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The First Voyage Made to the Coasts of America, with Two Barks, Wherein Were Captains M. Philip Amadas and M. Arthur Barlowe, Who Discovered Part of the County Now Called Virginia, Anno 1584. Boston: Directors of the Old South Work, 1898. Documenting the American South. The University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, All Rights Reserved, 2004. Web. Arthur Barlowe was co-captain with Philip Amadas on the expedition to Roanoke Island. Arthur Barlowe journeyed and witnessed everything that happened when attempting to establish English colonies at Roanoke Island. In this primary and authoritative source, Arthur Barlowe describes his thoughts about the land of Roanoke Island as the ship first arrived. The land and soil was rich and bountiful, seeming like a perfect place for English settlement. Arthur Barlowe also describes the Native Americans as savages and explains the relationship with them and the colonists. This source gives in great detail every aspect of the settlement charged by Sir Walter Raleigh. He says what Sir Walter Raleigh was doing himself and also the challenges faced during this expedition. This primary source contains a charter from Queen Elizabeth for Sir Walter Raleigh for discovering the new land in America and establishing a colony. It also has a section of a letter written by Ralph Lane. Ralph Lane was another man part of the attempt to colonize Roanoke Island. Click, Patricia C. "The Roanoke Island." The Roanoke Island. University of Virginia, 2001. Web. This site is dedicated to the Roanoke Island, and it hosts many primary sources. Not only does it provide background on the Roanoke Island, but it also provides personal letters and published documents, as well as a map of Roanoke Island during the Civil War and a map showing the probable location of the colony. This site was created and assembled by Patricia C. Click, associate professor of Science, Technology, and Society in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Virginia. Due to her professional research and background with the topic of Roanoke, Click does not seem to have reason to distort. The primary sources displayed were exceptionally beneficial for they included many letters from missionaries, teachers, and government officials staying at Roanoke, and we could not find anything like this in a secondary source or even other primary sources. College Of William And Mary. "Extreme Droughts Played Major Role In Tragedies At Jamestown, "Lost Colony." ScienceDaily, 28 Apr. 1998. Web. Evidence of the most extreme drought in 800 years is released in this article of Science Daily. Archeologists from the College of William and Mary studied the growth rings of ancient trees in the area known as tidewater. The rings revealed that the driest period in this drought was between 1587 and 1589. The archeologists suggest that it wasn’t the bad planning and bad support that made the Roanoke Colony fail, but rather they couldn’t have chosen a worse time due to this extreme drought. They admit there were other huge problems in the working of the colony but amongst those a huge factor was this drought. It was hard for the colonists to survive in their subsistence system of growing their crops and trading with natives when growth was prevented by the drought. This secondary source has
no reason to distort for it is a news article of scientific evidence that was found relating to the Roanoke Colony. Also it is by archaeologist at College of William and Mary who have done research on Jamestown and other early colonies making them a viable and reliable source. Dallek, Robert. "The English Establish 13 Colonies." American History. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2008. Print. This broad context source, based on a multitude of primary sources, includes the Roanoke Colony. Robert Dallek describes the geography of Roanoke Island at the time of the settlement. The location of the island seemed like a great place for settling a new British colony due to the trade routes nearby and the coverage from Spanish forts. However, discussed are the issues that arose with the difficulty of bringing English ships in through the small inlets between land and sandbars. This book also includes a map showing the disadvantages of the geography of Roanoke Island for settlement. D'Alto, Nick. "Rings of Truth: Evidence of Weather Disasters Found in Tree Rings Offers Clues to Historical Mysteries." Weatherwise Sept.