom N/A 200 kW 2003
Fall of Warness TIDAL United Kingdom Open Hydro Centre Turbine 250 kW 2008
Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project TIDAL United Kingdom Oscillating Hydrofoils 100 kW 2009
Islay Project WAVE United Kingdom Wavegen Limpet Device 500 kW 2000
Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant TIDAL China N/A 3.2 MW ~1980
Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station TIDAL Barents Sea, Russia Orthogonal roto 1.7 MW 1968
La Rance Tidal Power Plant TIDAL France Turbine 240 MW 1966
Mutriku Wave Power Plant WAVE New South Wales Oscillating Water Column 300 kW 2009
Port Kembla Wave Energy Project WAVE Australia Oceanlinx Wave Energy System 500 kW 2006
RITE Project TIDAL East River, New York Verdant Free Flow Turbines 120 kW 2007
Xingfuyang TIDAL China N/A 1.3 MW ~1980
FERC Permitted and Licensed Projects
in the U.S. (2009)
Permitted Pending Permit Licensed Pending licenses
130 40 2 0
= Commercial Plants
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
G
O
O
¤
14
¤
13
¤
12
¤
11
Hydrogen | August 2010
X
94
X. Hydrogen
X
Hydrogen | August 2010 95
Hydrogen: Summary

As of April 2010, there are approximately 68 hydrogen fueling stations
in the United States.

An estimated 223 fuel cell vehicles are available in the United States to date.

There are close to 1,000 stationary fuel cell installations worldwide, 23 of
which are greater than 1 MW in capacity.
Hydrogen | August 2010 96
Hydrogen – Transportation
Hydrogen Production
50 million tons of
hydrogen are produced each
year worldwide, with 9 million
tons being consumed in the
United States.
Approximately 60% is used for
making ammonia for fertilizer;
23% is used to make gasoline
cleaner by removing sulfur;
9% is used to make methanol;
and the remainder is for
chemical processing, metal
production, electronics, and
for space exploration.
Sources: NHA, EIA
Number of Operational U.S. Hydrogen Fueling Stations
(April 2010 – Total of 68)
Number of recorded fuel cell vehicles in the United States = 223
26
8
2
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
DE
3
1
X
X
Hydrogen | August 2010 97 Sources: FuelCells.org
Hydrogen – Electricity
Number of stationary
fuel cells >1 MW = 23
Located in the U.S. (16),
Italy (1), Japan (2), Korea (4)
527 Non-U.S.
Installations
418 U.S.
Installations
38 U.S.
Stationary Fuel Cell Installations (2009)
30 Non-U.S.
Planned Projects = 68
Worldwide Installations
= 945
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
98
XI. Renewable Fuels
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
99
* Most U.S. ethanol is currently produced from corn (in contrast to
Brazil’s ethanol coming from sugar cane); but efforts are underway by
the U.S. Department of Energy and others to commercialize cellulosic
ethanol, which is produced from non-food crops.
Note: Ethanol is blended with gasoline and generally comprises up
to 10% of the fuel with gasoline as the other 90% (E10). Additionally,
fex-fuel vehicles use a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85).
Renewable Fuels – Ethanol: Summary

Corn ethanol production continues to expand rapidly in the United States.
Between 2000 and 2009, production increased more than 6 times.

Ethanol production grew nearly 20% in 2009 to reach 10,750 million
gallons per year.

Ethanol has steadily increased its percentage of the overall gasoline pool, and in
2009 was estimated to be 7.8%.

In 2009, the United States* produced 62.0% of the world’s ethanol, followed by
Brazil at 37.9%, the European Union at 6.0%, China at 3.1%, and Thailand at 2.5%.
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
100 Sources: RFA, EERE
Corn Ethanol Price
(energy-equivalent basis)
Corn Ethanol Production
0
1,000
3,000
2,000
4,000
5,000
7,000
6,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$0.00
$1.00
$2.00
$3.00
$4.00
9,000
8,000
11,000
10,000
$5.00
$6.00
$
/
g
a
l
l
o
n
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

g
a
l
l
o
n
s
/
y
e
a
r
Gasoline Price (avg. retail)
U.S. Corn Ethanol Production and Price Trends
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
101
* Includes ethanol
Sources: EIA, Renewable Fuels Association, DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center
Gasoline Pool*
(Million gallons/yr)
Ethanol
Production
(Million gallons/yr)
Annual
Growth (%)
Percent of
Gasoline Pool
2000 128,662 1,630 11% 1.3%
2001 129,312 1,770 9% 1.4%
2002 132,782 2,130 20% 1.6%
2003 134,089 2,800 31% 2.1%
2004 137,022 3,400 21% 2.5%
2005 136,949 3,904 15% 2.9%
2006 138,378 4,855 24% 3.5%
2007 142,287 6,500 34% 4.6%
2008 137,797 9,000 39% 6.5%
2009 137,736 10,750 19% 7.8%
U.S. Ethanol Production and Growth in Gasoline Pool by Volume
U.S. Ethanol
Distribution and Utilization
2,030 E85 stations (April 2010)
E85 average retail price (January 2010):
$3.36/gallon (gasoline gallon equivalent
basis), gasoline price: $2.65/gallon

Approximately 8 million fex-fuel
vehicles (FFV) are on the road
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
102
Note: No sugarcane ethanol is currently produced in the United States.
Sources: RFA
U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity and Ethanol Yields and Emissions

Top Five States for U.S. Ethanol
(operating) Production Capacity in 2009
(millions of gallons)
O Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,183
O Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,454
O Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,350
O Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,113
O South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,016
O
O
O
O
O
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
103 Source: RFA
U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity
Total U.S. Ethanol Operating Production Capacity (2009): 11,877.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Five Ethanol Companies
—Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)
O Poet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,526
O Archer Daniels Midland Co. . . . . . . . . . . 1,070
O Valero Renewable Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
O Green Plains Renewable Energy . . . . . 480
O Hawkeye Renewables LLC . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
104
Global Ethanol Production
United States: 10,750
Brazil: 6,578
EU: 1,040
China: 542
O
O
O
O
O
Top Five Countries (2009) Ethanol Production (millions of gallons)

Global Ethanol Production
(millions of gallons)
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,770
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,150
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,489
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,102
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,335
2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,535
Source: RFA
Thailand: 435
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
105
Renewable Fuels – Biodiesel: Summary

Biodiesel has expanded from a relatively small production base in 2000,
to a total U.S. production of 545 million gallons in 2009.

Biodiesel production in 2009 is 109 times what it was in 2000.

Europe leads the world in biodiesel production, with most production
in France and Germany.
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
106 Sources: National Biodiesel Board, EERE
0
150,000
300,000
450,000
600,000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
$0.00
$1.00
$2.00
$3.00
$4.00
750,000 $5.00
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d

G
a
l
l
o
n
s
$
/
G
a
l
l
o
n
Price
Production
2008 2009
U.S. Biodiesel Demand and Price (2000–2009)
Annual
Growth
Total Production
(thousand gallons)
2000 300% 2,000
2001 150% 5,000
2002 200% 15,000
2003 33% 20,000
2004 25% 25,000
2005 200% 75,000
2006 233% 250,000
2007 100% 500,000
2008 40% 700,000
2009 (22%) 545,000
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
107
Source: National Biodiesel Board, REG, Renewable Biofuels Inc,
Imperium Renewables, Green Earth Fuels LLC
U.S. Biodiesel Production Capacity
Total U.S. Biodiesel Production Capacity (2009): 2,175.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Six Biodiesel Companies —
Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)
O Renewable Energy Group, Inc 362
O Renewable Biofuels, Inc 180
O/O Imperium Renewables, Inc / Biodiesel of Las Vegas 100
O Green Earth Fuels, LLC 90
O Louis Dreyfus Agricultural Industries 85
Renewable Fuels | August 2010
XI
108
Top Five Countries (2009) Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons)
United States: 545
Germany: 687
France: 687
Brazil: 423
Argentina: 370
O
O
O
O
O

Global Biodiesel Production
(millions of gallons)
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,030
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,585
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,378
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,170
2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,385
Sources: REN21, National Biodiesel Board
Global Biodiesel Production
Renewable Fuels | August 2010 109
XI
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
110
XII. Clean Energy Investments
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
111
Clean Energy Investments: Summary

U.S. investment in renewable energy has grown dramatically in the past decade,
and in 2009 investment reached more than $9 billion.

U.S. investment in wind energy projects grew from $250 million in 2001 to more
than $2 billion in 2009.

In 2009, U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in renewable energy
technology companies was $3.4 billion—up from $30 million in 2001.

U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in solar technology companies
has increased from $5 million in 2001 to more than $1 billion in 2009.
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
112
Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance
Completed and disclosed deals only.
Includes VC/PE, public market activity, asset fnancing, and acquisition transactions.
U.S. and Global Total Investment in Renewable Energy, 2009 ($ millions)
1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$26,938
$2,070
Biopower
Marine
Fuel Cells
Power Storage
Efciency
Geothermal
Wind
Solar
Biofuels
$3,236
$15,812
$3,969
$47,858
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
0
700
1,400
2,100
2,800
3,500
$2,614
$1,224
Global Total Investment U.S. Total Investment
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
113
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Wind Energy Project Asset Financing Transactions ($ millions),
2001–2009
$250 $230
$750
$2,525
$7,180
$8,170
$940
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
$11,128
$1,593
2008 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
114
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Renewable Energy Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$4,282
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$1,823
$6,250
$525
$3,375
$2,289
Biopower
Power Storage
Efciency
Marine
Fuel Cells/Hydrogen
Geothermal
Wind
Solar
Biofuels
$720
$321
$440
0
1,300
2,600
3,900
5,200
6,500
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
115
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Solar Energy Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$40 $38
$56
$214
$2,700
$1,079
$62
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
$1,570
$398
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
116
Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.
U.S. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions)
in Biofuels Technology Companies, 2001–2009
$25 $24
$40
$75
$

