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ENG 100

Introduction to Industrial Engineering

A Short Review of Vector and Matrices

Ko University

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #2

Matrices

s

A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers (scalars), written

between square brackets

s

Examples

A =

_

0 1 2.3 0.1

1.3 4 0.1 0

_

B =

_

3 3

12 0

_

C =

_

_

1.6 0

3.4 4

7.2 1.1

_

_

s

Dimension or Size of a matrix is given as (numbers of) rows

columns

s

In the above example, A is a 2 4 matrix, B is a 2 2 matrix

and C is a 3 2 matrix.

s

An mn matrix is called

x

Square, if m = n (e.g. B),

x

Skinny, if m > n, (e.g. C),

x

Fat, if m < n (e.g. A).

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #3

Matrices

s

We use double script to refer to the elements of the matrix.

s

A

ij

is the element of the matrix A located in row i and the

column j.

s

In the notation A

ij

:

x

i is the row index

x

j is the column index

s

Example: For the matrix

A =

_

1 2 0.2 4

7 9 11 13

_

A

23

= 11, A

12

= 2 and A

31

is undened.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #4

Vectors

s

A matrix with a single column, i.e., an m1 matrix, is called a

(column) vector. Example

x =

_

_

1

2

2

_

_

s

A matrix with a single row, i.e. a 1 n matrix, is called a row

vector. Example

y =

_

1 5 12 4

_

s

if we use the term vector alone, it is generally understood that

we are referring to a column vector.

s

We use vectors to denote points in n-dimensional spaces.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #5

Matrix Equality

s

A = B means

x

A and B have the same size.

x

the corresponding entries are equal.

s

For example,

x

_

2

3.3

_

=

_

2 3.3

_

since the dimensions dont agree.

x

_

2

3.3

_

=

_

2

3.1

_

since the 2

nd

components dont agree.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #6

Zero, Identity and Diagonal Matrices

s

O

mn

denotes the mn zero matrix, with all entries zero.

Ex : 0

23

=

_

0 0 0

0 0 0

_

.

s

I

n

denotes the n n identity matrix, with

I

ij

=

_

1 i = j

0 i = j

Ex : I

3

=

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

.

s

A square matrix A with all entries A

ij

= 0 if i = j is called a

diagonal matrix.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #7

Unit Vectors

s

e

i

denotes the i

th

unit vector: its i

th

component is one, all

others are zero.

s

For example for three dimensional vectors

e

1

=

_

_

1

0

0

_

_

e

2

=

_

_

0

1

0

_

_

e

3

=

_

_

0

0

1

_

_

s

1 denotes the ones vector with all one elements.

s

For example, for four dimensional vectors

1 =

_

_

1

1

1

1

_

_

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #8

Transpose

s

Transpose of mn matrix A, denoted A

T

or A

is n m matrix

with

s

(A

T

)

ij

= A

ji

s

Example:

_

1 15 23

2 4 1

_

T

=

_

_

1 2

15 4

23 1

_

_

s

Rows and columns of A are transposed in A

T

.

s

Transpose converts row vectors to column vectors, vice versa.

s

(A

T

)

T

= A.

s

A square matrix A such that A

T

= A is called a symmetric

matrix.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #9

Addition and Subtraction

s

If A and B are both mn, we form A+B by adding

corresponding entries.

s

Example:

_

_

2 4

5 2

1 6

_

_

+

_

_

0 5

1 3

4 6

_

_

=

_

_

2 1

4 1

5 0

_

_

s

Similarly for Matrix Subtraction

_

2 3

5 7

_

I =

_

1 3

5 6

_

s

Addition (subtraction) of two matrices with different sizes is

undened.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #10

Properties of Matrix Addition

s

A+B = B+A. (Commutativity)

s

(A+B) +C = A+ (B+C) (Associativity)

s

A+0 = 0 +A = A

s

AA = 0

s

(A+B)

T

= A

T

+B

T

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #11

Scalar Multiplication

s

We can multiply a number (scalar) by a matrix by multiplying

every entry of the matrix by the scalar.

s

Example:

(4)

_

_

2 4

1 5

3 6

_

_

=

_

_

8 16

4 20

12 24

_

_

s

Properties:

x

( + )A = A+ A

x

()A = (A)

x

(A+B) = A+ B

x

0 A = 0

x

1 A = A

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #12

Matrix Multiplication

s

If A is mp and B is p n, we can form

C

..

