1

EXPERIMENT 1: SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS
Part A: Single Stage Transistor Amplifier Circuits
Introduction
A small signal amplifier (also called preamplifier) is an amplifier whose signal level is very small
compared to DC potentials. It is always found at the input stage of the amplifying systems. Most
preamplifiers are class A type. The transistors used in small signal amplifiers carry a relatively low power
and usually don’t require heat sinks for cooling purposes because they don’t dissipate much heat during
operation. They are called small signal transistors. Examples of small signal transistors are BC 107, BC
558 and BC 547.
Preamplifiers are further divided into three types on the basis of what parameter they amplify. These
are:
i. Voltage amplifier
ii. Current amplifier
iii. Charge sensitive amplifier

Our discussion will concentrate on the first two preamplifiers, voltage amplifier and current amplifier.
Before explaining voltage and current amplifiers, let us observe the main configurations of transistor
amplifier circuits. There are three fundamental linear transistor amplifier circuit configurations that one
can study. These are Common Base (CB), Common Collector (CC) and Common Emitter (CE). Each
configuration has its own merits and demerits in circuit applications as far as voltage gain, current gain
and power gain is concerned. The frequency response, input and output impedance of each
configuration differ. Figure 1.1 (a) through (c) show the three basic configurations of transistor amplifier
circuits. Note that the common terminal is held to ground directly or through a capacitor. Don’t worry if
you cannot comprehend whether the given configuration is a voltage and current amplifier at this stage.
It will become clearer later.

Q1
C1
C2
C3

Figure 1.1 (a): Common Emitter configuration
2

Q1
R1
C2
C3
C1

Figure 1.1 (b): Common Base configuration

Q1
C1
C2
C3

Figure 1.1 (c): Common Collector configuration

Voltage Amplifier
A voltage amplifier is characterized by having high input impedance. Ideally it does not draw any current
at its input. The main parameter of interest here is voltage, so the system should not draw current
because if it does so it will reduce the signal voltage level and hence gain. The system does not qualify to
be a voltage amplifier if it draws significant amount of current at its input. The system designer should
ensure that the signal voltage levels are preserved in case the input signal has a very small voltage. For
example, a signal from a microphone is too small and thus needs to be preserved during amplification.
The voltage amplifier can be prepared for DC or RC coupling, as we shall see in the section of multistage
amplifiers. Single stage amplifying circuits prepared for RC coupling use a lot of components and
therefore they are not widely used in the fabrication of ICs because of bulkiness and noise that can be
introduced by components during operation. On the other hand, DC coupling are very useful in the
fabrication of ICs because they utilize very few components and hence they are less prone to noise due
3

to components. However, temperature stability is very critical in DC coupled amplifiers than RC coupled
amplifiers.
Single stage voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling
Figure 1.2 shows a single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling

Figure 1.2: Single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling
Lets design a CE amplifier with a voltage gain of -100, an f
3dB
point of 100Hz, and a quiescent current
I
Q
=1mA, where h
FE
=100 and V
cc
=20V. The following are the basic steps:
Step 1: Choose R
C
to centre V
out
(or V
C
) to ⅟₂ V
CC
to allow for maximum symmetrical swings in the
output. In this example, this means V
C
should be set to 10V. Using Ohm’s law, we can find R
C
as follows:
(1.1)
4

Step 2: Next we select R
E
to set V
E
=1V for temperature stability. Using Ohm’s law, and taking I
Q
=I
E
=1mA,
we get R
E
=V
E
/R
E
=1V/1mA=1K.
Step 3: Now, choose R1 and R2 to set the voltage divider to establish the quiescent base voltage of
V
B
=V
E
+0.6V, or 1.6V. To find the proper ratio between R1 and R2, use the voltage divider rule:
(1.2)
This means that R
1
=11.5R
2
. The parallel resistance should be less than or equal to 0.1R
in(base),ac
.
Therefore:
(1.3)
After plugging R
1
=11.5R
2
into this equation and using R
in(base),ac
=h
FE
R
E
, you find that R
2
=10K, which in
turn means R
1
=115K (let’s say, 110K is close enough for R
1
).
Step 4: Next, choose R
3
for the desired gain, where:
(1.4)
The double line means to take R
E
and (r
tr
+R
3
) in parallel). To find r
tr
, use
r
tr
=0.0026V/I
E
=0.026V/I
C
=0.026V/1mA=26Ω. Now, you can simplify the gain expression by assuming that
R
E
“disappears when the signals are applied. This means that the gain is simplified to:
(1.5)
Solving this equation for R
3
, you get R
3
=74Ω
Step 5: Next, choose C
1
for filtering purposes such that:
(1.6)
Here,
Rin
is the combined parallel resistance of the voltage-divider resistors R
1
and R
2
, and R
in(base), ac

looking in from the left into the voltage divider:
5

(1.7)
Solving this equation, you get R
in
=5K. This means:
(1.8)
Step 6: To choose C
2
, treat C
2
and (r
tr
+R
3
) as a high pass filter (again, treat R
E
as being negligible during ac
conditions). C
2
is given by:
(1.9)
Figure 1.3 shows a CE transistor configuration with the calculated values above.

6

Figure 1.3: A practical example of a single stage CE voltage amplifier
However, you should note that we always escape from using transistor parameters, such as h
FE
and h
ie
,
because they vary widely. For example, it is impractical to find two identical transistors with the same
h
FE
and h
ie
. Temperature is one of the determinant factors which cause variation in transistor
parameters. It is practical and a good practice for a system designer you should use the external
components, such as resistors, to determine the gain of an amplifier.
Single stage voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling
Figure 1.4 shows a circuit diagram of a single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling. The
emitter resistor is not coupled in order to increase the input impedance to qualify the circuit a voltage
amplifier.

Q1
C1

Figure 1.4: Single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling

Current Amplifier
On the other hand, the current amplifier is characterized by having very small input impedance. The
parameter of interest in this case is current, and therefore we should allow as much current as possible
to flow into the system for amplification purposes. Figure 1.5 shows a small signal current amplifier. In
this circuit (figure 1.5) the base bias current flows through the resistor R
B1
which is straight connected
R
E
R
C
R
B
+V
CC
V
out
V
in
I
B
I
C
I
E
V
in
V
CC
0.5V
CC
0

0V

7

from the supply voltage. This circuit, however, has temperature stability problems. There is no self
mechanism of stabilizing the circuit when, for example, the collector current increases as a result of
temperature rise. The modified version of this circuit is shown in figure 1.6, where the negative
feedback resistor R
fB1
is introduced between the base and the collector terminal of the transistor. This
circuit stabilizes the operating conditions for the stage and compensate for variations in transistor
parameters.
Q1
C1
C2

Figure 1.5: Single stage current amplifier
In figure 1.6, the base bias current is derived from the collector voltage which is dependent on collector
current which, in turn, depends on base current. A negative feedback loop introduces a certain degree
of self-regulation. If the collector current increases for whatever reasons the collector voltage will fall
and the base current will be reduced. The reduction in base current will produce a corresponding
decrease in collector current to offset the original change. Conversely, if the collector current falls for
whatever reasons the collector voltage will increase and the base current will rise. This leads to increase
in collector current to offset the original change.
The negative feedback of the circuit shown in figure 1.6 involves an a.c. signal component as well as a
d.c. bias current. This results in the reduction of the signal gain. To solve this problem a bypass capacitor
C
B
is required as shown in figure 1.7. The value of the bypass capacitor C
B
is chosen so that it exhibits
very low reactance at the lowest frequency of operation compared to the series resistor network.
R
B1
R
C1
V
in
V
o
I
B1
I
C1 R
B1
=
1 B
I
in
V
CC
V ÷