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
$602
$827
$1,110
$238
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
$425
Clean Energy Investments | August 2010
XII
117 Public data
Public Renewable Energy Index Performance, 2009 (Indexed to 100)
Jan
2009
Mar
2009
May
2009
July
2009
Sept
2009
Nov
2009
Dec
2009
17%
26%
32%
33%
WilderHill New Energy Global Index (DJIA: ^NEX)
New Alternatives Fund (NALFX)
Calvert Global Alternative Energy Fund (CGAEX)
Guinness Atkinson Alternative Energy Fund (GAAEX)
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
140%
XIII
Glossary | August 2010 119
Glossary
Base-load capacity
The generating equipment normally operated to
serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
Biodiesel
Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel
substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender.
Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such
as soybeans, rapeseed, or sunfowers; or from
animal tallow. Biodiesel can also be made from
hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products
such as rice hulls.
Biofuels
Liquid fuels and blending components produced
from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily
for transportation.
Biomass
Organic non-fossil material of biological origin
constituting a renewable energy source.
British Thermal Unit (Btu)
The quantity of heat required to increase the
temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1
degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which
water has its greatest density (approximately
39 degrees Fahrenheit).
Capacity Factor
The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a
generating unit for the period of time considered
to the electrical energy that could have been
produced at continuous full power operation during
the same period.
Compound Annual Growth Rate
The year-over-year growth rate applied during a
multiple-year period. The formula for calculating
CAGR is (Current Value/Base Value)^(1/# of years) - 1.
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
A solar energy conversion system characterized
by the optical concentration of solar rays through
an arrangement of mirrors to heat working fuid
to a high temperature. Concentrating solar power
(but not solar thermal power) may also refer to a
system that focuses solar rays on a photovoltaic
cell to increase conversion effciency.
Cost
The amount paid to produce a good or service.
Cost represents the sum of the value of the inputs
in production
Direct Use
Use of electricity that (1) is self-generated, (2) is
produced by either the same entity that consumes
the power or an affliate, and (3) is used in direct
support of a service or industrial process located
within the same facility or group of facilities that
house the generating equipment. Direct use is
exclusive of station use.
E85
A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol
and 15 percent gasoline.
Glossary | August 2010
XIII
120
Ethanol
A clear, colorless, fammable oxygenated
hydrocarbon. Ethanol is typically produced
chemically from ethylene, or biologically from
fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates
found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues
from crops or wood. It is used in the United States
as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate
(blended up to 10 percent concentration). Ethanol
can also be used in high concentrations (E85) in
vehicles designed for its use.
Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission (FERC)
The federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate
electricity sales, wholesale electric rates,
hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, oil
pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certifcation. FERC
is an independent regulatory agency within the
Department of Energy (DOE) and is the successor
to the Federal Power Commission.
Flexible-Fuel Vehicles
Vehicles that can operate on (1) alternative fuels
(such as E85); (2) 100 percent petroleum-based
fuels; (3) any mixture of an alternative fuel (or
fuels) and a petroleum-based fuel. Flexible-fuel
vehicles have a single fuel system to handle
alternative and petroleum-based fuels.
Fuel Cell
A device capable of generating an electrical
current by converting the chemical energy of a fuel
(e.g., hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. Fuel cells
differ from conventional electrical cells in that the active
materials such as fuel and oxygen are not contained
within the cell but are supplied from outside. It
does not contain an intermediate heat cycle, as do
most other electrical generation techniques.
Gasoline Pool
All gasoline produced by volume, including any
additions such as ethanol or methyl tertiary-butyl
ether (MTBE).
Generation
The total amount of electric energy produced by
generating units and measured at the generating
terminal in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or megawatt-
hours (MWh).
Geothermal Energy
The heat that is extracted from hot water or steam
that is mined from geothermal reservoirs in the
earth’s crust. Water or steam can be used as a
working fuid for geothermal heat pumps, water
heating, or electricity generation, and then is
reinjected back into the earth.
Geothermal Heat Pump
A heat pump in which the refrigerant exchanges heat
(in a heat exchanger) with a fuid circulating through
an earth connection medium (ground or ground
water). The fuid is contained in a variety of loop
(pipe) confgurations depending on the temperature
of the ground and the ground area available. Loops
may be installed horizontally or vertically in the
ground or submersed in a body of water.
Glossary
XIII
Glossary | August 2010 121
Gigawatt (GW)
One billion watts or one thousand megawatts.
Gigawatt-hour (GWh)
One billion watt-hours.
Incremental Capacity
Capacity added on an annual basis.
Insolation
The amount of radiation from the sun received at
the surface of the Earth in a particular geographic
location or region.
Kilowatt (kW)
One thousand watts.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
A measure of electricity defned as a unit of work
or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of
power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent
to 3,412 Btu.
Landfll Gas
Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic
material at landfll disposal sites. The average
composition of landfll gas is approximately 50%
methane and 50% carbon dioxide and water vapor
by volume. The methane in landfll gas may be
vented, fared, or combusted to generate electricity
or useful thermal energy on-site, or injected into a
pipeline for combustion off-site.
Levelized Cost
The present value of the total cost of building and
operating a generating plant over its economic life,
converted to equal annual payments. Costs are
levelized in real dollars (i.e., adjusted to remove the
impact of infation).
Megawatt (MW)
One million watts of electricity.
Megawatt-hour (MWh)
One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Residential solid waste and some nonhazardous
commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes.
Nameplate Capacity
The maximum rated output of a generator under
specifc conditions designated by the manufacturer.
Nameplate capacity is usually indicated in units of
kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and in kilowatts (kW) on a
nameplate physically attached to the generator.
Ocean Energy
Energy conversion technologies that harness the
energy in tides, waves, and thermal gradients in
the oceans.
Photovoltaic (PV) Cell
An electronic device consisting of layers of
semiconductor materials fabricated to form a
junction (adjacent layers of materials with different
electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts
and being capable of converting incident light
directly into electricity (direct current).
Glossary
Glossary | August 2010
XIII
122
Price
The amount paid to acquire a good or service.
Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant
A plant that usually generates electric energy
during peak load periods by using water previously
pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during
off-peak periods when excess generating capacity
is available to do so. When additional generating
capacity is needed, the water can be released
from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine
generators located in a power plant at a lower level.
Renewable Energy Resources
Energy resources that are naturally replenishing
but fow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in
duration but limited in the amount of energy that
is available per unit of time. Renewable energy
resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar,
wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action.
Solar Thermal Collector
A device designed to receive solar radiation and
convert it to thermal energy. Normally, a solar thermal
collector includes a frame, glazing, and an absorber,
together with appropriate insulation. The heat collected
by the solar collector may be used immediately or
stored for later use. Solar collectors are used for space
heating; domestic hot water heating; and heating
swimming pools, hot tubs, or spas.
Thermoelectric Power Plant
A term used to identify a type of electric generating
station, capacity, capability, or output in which the
source of energy for the prime mover is heat.
Wind Energy
Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be
converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps,
mills, and electric power generators.
Glossary
References
XIV
References | August 2010 123
U.S. Energy Production and Consumption — Pages 7–9
• Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Monthly Energy Review
• Production: EIA – Monthly Energy Review, April 2010, Table 1.2, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html
• Consumption: EIA – Monthly Energy Review, April 2010, Table 1.3, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html
U.S. Nameplate and Generation Pie Charts — Pages 10–12
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
Price of Technology and Capacity Factor — Pages 13–14
• AEO 2009, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo09/index.html
• EPRI MERGE Study 2009, http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?space=CommunityPage&cached=true&parentname=ObjMgr&parentid=2&control=
SetCommunity&CommunityID=404&RaiseDocID=000000000001019539&RaiseDocType=Abstract_id
• Data used in the EPA IPM model 2009, http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/epa-ipm/index.html
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
124
• Data used in NREL ReEDS Analyses. Citation: Logan, J., Sullivan, P., Short, W., Bird, L., James, T., and M. Shah. Evaluating a Proposed 20% National Renewable
Portfolio Standard. NREL Technical Report. NREL/TP-6A2-45161. February 2009.
• Data used in NREL ReEDS analyses associated with the Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) study. Forthcoming.
• McGowin C., (2007). "Renewable Energy Technical Assessment Guide-TAG-RE:2007," EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
• DeMeo, D.A. and J. F. Galdo (1997). "Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations," EPRI-TR109496, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
• EPRI (1993). "EPRI-Technical Assessment Guide, Electricity supply-1993," EPRI TR-10226-V1R7m EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
Capacity and Generation — Pages 19–25
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
References
XIV
References | August 2010 125
Generation — Pages 26–30
• Solar – Numbers calculated using capacity factors of 18% for PV and 25% for CSP based on installed capacity
• EIA – Electric Power Monthly, March 2010, Chapter 1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf”
State Numbers by Technology — Pages 32–41
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
• EIA – Electric Power Annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
• American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report, 2009, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
• Larry Sherwood/Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC)
• USDA Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets, http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/
World Renewable Energy — Pages 44–51
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
126
• GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update, May 2010, http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• EIA - http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=2&pid=2&aid=7&cid=&syid=2000&eyid=2008&unit=MK (estimated for 2008 and 2009)
World Electricity Generation — Pages 52–53
• World capacity data used, with generation derived through using capacity factors of 14% for solar power, 30% for wind, 70% for geothermal, 54% for biomass, 25%
for CSP and 41% for hydropower.
Top Countries — Pages 54–55
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
• GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update, May 2010, http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.pdf
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
U.S. Total Installed Wind Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 58
• Capacity Numbers: AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• Generation Numbers: EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
References
XIV
References | August 2010 127
U.S. Wind Power Sales Price — Page 59
• AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.pdf
Wind Energy Generation, Manufacturing, Turbine Size, Leading States — Pages 60–64
• AWEA, Year End 2009 Market Report, http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
• GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report,
http://www.gwec.net/fleadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.%20Apr..pdf
• LBNL, 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.pdf
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
U.S. Total Installed Solar Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 68
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
PV Power Sales Price — Page 69
• Solarbuzz LLC, Solar Energy Industry Electricity Prices, http://www.solarbuzz.com/SolarPrices.htm
• GDP Defator Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/categories/18/downloaddata
Solar Energy Capacity, Select Countries — Page 70
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
128
PV Manufacturing — Page 71
• Modifed from Photon International, March 2010.
Top States: Solar Energy Development PV and CSP — Page 72
• Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009,
http://seia.org/galleries/default-fle/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf
• 2009 State Data: Larry Sherwood/IREC
Geothermal Capacity and Generation — Page 76
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
• Generation: EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
U.S. Geothermal Power Sales Price and Global Geothermal Capacity — Page 77, 78
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
State Geothermal Generation — Page 79
• Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010,
http://geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.pdf
References
XIV
References | August 2010 129
Biopower Capacity and Generation — Pages 82–84
• EIA, Existing 2008 capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html plus planned 2009 capacity (table ES3),
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• EIA, various publications of Electricity Net Generation from Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source
Hydropower Capacity and Generation, State Rankings — Page 88, 89
• EIA, 2010, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.1A, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one
• EIA – Electric Generating Capacity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html
• EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html
Other Water Power: Wave and Tidal — Pages 92–93
• Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), http://www.ferc.gov/industries/hydropower/indus-act/hydrokinetics.asp
• GlobalData Alternative Energy E-Track desktop tool
Hydrogen — Pages 96–97
• National Hydrogen Association, http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/fuelingSearch.asp#null
• FuelCells.org, http://www.fuelcells.org/db/index.php
• EIA, Table S7, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/atftables/afv_atf.html#inuse
References
References | August 2010
XIV
References
130
Ethanol Production and Price — Page 100–101
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2009 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/pdf/outlook/RFA_Outlook_2009.pdf
• U.S. DOE EERE – Alternative Fuel Price Report, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/price_report.html
• U.S. DOE EERE - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/fexible_fuel.html, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/stations_counts.html
• EIA, Gasoline Pool, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MGFUPUS2&f=M (converted from thousand barrels per day, average over 12
months of data)
Top States Production Capacity and Top U.S. Ethanol Companies — Page 102–103
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2010 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/outlook/RFAoutlook2010_fn.pdf
Global Ethanol Production — Page 104
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), 2010 Outlook, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/outlook/RFAoutlook2010_fn.pdf
• Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
Biodiesel Production and Price — Page 106
• U.S. DOE EERE – Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2010, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/price_report.html
• Note: Biodeisel price is an average between B20 and B99–B100.
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/faqs/,
http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Estimated_Production_Calendar_Years_05-09.ppt
References
XIV
References | August 2010 131
Top U.S. Biodiesel Companies — Page 107
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/plants/showall.aspx
• Renewable Energy Group Inc, http://www.regfuel.com/updates.asp
• Renewable Biofuels Inc, http://www.rbfuels.com/
• Imperium Renewables, http://www.imperiumrenewables.com/
• Green Earth Fuels LLC, http://www.greenearthfuelsllc.com/projects.php
Top Biodiesel Countries — Page 108
• National Biodiesel Board, http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Production_Graph_Slide.pdf,
http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_fles/fuelfactsheets/Estimated_Production_Calendar_Years_05-09.ppt
• REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.pdf
U.S. Investments in Clean Energy — Page 112–116
• Bloomberg New Energy Finance desktop database, http://bnef.com/
• Completed and disclosed deals only.
Public Renewable Energy Index Performance — Page 117
• Public data
For more information contact:
EERE Information Center
1-877-EERE-INF (1-877-337-3463)
www.eere.energy.gov/informationcenter
Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at
least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste.
DOE/GO-102010-3074
August 2010
Energy Efficiency &
Renewable Energy

Acknowledgments
This report was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Michelle Kubik, and designed by Stacy Buchanan of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). We greatly appreciate the input of Mike Cliggett and Carla Frisch of the U.S. Department of Energy; as well as Lynn Billman, Helena Chum, Dale Gardner, Maureen Hand, Roland Hulstrom, and Jordan Macknick of NREL.

Front page background photo: Courtesy of NASA Front page inset photos (left to right): One through six, and eight – iStock; seven – PIX 17854 Pages 2, 6, 42, 56, 66, 74, 80, 86, 90, 98, 110, 118: iStock Page 16: PIX 14369 Page 94: PIX 17854 © 2010 U.S. Department of Energy

Key Findings

Although renewable energy (excluding hydropower) is a relatively small portion of total energy supply both globally and in the United States, the installed renewable energy capacity in both the world and in the United States has more than tripled between 2000 and 2009. Including hydropower, renewable energy represents nearly 12% of total installed capacity and more than 10% of total generation in the United States in 2009. Installed renewable energy capacity (including hydropower) is more than 130 gigawatts (GW). Not including hydropower, 2009 renewable electricity installed capacity has reached about 53 GW in the United States. In the United States, growth in sectors such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) signify an ongoing shift in the composition of the nation's electricity supply. In 2009, cumulative wind capacity increased by 39% and cumulative solar PV capacity grew nearly 52% from the previous year.

gasoline pool. as installed wind energy capacity increased by a factor of 14 between 2000 and 2009. continued • Worldwide. wind energy generation worldwide increased by a factor of almost 9. The United States experienced even more dramatic growth. up from 1% in 2000. Since 2006.S. renewable energy accounted for more than 55% of all new electrical capacity installations in the United States— a large contrast from 2004 when all renewable energy captured only 2% of new capacity additions. Between 2000 and 2009.Key Findings. Use of ethanol in the United States has also grown substantially. In 2009. and it accounts for 7. and biodiesel production increased by a factor of more than 100. renewable energy has been capturing a growing percent of new capacity additions during the past few years. wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology— between 2000 and 2009. the United States has been the world’s leading ethanol producer. In the United States. • • . production of corn ethanol increased by a factor of 6.8% of the total U.