-Oct. 2005. General OneFile. Web. This secondary source has no reason to distort for it is an article in a science magazine releasing new evidence about the Roanoke colony. Author D’Alto is a frequent writer for the Weatherwise magazine which causes me to support the information in this article. D’Alto uses the insight of David Stahle, a dendrologist and Dennis Blanton, an archaeologist. This article reveals that in 1998 dendrologists, scientists who study tree rings, found bald cypress trees whose rings showed evidence of drought. According to these rings the drought started around the same time the 117 colonists arrived which was in 1587. Chesapeake Bay was the colonists planned destination but due to reaching Roanoke to late in the storm season they were forced to stay there. It was also too late to plant the crops they had brought. Evidence suggests that it arriving late in the storm season wasn’t the main problem , but rather that the colonists arrived in the middle of a terrible drought. It started when Blanton was studying diaries from a later colony, Jamestown, and found entries suggesting a drought. He contacted Stahle who said they would look into the tree rings of the area. They found not only that there was a drought in the year 1587 but that this drought was far worse than normal. It is shown that the effects of this drought was life-threatening for it troubled food supplies and limited access to water. This new evidence doesn’t solve the mystery of the disappearance of the Roanoke colonies but rather puts the situation in a new light and backs the theories of many historians. Douglas, Egerton R. The Atlantic World: A History, 1400-1888. 2007. Print. This broad context source provided us with information about the colonization of America in general, which included Roanoke Colony. However, unlike most of our other sources, it provided us with extra insight about the aftermath of Roanoke, and how its failure affected subsequent settlements in America. Douglas is a credible and reliable author having written many other books as well as serving as a professor of history at Le Moyne College. Drye, Willie. "America's Lost Colony: Can New Dig Solve Mystery?" National Geographic 2 Mar. 2004. Print. In this article, Willie Drye discusses the hopes in solving the Lost Colony mystery.
Archaeologists and historians decide to start excavations at the Fort Raleigh National Historic Site. Explained are the two attempts of English settlement at Roanoke Island. The first attempt resulting in the colonists being driven out by the Native Americans and the second was the colony disappearing at the return of John White. This source gives examples of historians’ theories as to what happened to the Lost Colony. Referenced was co-captain Arthur Barlowe's report on the expedition at Roanoke Island. Durschlag, Richard; Miller, Lee "Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony." South Carolina Historical Magazine. 01 Apr. 2003. eLibrary. In this source, Richard Durschilag gives a brief summary of the Lost Colony story and of the disappearance of the colony. However, Lee Miller presents her theories of what happened to the Roanoke colony based on her own reasoning. She gives solid facts and reasonable conclusions to defend her theory, making this source extremely reliable. She even includes information on the geographical location of the Roanoke colony, allowing us to further evaluate the effect its geography had on the colony and its sudden disappearance. England. Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh: 1584. By Queen Elizabeth I. 1584. Yale Law School. Avalon Project, 2008. Web. On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter for the colonization of the area of North America known as Virginia. This charter specified that Raleigh needed to establish a colony in North America, or lose his right to colonization. Raleigh and Elizabeth intended that the venture should provide riches from the New World and a base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure fleets of Spain. This primary source document was published by the Yale Law School Avalon Project, which is a project at the Lillian Goldman Law Library in collecting primary source documents in law, history, and diplomacy. This leads me to believe that it is an accurate and reliable resource. Hakluyt, Richard. “The Third Voyage Made by a Ship Sent in the Year 1586, to the Relief of the Colony Planted in Virginia, at the Sole Charges of Sir Walter Raleigh.” Virtual Jamestown. 1998. Web. This primary source is the account of Richard Hakluyt, an English writer in favor of North American settlement. This text focuses on the third voyage. It tells of those left on the Island after the second voyage. They had ran out of supplies and began planting crops while waiting for the arrival of necessities. While waiting Sir Francis Drake came to the island and offered them passage back to England on his fleet. Tired of waiting for the late supply ship the colonist agreed. When Sir Richard Grenville arrived he found the settlement abandoned. Not wanting to lose the land he left fifteen men there along with two years worth of supplies and then departed back to England. There would be little reason to distort for Hakluyt was simply recounting the facts of the third voyage. Horace, James. "Horace James to the Public, 27 June 1863." Letter. 27 June 1863. The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony. Patricia C. Click, 2001. Web. Horace James, the superintendent of the Roanoke Island colony, corresponded frequently with the officers of the American Missionary Association and the National Freedman’s Relief Association. He also wrote numerous letters to his father’s newspaper, The Congregationalist, describing his work in North Carolina. In
