US-China Education Review
Volume 7, Number 12, December 2010 (Serial Number 73)

Da vid Publishing

David Publishing Company

Publication Information: US-China Education Review (ISSN1548-6613) is published monthly in hard copy and online by David Publishing Company located at 1840 Industrial Drive, Suite 160, Libertyville, Illinois 60048, USA. Aims and Scope: US-China Education Review, a monthly professional academic journal, covers all sorts of researches on Higher Education Research, Educational Theory, Psychological Research, Educational Management, Teacher’s Education Research, Curriculum and Teaching Research, and Educational Technology, as well as other issues. Editorial Board Members:
Cameron Scott White,University of Houston, USA Diane Schwartz, Hofstra University, USA Güner Tural Dinçer, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey Mercedes Ruiz Lozano, University of Cordoba, Spain

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Juan Ignacio Ferreiro Prieto. Carmen Conde.US-China Education Review Volume 7. Enar Ruiz-Conde. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program Thillainatarajan Sivukamaran. M. Number 12. Jasone Mondragón-Lasagabaster. Herminia Provencio Garrigós. Sofyan Iskandar Serving. M. Natalia Albaladejo-Blázquez. Patricia Ellerman 39 49 Educational Technology Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante 54 Francisco Miguel Martínez-Verdú. Mª Dolores Fernández-Pascual. Esther Perales Romero. Elísabet Chorro Calderón Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher 70 Saúl Alejandro Contreras Palma Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction 83 Peter Ayo Ajelabi. Vicente Mellado Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology Rungaroon Sripan. tense and verb ZHUANG Xin Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Yüksel Dede A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations Muhlise Coşgun Ögeyik The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers María Brígido. Valentín Viqueira Pérez. José Tomás García García. Clark. Leonard J. Mar Iglesias. Josefa Parreño-Selva. Bandit Suksawat 1 10 18 25 33 Educational Management and Policy Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program Tatang Suratno. December 2010 (Serial Number 73) Contents Curriculum and Teaching Grammar learning and teaching: Time. Karen Marissa Boyd. Glenda Holland. Juan Ramón Rico-Juan. María Dolores de Fez Sáiz. Diana Jareño Ruiz. Alaba Agbatogun On building a web-based university 89 Dana Constantinescu. Luisa Bermejo. María José Rodríguez Jaume. Gunnar Stefansson Special Education Teaching and learning in kindergarten Jurka Lepicnik Vodopivec Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa Akinwumi Femi Sunday 98 106 . Sarah Tyman. Begoña Lucía Fuster García.


Some possible pedagogical activities and materials are recommended to make tedious grammar learning and teaching more understandable and interesting. verbs. it be meaningful and practical if the grammar rules are reflected rather in sentences or contexts than in the formula. Key words: tenses. for L2 learners. in which vocabulary and grammar rules are learned and developed by constructing a set of rules which will characterize the language that surrounds them and enable them to use it for both speaking and understanding (Chomsky. Thus.December 2010. 1 . but also making each grammar rule unique in each language. lecturer. 1999. 1996. learning various grammar rules for the second language (L2) learners should be in a co-current way rather than in a linear way. they would ZHUANG Xin. The paper analyzes the features of simple present tense. All the languages have symbols of identity and they are differed by two elements: time and space. USA Grammar learning and teaching: Time. p. aspects. It is suggested that. However. the teaching of grammar is a necessary component in language teaching program and grammar itself takes the fundamental and dominant position in “accumulated entities” (Rutherford. although someone might argue that it should not be a necessary section in language assessment. Volume 7. p. A student grammar book of Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk (1990) introduced the tenses with the help of verbs rather than the markers of tenses or the adverbials. Hangzhou 310018. Grammar is defined as “the way words are put together to make correct sentences” (Ur. which is functioned as a rule to make the language output possible.12 (Serial No. which help learners improve their learning from nil to certain language proficiency. And most of the time. This learning experience differs from the L1 acquisition either in aspect of sequence in language input or in cognitive system as well. p. 2. 3). 1969. Compared with the ways of acquisition of the first language (L1) learners. L1 learners acquire the mother tongue by imitation. Nevertheless. Learning tenses seems to be meaningful and easier to understand. 26). Grammar in language learning It is generally believed that. Zhejiang Gongshang University. most of them are taught as grammatical knowledge beforehand and develop the knowledge into practice afterwards. simple past tense and verbs in them from the aspect of Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk’s student grammar book as an instructive example. practice and “the interaction position” (Lightbown & Spada. teaching of grammar 1. grammar is the indicator of the difference during the learning process. Introduction Grammar as the basic rules of a certain language has its prominent position in language learning and teaching. These are the differences not only separating languages. ISSN 1548-6613. time and space. College of Foreign Languages. Zhejiang Gongshang University. 1987. p. China) Abstract: The learning of English tenses and verbs is obviously the major and challenging part of second language learning and acquisition for Chinese students. No.73) US-China Education Review. 4). tense and verb ZHUANG Xin (College of Foreign Languages. research field: English language teaching. when the teachers teach L2 learners to acquire a certain language. 75).