..... V Geothermal ..................................................................................................................................... XII Glossary ........................................ VI Biopower ............................................. Energy Background Information ................ ...... VIII Advanced Water Power ................................................................................................................................................................ IX Hydrogen ......................................................................................................Table of Contents U........................................................... X Renewable Fuels ............................... III Wind .............. I Renewable Electricity in the U.........S....................................................................... VII Hydropower ............ XI Clean Energy Investments ..............................................................S......................................................................... IV Solar ...................... XIII References ............. II Global Renewable Energy Development ......... XIV ...................................................

S. Energy Background Information .I. U.

S.9 Quadrillion Btu 21. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Production: 5.7% Natural Gas 2.S.1% Coal 8.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 5. Ge h 0.S.1% Petroleum U. Note: Because hydropower is considered a conventional source of energy. it is accounted for separate from other new renewable sources of energy. Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Consumption: 5. full references are provided starting on p. 5% U.2 Quadrillion Btu 4% U. erm 1% a l 0.3% Crude Oil I U. erm 1% a l 0. 123.8% Hydropower 5.1 Quadrillion Btu 0.6% Hydropower 7.8% Nuclear 24. 7 0. Energy Production (2009): 73.S. Sola 9% r W in d Bi om as s .0% Natural Gas 15. 4% 4.5 Quadrillion Btu 29. Energy Production and Consumption (2009) U. Energy Consumption (2009): 94.4% Non-Hydro Renewables 37.U.3% Nuclear 3.7% Coal 11.S. Sola 7% r W in d Bi om as s ot Ge ot h 0. Energy consumption is higher than energy production due to oil imports. 2% Source: EIA.0% Non-Hydro Renewables 33.

3% 33. Note: Annual totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.5 71.3% 11.0% 3.1% 6.5% 32.1% 31.5% 33.5% 11.3% 5.4% 3.0% 11.6 71.0 71.8% 3.6% Non-Hydro Renewables 4.0% 3.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .1% 17.1% 17.3% 15.9 70.6% 31. Energy Production by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: EIA * Includes natural gas plant liquids.8% 11.9% 3.4 69.3% 4.7% 33.4% 3.7% 11.7% 5.7% 15.5% 11.U.8% 32.3% 15.3% 17.7% 7.8% 32.7% 8 U.9% 4.3% Hydropower 3.0% Total Production (Quadrillion Btu) 71.9 70.8% 4.1% 5.5% 6.6% 11.0% 30.8% 32.7% 11.3 70.2% 11.2% 31.0% 14.1% 3.3% Nuclear 11.5% 4.0% 31.S.8% 4.0% 31.5% 29.0% 31.2% 15.4% 30. Natural Gas* 31.4% 32.6% 30.5 73.4 31.0% Crude Oil 17.7 73.1% 16.

9 Source: EIA.2% 8.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .2% 3.7% 2.0% 4.3%  23.8% 22.8%  Hydropower 2.6% 24.4%  22.7% 22.5%  22.4%  Total Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) 99.3% 22.6% 3.2 100.6 99.5% 3.3% 8.4 99.2%  37.5% 40.1% Natural Gas 24.1% 39.9% 2.1% 8.5 94.7% 2.9%  5.3% 23.5%  2.2% 40. AWEA.2% 8.8% 2.1% 23.3%  8.1% 23.1%  Nuclear 7.7% 39.8%  Non-Hydro Renewables 3.3% 3.5% 22.3% 8.S.3%  4.9% 22.7% 2.3 97.2% 40.4% 22.4% 3.0 96.9% 8.9% 2.U.1% 8.3% 2.2 100.7% 39.9%  24.5%  21.7 101.7%  Petroleum 38.8% 22. Energy Consumption by Energy Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 22. GEA 9 U.1% 39.5%  37.7% 4.5%  8.4% 22.7% 22. SEIA.4%  2.8 98.

4% Other 1.4% Natural Gas 1% W in d in d . tire-derived fuels. 4% U. rma 1% l PV * U.S. AWEA.954 billion kWh 20. Nameplate Capacity and Generation (2009) I U. Hydropower 44. SEIA.121 GW 30. hydrogen.4% Nuclear 6.5% Petroleum U.1% Other 5. 41. 4% 23. Electric Net Generation (2009): 3.3% Coal 9.9% Conv.6% Renewable Energy 0. sulfur.S.7% Renewable Energy 2.0% Petroleum 0. 10 0. batteries.U. Hydropower 4.2% Nuclear 6.6% Coal U.S.S. chemicals. and miscellaneous technologies. Renewable Capacity: 53 GW 1.S. Energy Background Information | August 2010 Ge 0.S. 3. * Includes on. Renewable Generation: 144 billion kWh om as s rm al So la r he ot 1% Source: EIA. 1% 3% Bio Ge ma ot ss he 0.9% Conv. Electric Nameplate Capacity (2009): 1.3% Natural Gas 1. pitch. GEA Other includes: pumped storage.and off-grid capacity. 8% Bi W 3. purchased steam. 1.

S.3% 41.2% 7.1% 2.9% 30.8% 1.0% 1.5% 31. GEA 11 U.S.2% 0.0% 1.0% 2.1% 0.8% 1.1% 40.8% 1.8% 36.7% Hydro Pumped Storage 2.3% 7.102 1.1% 0.050 1.1% Total Capacity (GW) 867 914 980 1.3% 0.0% 5.1% 7.9% 8.1% 0.3% Petroleum 7.5% 3.2% 0. SEIA.1% 0.7% 9.032 1.2% 7.2% 0.121 Sources: EIA.1% 0.5% Natural Gas 28.9% 8.4% 41.8% I Other 0.1% 0.0% 3.5% 30.2% 0.1% 0.2% 40.2% 10.6% 5.9% 35.4% Other Gases 0.1% 11.8% 9.9% Renewables 1.1% 6.9% 1.1% 9.9% 7.5% 6.9% 41. Electric-Generating Capacity by Source (%) 2000–2009 Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 38.6% 9.2% 41.2% 30.8% 4.8% 34.0% 6.068 1.2% Nuclear 12.0% 6.2% 0.7% 10.5% 32.9% 39.7% 5.088 1.9% 31.2% 6.2% 0.9% 2.1% 0.9% 1.0% 2.0% 30. AWEA.2% 2.2% 0.4% Hydro 8.5% 7.1% 0.9% 1.2% 2.U.5% 10.9% 2.8% 6.4% 7.076 1. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .5% 31.2% 0.9% 9.

2% 44.4% 0.783 3. Energy Background Information | August 2010 .6% 49.1% 2.6% 20.1% 1.2% 0.2% 19.1% 21.0% 6.8% 0.1% 0.4% 19.858.3% Other Gases 0.970.7% 3.8% 17.1% 17.4% 0.9% 2.2% -0.7% 19.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% Hydro Pumped Storage -0.1% 2.1% Other 0.521 3.2% 5.U.5% 0.2% -0.3% 0.2% -0. Electricity Generation by Source (%) 2000–2009 I Coal 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: EIA Note: Electricity generation from hydro pumped storage is negative because more electricity is consumed than generated by these plants.1% 6.3% 0.158.267 4.4% 23.7% 17.1% 3.2% 0.883.3% Nuclear 19.782 4.1% -0.2% -0.8% 49.1% 6.3% 0.0% 2.898 51.8% 20.4% 0.5% 48.8% 7.5% 2. Petroleum Petroleum Liquids Coke 2.S.9% Renewables 2.056.9% 19.2% -0.762 4.1% 2.5% 1.121.4% 0.6% 3.052 3.2% 2.4% 19.065.7% 50.8% 6.9% 50.1% 2.919 3.8% 49.7% 7.6% 12 U.3% 0.8% 6.2% -0.2% -0.3% 0.6% 0.2% 6.3% 0.802.9% 16.6% 2.8% 20.3% 19.737.9% 18.1% 50.3% Natural Gas 15.2% -0.3% Total Generation (million kWh) 3.S.3% 0.4% 0.6% 21.7% 0.184 3.6% 20.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.953.0% 48.199 4.2% Hydro 7.4% 2.4% 0.1% 1.

EPRI. Energy Background Information | August 2010 he yd ro P * s . NREL. EPA.S. McGowin. 13 On Of La rg eH U. Sources: AEO.5% Inflation Rate: 3% Economic Lifetime: 30 years Taxes: none Tax credits: none Cents per kWh 30 20 8–12 6–13 8–13 6–12 4–13 Debt/Equity Financing: none Biomass Fuel Costs: AEO 2009 PV Degradation: none CSP Technology: no storage Geothermal Technology: hydrothermal 10 0 ind al PV CS ind as rm eW om eW Bi or ot or fsh Ge sh * Current range of utility scale (greater than 5MW) PV in the U. DeMeo et al.Levelized Cost of Energy of Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009) I 50 18–43 40 19–35 Assumptions Currency: 2009 US $ (real) Real Discount Rate: 10.S.

Capacity Factor for Renewable Resources (2009) I 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 21–26% 26–32% 40–45% 35–44% 85–90% 80–85% 40–93% ind al CS ind PV as rm om W W re Bi ot re ho Ge ho f-S Sources: AEO. 14 On Of -S U. EPA. DeMeo et al.S. McGowin. NREL. Energy Background Information | August 2010 La rg eH he yd ro P s . EPRI.

Energy Background Information | August 2010 .I 15 U.S.

II.S. . Renewable Electricity in the U.

and in 2009 represent 53 GW of installed capacity. energy supply. wind capacity installations increased by 39% and solar PV grew nearly 52% from the previous year. II • • • 17 Renewable Electricity in the U.6%) in the United States. Renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) has grown at a compounded annual average of 14% per year from 2000–2009. renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled.S.S. Although it is a growing part of U. In 2009. | August 2010 . renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) in 2009 still represents a small percentage of overall installed electricity capacity (4.Renewable Electricity in the U. Wind and solar PV are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors.7%) and generation (3.S.: Summary • Since 2000.

Wind energy accounted for about 92% of annual installed renewable electricity capacity in 2009 (excluding hydropower). • • 18 Renewable Electricity in the U. Electricity generation from biomass. continued II • In 2009.S. geothermal. biomass produced about 38% of total renewable electricity generation (excluding hydropower).S. and hydropower have remained relatively stable since 2000.: Summary. | August 2010 .Renewable Electricity in the U.

000 400.000 40.712 358.299 110.352 101. SEIA.000 500.000 300.894 288.428 386.841 416.303 104.026 Nameplate Capacity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA. | August 2010 .000 50.000 200.889 351. AWEA.269 382.139 343.000 20.000 250.109 119.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Nameplate Capacity (MW) Total Generation (Million kWh) 93.927 130.743 356.000 80. GEA 19 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 150.607 98.000 Generation 450.Capacity and Generation: All Renewables (including hydropower) II MW 130.908 97.026 95.000 100.437 95.000 100.000 350.000 60.904 355.000 120.000 0 Million kWh 550.S.832 354.

000 5.861 20.000 140.000 II 50.000 20.575 80.S.000 35.000 25. | August 2010 .880 32.759 128.Capacity and Generation: Renewables (excluding hydropower) MW Million kWh 150.010 143.000 10.000 20.895 80.115 18.000 2000 Total Nameplate Total Generation Capacity (MW) (Million kWh) 16.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Nameplate Capacity 40.083 83.000 45.222 23.107 97.000 60.677 42.000 Generation 100.491 18. SEIA.000 0 Sources: EIA.000 30.000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 15.321 71.587 21.081 81.586 106. AWEA. GEA 20 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 120.949 26.295 88.000 40.287 53.178 79.000 130.

S.000 22.000 11. SEIA. 21 Renewable Electricity in the U. | August 2010 .000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA. GEA * Includes on.000 33.Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity by Source (excluding hydropower) II MW 55.and off-grid capacity. AWEA.000 PV* CSP Wind Geothermal Biomass 44.

454 5.726 635 2. GEA 22 Renewable Electricity in the U.727 2. AWEA.793 % Annual Change in Growth from Previous Year .63% + 329% + 7% + 98% + 66% + 12% .396 2.624 746 1.128% + 1.611 10.425 9.797 9.697 411 1.667 372 2.931 5. SEIA.Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity Added (MW) and Percent Annual Change from Previous Year II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Solar PV 18 27 44 70 86 112 142 205 335 571 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 64 0 12 Wind 66 1.S.54% + 131% .922 Geothermal 59 0 0 0 0 30 3 106 104 46 Biomass (323) (100) 291 (11) 177 189 331 185 747 242 Total Capacity Added (w/o Hydropower) (180) 1. | August 2010 .annual decrease annual increase + Sources: EIA.237 8.002% .