+V
CC
8

Q1
C2
C1

Figure 1.6: Current amplifier with negative feedback network

Q1
C2
C1

Figure 1.7: Modified version of figure 1.6


V
C
V
in
V
o
R
fB1
R
C1
I
C1
I
fB1
R
fB1
=
1 fB
I
in
V
C
V ÷

+V
CC
R
fB1
R
fB1

C
B
V
in
V
o
I
fB1
+V
CC
9

EXPERIMENT 1.1: COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER WITH FIXED BIAS
Apparatus and Components
Digital Multimeter (DMM), Protoboard, Power Supply, Function Generator, Oscilloscope, Transistors,
Capacitors, and Resistors
Theory of the Experiment
The DC and AC analysis of a simple CE amplifier stage, shown in figure 1.11, is to be studied. To stabilize
the Q-point the fixed bias circuit is modified by attaching an external resistor to the emitter, as
illustrated in figure 1.12. This resistor introduces a negative feedback which regulates the circuit against
temperature variations.
Q1
BC107
C1
C2

Figure 1.11: Fixed Bias Common Emitter Amplifier
R
B
R
C
V
in
V
out
+V
CC
0V

I
B
I
C
10

Q1
BC107
C1
C2
B
E
C


Use the datasheet of the NPN transistor BC 107A (or its equivalent) to recognize the important transistor
parameters which will assist you in finding the unknown values of resistors and capacitors. Choose
experimental V
CEQ
such that the Q-point is symmetrically positioned within the active region of the
output characteristics. Then calculate R
B
and R
C
and mount the circuit.
Refer to figure 1.12, from Kirchoff’s voltage law,

BE E E CC RB
V R I V V ÷ ÷ = (2.0)
From Ohm’s law, the base current is:

B
RB
B
R
V
I = (2.1)
The way feedback controls the bias point is as follows. If V
BE
is he held constant and temperature
increases, emitter current increases. However, the larger I
E
increases the emitter voltage V
E
=I
E
R
E
, which
in turn reduces the voltage V
RB
across the base resistor. A lower base-resistor voltage drop reduces the
base current, which results in less collector current, because I
C
= | I
B
. Collector current and emitter
current are related by I
C
=o I
E
, with o ~1, so increase in emitter current in emitter current with
temperature is opposed, and operating point is kept stable.
V
in
V
out
I
B
I
C
R
C
R
B
I
E
R
E
+V
CC
0V

V
CC
0.5V
CC
0

V
in
V
out
Figure 1.12: Self Bias Common Emitter Amplifier with Emitter resistor

11

Similarly, if the transistor is replaced by another, there may be a change in I
C
(corresponding to a change
in | -value, for example). By similar process as above, the change is negated and operating point is kept
stable.
From the given circuit in figure 1.12,

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷
=
E B
BE CC
B
R R
V V
I
1 |
(2.2)
Merits of the circuit presented in figure 1.12
The circuit has a tendency to stabilize the operating point against changes in temperature and | -value.
Demerits of the circuit presented in figure 1.12
In this circuit, to keep I
C
independent of | the following condition must be met:

( )
( )
E
BE CC
E B
BE CC
B C
R
V V
R R
V V
I I
÷
~
+ +
÷
= =
1 |
|
| (2.3)
This is approximately the case if ( )
B E
R R >> +1 |
- As | -value is fixed for a given transistor, this relation can be satisfied either by keeping R
E
very
large, or making R
B
very low.
- If R
E
is of large value, high V
CC
is necessary. This increases cost as well precautions necessary
while handling.
- If R
B
is low, a separate low voltage supply should be used in the base circuit. Using two supplies
of different voltages is impractical.
- In addition to the above, R
E
causes a.c. feedback which reduces the voltage gain of the amplifier.
Usage
The feedback also increases the input impedance of the amplifier when seen from the base, which can
be advantageous. Due to the above advantages, this type of biasing circuit is used only with careful
considerations of the trade-offs involved.
Design
Use the datasheet of the NPN transistor BC 107A and figure 1.12 above to recognize the important
transistor parameters which will assist you in finding the unknown values of resistors and capacitors.
Choose experimental V
CEQ
such that the Q-point is symmetrically positioned within the active region of
12

the output characteristics. Note that, to provide maximum symmetrical swing of the output voltage
without clipping or bottoming of the output amplified signal, the collector voltage should be half the
supply voltage, V
CC
, as illustrated in figure 1.12.
By applying KVL to outside side,

CE C C CC
CE C C CC
V R I V
V R I V
+ =
= ÷ ÷ 0
(2.4)

Assuming equal drops across R
C
and V
CE
,

C C CE
CC
RC
R I V
V
V = = =
2
(2.5)

By applying KVL to the input side,

B
BE CC
B
C
B
BE B B CC
I
V V
R
I
I
V R I V
÷
=
=
= ÷ ÷
|
0
(2.6)
The input capacitor can be calculated as follows:

1 2
1
C h
F
ie
[
= (2.7)
where F is the lowest signal frequency and h
ie
is the input resistance observed in the emitter region.
Thus,

ie
Fh
C
[
=
2
1
1 (2.8)

The Gain of the amplifier can be calculated as follows:

S
O
V
V
Gain = (2.9)
13

Where V
O
is the amplitude of the output voltage of the amplifier and V
S
is the amplitude of output
voltage of the Function Generator.

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
O
V
V
dB in Gain log 20 ) ( (3.0)
Determine the values of R
B
, R
C
, R
E
, C1 and C2 and mount the circuit

Frequency Response Model Graph
The graph of Gain (in dB) against Frequency (in Hz) is shown in figure 1.4

Figure 1.4: Frequency Response characteristics of the amplifier

(a) DC Measurements
Check the voltage drop V
CEQ.
If it is outside 10% accuracy as compared to theoretical choice, repeat
the design taking into consideration the factors contributing to your errors. Proceed with the
experiment if you have fallen within the limits of the allowed errors.
(i) Measure and record the DC voltages V
B
and V
C
(ii) Using the measured values, calculate V
BEQ
, V
CEQ
, I
CQ
, I
BQ
and h
FE
and present them in tabular
form to compare with the theoretical design values. Comment on their differences if any.




14

(b) AC Measurements

Part I: Observing waveforms distortions and phase angle relationship

Apply a small amplitude 3KHz sinusoidal signal, V
in
, at the input of the amplifier. Use the two channels of
the CRO to observe the input and output signals simultaneously. Increase the amplitude of the input
signal until some clipping or bottoming (or both) of the output signal, V
out
, occurs
i. Copy both the input and output waveforms and label their amplitudes
ii. Which part of the waveform is distorted first?
iii. Explain, with illustrations, the causes of the distortions observed in (b)(i) above
iv. What is the phase relationship between V
in
and V
out

Part II: Observing the Frequency Response of the amplifier
(i) The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale
(ii) The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by 2 and these points are marked in the
Frequency Response curve.
(iii) The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point
(iv) The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point
(v) The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the frequency scale
gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.
(vi) From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained from the formula; Bandwidth=f
H
-f
L

(vii) Apply large amplitude sinusoidal signal to the amplifier input. You may optionally start with a
50mV sine wave signal. Ensure that it is not distorted. Keeping the input voltage constant, vary
the frequency from 1Hz to 1MHz in regular steps of 10Hz. Ensure that no significant distortion of
the output signal is observed; otherwise reduce the amplitude of the input signal to reduce the
noticeable distortion of the output signal.
(viii) Note down the corresponding output voltage
(ix) Plot the graph of (a)Voltage Gain in dB Versus Frequency (b) Voltage Gain in dB Versus
Frequency in logarithmic scale
(x) Calculate the bandwidth from the response graph in (a)
15

(xi) Deduce the voltage gain of the amplifier at 3KHz
(xii) What causes the drop of the amplifier gain at lower and higher frequencies