mn

= A

..

mp

B

..

pn

, which is a mn matrix with

C

ij

=

p

k=1

A

ik

B

kj

= A

i1

B

1j

+ . . . + A

ip

B

pj

i = 1, . . . , m, j = 1, . . . , n

s

To nd C

ij

, you need the i

th

row of A and the j

th

column of B.

s

To form C = AB, the number of columns of A must equal the

number of rows of B.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #13

Matrix Multiplication

s

Example 1:

_

1 6

9 3

__

0 1

1 2

_

=

_

6 11

3 3

_

for example to get 2, 1 entry of product:

C

21

= A

21

B

11

+ A

22

B

21

= 9 0 + 3 1 = 3

s

Example 2:

_

0 1

1 2

__

1 6

9 3

_

=

_

9 3

17 0

_

s

These examples illustrate that we dont always have

AB = BA.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #14

Properties of Matrix Multiplication

s

IA = A, AI = A

s

(AB)C = A(BC), so we can write as ABC

s

(AB) = (A)B

s

A(B+C) = AB+AC

s

(AB)

T

= B

T

A

T

s

AB = 0 does not mean A or B is 0.

s

Cancelation Law does not hold for matrices. AB = AC does

not mean B=C.

Example:

A =

_

1 0

0 0

_

B =

_

0 0

1 0

_

C =

_

0 0

0 1

_

AB = AC = 0 but A = 0, B = 0, C = 0 and B = C

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #15

Matrix Powers

s

If matrix A is square, then product AA makes sense, and is

denoted A

2

.

s

More generally, k copies of A multiplied together gives A

k

:

A

k

= AA. . . A

. .

k

s

By convention we set A

0

= I.

s

We have A

k

A

l

= A

k+l

.

s

Non-integer powers like A

1/2

are tricky- thats an advanced

topic

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #16

Matrix Inverse

s

If A is square, and square matrix F satises FA = I, then

x

F is called the inverse of A, and is denoted A

1

x

The matrix A is called invertible or nonsingular

s

If A doesnt have an inverse, it is called singular or noninvertible

s

By denition, A

1

A = I; a basic result of linear algebra is that

AA

1

= I.

s

We dene negative powers of A via A

k

= (A

1

)

k

.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #17

Matrix Inverse Examples

s

Example 1

_

1 1

1 2

_

1

=

1

3

_

2 1

1 1

_

(Check this!)

s

Example 2

_

1 1

2 2

_

does not have an inverse; lets see why:

_

a b

c d

__

1 1

2 2

_

=

_

a 2b a + 2b

c 2d c + 2d

_

=

_

1 0

0 1

_

but you cant have a 2b = 1 and a + 2b = 0 at the same

time!!

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #18

Properties of Matrix Inverse

s

(A

1

)

1

= A (Assuming A is invertible)

s

(AB)

1

= B

1

A

1

(Assuming A, B are invertible)

s

(A

T

)

1

= (A

1

)

T

(assuming A is invertible)

s

I

1

= I

s

(A)

1

= (1/)A

1

(assuming A is invertible, = 0)

s

if y = Ax, where x, y are n-vectors, and A is invertible, then

x = A

1

y:

A

1

y = A

1

Ax = Ix = x

s

If A is invertible and AB = AC then B = C.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #19

Matrix-Vector Product

s

Very important special case of matrix multiplication: y = Ax

x

A is an mn matrix

x

x is an nvector

x

y is an mvector

y

i

= A

i1

x

1

+ . . . + A

in

x

n

i = 1, . . . , m

s

We can think of y = Ax as

x

a function that transforms nvectors to mvectors

x

a set of m linear equations relating x to y.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #20

Inner Product

s

if x, y are nvectors, x

T

y is a scalar called inner product or dot

product of x, y, and denoted x, y:

x, y = x

T

..

1n

y

..

n1

. .

11

= x

1

y

1

+ . . . + x

n

y

n

=

n

i=1

x

i

y

i

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #21

Linear Equations

s

An equation in variables x

1

, . . . , x

n

is called linear if each side

consists of a sum of multiples of x

i

, and a constant, e.g.,

1 + x

2

= x

3

2x

1

is a linear equation in x

1

, x

2

, x

3

.

s

The equations involving the following components are not

linear.

a. Power of a variable.