addition, James published numerous sermons and an annual report (1864) from North Carolina. This letter included his intentions for the Roanoke Island colony, and serves as a primary source. It was written to the public, but its author is an important official who I believe is reliable and has no reason to distort in this circumstance. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print. Award-winning historian Karen Ordahl Kupperman recovers the earliest days of the Roanoke English exploration and settlement in America - the often forgotten years before Jamestown and the landing of the Mayflower. Her book Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony explores Britain's attempt to establish a firm claim to North America in the hope that colonies would make England wealthy and powerful. Kupperman brings to life the men and women who struggled to carve out a settlement in an inhospitable environment on the Carolina coast and the complex Native American cultures they encountered. She reveals the mixture of goals and challenges that led to the colony's eventual abandonment, and discusses the theories about what might have become of the first English settlers in the New World as they adapted to life as Indians. Kupperman is a distinguished and awardwinning historian and history professor, and the intended audience is history students and other historians. This all leads me to believe that this is an accurate source with no reason to distort, and it was valuable because it provided us with new knowledge and a different outlook that we had not found in prior sources. Lane, Ralph. "The Colony at Roanoke." The Colony at Roanoke (1586). Historical Documents. National Center for Public Policy Research. Web. A primary source written by Ralph Lane in 1586, this account shows the first hand view of life in the Roanoke Colony. Lane not only extensively describes the geography of the island but also talks of surrounding native tribes. He describes the natives as savages and recounts many incidences between them and the colonists. Furthermore he writes of the arrival of a letter from General Sir Francis Drake who plans to bring them supplies. He tells of when Drake arrived and how he offered to provide passage for the colonist to return to England. This source has little reason to distort for it is Ralph Lane's, one of the leaders in the colony, report to Sir Walter Raleigh, the ultimate authority of the colony who was back in England. Lankford, Nelson D. "Paradise Lost: What Happened to the First English Settlers in America." The Weekly Standard 3 May 2010. General OneFile. Web. Nelson D. Lankford is the editor of the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography and of the quarterly journal of the Virginia Historical Society, as well as an author. He has published various history books and is a reputable author, and his intended audience in the past with his writing causes me to support that his information is accurate and that he has no reason to distort. In this scholarly article, Lankford explains the English settlement at Roanoke as well as possible theories for the colonists’ disappearance. He takes on this task with a larger European diplomatic and military context, and uses a variety of primary sources as evidence. Lossing, Benson J., LL.D.. "Our Country: Volume 1: Chapter XII." U.S. History. Bureau of Electronic Publishing, 1990. eLibrary. Web. In this secondary source, Benson Lossing discusses the reasons for colonization at
Roanoke Island in modern day Virginia. Sir Walter Raleigh's life is explained as well and his contribution to the expedition to Roanoke Island. Not only is Walter Raleigh described during the expedition, but also well before in England with Queen Elizabeth. Benson explains the voyage to Roanoke Island. Most of this source is in accords to Sir Walter Raleigh in what he was doing at the time or a part of. Presented in this source are the events that occurred at the Roanoke colony during the attempted colonization, such as disease and the relationship with the Native Americans, which can all potentially lead to the geography of the Roanoke colony to affect these kinds of events and ultimately the disappearance of the colony and settlers. This reliable source consists of Benson Lossing naming a multitude of significant people in history who are involved in this expedition. Lucas, Ronesha, Eunice Smith, and Malcolm Mathis. Exploring the Migration