(c) The Input Resistance
The input resistance of the amplifier can be measured using the circuit shown in figure 1.13. From
the circuit, one can see that the input resistance is given by:

V
in S
in
in
R
V V
V
R
÷
= (3.1)
(i) Derive equation 1.1 from the simplified equivalent circuit
(ii) Use the variable resistance or discrete resistances to obtain the suitable values of R
V
for
different values of V
in

(iii) Calculate the average value of R
iin

(iv) Calculate the theoretical value of R
in
using the h-parameters of the transistor given in the
Datasheet in appendix A








(d) The Output Resistance
The output resistance R
O
of the amplifier can be measured using the same principle adopted in the
determination of R
in
. Set the circuit shown in figure 1.14 on the Protoboard. First set R
V
at infinity
and measure the output voltage V
out
=V
O
’. Then vary R
V
to obtain three different values of V
out
for
different values of R
V
.
R
V
V
S
V
in
AMPLIFIER
R
in
Figure 1.13: Input Resistance measurement
16

(i) Find a suitable mathematical relationship of R
O
, R
V
, and V
o
’ from the simplified equivalent
model.
(ii) Using the mathematical relationship derived in (d) (i) above, plot the graph
(iii) Deduce from the graph plotted in (d) (ii) above the average value of R
O
.
(iv) Use the h-parameters given in the datasheet to calculate R
O






























V
O
’ V
O

R
V

R
O
Figure 1.14: Output Resistance measurement
17

EXPERIMENT 1.2: SELF BIAS (VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS) SINGLE STAGE CE AMPLIFIER
A combination of

EXPERIMENT 1.3: COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
Apparatus and Components
Transistor (BC 107A or its equivalent), Regulated Variable Power Supply, Audio Frequency Oscillator
(Function Generator), Resistors, Capacitors and CRO
Theory of the Experiment
An amplifier configuration commonly used at outputs of many multistage amplifiers is a Common
Collector configuration. One may be inquisitive, that how is it possible to ground a common collector
terminal which is responsible to draw current from the supply voltage? It has no meaning, and in fact it
is impractical to ground a collector leg which is responsible to deliver current to the transistor. Because
of this, Common Collector is often configured in emitter follower mode, as illustrated in figure 1.3.1. The
term Emitter Follower implies that the output signal is an exactly copy of the input signal.
Q1
R1
R2
C1
Vin Vo

Figure 1.3.1: Common Collector Amplifier
Emitter Follower configuration is not used as an amplifying circuit because it voltage gain is less than 1
(A
V ) 1 ~
. However, it has a lot of functions to serve. Its main usefulness is in the translation of a higher
output resistance of an amplifier to a lower output resistance. Another function of an Emitter Follower
is to shift the level of a signal (level shifter)
+V
CC
0V

R
E
C
E
R
L
18

Since voltage amplification is done in the transistor amplifier circuit, we assume equal drops across
Collector-Emitter terminals (V
CE
) and Emitter. Use the datasheet of BC 107A (or its equivalent) to choose
the quiescent collector current, I
CQ
, and the supply voltage. Note that the supply voltage is chosen such
that the transistor is not damaged. The parameter V
CEO
can be useful when choosing appropriate supply
voltage. Use the information obtained from the datasheet to calculate the values of unknown resistors
and capacitors.
Drop across R
E
is assumed to be half the supply voltage V
CC
. The drop across V
CE
is V
CC
-V
RE
. We know that
I
CQ
=I
E
. Now,
E
RE
E
I
V
R =
. The voltage across R
2
, V
R2
=V
BE
+V
RE
=0.6+V
RE
.
From potential divider rule:

CC R
V
R R
R
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1 2
2
2

Hence, the values of R
2
and R
1
can be chosen.
Mount and test the circuit, with all calculated values of capacitors and resistors, on a Protoboard.
Measure the DC voltages V
B
and V
E
with reference to ground in the absence of the signal source.
In this experiment, the frequency response, voltage gain, input and output resistances of the Emitter
Follower amplifier are measured and compared with those of CE configuration.
(a) Frequency Response Measurements
Procedures
(i) Set the Audio Frequency Oscillator (AFO) to sine wave type of peak to peak amplitude of 5mV.
(ii) Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and
note down the corresponding output voltage
(iii) Plot the graph of gain against frequency.
(iv) Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

The model graph of the frequency response is shown in figure 1.3.2



19



Figure 1.3.2: Frequency Response Model Graph
(b) A.C. Measurements
Introduce a large but non-distorted 3 KHz sinusoidal signal V
i
, at the input of the amplifier
(i) Measure the gains of the amplifier when the load R
L
is connected to the circuit.
(ii) Repeat (b) (i) above but with R
L
not connected to the circuit.
(iii) What is the relationship between V
i
and V
O
?

(c) Input Resistance
(i) Use the procedures mentioned in Experiment 1.1 (c) to measure the input resistance, R
i
, of the
amplifier.
(ii) How does R
i
of the configuration compare with that of the common emitter amplifier tested in
experiment 1.1 ?

(d) Output Resistance
(i) Use the procedures mentioned in experiment 1.1 (d) to measure the output resistance R
O
of the
amplifier.
(ii) How does this resistance value compare with that of the common emitter amplifier tested in
Experiment 1.1?
20

(iii) If you were to drive a 4Ω speaker, what configuration will you choose between the Emitter
Follower and Common Emitter amplifier configurations? Explain.























21

EXPERIMENT 2: MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS

Two-Stage Voltage Amplifier
The two-stage voltage amplifier can be formed by combining a single stage voltage amplifier and a single
stage current amplifier. Figure 3 shows a direct coupled two-stage voltage amplifier. The base bias
current of transistor Q1 is provided by the feedback resistor R
B1
connected between the base terminal of
Q1 and the junction of the resistors R
E2
and R
E2
’. The capacitor C3 bypasses any a.c. component to
ground and hence making the second stage have low input impedance (current amplifier
characteristics).

The direct coupled amplifier, like that shown in figure 3, has distinct advantages over RC coupled
amplifier because it uses fewer components and thus noise due to components is intensively reduced.
Because of this, direct coupled amplifiers are usually preferred in the fabrication of ICs. The RC coupled
amplifiers are not very practical because of a large number of components involved which impose noise
problems to the system.
Q1 Q2
C2
C3
C1

R
C1
R
C2
R
E1
R
E2
R
E2

R
B1

R
B2

V
in

V
out

+V
CC
0V

V
E1
V
BE1
22

Figure 5: Two-Stage voltage amplifier

From figure 3;
V
in
=V
E1
+V
BE1
, but V
BE1
=0.6

=V
E1
+0.6 ≈V
E1

=
out
B E
E
xV
R R
R
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 1
1

Thus,

1
2
1
E
B
V
in
out
R
R
A
V
V
+ = =

Or
1
2
1
E
B
V
R
R
A + =

Example
Consider the voltage preamplifier of class A shown in figure 4. The necessary voltages, currents and
capacitances are as indicated. The h
FE
for transistor Q2 is 100. Assume the voltage gain of 100, calculate
the values of the resistors R
C1
, R
C2
, R
E1
, R
E2
, R
E2
’, R
B1
, R
B2
and the current I
CQ1
.