Ex: x

n

for n = 1

b. Multiplication of two variables.

Ex: x

1

x

2

c. Division by a variable.

Ex: 1/x

d. A variable as a power of a constant.

Ex: a

x

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #22

Linear Equations Example

s

Any set of m linear equations in the variables x

1

, . . . x

n

can be

represented by the compact matrix equation

Ax = b,

where A is an mn matrix, b is an mvector, x is an

nvector.

s

Two equations in three variables x

1

, x

2

, x

3

:

1 + x

2

= x

3

2x

1

, x

3

= x

2

2

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #23

Linear Equations Example Continued

s

step 1: rewrite equations with variables on the lefthand side,

lined up in columns, and constants on the righthand side:

2x

1

+ x

2

x

3

= 1

0x

1

x

2

+ x

3

= 2

(each row is one equation)

s

Step 2: rewrite equations as a single matrix equation:

_

2 1 1

0 1 1

_

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

=

_

1

2

_

s

i

th

row of A gives the coefcients of the i

th

equation

s

j

th

column of A gives the coefcients of x

j

in the equations

s

i

th

entry of b gives the constant in the i

th

equation.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #24

Solving Linear Equations

s

Suppose we have n linear equations in n variables x

1

, . . . x

n

s

Lets write it in compact matrix form as Ax = b where A is an

n n matrix, b is an nvector.

s

Suppose A is invertible, i.e., its inverse A

1

exists.

s

Multiply both sides of Ax = b on the left by A

1

:

A

1

Ax = A

1

b

Ix = A

1

b

x = A

1

b

s

So multiplication by matrix inverse solves a set of linear

equations.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #25

Solving Linear Equations Example

Example: Solve the following set of linear equations.

5 + x

2

= 2x

3

3x

1

, 2x

3

= 3x

2

2 x

2

+ x

3

= 4x

1

3x

1

+ x

2

2x

3

= 5

0x

1

3x

2

+ 2x

3

= 2

4x

1

+ x

2

+ x

3

= 0

_

_

3 1 2

0 3 2

4 1 1

_

_

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

=

_

_

5

2

0

_

_

x = A

1

b

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #26

Linear Independence

s

A set of vectors a

1

, a

2

, ...a

n

is linearly independent if the only

solution of the equation

1

a

1

+

2

a

2

+ ... +

n

a

n

= 0

is

1

=

2

= ... =

n

= 0

s

If there are scalars

1

,

2

, ...

n

not all zero, such that

1

a

1

+

2

a

2

+ ... +

n

a

n

= 0

then the set of vectors a

1

, a

2

, ...a

n

is linearly dependent.

(i.e. A vector can be obtained from the others.)

Ex: [2 4 6], [3 7 1], [5 8 -3] are linearly independent.

Ex: [2 4 6], [3 7 1], [5 11 7] are linearly dependent.

Ex: [2 4 6], [1 2 3] are linearly dependent.

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #27

Solving Linear Equations

s

When A is noninvertible (i.e., inverse doesnt exist), it means

that coefcient vectors are linearly dependent and

x

one or more of the equations is redundant (i.e. can be

obtained from the others.)

x

the equations are inconsistent or contradictory

(these facts are studied in linear algebra (in Math 203!) )

s

in practice: A isnt invertible means youve set up the wrong

equations, or dont have enough of them

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #28

Solving Linear Equations Example

Example:

5 + x

2

= 2x

3

3x

1

, 2x

3

= 3x

2

2 10 + 6x

1

= 4x

3

2x

2

3x

1

+ x

2

2x

3

= 5

0x

1

3x

2

+ 2x

3

= 2

6x

1

+ 2x

2

4x

3

= 10

Example:

5 + x

2

= 2x

3

3x

1

, 2x

3

= 3x

2

2 8 + 6x

1

= 4x

3

2x

2

3x

1

+ x

2

2x

3

= 5

0x

1

3x

2

+ 2x

3

= 2

6x

1

+ 2x

2

4x

3

= 8

qLECTURE 3

A Short Review of Vectors and

Matrices

qMatrices

qMatrix Operations

qMatrix Inverse

qLinear Equations

ENG 100 - Slide #29

Solving Linear Equations

s

What if the number of equations is not equal to the number of

variables, i.e., m = n?

Youll study these in more detail in Math 203!

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