798 0% 2.1% 35. 93.640 0.9% 130.4% 12.7% 3.9% 11.8% 26.9% 112 31.686 9.2% 1.and off-grid capacity.738 1.S.4% 53.8% 98.1% 2.222 3.880 12.7% 156 39.8% 312 38% 424 35.2% 226 44.081 25.299 3.9% 9.677 51.798 2.8% 18.352 0.237 50.353 35.0% annual increase + II .106 43.662 0% Solar PV* 85 26. SEIA.9% 10.109 5.727 1.578 2.1% 77.8% 566 33.867 2.5% Biomass 10.2% 77.121 35.354 0.856 0.812 45.115 9.911 0% 77.275 65.4% 771 36.946 0% 76.485 6.798 0% 2.553 2.026 1.5% 1.annual decrease Sources: EIA. | August 2010 .020 0% 77.908 0.491 -1.6% 6.3% 419 18% 419 0% 431 2.6% 42.6% 10.0% 104.7% 11.6% CSP 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 354 0% 355 0.437 -0.6% 4.5% Total U.222 1.3% 77.7% 95.8% 4.Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity (MW) and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 76.287 29.419 0.6% 11.861 4.676 2.047 0. 23 Renewable Electricity in the U.8% 10.927 8.831 0.575 26.743 9.2% 32.937 3.1% 11.5% 3.6% 6.087 1.1% 77.3% Geothermal 2.130 0.9% Wind 2. AWEA.9% 97.303 3.798 0% 2.9% 16.576 0.725 5.S.9% Total (without Hydropower) 16.798 0% 2.040 3.033 1.0% 110.6% 119.2% 25.432 0% 77.1% 21.1% 23.1% 20.3% 77.8% 101.1% 2.3% 95.677 21. GEA * Includes on.949 12.828 1.6% 12.2% 2.6% 11.159 39.587 9.607 1.1% 18.

7% 10.3% 3.1% 1.0% 0.0% 2.9% 11.7% All Renewables 10.9% 7.2% 1.0% 0.1% 1.7% Sources: EIA.3% 0.3% 7.0% 0.3% 0.1% Geothermal 0.3% 0.0% 0.9% 1.1% Renewables w/o Hydro 1.8% 10. GEA 24 Renewable Electricity in the U.5% 9.0% 2.5% 2.1% 10.2% 1.1% 1.6% 0.0% Wind 0.2% 7.1% 1.5% 0.0% 0.1% 7.5% 0.1% 1.0% 3.6% 0.0% 0.8% 9.0% 0.0% 6.2% 2.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% Solar PV 0.Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity as a Percent of Total Electricity Generating Capacity II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Hydro 8.S.0% 0. | August 2010 .9% 8.3% 0.8% 4.0% 0.5% 3. AWEA.0% 0.3% 0.9% 2.1% 0.2% 7.5% 7.4% 9.3% 0.5% 9.0% 0.3% Biomass 1.1% 1.9% 2.3% 0.1% 0.1% CSP 0.1% 1.0% 0.4% 7.1% 0.0% 1.0% 0.3% 0. SEIA.0% 0.4% 9.1% 1.

7% 39. | August 2010 .200 Biomass Geothermal Renewables (excl. SEIA.600 Wind Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) (2000–2009) 33. AWEA.800 6.1% 13.3% 2.S.000 II 8.0% 1.2% 2.9% 4.Annual Installed Renewable Electric Capacity Growth (excluding hydropower) MW 11. Hydro) 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: EIA. GEA 25 Renewable Electricity in the U.400 Capacity Solar PV CSP 2.

000 Renewables as a % of total U.000 Million kWh 450.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2% 0% Source: EIA 26 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 360.U. generation 6% 4% 180.S. Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower) II Percent of Total Generation Renewable Generation 12% 10% 8% 270.S.000 90. | August 2010 .S.

000 Renewables as a % of total U.0% 3.000 Percent of Total Generation 4.S.S. in part. 0.0% 87.5% 2. Renewable Electricity Generation (excluding hydropower) Million kWh 145.5% 1.000 0 2000 Source: EIA Note: The generation decrease from 2000 to 2001.U. | August 2010 .5% 29.000 58. non-biogenic municipal solid waste (MSW) and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).000 Renewable Generation 3.0% 2. generation 1.5% II 116. reflects an EIA classification change.0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 27 Renewable Electricity in the U.S. Beginning with 2001 data.0% 0.

S.U.000 20.000 60.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Solar Source: EIA 28 Renewable Electricity in the U.000 Wind Biomass 50.000 30.000 Geothermal 10. | August 2010 .S. Renewable Generation by Technology (excluding hydropower) II Million kWh 70.000 40.

2% 6.1% 6.3% 1.4% Wind 0.8% 1. | August 2010 .2% 8.4% 0.1% 3.0% 0.9% 8.4% 0.8% 6.8% Geothermal 0.4% Renewables w/o Hydro 2.0% 0.7% 0.1% 6.2% 5.3% 0.0% 6.9% 2.3% 1.7% 8.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 9.6% 3.7% 7.4% 0.8% 9.0% 0.6% 1.0% 0.3% 10.9% 7.5% II Source: EIA 29 Renewable Electricity in the U.9% Solar 0.2% 2.3% 1.0% 0.1% Biomass 1.4% 1.4% 0.4% 2.Renewable Electricity as a Percent of Total Generation Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 7.1% 2.0% 0.1% 0.1% 1.5% 8.3% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.3% 1.1% 0.3% 1.4% 7.6% All Renewables 9.2% 0.8% 6.S.1% 2.9% 9.0% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% 2.4% 0.3% 1.

593 24.5% 351.637 0.3% 34.1% 416.586 10.748 -18.9% 54.7% 289.7% 14.3% 343.510 -14.5% 14.0% 13.4% annual increase + Sources: EIA.5% 10.8% 97.831 3.0% 88.8% Wind 5.7% 11.5% 14. SEIA 30 Renewable Electricity in the U.841 8.4% 382.6% 55.8% Solar 909 8.9% 386.5% 14.7% 1.336 -1.139 19.0% 14.3% 268.0% 272.444 13.0% 54.4% 17.726 1.8% 80.Renewable Electricity Generation (Million kWh) and Percent Cumulative Increase from Previous Year II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Hydropower 275.1% 15.340 -0.8% 1.269 -8.073 -0.7% 70.9% 49.450 29.951 2.178 -12.8% 2.6% 83.7% 53.4% 254.9% 143.737 20.8% 106.7% 2.428 1.670 15.8% Geothermal 14.1% 55.9% 26.589 49.093 -5.annual decrease Renewables without Hydropower 81.9% 1.7% 270.S.811 2.5% 54.0% 71.107 5.246 7.573 -13.2% 358.160 2.424 -0.1% 53.3% 264.8% 14.295 4.144 26.8% 3.6% 288.832 7.0% 53.187 8.692 -0.9% 354.133 27.712 -1.741 -2.709 8.267 12% 1.575 11.904 19.3% 952 4.083 0. | August 2010 .806 4.6% 6.4% 128.761 27.363 60.354 53.3% 355.961 -21.131 6.491 5.5% 79.7% .3% 1.539 1.894 -10.417 -2.5% 14.021 7.3% All Renewables 356.4% 55.026 8.010 19.662 24.8% 14.895 12.0% 247.8% 275.759 1.034 -0.321 2.588 34.321 0.889 3.759 9.8% 216.329 21.132 10.811 25.210 1.568 -0.7% Biomass 60.

S.S. II • • • 31 Renewable Electricity in the U.State Renewable Energy Information: Summary • In 2008. Washington is the leader in installed renewable energy capacity when including hydropower. A combination of state incentives and renewable portfolio standards for renewable energy and renewable resource development has driven renewable growth in some states. Texas became the national leader in wind power development. the state coming in second place. and in 2009 has nearly 6 GW more wind capacity installed than Iowa. Texas advanced over California as having the most renewable electricity (excluding hydropower) of any U. In 2008. state. and continues to hold the lead in 2009. | August 2010 .

SEIA. USDA 32 Renewable Electricity in the U. Larry Sherwood/IREC. AWEA. GEA.Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) II                   Total Renewables (excluding hydropower) Per Capita Renewables (excluding hydropower) Total Renewables (including hydropower) Per Capita Renewables (including hydropower)  Texas  California  Iowa  Oregon  Minnesota  North Dakota  Wyoming  Vermont  Iowa  Oregon  Washington  California  Oregon  Texas  New York  Washington  North Dakota  Montana  Oregon  Wyoming Sources: EIA. | August 2010 .S.

| August 2010 .Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity (2009) Solar PV  California     CSP  California     New Jersey  Colorado  Arizona  Nevada  Hawaii  Arizona  II   Florida  Biomass  California  Florida  Maine  Virginia  Georgia     Wind  Texas  Iowa  California      Washington  Minnesota  Geothermal        Hydropower  Washington  California  Oregon   California  Nevada  Utah  Hawaii  Idaho    New York  Alabama Sources: EIA.S. Larry Sherwood/IREC 33 Renewable Electricity in the U. AWEA. GEA.

557 1. hydro) watts/person 86 62 252 70 203 1.7 0 .7 19.3 17. AWEA.274 748 175 15 26 6 0 8 1 PV* 33.7 1. | August 2010 .Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) NORTHEAST II Wind New York Pennsylvania Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Vermont Connecticut New Jersey Rhode Island 1.7 127.3 0.233 68 16 258 Sources: EIA. GEA.S.075 359 155 276 Per capita RE (excl.054 734 714 1.9 7. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 34 Renewable Electricity in the U.392 1. hydro) 6.6 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 367 26 157 430 242 759 221 7 270 Hydropower 4.654 775 722 272 445 309 119 13 4 Total Renewables (incl.5 0. Larry Sherwood/IREC.

Larry Sherwood/IREC 35 Rh od Renewable Electricity in the U.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) NORTHEAST MW 1.200 900 600 300 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II ut e ts e ey k ia nd ain hir Yo r tic an et rs sla us ps Je M ylv ec w ch Ne nn ns w sa Ha Co Ne Pe n as M Ne w Sources: EIA.800 1. AWEA. GEA. | August 2010 Ve r m eI m on t .500 1.S.

3 0.801 960 1.0 0.670 449 1. hydro) 2.126 1.0 5.220 3.203 143 309 153 1.087 2.956 963 825 479 1.S.9 0.0 1.014 1.809 3.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) MIDWEST II Wind South Dakota Minnesota Iowa Wisconsin North Dakota Michigan Missouri Nebraska Kansas Illinois Ohio Indiana 313 1.143 Per capita RE (excl.0 0.5 2.598 186 131 506 614 374 499 327 3 38 128 92 Total Renewables (incl.547 7 1.036 PV* 0. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 36 Renewable Electricity in the U. hydro) watts/person 601 386 1. | August 2010 .0 0.0 4.7 0.3 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 175 223 0 0 140 445 17 0 110 43 90 15 Hydropower 1.075 59 54 85 399 123 9 164 Sources: EIA.632 228 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC.2 0. AWEA. GEA.220 80 2.

400 1. Larry Sherwood/IREC 37 Renewable Electricity in the U.600 800 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II is a as n a ri a ka ta ian Io w iga ot no ou Oh ko ns as ko es Ind ich iss Illi Da Ka Da br inn M Ne M rth h M No Sources: EIA. GEA. | August 2010 So ut W isc on sin io ta .S.000 3.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) MIDWEST MW 4. AWEA.200 2.

902 10.2 CSP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biomass 622 10 300 210 10 374 0 410 363 711 426 375 768 8 321 7 Hydropower 3. GEA.130 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 PV* 0.363 744 790 56 777 527 192 0 325 0 Total Renewables (incl.282 806 1.683 1.0 38.418 1.1 0.S.0 6.410 29 0 0 0 0 0 1.748 2.280 672 2.142 1.1 0.363 1.9 0.8 0.154 2.828 1.2 8.932 1.1 0. AWEA.850 1.2 0.100 2. hydro) watts/person 132 380 52 21 2 130 0 52 405 40 99 67 171 3 358 12 Sources: EIA. hydro) 3.2 0.9 0.2 12. | August 2010 .309 1. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 38 Renewable Electricity in the U.5 0.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) SOUTH II Alabama Texas Tennessee Georgia North Carolina Arkansas South Carolina Virginia Oklahoma Florida Kentucky Maryland Louisiana Mississippi West Virginia Delaware Wind 0 9.203 908 960 8 976 10 Per capita RE (excl.6 0.0 3. Larry Sherwood/IREC.

Larry Sherwood/IREC 39 So ut Te n Lo De Ok M h Renewable Electricity in the U.700 3.500 7.600 5. | August 2010 tV Al irg ro ini a i . AWEA.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) SOUTH MW 9.S.800 1. GEA.900 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II as ky a ee gia nd as a a a ia gin W es a ipp e a lin am rid ian lin uc ns om ar Te x yla or ro ss la w Flo uis ab iss lah ka ne nt Ge Ca Ca Vir ar Ke Ar iss rth M No Sources: EIA.