23

Q1 Q2
C2
C3
C1


Figure 6: Class A voltage preamplifier




Solution

R
C2
=
mA
V
1
5
=5K
I
B2
= mA
mA
h
I
FE
CQ
01 . 0
100
1
2
= =
I
CQ1
=10I
CQ1
=0.1mA
A
V
= 100
1
2
=
E
B
R
R

R
B2
=100R
E1
(Choose R
E1
=1K, R
B2
=100K)
25V

I
CQ2
=1mA I
CQ1
R
C1
R
C2
R
E1
R
E2
R
E2

R
B1

R
B2

V
in

V
out

V
CC
=+10V

0V

V
E1
V
BE1
I
fB1
I
fB2
1.65V
1.3V
100µF

1µF

≈2V

1µF

5V

I
B2
V
C1
24



R
C1
=
1
1
CQ
C CC
I
V V ÷

=
mA
V V
1 . 0
2 10 ÷

=80K (Take 82K standard resistor)

Two-Stage current amplifier
The two-stage current amplifier is constructed by cascading a single stage current amplifier followed by
a single stage voltage amplifier, as shown in figure 5. In this circuit, the base bias current of the second
stage transistor Q2 is obtained from the collector of the first stage transistor Q1. The first stage
transistor Q1obtains its base bias current through a negative feedback network provided by series
resistors R
fB1
and R
fB1
’. The capacitor C
f
boosts the gain of the first stage transistor Q1.

The circuit shown in figure 5, however, has problems in terms of stability. There is no proper
communication between the two stages in the light of stability. Although the second stage gets
information of the first stage through its base bias current, but the first stage knows nothing about the
first stage. For example, if temperature rise causes increase in collector current of the second stage
transistor, neither the first stage nor the second stage has a self-regulatory mechanism to suppress the
effect of change to maintain stability. To provide stability the circuit in figure 5 should be modified as
shown in figure 6.

In figure 6, the emitter resistor of the second stage is splitted into two resistors, R
E2
and R
E2
’, and the bas
bias of the first stage is derived from the junction of the resistors R
E2
and R
E2
’ of the second stage. The
second stage emitter resistor R
E2
’ is coupled while R
E2
is not coupled because it is required in the current
amplification process. The capacitors C1 and C2 act as high pass filters to bypass high frequency signals
in order to overcome Miller effect. Recall that Miller effect is caused by the presence of a stray capacitor
between the base and collector. The reactance of this capacitor decreases as signal frequency increases,
hence distorting signal amplification process.

The current gain can be found by observing that;
I
in
+I
fB1
=I
B1
, but I
B1
<<I
in
+I
fB1
hence I
fB1
=-I
in
-I
in
R
fB1
=I
E
R
E1
≈I
o
R
E1
because I
E
=I
B2
+I
C2
=I
B2
+I
o
≈I
o
since I
B2
<<I
o
25

Hence
1
1
E
fB
i
in
o
R
R
A
I
I
Gain Current ÷ = = =
Or
1
1
E
fB
i
R
R
A ÷ =
For temperature stability conditions and to ensure that the output voltage attains its maximum
symmetrical swing to avoid clipping, V
E
=1V and R
E
=R
E
’.
Q1 Q2
C2
1uF
C1

Figure 7: Two stage current amplifier


R
B1
R
C1
R
E1
R
fB1
’ R
fB1
C
f
V
in
V
o
I
fB1
I
C1
I
C2
I
B2

26

Q1
C1
Q2
C2 C3
C4

Figure 8: Modified version of figure 5

Practical Examples of Preamplifiers
Preamplifiers have a wide range of applications. But why should we have preamplifiers in amplifying
circuits? Preamplifiers are used to boost weak signals from an output device. For example, the signals
from a microphone (MIC) are very weak in terms of voltage and current and their signal levels are
comparable to noise. Therefore, pre-amplification is necessary to make the signals stronger than noise.
Because we cannot simultaneously amplify voltage and current then we have to amplify each entity
separately. That is, we amplify voltage using a voltage amplifier followed by current amplification using a
current amplifier. A typical MIC can deliver 10mV signal level. Figure 7 shows a pre-amplifier used to
amplify the signals from a MIC.

0V

R
E2
R
E2

I
fB1
R
fB1
I
B2
I
E2
I
O
I
C1
I
C2
+V
CC
R
C1
R
C2
I
B1
I
in
I
E1
V
in
V
o
PRE-AMPLIFIER
VOLTAGE
AMPLIFIER
CURRENT
AMPLIFIER
10mV 100mV
27

Figure 9: Application of a Preamplifier in a MIC
Aim of the experiment: The aim of this experiment is to design a two-stage small signal voltage
amplifier and the gain, input characteristics, output characteristics, bandwidth and frequency response.

Materials and Apparatus: Oscilloscope, Function Generator, Digital Multimeter, Power Supply,
Breadboard, connecting wires, wire cutter, wire stripper/shaper, Resistors, Capacitors and BC 107.

Circuit Diagram
Figure 8 shows a two stage voltage preamplifier.

Q1 Q2
C2
C3
C1


Figure 10: Two stage voltage preamplifier





FUNCTION
GENERATOR
I
CQ2
I
CQ1
R
C1
R
C2
R
E1
R
E2
R
E2

R
B1

R
B2

V
in

V
out

+V
CC
0V

V
E1
I
fB1
I
fB2
V
E2
I
B2
V
C1
BC 107

BC 107

I
E1
V
B1
V
BE1
V
S
=50mV
(0-1)MHz (0-1)MHz
R
S
28



Design Procedures
Use the datasheet of BC 107 NPN transistor shown in Appendix A to design a two-stage voltage amplifier
shown in figure 8, by calculating the values of unknown resistors and capacitors. The following
guidelines may help you during the designing process. Note that the transistors in both stages (first and
second stage) are identical.
a) Choose the supply voltage V
CC
. Use the data sheet to confirm that the chosen supply voltage is
safe and cannot damage the transistor. This is observed by looking at the maximum collector-
emitter voltage with the base open (V
CEO
)

that a transistor can handle without being destroyed.
b) Find the collector voltage (V
C
) such that the output voltage attains its maximum symmetrical
swing without clipping.
c) Use the datasheet to recognize the maximum collector current that a transistor can handle. Use
this value to determine the quiescent collector current (I
CQ2
) for the second stage transistor.
d) Use the results in (a) and (b) above to determine the second stage collector resistor (R
C2
)
e) Use the voltage gain formula, =
V
A -
1
2
E
B
R
R
, to select the values of R
B2
and R
E1
. Assume the
overall voltage gain is 100.
f) Calculate the values of the resistors, R
E2
and R
E2
’, of the emitter of the second stage transistor.
For stability conditions set V
E2
=1.3V and R
E2
=R
E2
’. The simplest approach to find R
E2
and R
E2
’ is to
treat them in such a way that they form a potential divider network. Hence, R
E2
=R
E2
=0.5V
E2
.
g) Use the current gain formula,
2
1
E
B
i
R
R
A ÷ = , and the result obtained in part (f) above to find the
value of R
B1
. Theoretically, the current gain should not exceed 50; otherwise the system will
oscillate and thus become unstable. Choose a current gain of 30.
h) Assume the minimum h
FE
of BC 107 transistor (consult a datasheet), find the base current, I
B2
,
flowing into the second stage transistor by using the formula
2
1
2
FE
CQ
B
h
I
I = , where h
FE2
is the
minimum current gain of the second stage transistor.
i) Determine the collector current, I
CQ1
, of the first stage transistor. This current should be 10 times
the base current of the second stage transistor. That is, I
CQ1
=10I
B2
.
29

j) Determine the collector voltage, V
C2
, of the first stage transistor. Use this value together with
the result obtained in (i) above to find the value of the collector resistor, R
C1
, of the first stage
transistor.
k) Calculate R
E1
. Note that V
E1
=1V for stability conditions and R
E1
=
1
1
E
E
I
V

1
1
CQ
E
I
V

l) Calculate the values of the capacitors C1, C2 and C3 such that they exhibit very low impedance
at the lowest frequency of operation. Assume the lowest frequency, f
L
, is 20Hz
m) Set the voltage source, V
S
=50mV (assume) using a signal generator
n) Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 0Hz to 1MHz in regular steps of 10
and note down the corresponding output voltage.
o) Plot the frequency response: Gain (dB) versus Frequency (Hz)
p) Find the input and output impedances
q) Calculate the bandwidth from the graph
r) Note down the phase angle, bandwidth, input and output impedances