of the Roanoke Colonists. Rep. Exploring the Migration of the Roanoke Colonists. The Lost Colony Center for Science and Research. Web. As a scientific report this source focuses on finding the location of the migration of the lost colonists. To find the right place of settlement they looked at its habitability (settlement size and area), arability (soil and vegetation), and defensibility (geographical location and elevation) using modern day technology. They are attempting to find where the colonist moved to after they had sent John White to England for supplies. John White remembered a conversation in which it was said they would move 50 miles inland. Lucas and fellow reporters believe the colonist must have moved to a ridge to escape flooding. There are three ridges near the island, Buck Ridge, Goshen Ridge and Buxton. Goshen Ridge is the appropriate 50 miles from Roanoke Colony. This secondary source has no reason to distort for it is a scientific report. Also these authors and their mentors are very viable and reliable. McCall, Sophie. "First Contacts." Canadian Literature. 2008. eLibrary. Web. In this scholarly journal, "first contact" is the main focus. Editor John Sutton Lutz says that even today there is still first contact. The idea of first contact is a time in history when two culture interact for the first time when before they were completely unaware of the other's existence. He describes certain moments in history that are considered first contact and are the more major ones. He then exclaims that the disappearance of the Roanoke Colony in the 1580's is considered as well. This is talking about the British and their first interactions with the new world, America, and with the Native Americans. The interactions with the Native Americans are based on the geography of Roanoke Island and therefore this interaction could have been the very cause of this sudden disappearance. Some results of first contact are that both cultures strive for their own authority causing major conflicts. McMullan, Philip S. Jr. "A Search for the Lost Colony in Beechland." A Search for the Lost Colony in Beechland. 2007. Web. This website explores the hypothesis that Sir Walter Raleigh’s 1587 colonists left Roanoke Island for Croatoan villages that were 50 miles by water into the mainland of present-day Dare County. It is also hypothesized that some of the colonists settled in “Beechland” community where many of their descendants remained until 1840. Oral histories and physical evidence suggests that Englishmen and Indians lived together at Beechland without official recognition by any authority for hundreds of
years, until abandoned in 1840 because of “the black tongue plague.” This is a secondary source written by McMullan, who is currently a professional historian, as well as a history professor at Duke University and reliable author. The intended audience is other historians, so there seems to be no reason to distort, and the information should be accurate for this reason. Miller, Lee. Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony. New York: Arcade Pub.: Distributed by Time Warner Trade Pub., 2001. Print. In this work of historical detection, Lee Miller goes back to the original evidence and offers a fresh solution to the mystery of Roanoke – the lost colony. The secondary source establishes that the tragedy of Roanoke did not begin on its shores, but in the inner circle of Queen Elizabeth's government. Miller uses her skills as an anthropologist and ethno-historian to cast new light on the previously inexplicable puzzles of the Roanoke data. Given Miller’s professional experience and that this book has been referenced in other articles, I am led to believe that both the author and this source have a reasonable reputation and accuracy. Furthermore, it is referenced in articles that are meant for historians and history students, so given the intended audience it seems as though there is no reason to distort. "A New World." From Columbus to Colonial America: 1492 to 1763. Ed. Jeffrey H. Wallenfeldt. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. in Association with Rosen Educational Services, 2012. Print. This broad context source has a brief overview of Roanoke Colony. Though specifics on the colony aren't present what this source does offer is the before and after. According to this book, England was one of the last European countries to start colonization. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was the first to organize ventures whose goal was establishing colonies. However in 1583 he and 260 of his men disappeared in the North Atlantic. This is where Sir Walter Raleigh came in. His approach was to go south instead of north. There he was able to establish Roanoke Colony. Though Roanoke Colony failed as well it did establish an interest in creating permanent colonies in the New World. It did take some work from English propagandists to convince the citizens of England that establishing Jamestown was a good idea after the Roanoke failure. Jeff Wallenfedlt has written multitude of books about a plethora of events throughout American history and has a very good reputation. This source has many primary sources as evidence throughout it. Overall, this book is very reliable and has no reason to distort. Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. "Roanoke Island, the Virginian Colony." Web. The Roanoke Island Colony made many mistakes in their association with the Native American Indians. This primary source speaks to that and the fatal consequences. It is written by a Native American, and discusses the tribes’ reactions and circumstances that involved the English colonists that settled on Roanoke Island. Although the specific author is unknown, this source was edited by Margaret Ordrowaz-Sypniewska, who is an accomplished and professional historian and she has produced numerous reputable and accurate sources of her own, which leads me to believe that this source is in fact genuine and reliable. Porter, Charles W. III. "Fort Raleigh: Chapter 2 John White's Watercolors: Portrait of a New World." U.S. History. Bureau of Electronic Publishing, 1990. eLibrary. Web. As secondary sources go I consider this one reliable. This scholarly journal article
appears to be an excerpt from a textbook making its intended audience history students and giving it no reason to distort. This text gives extensive details of John White's first voyage to Roanoke Island. It continues to describe the second attempt at colonization of the area, including descriptions of the natives, the supply ships and the response of England to their wishes. It tells of Whites return to England, the Spanish war inconveniencing his return to Roanoke once again and finally his voyage back to the island. Unable to search Croatian Island due to a storm White returns again to England. Unlike other sources this describes his attempts after his return to set out another voyage. Sir Walter Raleigh who financed the original colony was no help and was actually imprisoned due to other reasons. The Spanish also went searching for the colony and did not find the missing colonists either. In conclusion many years later Raleigh did send a voyage in hope of uncovering his Lost Colony, but like everyone else he had no luck. Price, Jay. "Researchers May Have Found Key to North Carolina's Roanoke Lost Colony." McClatchy. Raleigh News and Observer. Web. This secondary source reports new found evidence to where the Roanoke colonists may have moved. According to this article researchers at the British Museum in London and members of the First Colony Foundation have had the “Virginia Pars” map in their possession. This map of Chesapeake Bay and Cape Lookout was created by members of Sir Raleigh's expeditions and was extremely accurate for that time. Brent Lane, a professor and member of the First Colony Foundation, had been studying this map when two patches caught his interest. Patching was normal at the time of Roanoke Colony and the technique was used to make alterations. Lane asked if the British Museum had ever looked under the patches and they hadn’t. Underneath they found a symbol of a fort where the colonists had originally planned to go and the most likely lace they migrated too. They began planning archaeological research of the area which today happens to be a residential golf course. This article appears reliable for it appeared in the Raleigh News and Observer, a news site, and the author is a member of that staff. “Raleigh’s First Roanoke Colony.” Raleigh’s First Roanoke Colony (1585-1586). Documenting the American South. University of North Carolina. Web. A primary source that accounts of the particularities of the employments of the English men left in Virginia by Richard Greeneville under the charge of Master Ralph Lane Generall from August 1585-June 1586, at which time they departed the country. Its specific author is unknown, but it was written by one of the English settlers, and it is directed towards Sir Walter Raleigh. This source provides a deeper insight into what life was like at Roanoke - especially involving the English settlers themselves - which cannot be perceived from other secondary sources. "Roanoke Revisited." National Park Service. U.S Department of the Interior. Web. As a curriculum for teachers, this secondary source appears very reliable. Furthermore it published on the National Park Service website, making it more genuine. Spread throughout eight units this curriculum covers the Elizabethan Expansion through the mystery of the Roanoke colony today. This source takes you step by step through the approval, explorations, colony, and even the current day search. By breaking the information up into units, this source provides not only a complete overview but also detailed information on each section.