6 26.240 2.136 1.S.8 0.0 Biomass 0 1.Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (MW) WEST II Wind Washington California Oregon Arizona Idaho Montana Nevada Colorado New Mexico Wyoming Alaska Utah Hawaii 1.7 36.839 2.2 0.101 8 223 63 PV* 5.2 768. | August 2010 .758 63 147 375 0 1.0 2.271 564 40 161 11 191 18 449 0 0 88 126 Hydropower 20.3 0.718 2.565.4 59.0 426. GEA. USDA * Does not include off-grid installations 40 Renewable Electricity in the U.400 423 616 277 Per capita RE (excl. hydro) watts/person 298 210 611 23 209 397 272 263 522 2.3 0.794 1.246 597 1.047 649 87 299 414 262 25 Total Renewables (incl.4 0.972 1.0 0.024 12 127 195 Sources: EIA.0 0.8 0.0 35.1 0.0 46.765 1.7 42.807 10. Larry Sherwood/IREC.794 10.2 CSP 0 364 0 1 0 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 2 Geothermal 0.868 2.980 2.0 15. hydro) 22.1 2.2 0. AWEA.577 2.5 0.516 2.0 14.032 8.792 17.548 1.2 0.935 1.

Larry Sherwood/IREC 41 Ne Renewable Electricity in the U. AWEA.S. GEA.600 0 PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass II na ico ka ia o ii ho na da on on gt hin W as izo wa rn ad ta va Ida eg ex Ut lifo lor Ha on Al Ne Or Ar Co Ca M Sources: EIA.400 4. | August 2010 W as w yo M m ing ah .Renewables 2009 Installed Nameplate Capacity (excluding hydropower) WEST MW 8.200 1.000 6.800 3.

III. Global Renewable Energy Development .

without hydropower.Global Renewable Energy Development: Summary • Global renewable electricity installations (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled from 2000–2009. Germany led the world in cumulative solar PV installed capacity. renewable energy accounts for 3. III • • • 43 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . biomass. Wind and solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 14 between 2000 and 2009.8% of global generation. Including hydropower. The United States leads the world in wind. renewable energy accounts for 21% of all global electricity generation. geothermal. In 2009. Wind and solar energy are the fastest growing renewable energy technologies worldwide. and CSP installed capacity.

Renewable Electricity Capacity Worldwide (including hydropower) GW Hydropower PV CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass III 1. SEIA. GWEC.200 1. GEA. EIA 44 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21.

GWEC.Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity Worldwide (excluding hydropower) GW 250 PV* CSP Geothermal Wind Biomass III 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 *Grid-tied capacity. Sources: REN21. GEA. SEIA. EIA 45 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .

SEIA. GEA. GWEC.World Renewable Cumulative Electricity Capacity Percent Increase from the Previous Year Hydro Solar PV 22% 29% 33% 25% 33% 38% 32% 5% 71% 62% CSP 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 14% 22% Wind 31% 33% 29% 29% 20% 23% 25% 27% 29% 31% Geothermal 0% 0% 2% 9% 0% 4% 3% 0% 4% 7% Biomass 6% 8% 0% -3% 0% 13% 7% 6% 4% 4% III Renewables without Hydro 11% 15% 11% 11% 10% 18% 17% 17% 22% 25% All Renewables 1% 6% 3% 9% 1% 4% 4% 10% 6% 7% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0% 5% 2% 9% 1% 2% 2% 9% 4% 4% . EIA 46 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .annual decrease annual increase + Sources: REN21.

2% 22.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.2% 19.4% 2.2% 0.9% 25.2% 0.2% 2.1% 1.2% 0.9% 1.1% 1.3% 0.5% 2.0% 0.8% 20.6% 20.1% 0.0% 1.4% 1.0% 0.3% Geothermal Biomass 0.2% 24.2% 22.0% 0.1% 1.0% Wind 0.0% 0.1% 1. EIA 47 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . GWEC.3% 5.2% 1.1% 19.0% 0.9% 2.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% Renewable Capacity without Hydropower (GW) 65 74 82 91 100 118 138 162 197 245 III Sources: REN21.7% 0. SEIA.9% 3.1% 0.8% 20.2% 0.1% 1.7% 4.5% 0.0% 0.6% 3.Renewables as a Percent of Total Installed Nameplate Capacity Worldwide Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 19.2% 0. GEA.0% 0.7% 22.8% 24.6% 20.7% 2.2% 0.8% 22.6% Solar PV 0.1% 1.0% 0.9% 19.1% 1.2% 0.2% 1.0% 0.1% 1.0% 23.1% 0.1% 2.2% 0.4% CSP 0.1% All Renewables 21.1% 2.8% 20.0% 1.7% Renewables without Hydropower 1.6% 20.8% 22.

GEA.Renewables Share of Total Electricity Capacity Worldwide III 30. SEIA. GWEC.0% Renewables Excluding Hydropower All Renewables 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21.0% 0.0% 5.0% 15.0% 20.0% 10. EIA 48 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .0% 25.

GEA.3% 15. SEIA.3% 35.Annual Installed Renewable Electricity Growth Worldwide (excluding hydropower) GW 25 III 20 Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) (2000–2009) 15 Wind 27. EIA 49 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . GWEC.3% 4.9% 10 Solar PV CSP 5 Capacity Geothermal Biomass Renewables (excl.3% 3.1% 4. Hydro) 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: REN21.

Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation (including hydropower) III 4. 70% for geothermal. GWEC.600. GEA.500. Sources: REN21. SEIA.700. 30% for wind. and 41% for hydro.000 Renewable Generation 15 1.000 Renewables as a % of Total Generation 25 3.800. EIA 50 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .000 20 Percent of Total Generation Million kWh 2.000 5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV. 54% for biomass. 25% for CSP.000 10 900.

0% III Percent of Total Generation 640. 54% for biomass. GEA. Sources: REN21.000 Renewable Generation 1.2% Million kWh 480. EIA 51 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 . SEIA.000 0.4% 320. 30% of wind. 25% for CSP.Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide (excluding hydropower) 800. GWEC.8% 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0.0% Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV.000 Renewables as a % of Total Generation 3.6% 160.000 2. 70% for geothermal.000 4. and 41% for hydro.

000 Biomass 180.000 Geothermal Solar 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Generation derived using capacity factors of 14% for PV. 70% for geothermal.000 90. SEIA. 30% of wind. EIA 52 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .000 III 360. and 41% for hydro.Renewable Electricity Generation Worldwide by Technology (2000–2009) 450. 54% for biomass. GWEC. Sources: REN21. 25% for CSP.000 Wind Million kWh 270. GEA.

8% Renewable Generation without Hydropower (million kWh) 274. EIA 53 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .3% All Renewables 18.1% 1.9% 16.469 324.019 304.4% 17.327 766.2% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 3.7% 2.3% 1.1% 2.2% 2.0% 0.4% 19.0% 0.4% 20.3% 19.4% 0.1% 18.1% 0.0% 0.3% Wind 0.1% 2.8% 17.1% Geothermal 0.3% 0.5% 0. GWEC.5% 2.3% 17.4% Solar PV Biomass 0.4% 17. SEIA.777 371.1% 1.2% 1.3% 0.477 552.2% 1.7% 19.3% 1.3% 0.2% 2.1% 0.1% 0.1% 1.9% 2.2% 20.3% 1.333 III Sources: REN21.0% 0.703 642.0% 0.Worldwide Renewable Electricity Generation as a Percent of Total Generation Hydro 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 16.3% 16.0% 17.3% 1.827 348.3% 0.6% 2.3% 0.2% 1.2% Renewables without Hydropower 1.3% 0.9% 1.7% 21.880 485.7% 17.9% 3. GEA.2% 1.3% 0.2% 19.3% 0.5% 19.4% 20.028 427.8% 0.

S.Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity  III    Total Renewables (2009)  China*  U.  Brazil  Canada  Japan  Sources: REN21 * Majority of China’s renewable energy is from small hydropower. 54 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .

 China  Germany  Spain  India Solar PV  Germany  Spain  Japan  U. SEIA Wind  U.S.  Italy CSP  U. GEA.  Philippines  Indonesia  Mexico  Italy Source: REN21.S.S.Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology (2009)               III Geothermal  U.  Brazil  Germany  China  Sweden 55 Global Renewable Energy Development | August 2010 .S.  Spain Biomass  U. GWEC.S.

Wind .IV.

In the United States. IV • • • 57 Wind | August 2010 .4 cents per kilowatt hour in 2009— a price that competes with fossil fuel-generated electricity.292 MW of wind capacity. including the production tax credit. wind experienced record growth in 2009 and nearly 10 GW of new capacity was added. installed wind energy capacity increased almost 14 times between 2000 and 2009. In 2009.8 GW added. The cumulative capacity-weighted average price of wind power. installing more than 2. China surpassed the United States as the world leader in annual installed wind capacity.Wind: Summary • In the United States. with more than 13. Texas led the United States in wind installations in 2009. was about 4.

811 26.761 2.6% 5. Total Installed Wind Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 36. Wind Capacity 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Sources: AWEA.S.U.3% Generation 30.000 18.9% 45.2% 50. Wind Energy Generation (Million kWh) U.725 9.144 17.9% 35.686 6.000 6.450 55.6% 65.000 12.000 60.593 6.000 24.000 45.187 14.237 35.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 5.354 11.737 10.589 34.1% 39.S. Wind Energy Capacity and Percent Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase IV 30.275 4.159 2.000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.000 U.363 70.6% 26.353 6.6% 35.S.000 Million kWh 75.000 15.578 4.S.8% 9.812 25. EIA 58 Wind | August 2010 .575 16.121 11.

000 18.01 U. cement.07 $0. LBNL Note: Prices reflect cumulative capacity-weighted average wind power prices and include state and federal incentives in the price.000 $0. 59 Wind | August 2010 .000 24.00 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: AWEA.06 Capacity-weighted Average Wind Power Price $0.05 $0.000 30.000 6. The recent increase in wind power price is due to increased demand for turbines coupled with global increases in prices for steel.03 2009 $/kWh $0.U. and other commodity materials. Wind Power Sales Price MW 36. Wind Capacity 0 $0. copper.000 $0.S.S.02 $0.04 IV 12.

784 MW Denmark: 3.827 MW IV 36.K.000 18.775 MW Portugal: 3.159 MW France: 4. K.408 MW Germany: 25.000 6.Wind Energy Capacity (2009) – Select Countries U. AWEA 60 Wind | August 2010 . ly ia y Sources: GWEC.000 12.474 MW Spain: 18.813 MW Italy: 4.S.: 4. Fr an ce ain Ita Ind an ina Sp De Ge rm Ch U.340 MW U.000 0 nm ar Po k rtu ga l U.000 MW 24.000 30.845 MW China: 25.: 35. S.853 MW India: 10.

Turbine Manufacturing Global Wind Turbine Market Share 2009 Total Turbine Installations: 38 GW Others 21% RePower 3% Siemens 6% Suzlon (Ind. LBNL 61 Wind | August 2010 .) 6% Gamesa (ES) 7% Dongfang 7% 7% Goldwind 9% Sinovel 9% Enercon (GE) 13% Vestas (DK) Others 0.3% Acciona WP 2.7% Siemens (DK) U.3% GE Wind (US) IV 12% GE Wind (US) 15% Vestas (DK) 8. Wind Turbine Market Share 2009 Total Turbine Installations: 9.2% Mitsubishi Source: REN21.0% Clipper 6.6% Nordex 0.3% Gamesa (ES) 6.) 11.1% REpower 3.1% 7.1% Suzlon (Ind.S. AWEA.922 MW 40.

Annual U.S. Wind Turbine Installations, by Manufacturer (MW)

MW
10,000

IV
8,000

6,000

4,000 2,402 2,000

Other Nordex Acciona REpower Gamesa Clipper Suzlon Mitsubishi Siemens Vestas GE Wind

9,922 8,350

5,249

2,454

0

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Source: AWEA, LBNL

62

Wind | August 2010

Average Installed Turbine Size

1.8

Average Turbine Size (MW)

1.6

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Average Turbine Size (MW)

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

1.21 MW MW 1.19

1.74 1.66 1.60 1.65 MW MW 1.65 1.67 1.43 MW 1.6MW MW MW 1.44 MW MW
66 m

85 m

85 m 279 ft

100 m 328 ft

100 m 328 ft

120 m 394 ft

120 m 394 ft

IV

MW 0.88 MW 0.88 0.71 1.0 0.71 MW MW MW
18 m 60 ft 60 ft

164 ft

50 m 216 ft 50 m 164 ft

66 m 279 ft 216 ft

18 m

–1 201 999 00 99 8– –2 1 0 2 20 0 90919 0 020 ––20 2 20 0001 20 0 3 04 2– –2 20 20003 04 05

20 06 0 2 7

20 05 06 2

0 20 7 0 20 8

0

0

0

–2

20

0.10 MW 0.75 MW 1.5 2.5 0.10 MW 0.75 MW MW1.5 MW MW 2.5 MW 3.5 MW

3.5 MW 5.0 MW

5.0 MW

08

09

19

CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART

98

Source: AWEA, LBNL

63

Wind | August 2010

States Leading Wind Power Development
Cumulative Capacity (2009, MW)
 Texas ........................  Iowa .........................
9,410 3,670 2,794 1,980 1,809 1,758 1,547 1,274 1,246 1,203



 California ....................