General Procedures for calculation
1. Input impedance
a) Connect a Decade Resistance Box (DRB) between input voltage source and the base of the
first stage transistor (series connection)
b) Connect the Voltmeter (0-100mV)across the biasing resistor R
B1

c) Vary the value of the DRB such that the ac Voltmeter reads the voltage half the input signal
d) Note down the resistance R
B
, which is the input impedance
e) Compare and contrast DRB obtained in (d) above with that of Common Emitter
configuration

2. Output impedance
a) Measure the output voltage when the amplifier is operating in the mid-band frequency with
the load resistance connected (V
load
)
b) Measure the output voltage when the amplifier is operating in the mid-band frequency
without the load connected (V
no-load
)
30

c) Substitute these values in the formula Z
o
= % 100 x
V
V V
load
load no load ÷
÷
to get output resistance
d) Compare and contrast Z
o
obtained in (c) above with that of Common Emitter configuration


3. Bandwidth
a) Plot the frequency response
b) Identify the maximum gain region
c) Draw the horizontal line bi -3dB
d) The -3dB line intersects the frequency response plot at two points
e) The lower intersection point of -3dB line with the frequency response plot gives the lower
cut-off frequency
f) The upper intersection point of -3dB line with the frequency response plot gives the upper
cut-off frequency
g) The difference between the upper cut-off frequency and the lower cut-off frequency is
called the bandwidth. Thus bandwidth = f
H
-f
L

h) Compare and contrast the bandwidth

obtained in (g) above with that of Common Emitter
configuration



Model Graph (Frequency Response)












Supplementary Questions
1. Briefly explain how temperature stabilization is achieved in this circuit
2. What role is played by the C1 and C2 and C3 in the system?
3. Describe the AC and DC characteristics of the amplifier.
f
L
f
H
|A|
max
(dB)
Gain (dB)
Bandwidth
Frequency (Hz)
-3dB
31

4. Can this amplifier be used to amplify very small signals from a microphone to a magnitude that
is sufficient to drive a loud speaker? Explain. (Assume a typical microphone delivers 10mV signal
level)
5. Is this a small signal or large signal amplifier? Explain


R1

C3

Q1 C1

C2

Figure 1.1 (b): Common Base configuration

C2

C1

Q1 C3

Figure 1.1 (c): Common Collector configuration

Voltage Amplifier A voltage amplifier is characterized by having high input impedance. Ideally it does not draw any current at its input. The main parameter of interest here is voltage, so the system should not draw current because if it does so it will reduce the signal voltage level and hence gain. The system does not qualify to be a voltage amplifier if it draws significant amount of current at its input. The system designer should ensure that the signal voltage levels are preserved in case the input signal has a very small voltage. For example, a signal from a microphone is too small and thus needs to be preserved during amplification. The voltage amplifier can be prepared for DC or RC coupling, as we shall see in the section of multistage amplifiers. Single stage amplifying circuits prepared for RC coupling use a lot of components and therefore they are not widely used in the fabrication of ICs because of bulkiness and noise that can be introduced by components during operation. On the other hand, DC coupling are very useful in the fabrication of ICs because they utilize very few components and hence they are less prone to noise due 2

to components. However, temperature stability is very critical in DC coupled amplifiers than RC coupled amplifiers. Single stage voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling Figure 1.2 shows a single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling

Figure 1.2: Single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for RC coupling Lets design a CE amplifier with a voltage gain of -100, an f3dB point of 100Hz, and a quiescent current IQ=1mA, where hFE=100 and Vcc=20V. The following are the basic steps: Step 1: Choose RC to centre Vout (or VC ) to ⅟₂ VCC to allow for maximum symmetrical swings in the output. In this example, this means VC should be set to 10V. Using Ohm’s law, we can find RC as follows:

(1.1)

3

or 1.6V.0026V/IE=0. Rin is the combined parallel resistance of the voltage-divider resistors R1 and R2. and Rin(base).026V/1mA=26Ω. Now. To find rtr.6) Here. choose R3 for the desired gain. and taking I Q=IE=1mA. 110K is close enough for R1). we get RE=VE/RE=1V/1mA=1K.ac. Using Ohm’s law.026V/IC=0. which in turn means R1=115K (let’s say. choose C1 for filtering purposes such that: (1. use the voltage divider rule: (1. Step 3: Now.5) Solving this equation for R3. you can simplify the gain expression by assuming that RE “disappears when the signals are applied.2) This means that R1=11. ac looking in from the left into the voltage divider: 4 . you find that R2=10K. The parallel resistance should be less than or equal to 0.3) After plugging R1=11.5R2 into this equation and using Rin(base). you get R3=74Ω Step 5: Next. use rtr=0. where: (1.1Rin(base).6V. choose R1 and R2 to set the voltage divider to establish the quiescent base voltage of VB=VE+0. To find the proper ratio between R1 and R2. This means that the gain is simplified to: (1.4) The double line means to take RE and (rtr+R3) in parallel). Therefore: (1.ac=hFERE. Step 4: Next.Step 2: Next we select RE to set VE=1V for temperature stability.5R2.

(1.3 shows a CE transistor configuration with the calculated values above. 5 . you get Rin=5K. This means: (1.8) Step 6: To choose C2.7) Solving this equation. treat C2 and (rtr+R3) as a high pass filter (again. treat RE as being negligible during ac conditions).9) Figure 1. C2 is given by: (1.

Figure 1. such as resistors. +VCC IB RB IC RC VCC 0.4 shows a circuit diagram of a single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling. For example. It is practical and a good practice for a system designer you should use the external components.5VCC Vin C1 Q1 Vout Vin IE RE 0 0V Figure 1.3: A practical example of a single stage CE voltage amplifier However. to determine the gain of an amplifier. In this circuit (figure 1. Single stage voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling Figure 1.Figure 1. because they vary widely. you should note that we always escape from using transistor parameters. it is impractical to find two identical transistors with the same hFE and hie. the current amplifier is characterized by having very small input impedance. Temperature is one of the determinant factors which cause variation in transistor parameters. such as h FE and hie.5 shows a small signal current amplifier. and therefore we should allow as much current as possible to flow into the system for amplification purposes. The parameter of interest in this case is current.5) the base bias current flows through the resistor RB1 which is straight connected 6 .4: Single stage CE voltage amplifier prepared for DC coupling Current Amplifier On the other hand. The emitter resistor is not coupled in order to increase the input impedance to qualify the circuit a voltage amplifier.

The modified version of this circuit is shown in figure 1.c. bias current. A negative feedback loop introduces a certain degree of self-regulation. This results in the reduction of the signal gain. To solve this problem a bypass capacitor CB is required as shown in figure 1. depends on base current. where the negative feedback resistor RfB1 is introduced between the base and the collector terminal of the transistor. if the collector current falls for whatever reasons the collector voltage will increase and the base current will rise. in turn. This circuit stabilizes the operating conditions for the stage and compensate for variations in transistor parameters. the base bias current is derived from the collector voltage which is dependent on collector current which. The reduction in base current will produce a corresponding decrease in collector current to offset the original change. If the collector current increases for whatever reasons the collector voltage will fall and the base current will be reduced. for example.from the supply voltage. 7 . has temperature stability problems. The value of the bypass capacitor C B is chosen so that it exhibits very low reactance at the lowest frequency of operation compared to the series resistor network.6.6. This circuit. however. Conversely. The negative feedback of the circuit shown in figure 1. There is no self mechanism of stabilizing the circuit when.5: Single stage current amplifier In figure 1. +VCC VCC  Vin I B1 RB1= IB1 RB1 IC1 RC1 C2 C1 Q1 Vo Vin Figure 1.7. the collector current increases as a result of temperature rise.c. This leads to increase in collector current to offset the original change.6 involves an a. signal component as well as a d.