"The Roanoke Voyages." The Roanoke Voyages. North Carolina Museum of History, 2007. Web. Giving a brief overview of each voyage to Roanoke and the reason behind each one led this secondary source to be very helpful. It tells that Sir Walter Raleigh had originally wanted to find a place rich in minerals but when his men came back advocating for Roanoke Island he decided to get a charter from Queen Elizabeth I and establish a colony. The second voyage was an attempt to establish this colony but it failed seeing the settlers returned home after a year. With a new mindset a third voyage set out, now focusing on self-sufficiency rather than silver and gold. This articles, though it lacks an author, seems very reliable because it is from the Museum of History in North Carolina and the information coincides with all of our other sources. "Sir Walter Raleigh." Biography for Beginners: World Explorers. 2003. eLibrary. Web. This biography of Sir Walter Raleigh discusses his whole life including his voyage to Roanoke Island. It says how he became a part of the expedition and settlement in America through Queen Elizabeth and his half-brother Humphrey Gilbert. Sir Walter Raleigh declares that he was one of Queen Elizabeth’s favorites. Sir Walter Raleigh sent three expeditions, the first in which he named the land he came upon Virginia. This source explains each expedition and the outcome of the attempted settlement at Roanoke Island. The relationship between the Native Americans and the colonists was not pleasant and many were in fear of them. This source gives worldwide websites about Sir Walter Raleigh. Waggoner, Martha. "North Carolina Researchers say map holds new clue for fate of Lost colony." Virginian Pilot (Norfolk). eLibrary. Web. A 425 year old map was found in this source and is thought to give answers to the disappearance of the English settlers from the Roanoke colony. This map is called the "Virginia Pars" map and was drawn by John White himself, a leader of the expedition to Roanoke Island in 1584. Based on this map and its evidence, it is concluded by James Horn that the settlers at Roanoke Island moved westward by the intersection of the Roanoke and Chowan rivers towards Albemarle Sound. James Horn is the vice president of research and historical interpretation at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. This source also states that at first historians thought the settlers moved down south to modern day Hatteras Island with other American Indians due to the carved word "CROATOAN" found carved in a tree. However, this map leads to other theories as to where the settlers went or what exactly happened to them in the late sixteenth century. This source is reliable as it presents facts and reading made by different historians and researchers. White, John, and Edward J. Gallagher. “The Literature of Justification – Roanoke” The Literature of Justification – Roanoke. Lehigh University Digital Library. Web. This primary source consists of the journal written by John White upon the voyage and expedition of the Roanoke Colony. His journal begins with the first arrival at Roanoke Island and he describes his feeling about the land and the excitement. He mentions Sir Walter Raleigh, Ralph Lane, and Sir Richard Grenville in his journal and interactions with the Native Americans. This source also contains a timeline by Edward Gallagher of all the events starting with Queen Elizabeth's charter to Sir Walter Raleigh and ending with his expedition to Guina after the failure of the
Roanoke Colony expedition. White, John. “Return to Roanoke.” Return To Roanoke (1590). Primary Source Documents Pertaining to Early American History. Web. This primary source was the journal writings of John White upon his voyage back to Roanoke. He was coming back from England, delayed for three years due to the Anglo-Spanish war. In this text White tells that he and his company saw smoke rising from two places. Assuming it was the colonists they went to investigate, choosing to go to the second smoke sighting. White describes the storm and how the ships kept on having to come ashore due to the flooding and harsh waves. Some of their ships sank, drowning eleven people. This made the sailors hesitant to continue to Roanoke but they still prepared themselves to do so. Finding the carving of CROATOAN on Roanoke Island White and his company planned to go to that place. But in desperate need for fresh water they were forced to anchor somewhere else. Here their anchor broke. The waters to Croatoan Island were deep and it would have been unsafe for them to travel it with the cable of their anchor broken. On top of this the weather began getting worse and they lost their fresh water. Thus they were forced to return to England before thoroughly investigating the colonists’ disappearance. This source has little to distort for it is more a descriptive journal than a formal report. Willard, Fred, and Barbara Midgette. "The Roanoke Sagas and Sixteenth Century Fortifications in North Carolina." Ed. E. T. Shields, Charles Ewen, and Francisco S. Juan. 1999. Web. This article focuses on the geography of Roanoke Island, which is perfect regarding our focus for this project. It discusses in-depth the terrain and features that were major factors on Roanoke Island, as well as possible geographical theories that may support the mysterious disappearance of the colonists. All in all, it is an overview of Roanoke Island from a geographical standpoint. It is written by professional historians and history professors, as well as geologists, which leads me to believe that it is indeed accurate and has no reason to distort.