IV

  



 Washington .................

      

 Minnesota ...................  Oregon ......................  Illinois .......................  New York ....................  Colorado ....................  North Dakota ...............

Annual Capacity (2009, MW)
 Texas ........................
2,292 905 879 691 632 568 542 488 425 388



 Indiana ......................  Iowa .........................  Oregon ......................  Illinois .......................  New York ....................  Washington .................  North Dakota ...............  Wyoming ....................  Pennsylvania................

Source: AWEA

64

Wind | August 2010

IV 65 Wind | August 2010 .

Solar .V.

electricity generation. U.S. including 12 MW in the United States and 120 MW in Spain.S. and Colorado). states with aggressive solar incentives lead the United States in installations (California. Spain. Similarly. Countries with aggressive solar policies—such as Germany.S. 67 Solar | August 2010 • V • • . A number of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants came online in 2009. Nevada. New Jersey.Solar: Summary • Solar energy electricity generation has nearly quadrupled between 2000 and 2009. China is the market leader with nearly 40% of the global PV cell production. but still represents a very small part of overall U. and Japan— lead the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment. manufacturers currently have a small share of the world PV market. U.

444 1.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U. Solar Energy Capacity (MW) and % Increase from Previous Year V 1.106 1.S.133 2.000 1.677 CSP 354 354 354 354 354 354 355 419 419 431 Total 439 466 510 580 666 778 921 1.600 1.500 3. 68 Solar | August 2010 .108 Increase 4.500 1.000 2.000 CSP PV 0 Sources: SEIA Note: Generation numbers calculated from installed capacity using a 18% capacity factor for PV and 25% capacity factor for CSP.021 1.S.400 1.U. Solar Energy Generation (Million kWh) U.190 1.8% 16.132 1.800 GWh 3.4% 13.4% 29.200 1.S.2% 9.2% 38.7% 14. * Includes on.500 2.and off-grid capacity.2% 909 952 1.525 2.662 3.000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 PV* 85 112 156 226 312 424 566 771 1.267 1.200 2.2% 28.8% 18.588 Generation 1. Total Installed Solar Energy Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 2.670 2.3% 6.

25 0.500 1.500 3. Louis. Note: Data from Solarbuzz is corrected for inflation. Federal Reserve Bank of St.30 $/kWh 0.000 1.U.45 3.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: Solarbuzz LLC.15 V MWh 2.000 500 0 Generation 0.000 Solar Price Range 0.S.35 0.50 0.000 2. PV Power Sales Price 0.05 2006 2007 2008 2009 0. 69 Solar | August 2010 .40 4.10 0.500 0.20 0.

S.000 4.000 2.: 2.677 MW Czech Republic: 465 MW Italy: 1.000 0 S.628 MW V 10.000 8. ain Sp c e ly n um nc lgi pu Ita pa Fr a Be Re Ge rm Ja an bli U.Solar Energy Installed Capacity (2009) – Select Countries Belgium: 362 MW U.595 MW Germany: 9.158 MW Japan: 2.000 MW 6.108 MW France: 465 MW Spain: 3. y Source: SEIA * Includes PV and CSP Cz ec h 70 Solar | August 2010 .

8% U.4% Solyndra 5.258 MW cell production 19.631.1% Trina Solar (China) 3.871.3% Kyocera (Japan) 3.3% Evergreen Solar Source: Modified from Photon International * Based on location of facilities 71 Solar | August 2010 .3% Others Emcore 5.2% Yingli Green Energy (China) 4.8% United Solar Ovonic 18.3% 21.8% Schott Solar 1.9 MW production capacity Solarfun (China) 2.S.3% Q-Cells (Malaysia) 4.9% Suntech Power (China) 5.9% Miasole 2.3% JA Solar (China) 4.7% FirstSolar (Malaysia) 6.Photovoltaic Manufacturing Global Solar PV Production 2009: 12.2% 57.8% Global Solar 1.5% Sharp (Japan) 4.5 MW production capacity 25.1% Ningbo Solar Electric (China) 2.1% Sanyo (Japan) 2.3% Solarworld 8.3% Suniva 4.3% First Solar V Other 4. Cell Production 2009: 566 MW cell production 1.

..7  Massachusetts CSP Cumulative Capacity (2009.... 64  Nevada ..... 19...2  Hawaii ........9  New York ...... 768... 36.... 72 Solar | August 2010 ... 35...... 33....... 46... MW) 364  California . 12....0  New Jersey ..5 59..... 9.1  New York .......... MW)  California ..... Larry Sherwood/IREC Note: Grid-tied capacity only.. PV Annual Capacity Additions (2009.1 57. 212. 12. 2  Hawaii .. 21. 1  Arizona ..1  Colorado .2  Arizona ...7  Connecticut ..... 38....... 127.......... MW)  California ..3  New Jersey ..1  Arizona .. 7.. 23.7  Hawaii . 26........ 17..4  Colorado ..4  Nevada ....9  Florida ..........7  Connecticut .8  North Carolina V                    Source: SEIA..9  Florida ...5  Massachusetts 8.......States Leading Solar Energy Development (2009) PV Cumulative Capacity (2009.

V 73 Solar | August 2010 .

Geothermal 74 Geothermal | August 2010 .VI VI.

Geothermal: Summary • U.2% growth. • VI • • 75 Geothermal | August 2010 .S. 365 days a year. with the past 10 years experiencing an average of 1. because it can provide electricity 24 hours a day. with most of that power installed in California. geothermal is distinct from other renewables such as wind and solar. As a base-load source of energy. geothermal energy generation has remained relatively stable from 2000 to 2009. The United States leads the world in installed geothermal electricity capacity and generation. Geothermal energy generates power for between 5 and 10 cents / kilowatt-hour.

811 14.692 14.087 2.0% 0.1% 0.500 2.000 2.828 2. Geothermal Electricity Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase VI 14.500 1. EIA 76 Geothermal | August 2010 .000 500 0 8.1% 3.000 14.798 2.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.040 3.951 15.0% 0.798 2.210 2.000 4. Geothermal Electricity Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 3.798 2.798 2.5% 1.5% Capacity 1.0% 0.000 10.000 12.2% 0.491 14.937 3.U.637 14.S.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: GEA. Geothermal Electricity Generation (Million kWh) U.741 14.798 2.000 Million kWh Generation 16.568 14.0% 1.000 6.S.093 13.7% 3.424 14.000 2.831 2.500 3.S.

000 2. Geothermal Capacity and Cost Trends 10 3.000 500 0 Cost 6 VI 4 Capacity 2 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 0 Source: GEA 77 Geothermal | August 2010 .500 1.S.500 8 Cost (Flash Plant. cents/kWh) Capacity (MWe) 2.000 1.U.500 3.

: 3.100 1.197 MW Philippines: 1.S.500 2.087 MW Japan: 536 MW Italy: 843 MW Mexico: 958 MW VI El Salvador: 204 MW Kenya: 167 MW Indonesia: 1.Global Geothermal Electricity Capacity (2009) – Select Countries Iceland: 575 MW U.800 MW 2.400 700 0 New Zealand: 628 MW I Ne cela n w Ze d ala nd on es ilip ia pin es Ph ny do pa Ita ico lva Ke Ja Sa M El Source: GEA 78 Ind ex U.904 MW 3. S. a ly n r Geothermal | August 2010 .

...7 0..565.0 35....0 15....  New Mexico .  Alaska ...5 426......3 0........  Wyoming ..8 42.State Geothermal Energy Development (2009)     Total Installed Capacity (2009... 2......  Nevada ..8 0.....  Hawaii .  Oregon .............  Utah ......... MW)  California ....  Idaho ...3 0.2   VI    Source: GEA 79 Geothermal | August 2010 ........

Biopower 80 Biopower | August 2010 .VII VII.

81 Biopower | August 2010 .Biopower: Summary • Biopower generation has remained steady during the past seven years. and currently accounts for 38% of all renewable energy generated in the United States (excluding hydropower). VII • Biomass electricity primarily comes from wood and agricultural residues that are burned as a fuel for cogeneration in the industrial sector (such as in the pulp and paper industry).

82 Biopower | August 2010 .033 11. Biopower Generation (Million kWh) U.073 54.000 2.U.7% 2.336 10.727 .759 55.340 53.539 55.6% 1.9% 2.6% 6.485 12.000 Million kWh 70.160 54.676 10.000 12.576 10.1% 1.9% VII 8.867 10.9% 1.S. non-biogenic municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as nonrenewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower). Beginning with 2001 data.000 6.000 50.0.S.000 0 Source: EIA Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 reflects an EIA classification change.709 53.000 30.000 10.4% 1.2.8% .9% .738 12.034 54. Biopower Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Change 60.726 49.000 10.0.S.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Capacity 20.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 60.222 11.856 11.748 53.000 40. Biopower Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 14.000 Generation U.000 4.553 11.

........................................States Leading Biopower Energy Development (2009)     Total Installed Capacity (2009........................................................ 1... VII     Michigan ..271 768 759 711 622 564 449 445 430 426     Alabama. MW)  California .............  Florida .  Massachusetts ......  Kentucky ........ Source: EIA 83 Biopower | August 2010 ..........................  New Mexico .......  Vermont .............  Louisiana ................  Oregon .......

826 1.004 2.834 2.470 14.000 2005 2006 2007 LFG/MSW 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009 Source: EIA Note: LFG stands for Landfill Gas and MSW stands for Municipal Solid Waste Note: The generation decrease between 2000 to 2001 reflects an EIA classification change.300 36.714 13.259 37.305 12.000 2000 LFG/MSW TOTAL 20.243 60.014 37.000 Other Biomass Wood and Derived Fuel 52. Beginning with 2001 data.200 38.649 39. 84 Biopower | August 2010 .520 15.336 39.462 15.281 13.539 55.576 38.009 2.214 2.529 37.034 54.106 14.759 55. Biopower Generation Sources (2000–2009) Million kWh 65.383 13.U.709 53. non-biogenic municipal solid waste and tire-derived fuels were reclassified as non-renewable energy sources (previously considered waste biopower).000 Other Biomass 13.726 49.748 53.073 54.340 53.428 2.398 13.216 2.S.160 54.681 38.665 37.834 1.595 35.063 2.000 Wood & Derived Fuels 2001 2002 2003 2004 VII 26.646 2.

VII

85

Biopower | August 2010

VIII . Hydropower

86

Hydropower | August 2010

Hydropower: Summary

Hydropower capacity has remained constant between 2000–2009, with generation fluctuation depending on water supply. Hydropower remains the largest source of renewable energy generation, and an important component of the energy mix; primarily large-scale hydropower accounts for 6.9% of U.S. electricity generation.

VIII

87

Hydropower | August 2010

S.432 77.000 50.000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 U.1% 0.047 77.000 Generation 250.573 216.000 200.000 0 Source: EIA *Note: Excludes pumped storage.417 270.806 268.000 10.000 300.S.1% 0.246 247.329 275.000 60.946 76.2% 0.3% 0.510 254.0% 0.020 77.419 77.0% 0. Hydropower* Nameplate Capacity and Generation MW 90.S. 88 Hydropower | August 2010 .911 77. Hydropower Capacity and % Increase from Previous Year Total (MW) % Increase 275.640 77.961 264.000 70. Hydropower Generation (Million kWh) U.662 0.000 80.000 150.321 289.000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Capacity 100.U.000 50.0% 0.354 77.3% 0.831 272.000 30.0% VIII 40.000 Million kWh 350.0% 0.000 20.130 77.131 76.

...........  Arizona ............  Alabama ....................654 3..807 10................... 20......418 1......  California .......718 2.....932       Oregon .................  Idaho .......... MW)  Washington ....  Georgia .  Tennessee.280 2..........516 2........States Leading Hydropower Generation (2009)      Capacity (2009............  New York .........261 4..... VIII Source: EIA 89 Hydropower | August 2010 ......................548 2................  Montana..........032 8.......

Advanced Water Power 90 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 .IX IX.

interest in advanced water power—such as tidal. with many prototype projects in testing stages and permits being filed at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). IX • 91 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 . river and ocean current.S. One wave and two tidal plants came online in 2009 in New South Wales. and the United Kingdom. and ocean wave energy—is just beginning to grow. Canada.Advanced Water Power: Summary • U.