7: Modified version of figure 1.6 8 .6: Current amplifier with negative feedback network +VCC RfB1 IfB1 C1 RfB1’ C2 Q1 Vo Vin CB Figure 1.RfB1= VC  Vin I fB1 +VCC IC1 RC1 RfB1 IfB1 VC C2 C1 Q1 Vin Vo Figure 1.

Protoboard.1: COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER WITH FIXED BIAS Apparatus and Components Digital Multimeter (DMM).EXPERIMENT 1. Transistors. Power Supply.11: Fixed Bias Common Emitter Amplifier 9 . as illustrated in figure 1. Function Generator. To stabilize the Q-point the fixed bias circuit is modified by attaching an external resistor to the emitter. Oscilloscope. Capacitors.12. This resistor introduces a negative feedback which regulates the circuit against temperature variations. shown in figure 1. and Resistors Theory of the Experiment The DC and AC analysis of a simple CE amplifier stage. is to be studied.11. +VCC IB RB IC RC C2 C1 Q1 BC107 Vout Vin 0V Figure 1.

from Kirchoff’s voltage law. Collector current and emitter current are related by IC=  IE. However. the larger I E increases the emitter voltage VE=IERE. and operating point is kept stable.5VCC 0 C1 B Q1 BC107 E Vin IE RE Vout 0V Figure 1.12: Self Bias Common Emitter Amplifier with Emitter resistor Use the datasheet of the NPN transistor BC 107A (or its equivalent) to recognize the important transistor parameters which will assist you in finding the unknown values of resistors and capacitors. 10 . If VBE is he held constant and temperature increases. Then calculate RB and RC and mount the circuit.1) The way feedback controls the bias point is as follows. because I C=  IB. so increase in emitter current in emitter current with temperature is opposed. with   1. emitter current increases.12. which results in less collector current.0) IB  VRB RB (2. which in turn reduces the voltage VRB across the base resistor. Choose experimental VCEQ such that the Q-point is symmetrically positioned within the active region of the output characteristics. Refer to figure 1. the base current is: (2. VRB  VCC  I E RE  VBE From Ohm’s law.+VCC RB IB IC RC Vout VCC C Vin C2 0. A lower base-resistor voltage drop reduces the base current.

12. This increases cost as well precautions necessary while handling. which can be advantageous. this type of biasing circuit is used only with careful considerations of the trade-offs involved.12     (2. high VCC is necessary.12 In this circuit.2) The circuit has a tendency to stabilize the operating point against changes in temperature and  -value.Similarly. If RB is low. Demerits of the circuit presented in figure 1. the change is negated and operating point is kept stable. for example). or making RB very low. if the transistor is replaced by another.   Usage The feedback also increases the input impedance of the amplifier when seen from the base.c.  If RE is of large value. Using two supplies of different voltages is impractical.3) This is approximately the case if  1RE  RB  As  -value is fixed for a given transistor. RE causes a. By similar process as above. a separate low voltage supply should be used in the base circuit. From the given circuit in figure 1. Choose experimental VCEQ such that the Q-point is symmetrically positioned within the active region of 11 .  VCC  VBE IB    R    1R E  B Merits of the circuit presented in figure 1. Due to the above advantages. this relation can be satisfied either by keeping R E very large.12 above to recognize the important transistor parameters which will assist you in finding the unknown values of resistors and capacitors. feedback which reduces the voltage gain of the amplifier. In addition to the above. Design Use the datasheet of the NPN transistor BC 107A and figure 1. to keep IC independent of  the following condition must be met: I C  I B   VCC  VBE  VCC  VBE  RB    1RE RE (2. there may be a change in I C (corresponding to a change in  -value.

the output characteristics. Note that.12. By applying KVL to outside side.5) By applying KVL to the input side.8) The Gain of the amplifier can be calculated as follows: Gain  VO VS 12 (2. VCC  I C RC  VCE  0 VCC  I C RC  VCE (2.6) The input capacitor can be calculated as follows: F 1 2  hie C1 (2.4) Assuming equal drops across RC and VCE .9) . VCC  I B RB  VBE  0 IB  RB  IC  VCC  VBE IB (2. the collector voltage should be half the supply voltage. VCC.7) where F is the lowest signal frequency and hie is the input resistance observed in the emitter region. to provide maximum symmetrical swing of the output voltage without clipping or bottoming of the output amplified signal. Thus. as illustrated in figure 1. C1  1 2  Fhie (2. VRC  VCC  VCE  I C RC 2 (2.

ICQ . Comment on their differences if any. (i) Measure and record the DC voltages VB and VC (ii) Using the measured values. C1 and C2 and mount the circuit Frequency Response Model Graph The graph of Gain (in dB) against Frequency (in Hz) is shown in figure 1. RC . IBQ and hFE and present them in tabular form to compare with the theoretical design values. calculate VBEQ . RE. repeat the design taking into consideration the factors contributing to your errors.Where VO is the amplitude of the output voltage of the amplifier and VS is the amplitude of output voltage of the Function Generator.4: Frequency Response characteristics of the amplifier (a) DC Measurements Check the voltage drop VCEQ. If it is outside 10% accuracy as compared to theoretical choice. V Gain(in dB)  20 log O V  S     (3. Proceed with the experiment if you have fallen within the limits of the allowed errors.4 Figure 1. 13 .0) Determine the values of RB. VCEQ .

Keeping the input voltage constant. occurs i. vary the frequency from 1Hz to 1MHz in regular steps of 10Hz. at the input of the amplifier. with illustrations. (iii) The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point (iv) The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point (v) The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the frequency scale gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.(b) AC Measurements Part I: Observing waveforms distortions and phase angle relationship Apply a small amplitude 3KHz sinusoidal signal. otherwise reduce the amplitude of the input signal to reduce the noticeable distortion of the output signal. Ensure that no significant distortion of the output signal is observed. the causes of the distortions observed in (b)(i) above What is the phase relationship between Vin and Vout Part II: Observing the Frequency Response of the amplifier (i) The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale (ii) The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by Frequency Response curve. iii. Copy both the input and output waveforms and label their amplitudes Which part of the waveform is distorted first? Explain. Ensure that it is not distorted. Vin. (vi) From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained from the formula. Bandwidth=fH-fL (vii) Apply large amplitude sinusoidal signal to the amplifier input. Increase the amplitude of the input signal until some clipping or bottoming (or both) of the output signal. You may optionally start with a 50mV sine wave signal. (viii) Note down the corresponding output voltage (ix) Plot the graph of (a)Voltage Gain in dB Versus Frequency (b) Voltage Gain in dB Versus Frequency in logarithmic scale (x) Calculate the bandwidth from the response graph in (a) 14 2 and these points are marked in the . ii. Use the two channels of the CRO to observe the input and output signals simultaneously. V out . iv.

Then vary RV to obtain three different values of Vout for different values of RV. From the circuit.1) (i) Derive equation 1. Set the circuit shown in figure 1. 15 . one can see that the input resistance is given by: Rin  Vin RV VS  Vin (3.14 on the Protoboard.13: Input Resistance measurement (d) The Output Resistance The output resistance RO of the amplifier can be measured using the same principle adopted in the determination of Rin.1 from the simplified equivalent circuit (ii) Use the variable resistance or discrete resistances to obtain the suitable values of R V for different values of Vin (iii) Calculate the average value of Riin (iv) Calculate the theoretical value of Rin using the h-parameters of the transistor given in the Datasheet in appendix A RV AMPLIFIER VS Vin Rin Figure 1.13.(xi) Deduce the voltage gain of the amplifier at 3KHz (xii) What causes the drop of the amplifier gain at lower and higher frequencies (c) The Input Resistance The input resistance of the amplifier can be measured using the circuit shown in figure 1. First set RV at infinity and measure the output voltage Vout=VO’.

RV. Use the h-parameters given in the datasheet to calculate RO (ii) (iii) (iv) RO VO’ VO RV Figure 1. and Vo’ from the simplified equivalent model.(i) Find a suitable mathematical relationship of RO. Using the mathematical relationship derived in (d) (i) above. plot the graph Deduce from the graph plotted in (d) (ii) above the average value of RO.14: Output Resistance measurement 16 .

Common Collector is often configured in emitter follower mode. Because of this.3. One may be inquisitive. The term Emitter Follower implies that the output signal is an exactly copy of the input signal. Another function of an Emitter Follower is to shift the level of a signal (level shifter) 17 .2: SELF BIAS (VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS) SINGLE STAGE CE AMPLIFIER A combination of EXPERIMENT 1.1: Common Collector Amplifier Emitter Follower configuration is not used as an amplifying circuit because it voltage gain is less than 1 (AV  1) . Its main usefulness is in the translation of a higher output resistance of an amplifier to a lower output resistance.3. that how is it possible to ground a common collector terminal which is responsible to draw current from the supply voltage? It has no meaning. Audio Frequency Oscillator (Function Generator). Regulated Variable Power Supply. it has a lot of functions to serve. as illustrated in figure 1. and in fact it is impractical to ground a collector leg which is responsible to deliver current to the transistor. Resistors.1.3: COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER Apparatus and Components Transistor (BC 107A or its equivalent). Capacitors and CRO Theory of the Experiment An amplifier configuration commonly used at outputs of many multistage amplifiers is a Common Collector configuration.EXPERIMENT 1. However. +VCC R1 C1 Q1 CE R2 Vin RE Vo 0V RL Figure 1.

Drop across RE is assumed to be half the supply voltage VCC. IE From potential divider rule:  R2  VR 2    R  R VCC  1   2 Hence.3. The model graph of the frequency response is shown in figure 1.2 18 . Use the datasheet of BC 107A (or its equivalent) to choose the quiescent collector current. we assume equal drops across Collector-Emitter terminals (VCE) and Emitter. Mount and test the circuit. We know that ICQ=IE. and the supply voltage. (iv) Calculate the bandwidth from the graph. the values of R2 and R1 can be chosen.Since voltage amplification is done in the transistor amplifier circuit. Use the information obtained from the datasheet to calculate the values of unknown resistors and capacitors. The drop across VCE is VCC-VRE. with all calculated values of capacitors and resistors.6+VRE. input and output resistances of the Emitter Follower amplifier are measured and compared with those of CE configuration. The parameter VCEO can be useful when choosing appropriate supply voltage. ICQ. The voltage across R2. RE  VRE . Now. (a) Frequency Response Measurements Procedures (i) Set the Audio Frequency Oscillator (AFO) to sine wave type of peak to peak amplitude of 5mV. the frequency response. on a Protoboard. Measure the DC voltages VB and VE with reference to ground in the absence of the signal source. VR2=VBE+VRE=0. voltage gain. (ii) Keeping the input voltage constant. Note that the supply voltage is chosen such that the transistor is not damaged. In this experiment. vary the frequency from 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage (iii) Plot the graph of gain against frequency.

C. at the input of the amplifier (i) Measure the gains of the amplifier when the load RL is connected to the circuit. Measurements Introduce a large but non-distorted 3 KHz sinusoidal signal Vi .Figure 1. (ii) How does this resistance value compare with that of the common emitter amplifier tested in Experiment 1. R i . of the amplifier.1? 19 . (ii) How does Ri of the configuration compare with that of the common emitter amplifier tested in experiment 1.2: Frequency Response Model Graph (b) A.3. (iii) What is the relationship between Vi and VO ? (c) Input Resistance (i) Use the procedures mentioned in Experiment 1.1 (c) to measure the input resistance.1 ? (d) Output Resistance (i) Use the procedures mentioned in experiment 1. (ii) Repeat (b) (i) above but with RL not connected to the circuit.1 (d) to measure the output resistance R O of the amplifier.

(iii) If you were to drive a 4Ω speaker. 20 . what configuration will you choose between the Emitter Follower and Common Emitter amplifier configurations? Explain.

The base bias current of transistor Q1 is provided by the feedback resistor RB1 connected between the base terminal of Q1 and the junction of the resistors RE2 and RE2 ’. like that shown in figure 3. Figure 3 shows a direct coupled two-stage voltage amplifier. has distinct advantages over RC coupled amplifier because it uses fewer components and thus noise due to components is intensively reduced. The RC coupled amplifiers are not very practical because of a large number of components involved which impose noise problems to the system. +VCC RC1 RC2 C2 C1 Q1 Q2 VBE1 VE1 RE1 Vin RB2 RE2 RB1 Vout RE2’ C3 0V 21 . Because of this.c. direct coupled amplifiers are usually preferred in the fabrication of ICs.EXPERIMENT 2: MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS Two-Stage Voltage Amplifier The two-stage voltage amplifier can be formed by combining a single stage voltage amplifier and a single stage current amplifier. component to ground and hence making the second stage have low input impedance (current amplifier characteristics). The direct coupled amplifier. The capacitor C3 bypasses any a.

Vin=VE1+VBE1. RB2 and the current ICQ1. RE2. 22 . but VBE1=0.6 =VE1+0.6 ≈VE1 =  Thus. Assume the voltage gain of 100. RC2. The h FE for transistor Q2 is 100. calculate the values of the resistors RC1.Figure 5: Two-Stage voltage amplifier From figure 3.  R E1  R E1  R B 2   xVout   Vout R  AV  1  B 2 Vin R E1 Or AV  1  RB 2 R E1 Example Consider the voltage preamplifier of class A shown in figure 4. RE2’. RE1. currents and capacitances are as indicated. The necessary voltages. RB1.

VCC=+10V RC1 ICQ1 ≈2V RC2 5V ICQ2=1mA C2 VC1 1µF C1 1.3V RE2 Vout Vin 0V Figure 6: Class A voltage preamplifier Solution 5V =5K 1mA I CQ2 1mA IB2=   0. RB2=100K) .65V VBE1 VE1 RE1 Q1 Q2 1µF IB2 RB2 IfB2 RB1 IfB1 RE2’ 100µF 25V C3 1.01mA hFE 100 RC2= ICQ1=10ICQ1=0.1mA AV= RB 2  100 R E1 23 RB2=100RE1 (Choose RE1=1K.

The first stage transistor Q1obtains its base bias current through a negative feedback network provided by series resistors RfB1 and RfB1’. The capacitors C1 and C2 act as high pass filters to bypass high frequency signals in order to overcome Miller effect. as shown in figure 5. The circuit shown in figure 5. if temperature rise causes increase in collector current of the second stage transistor. and the bas bias of the first stage is derived from the junction of the resistors RE2 and RE2’ of the second stage. Recall that Miller effect is caused by the presence of a stray capacitor between the base and collector. but the first stage knows nothing about the first stage.1mA =80K (Take 82K standard resistor) Two-Stage current amplifier The two-stage current amplifier is constructed by cascading a single stage current amplifier followed by a single stage voltage amplifier. the base bias current of the second stage transistor Q2 is obtained from the collector of the first stage transistor Q1. There is no proper communication between the two stages in the light of stability. The capacitor Cf boosts the gain of the first stage transistor Q1. has problems in terms of stability. however. In figure 6. The current gain can be found by observing that. The second stage emitter resistor RE2’ is coupled while RE2 is not coupled because it is required in the current amplification process. R E2 and RE2’. but IB1<<Iin+IfB1 hence IfB1=-Iin -IinRfB1=IERE1≈IoRE1 because IE=IB2+IC2=IB2+Io≈Io since IB2<<Io 24 . hence distorting signal amplification process. neither the first stage nor the second stage has a self-regulatory mechanism to suppress the effect of change to maintain stability. For example.RC1= = VCC  VC1 I CQ1 10V  2V 0. Iin+IfB1=IB1. The reactance of this capacitor decreases as signal frequency increases. Although the second stage gets information of the first stage through its base bias current. To provide stability the circuit in figure 5 should be modified as shown in figure 6. In this circuit. the emitter resistor of the second stage is splitted into two resistors.