Worldwide Advanced Water Power Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station Mutriku Wave Power Plant Bay of Fundy Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant 13  Islay Project 11       Fall of Warness Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project La Rance Tidal Power Plant Xingfuyang   Billia Croo Test Site  Aguçadora Wave Park RITE Project  14  Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant IX   = Wave = Tidal Port Kembla Wave Energy Project 12  Sources: FERC. Global Data 92 Advanced Water Power | August 2010 .

7 MW 240 MW 300 kW 500 kW 120 kW 1. 2007 1984 2009 2003 2008 2009 2000 ~1980 1968 1966 2009 2006 2007 ~1980  Aguçadora Wave Park  Annapolis Royal Tidal Power Plant  Bay of Fundy  Billia Croo Test Site  Fall of Warness  Humber Estuary Tidal Power Project  Islay Project  Jiangxia Tidal Power Generation Plant  Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station  La Rance Tidal Power Plant 11  12  13  14  IX Mutriku Wave Power Plant Port Kembla Wave Energy Project RITE Project Xingfuyang = Commercial Plants FERC Permitted and Licensed Projects in the U.25 MW 20 MW 1.Worldwide Advanced Water Power Commercial and Pilot Plants in Operation PROJECT NAME Type WAVE TIDAL TIDAL WAVE TIDAL TIDAL WAVE TIDAL TIDAL TIDAL WAVE WAVE TIDAL TIDAL Location Povoa de Varzim.3 MW Year of Oper. Canada United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom China Barents Sea.0 MW 200 kW 250 kW 100 kW 500 kW 3. Portugal Nova Scotia.S. (2009) 93 Permitted 130 Pending Permit 40 Licensed 2 Pending licenses 0 Sources: FERC. Russia France New South Wales Australia East River. Canada Nova Scotia. Global Data Advanced Water Power | August 2010 . New York China Technology Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Dam and Tidal Turbine In-stream tidal tubine N/A Open Hydro Centre Turbine Oscillating Hydrofoils Wavegen Limpet Device N/A Orthogonal roto Turbine Oscillating Water Column Oceanlinx Wave Energy System Verdant Free Flow Turbines N/A Size 2.2 MW 1.

Hydrogen 94 Hydrogen | August 2010 .X X.

23 of which are greater than 1 MW in capacity. There are close to 1. there are approximately 68 hydrogen fueling stations in the United States.Hydrogen: Summary • As of April 2010. An estimated 223 fuel cell vehicles are available in the United States to date. X • • 95 Hydrogen | August 2010 .000 stationary fuel cell installations worldwide.

9% is used to make methanol. and the remainder is for chemical processing. EIA 96 Hydrogen | August 2010 . 2 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 DE Number of Operational U. with 9 million tons being consumed in the United States. and for space exploration. Hydrogen Fueling Stations (April 2010 – Total of 68) 8 1 26 X 1 2 1 Number of recorded fuel cell vehicles in the United States = 223 Sources: NHA.Hydrogen – Transportation Hydrogen Production 50 million tons of hydrogen are produced each year worldwide. Approximately 60% is used for making ammonia for fertilizer. electronics.S. metal production. 23% is used to make gasoline cleaner by removing sulfur.

Korea (4) X Sources: FuelCells.S.Hydrogen – Electricity Stationary Fuel Cell Installations (2009) 527 Non-U. 38 U. Installations Number of stationary fuel cells >1 MW = 23 Located in the U.org 97 Hydrogen | August 2010 .S. Italy (1). (16).S. Installations Worldwide Installations = 945 Planned Projects = 68 30 Non-U. Japan (2).S.S. 418 U.

XI XI. Renewable Fuels 98 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .

Renewable Fuels – Ethanol: Summary • Corn ethanol production continues to expand rapidly in the United States. • • • XI * Most U. Ethanol has steadily increased its percentage of the overall gasoline pool.750 million gallons per year.S.0% of the world’s ethanol. Additionally. which is produced from non-food crops. the European Union at 6.8%. Ethanol production grew nearly 20% in 2009 to reach 10. 99 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 . China at 3. Between 2000 and 2009. Note: Ethanol is blended with gasoline and generally comprises up to 10% of the fuel with gasoline as the other 90% (E10). ethanol is currently produced from corn (in contrast to Brazil’s ethanol coming from sugar cane). In 2009.0%. Department of Energy and others to commercialize cellulosic ethanol.9%. and in 2009 was estimated to be 7.5%. flex-fuel vehicles use a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85). and Thailand at 2. but efforts are underway by the U.1%. followed by Brazil at 37. production increased more than 6 times.S. the United States* produced 62.

S.000 1. retail) $1.000 8.00 $5.000 Gasoline Price (avg.00 $2.000 0 2000 2001 2002 Corn Ethanol Production $0.00 3.00 $/gallon $3.000 10. EERE Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .000 4.000 $6.00 Million gallons/year 7. Corn Ethanol Production and Price Trends 11.000 6.U.00 2003 2004 100 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sources: RFA.000 9.000 5.000 Corn Ethanol Price (energy-equivalent basis) $4.00 XI 2.

U.S. Ethanol Production and Growth in Gasoline Pool by Volume

Gasoline Pool* (Million gallons/yr)

Ethanol Production (Million gallons/yr)

Annual Growth (%)

Percent of Gasoline Pool

U.S. Ethanol Distribution and Utilization
2,030 E85 stations (April 2010) E85 average retail price (January 2010): $3.36/gallon (gasoline gallon equivalent basis), gasoline price: $2.65/gallon Approximately 8 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) are on the road

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

128,662 129,312 132,782 134,089 137,022 136,949 138,378 142,287 137,797 137,736

1,630 1,770 2,130 2,800 3,400 3,904 4,855 6,500 9,000 10,750

11% 9% 20% 31% 21% 15% 24% 34% 39% 19%

1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 2.1% 2.5% 2.9% 3.5% 4.6% 6.5% 7.8%

XI

* Includes ethanol Sources: EIA, Renewable Fuels Association, DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center

101

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity and Ethanol Yields and Emissions

    
Top Five States for U.S. Ethanol (operating) Production Capacity in 2009 (millions of gallons)
 Iowa .........................  Nebraska ....................  Illinois .......................  Minnesota ...................  South Dakota ...............
3,183 1,454 1,350 1,113 1,016

XI

Note: No sugarcane ethanol is currently produced in the United States. Sources: RFA

102

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

U.S. Ethanol Production Capacity
Total U.S. Ethanol Operating Production Capacity (2009): 11,877.4 million gallons/year (mmgy)

Top Five Ethanol Companies —Production Capacity 2009
(millions of gallons/year)  Poet ....................................  Archer Daniels Midland Co. ..........  Valero Renewable Fuels ..............  Green Plains Renewable Energy .....  Hawkeye Renewables LLC ........... 1,526 1,070 780 480 420

XI

Source: RFA

103

Renewable Fuels | August 2010

....102 17.........150 13..... 2006 .....750  China: 542  Thailand: 435  XI Brazil: 6........................ 10......................... 2005 ..770 12...... 2009 . 2008 .........578 Global Ethanol Production (millions of gallons) 2004 .Global Ethanol Production Top Five Countries (2009) Ethanol Production (millions of gallons) EU: 1..... 2007 ................335 19.040   United States: 10........535 Source: RFA 104 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 ..............489 13...........................................

S.Renewable Fuels – Biodiesel: Summary • Biodiesel has expanded from a relatively small production base in 2000. production of 545 million gallons in 2009. Biodiesel production in 2009 is 109 times what it was in 2000. Europe leads the world in biodiesel production. XI • • 105 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 . to a total U. with most production in France and Germany.

00 XI 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 $0.S.000 545.U.000 $2.00 150.00 Sources: National Biodiesel Board.000 25. EERE 106 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .000 250.00 300% 150% 200% 33% 25% 200% 233% 100% 40% (22%) 2.000 75.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Annual Growth Total Production (thousand gallons) Thousand Gallons 450.000 20.000 Production $1.000 $/Gallon 300.00 600.000 500.000 $3.000 5.000 $5. Biodiesel Demand and Price (2000–2009) 750.000 700.000 Price $4.000 15.

4 million gallons/year (mmgy) Top Six Biodiesel Companies — Production Capacity 2009 (millions of gallons/year)  Renewable Energy Group.175. REG. Renewable Biofuels Inc. Biodiesel Production Capacity (2009): 2. Biodiesel Production Capacity Total U. Inc / Imperium Renewables.S. Imperium Renewables.U. Inc / Biodiesel of Las Vegas  Green Earth Fuels. LLC  Louis Dreyfus Agricultural Industries 362 180 100 90 85 XI Source: National Biodiesel Board. Inc  Renewable Biofuels.S. Green Earth Fuels LLC 107 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .

...378 3................... 2009 ............................. National Biodiesel Board 108 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 . Sources: REN21.....030 1.......170 4..........585 2...........Global Biodiesel Production Top Five Countries (2009) Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons) Germany: 687    United States: 545 France: 687 Brazil: 423 XI  Global Biodiesel Production (millions of gallons) 2004 ... 2006 .........................385  Argentina: 370 2007 ......... 555 1.... 2005 ......... 2008 ....

XI 109 Renewable Fuels | August 2010 .

Clean Energy Investments 110 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .XII XII.

U. investment in wind energy projects grew from $250 million in 2001 to more than $2 billion in 2009.S.S.S. venture capital and private equity investment in renewable energy technology companies was $3. U. investment in renewable energy has grown dramatically in the past decade. and in 2009 investment reached more than $9 billion. U. In 2009.S. XII • • • 111 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .Clean Energy Investments: Summary • U.4 billion—up from $30 million in 2001. venture capital and private equity investment in solar technology companies has increased from $5 million in 2001 to more than $1 billion in 2009.

2009 ($ millions) U. Total Investment 3.969 XII 0 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 0 1Q 2009 2Q 2009 3Q 2009 4Q 2009 Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance Completed and disclosed deals only.S.U.S.236 Global Total Investment 50.000 $26. 112 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .224 Power Storage Ef ciency Marine Fuel Cells Biopower Geothermal Wind Solar Biofuels 40. Includes VC/PE.070 1.000 30.000 $47.000 $15.000 $3.614 $ in Millions $ in Millions 2. and Global Total Investment in Renewable Energy.812 700 10. and acquisition transactions.858 2. public market activity.100 $2. asset financing.400 $1.938 20.800 $2.500 $3.

525 $1.000 5.000 11.000 6.000 3.000 4.128 $ in Millions 7.000 10.000 2.000 $8. 113 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .593 XII 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database. Wind Energy Project Asset Financing Transactions ($ millions).S. 2001–2009 12.U.000 0 $940 $250 $230 $750 $2.180 $11.000 1.000 9.000 8.170 $7.

300 XII 0 $440 2001 $321 2002 $525 $720 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.600 $1. 114 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 . 2001–2009 6.282 $3.375 $ in Millions 3.U.250 5.200 $4.S.500 Marine Fuel Cells/Hydrogen Power Storage Ef ciency Biopower Geothermal Wind Solar Biofuels $6.289 1. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Renewable Energy Technology Companies.823 $2.900 2.

2001–2009 3.S.500 2.000 1.570 $1.000 500 0 $40 2001 $38 2002 $56 2003 $62 2004 $398 $214 $1. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Solar Energy Technology Companies.700 $ in Millions XII 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.000 2.U.079 $2. 115 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .500 1.

116 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .U. 2001–2009 1. Venture Capital and Private Equity Investment ($ millions) in Biofuels Technology Companies.200 1.000 $827 800 600 $425 400 $238 200 $25 2001 $24 2002 $75 2003 $40 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 $602 $1.110 $ in Millions XII 0 Figures represent Disclosed Deals derived from Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s Desktop database.S.

2009 (Indexed to 100) 140% 120% 100% 80% 60% WilderHill New Energy Global Index (DJIA: ^NEX) 33% 32% 26% 17% 40% 20% 0% Jan 2009 Mar 2009 May 2009 New Alternatives Fund (NALFX) Guinness Atkinson Alternative Energy Fund (GAAEX) Calvert Global Alternative Energy Fund (CGAEX) July 2009 Sept 2009 Nov 2009 Dec 2009 XII Public data 117 Clean Energy Investments | August 2010 .Public Renewable Energy Index Performance.

.