VE=1V and RE=RE’.Hence Current Gain  R fB1 Io  Ai   I in R E1 Or Ai   R fB1 R E1 For temperature stability conditions and to ensure that the output voltage attains its maximum symmetrical swing to avoid clipping. IC1 IfB1 RfB1 RfB1’ RB1 IC2 RC1 C2 1uF Q1 Q2 C1 C IB2 RE1 f Vo Vin Figure 7: Two stage current amplifier 25 .

Figure 7 shows a pre-amplifier used to amplify the signals from a MIC. we amplify voltage using a voltage amplifier followed by current amplification using a current amplifier. Because we cannot simultaneously amplify voltage and current then we have to amplify each entity separately. the signals from a microphone (MIC) are very weak in terms of voltage and current and their signal levels are comparable to noise.+VCC IC1 RC1 C2 IC2 RC2 C3 C1 Iin IB1 Q1 IB2 IO Q2 IE1 Vin RfB1 IfB1 IE2 RE2 Vo RE2’ C4 0V Figure 8: Modified version of figure 5 Practical Examples of Preamplifiers Preamplifiers have a wide range of applications. Therefore. A typical MIC can deliver 10mV signal level. PRE-AMPLIFIER 10mV VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER CURRENT AMPLIFIER 100mV 26 . But why should we have preamplifiers in amplifying circuits? Preamplifiers are used to boost weak signals from an output device. For example. That is. pre-amplification is necessary to make the signals stronger than noise.

Figure 9: Application of a Preamplifier in a MIC Aim of the experiment: The aim of this experiment is to design a two-stage small signal voltage amplifier and the gain. Breadboard. input characteristics. bandwidth and frequency response. connecting wires. wire cutter. +VCC RC1 ICQ1 RC2 ICQ2 C2 VC1 C1 VB1 VBE1 Q1 Q2 BC 107 RB2 VE1 Vin VS=50mV (0-1)MHz FUNCTION GENERATOR IE1 IfB1 RE1 IfB2 RB1 IB2 VE2 RE2 BC 107 RS Vout RE2’ C3 0V Figure 10: Two stage voltage preamplifier 27 . Power Supply. Function Generator. Capacitors and BC 107. output characteristics. wire stripper/shaper. Materials and Apparatus: Oscilloscope. Digital Multimeter. Circuit Diagram Figure 8 shows a two stage voltage preamplifier. Resistors.

3V and RE2=RE2’. d) Use the results in (a) and (b) above to determine the second stage collector resistor (R C2) e) Use the voltage gain formula. f) Calculate the values of the resistors. i) Determine the collector current. Note that the transistors in both stages (first and second stage) are identical. to select the values of RB2 and RE1. The following guidelines may help you during the designing process. otherwise the system will oscillate and thus become unstable. AV  overall voltage gain is 100. Use the data sheet to confirm that the chosen supply voltage is safe and cannot damage the transistor. of the emitter of the second stage transistor. h) Assume the minimum hFE of BC 107 transistor (consult a datasheet). 28 I CQ1 hFE 2 . This is observed by looking at the maximum collectoremitter voltage with the base open (V CEO) that a transistor can handle without being destroyed. The simplest approach to find RE2 and RE2’ is to treat them in such a way that they form a potential divider network. RE2=RE2=0. Assume the R E1 g) Use the current gain formula. a) Choose the supply voltage VCC . Hence. ICQ1=10IB2.5VE2. That is. find the base current. RB 2 . IB2. Choose a current gain of 30. where hFE2 is the . Use this value to determine the quiescent collector current (ICQ2) for the second stage transistor. the current gain should not exceed 50. of the first stage transistor. flowing into the second stage transistor by using the formula I B 2  minimum current gain of the second stage transistor. and the result obtained in part (f) above to find the RE 2 value of RB1. For stability conditions set VE2=1. Theoretically. c) Use the datasheet to recognize the maximum collector current that a transistor can handle. by calculating the values of unknown resistors and capacitors. ICQ1.Design Procedures Use the datasheet of BC 107 NPN transistor shown in Appendix A to design a two-stage voltage amplifier shown in figure 8. This current should be 10 times the base current of the second stage transistor. Ai   RB1 . b) Find the collector voltage (VC) such that the output voltage attains its maximum symmetrical swing without clipping. RE2 and RE2’.

R C1. Use this value together with the result obtained in (i) above to find the value of the collector resistor. C2 and C3 such that they exhibit very low impedance at the lowest frequency of operation. o) Plot the frequency response: Gain (dB) versus Frequency (Hz) p) Find the input and output impedances q) Calculate the bandwidth from the graph r) Note down the phase angle. fL.j) Determine the collector voltage. of the first stage transistor. Assume the lowest frequency. vary the frequency from 0Hz to 1MHz in regular steps of 10 and note down the corresponding output voltage. of the first stage transistor. is 20Hz m) Set the voltage source. Note that VE1=1V for stability conditions and RE1= l) V E1 V E1 ≈ I E1 I CQ1 Calculate the values of the capacitors C1. Output impedance a) Measure the output voltage when the amplifier is operating in the mid-band frequency with the load resistance connected (Vload) b) Measure the output voltage when the amplifier is operating in the mid-band frequency without the load connected (V no-load) 29 . bandwidth. which is the input impedance e) Compare and contrast DRB obtained in (d) above with that of Common Emitter configuration 2. Input impedance a) Connect a Decade Resistance Box (DRB) between input voltage source and the base of the first stage transistor (series connection) b) Connect the Voltmeter (0-100mV)across the biasing resistor RB1 c) Vary the value of the DRB such that the ac Voltmeter reads the voltage half the input signal d) Note down the resistance RB. k) Calculate RE1. input and output impedances General Procedures for calculation 1. VC2. VS =50mV (assume) using a signal generator n) Keeping the input voltage constant.

Thus bandwidth = fH-fL h) Compare and contrast the bandwidth obtained in (g) above with that of Common Emitter configuration Model Graph (Frequency Response) Gain (dB) |A|max (dB) -3dB Bandwidth fL fH Frequency (Hz) Supplementary Questions 1. What role is played by the C1 and C2 and C3 in the system? 3. Briefly explain how temperature stabilization is achieved in this circuit 2. Describe the AC and DC characteristics of the amplifier.c) Substitute these values in the formula Zo= Vload  Vnoload x100% to get output resistance Vload d) Compare and contrast Zo obtained in (c) above with that of Common Emitter configuration 3. Bandwidth a) Plot the frequency response b) Identify the maximum gain region c) Draw the horizontal line bi -3dB d) The -3dB line intersects the frequency response plot at two points e) The lower intersection point of -3dB line with the frequency response plot gives the lower cut-off frequency f) The upper intersection point of -3dB line with the frequency response plot gives the upper cut-off frequency g) The difference between the upper cut-off frequency and the lower cut-off frequency is called the bandwidth. 30 .

Can this amplifier be used to amplify very small signals from a microphone to a magnitude that is sufficient to drive a loud speaker? Explain.4. (Assume a typical microphone delivers 10mV signal level) 5. Is this a small signal or large signal amplifier? Explain 31 .

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