Biodiesel can also be made from hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products such as rice hulls.1. rapeseed. used primarily for transportation. Direct Use Use of electricity that (1) is self-generated. Direct use is exclusive of station use. Cost represents the sum of the value of the inputs in production Biofuels Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks. XIII 119 Glossary | August 2010 . Compound Annual Growth Rate The year-over-year growth rate applied during a multiple-year period. Capacity Factor The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a generating unit for the period of time considered to the electrical energy that could have been produced at continuous full power operation during the same period. and (3) is used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. (2) is produced by either the same entity that consumes the power or an affiliate. The formula for calculating CAGR is (Current Value/Base Value)^(1/# of years) . Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such as soybeans.Glossary Base-load capacity The generating equipment normally operated to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis. or from animal tallow. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) A solar energy conversion system characterized by the optical concentration of solar rays through an arrangement of mirrors to heat working fluid to a high temperature. Concentrating solar power (but not solar thermal power) may also refer to a system that focuses solar rays on a photovoltaic cell to increase conversion efficiency. or sunflowers. Biodiesel Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender. E85 A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. Cost The amount paid to produce a good or service. Biomass Organic non-fossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source.

water heating. hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. FERC is an independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy (DOE) and is the successor to the Federal Power Commission. as do most other electrical generation techniques. It does not contain an intermediate heat cycle. including any additions such as ethanol or methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Ethanol can also be used in high concentrations (E85) in vehicles designed for its use. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (blended up to 10 percent concentration). and gas pipeline certification. natural gas pricing. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) The federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales.g. Generation The total amount of electric energy produced by generating units and measured at the generating terminal in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or megawatthours (MWh). (2) 100 percent petroleum-based fuels. Geothermal Energy The heat that is extracted from hot water or steam that is mined from geothermal reservoirs in the earth’s crust. Loops may be installed horizontally or vertically in the ground or submersed in a body of water. or electricity generation. XIII 120 Glossary | August 2010 . The fluid is contained in a variety of loop (pipe) configurations depending on the temperature of the ground and the ground area available. colorless. Gasoline Pool All gasoline produced by volume. Fuel Cell A device capable of generating an electrical current by converting the chemical energy of a fuel (e. Flexible-Fuel Vehicles Vehicles that can operate on (1) alternative fuels (such as E85). Water or steam can be used as a working fluid for geothermal heat pumps. Flexible-fuel vehicles have a single fuel system to handle alternative and petroleum-based fuels. Fuel cells differ from conventional electrical cells in that the active materials such as fuel and oxygen are not contained within the cell but are supplied from outside.Glossary Ethanol A clear. (3) any mixture of an alternative fuel (or fuels) and a petroleum-based fuel. flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon. oil pipeline rates.. Geothermal Heat Pump A heat pump in which the refrigerant exchanges heat (in a heat exchanger) with a fluid circulating through an earth connection medium (ground or ground water). hydroelectric licensing. wholesale electric rates. and then is reinjected back into the earth. Ethanol is typically produced chemically from ethylene. or biologically from fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood.

measured as 1 kilowatt (1. Landfill Gas Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. Kilowatt (kW) One thousand watts. The methane in landfill gas may be vented. waves. or injected into a pipeline for combustion off-site. adjusted to remove the impact of inflation). XIII 121 Glossary | August 2010 . Ocean Energy Energy conversion technologies that harness the energy in tides. Nameplate capacity is usually indicated in units of kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and in kilowatts (kW) on a nameplate physically attached to the generator. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Residential solid waste and some nonhazardous commercial. Photovoltaic (PV) Cell An electronic device consisting of layers of semiconductor materials fabricated to form a junction (adjacent layers of materials with different electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts and being capable of converting incident light directly into electricity (direct current). converted to equal annual payments.000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. Kilowatt-hour (kWh) A measure of electricity defined as a unit of work or energy. or combusted to generate electricity or useful thermal energy on-site. Nameplate Capacity The maximum rated output of a generator under specific conditions designated by the manufacturer. One kWh is equivalent to 3.Glossary Gigawatt (GW) One billion watts or one thousand megawatts. The average composition of landfill gas is approximately 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide and water vapor by volume. Costs are levelized in real dollars (i. and thermal gradients in the oceans. Gigawatt-hour (GWh) One billion watt-hours. institutional. Incremental Capacity Capacity added on an annual basis. and industrial wastes..412 Btu. Levelized Cost Insolation The amount of radiation from the sun received at the surface of the Earth in a particular geographic location or region. Megawatt-hour (MWh) One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours. flared. The present value of the total cost of building and operating a generating plant over its economic life.e. Megawatt (MW) One million watts of electricity.

Normally. Renewable Energy Resources Energy resources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. and tidal action. and heating swimming pools. Renewable energy resources include: biomass. hot tubs. Thermoelectric Power Plant A term used to identify a type of electric generating station. When additional generating capacity is needed. capability. XIII 122 Glossary | August 2010 . Wind Energy Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps. wave action. domestic hot water heating. and electric power generators. geothermal. The heat collected by the solar collector may be used immediately or stored for later use. capacity. and an absorber. a solar thermal collector includes a frame. hydro. or spas. wind.Glossary Price The amount paid to acquire a good or service. or output in which the source of energy for the prime mover is heat. mills. together with appropriate insulation. Solar collectors are used for space heating. solar. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant A plant that usually generates electric energy during peak load periods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods when excess generating capacity is available to do so. Solar Thermal Collector A device designed to receive solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. ocean thermal. glazing. the water can be released from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine generators located in a power plant at a lower level.

html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.pt?space=CommunityPage&cached=true&parentname=ObjMgr&parentid=2&control= SetCommunity&CommunityID=404&RaiseDocID=000000000001019539&RaiseDocType=Abstract_id • Data used in the EPA IPM model 2009.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum. http://www.eia. http://seia.eia. http://www.doe.eia. http://www. April 2010.html XIV References | August 2010 123 .gov/emeu/mer/overview.gov/emeu/mer/overview.S.eia.1.References U. http://www. http://my. Table 1. http://www.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).doe.awea.2.epri.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/epa-ipm/index. http://www. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010.html • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity.eia.doe.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. http://www.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.doe. Nameplate and Generation Pie Charts — Pages 10–12 • EIA – Electric Power Monthly.com/portal/server. Table 1.pdf Price of Technology and Capacity Factor — Pages 13–14 • AEO 2009.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.doe.doe.html • Consumption: EIA – Monthly Energy Review.3.html • EPRI MERGE Study 2009.html U.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.doe. April 2010. http://www.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.epa. 2009. Energy Production and Consumption — Pages 7–9 • Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Monthly Energy Review • Production: EIA – Monthly Energy Review. Table 1. http://geo-energy.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.eia. http://www.S.html • EIA – Electric Power Annual.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo09/index.

Sullivan.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity. "Renewable Energy Technical Assessment Guide-TAG-RE:2007.doe. Palo Alto. Bird. http://geo-energy. • Data used in NREL ReEDS analyses associated with the Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) study.doe.. • McGowin C.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.doe.eia. http://www. James.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.awea.. CA • DeMeo." EPRI. CA • EPRI (1993)." EPRI TR-10226-V1R7m EPRI. Palo Alto. Galdo (1997).html • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity.A. http://www.. J. L.html • EIA – Electric Power Annual. http://www. and M. D. W. "Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations. NREL/TP-6A2-45161.1. "EPRI-Technical Assessment Guide.References References • Data used in NREL ReEDS Analyses.eia. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. February 2009.eia. CA Capacity and Generation — Pages 19–25 • EIA – Electric Power Monthly. Evaluating a Proposed 20% National Renewable Portfolio Standard. Short. Forthcoming.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. http://www.eia. T.pdf XIV 124 References | August 2010 . Citation: Logan. Shah. (2007). Table 1. 2009.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).. Electricity supply-1993.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4. P..org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. EPRI." EPRI-TR109496.doe.. F.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report. NREL Technical Report. http://www. Palo Alto. and J. http://seia.

March 2010.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum. http://www.%20Apr. Chapter 1.doe.eia.pdf” State Numbers by Technology — Pages 32–41 • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.eia.ers.doe. http://www.gov/StateFacts/ World Renewable Energy — Pages 44–51 • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report. State Fact Sheets.doe.gwec.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final. http://seia.eia.awea.References Generation — Pages 26–30 • Solar – Numbers calculated using capacity factors of 18% for PV and 25% for CSP based on installed capacity • EIA – Electric Power Monthly.ren21.usda.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf • Larry Sherwood/Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) • USDA Economic Research Service. http://www. http://geo-energy.pdf XIV 125 References | August 2010 .html • EIA – Electric Power Annual. http://www.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th.pdf • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). http://www.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html • American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) – Annual Wind Industry Report. http://www. http://www.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. 2009. http://seia. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010..

Electric Power Monthly. 54% for biomass.1A.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full. with generation derived through using capacity factors of 14% for solar power. http://geo-energy.doe.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.awea.cfm?tid=2&pid=2&aid=7&cid=&syid=2000&eyid=2008&unit=MK (estimated for 2008 and 2009) World Electricity Generation — Pages 52–53 • World capacity data used. Year End 2009 Market Report.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one XIV 126 References | August 2010 . http://www. http://seia. May 2010.ren21.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf U. http://geo-energy. 25% for CSP and 41% for hydropower. May 2010.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.pdf • Generation Numbers: EIA. http://seia.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.org/pdf/reports/GEA_International_Market_Report_Final_May_2010.http://tonto. http://www..eia.pdf • EIA . 2010. http://www.eia.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.%20Apr. Table 1. Total Installed Wind Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 58 • Capacity Numbers: AWEA. Top Countries — Pages 54–55 • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report.doe.pdf • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009.pdf • GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update.References References • GEA – Geothermal Energy: International Market Update. 30% for wind. 70% for geothermal.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th. http://www.org/publications/reports/4Q09.S.gwec.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.

Solar Energy Industry Electricity Prices.pdf XIV References | August 2010 127 . Total Installed Solar Energy Capacity and Generation — Page 68 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. Select Countries — Page 70 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. http://www. http://eetd.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf U. Wind Power Sales Price — Page 59 • AWEA. http://www.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.org/publications/reports/4Q09. Year End 2009 Market Report.pdf Wind Energy Generation. Manufacturing.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind_2007_report/GWEC_Global_Wind_2009_Report_LOWRES_15th. http://www.pdf • LBNL.pdf PV Power Sales Price — Page 69 • Solarbuzz LLC.pdf • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.org/fred2/categories/18/downloaddata Solar Energy Capacity.S.%20Apr. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report.. Turbine Size.net/globalstatusreport/REN21_GSR_2010_full.com/SolarPrices.ren21.S. Louis. http://research. Leading States — Pages 60–64 • AWEA. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report. http://www.htm • GDP Deflator Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St.pdf • REN21 – Renewables 2010 Global Status Report.lbl. http://www.stlouisfed.References U.gwec.awea. http://seia. http://eetd. Year End 2009 Market Report.solarbuzz.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review.pdf • GWEC – Global Wind 2009 Report.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-3716e.awea. http://seia.

US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. http://geo-energy.pdf XIV 128 References | August 2010 . US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010. 78 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).doe.S.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.html#one U.1A. http://seia.pdf • Generation: EIA.org/galleries/default-file/2009%20Solar%20Industry%20Year%20in%20Review. Top States: Solar Energy Development PV and CSP — Page 72 • Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) – US Solar Industry Year In Review 2009. March 2010. US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update – April 2010.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.References References PV Manufacturing — Page 71 • Modified from Photon International.pdf • 2009 State Data: Larry Sherwood/IREC Geothermal Capacity and Generation — Page 76 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA).pdf State Geothermal Generation — Page 79 • Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). http://geo-energy. http://geo-energy. Geothermal Power Sales Price and Global Geothermal Capacity — Page 77. http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum. Table 1. 2010. Electric Power Monthly.org/pdf/reports/April_2010_US_Geothermal_Industry_Update_Final.

html#one • EIA – Electric Generating Capacity.html Other Water Power: Wave and Tidal — Pages 92–93 • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity. State Rankings — Page 88. http://www.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p4.html plus planned 2009 capacity (table ES3). http://www.doe.1A. http://www.doe.gov/industries/hydropower/indus-act/hydrokinetics. http://www.eia.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html#one • EIA.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.References Biopower Capacity and Generation — Pages 82–84 • EIA.eia.eia.doe.doe.doe.org/db/index.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/atftables/afv_atf.asp#null • FuelCells.org.fuelcells. http://www. http://www. http://www.ferc.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.org/general/fuelingSearch. Table 1. http://www. Table S7.hydrogenassociation. http://www.doe. 2010.asp • GlobalData Alternative Energy E-Track desktop tool Hydrogen — Pages 96–97 • National Hydrogen Association. Electric Power Monthly. Existing 2008 capacity. various publications of Electricity Net Generation from Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source Hydropower Capacity and Generation.eia.eia.html#inuse XIV 129 References | August 2010 .html • EIA – Planned Nameplate Historical Additions.php • EIA. 89 • EIA.

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eere.gov/informationcenter DOE/GO-102010-3074 August 2010 Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper.Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy For more information contact: EERE Information Center 1-877-EERE-INF (1-877-337-3463) www.energy. . including 10% post consumer waste.

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