it is not as simplistic as the arranged order in the assembly lines. Greenbaum & Quirk. 47) book. while a foreign language does not influence their daily life directly. while aspect is concerned with “the internal temporal constituency of the one situation”. Rutherford (1987. 3). 273) also concluded as a binary (2-way) tense contrast. the rules may be generated” (Bialystok. which is one of the prominent features in the L2 learning. “after” and “included” in the temporal relationship between the TU (time of utterance) and the TT (topic time). 9. one follows another involving “before” and “after”. “We break language down in order to build it up”. usually with reference to the present moment that something occurred rather than how long it occurred for. 1991. p. tense and verb better take the social contexts and their implications for the learners into account. posteriority and simultaneity. past. Klein. 37) suggested a proper metaphor by comparing the growth of language as “organism”. Both tense and aspect are concerned with time. And Klein (1994. 85). Smith. 5. they claimed that in English. p. p. 40). in Greenbaum and Quirk’s (1990. Tense and aspect According to the ideas of the L2 learners. Tenses have consistent relational values: anteriority. 1). Therefore. 2001. p. which suggested that the process of learning language should not be a mechanical step-by-step one but rather cyclical interconnections. present and past respectively. p. “If knowledge of language is analyzed. and until they demonstrate that their mastery of one thing could they move to the next. that is to say. p. the choice of tense and aspect matters a lot. there are only two tenses. The acquisition of the L2 undergoes the induction-deduction-induction circular process. this indirect learning and practicing process could not make L2 learners internalize all the intricate grammar rules like the L1 learners do naturally. 11. 1988. aspect is a way of viewing processes rather than locating them in time (Comrie. p. “The selection of a verb tense form will reflect either the speaker’s knowledge of the prevailing time references. 2003. As Hasan and Perrett (1994. with the present moment as deictic centre. p. Therefore. p. since English has no future 2 . but they are concerned with time in different way and sometimes are hard to distinguish from one another. p.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. which is regarded as a strictly linear approach (Nunan. which is realized by verb inflection. 145). 333). p. p. 1976. in which some matters may have continued for quite a long time while some may change instantaneously. 15. Thus. p. And Nunan (2001. p. when time and space become the fundamental components in our communicative learning. Therefore. or else his/her interpretation of the situation” (Stranks. the duration of the activity indicated by the verb. they ought to acquire one grammatical rule at a time like learning each new word separately. 2000. 1990. which Radford (1997. 1994. 198) noted that. but a flow of matters which may have happened simultaneously. p. 1985. which divided the time spans into “before”. like Rutherford (1987) mentioned. present and future (Comrie. 1996. 1985. Finch. p. 3. 161. analyzing the language itself seems to be the necessary step during the learning process. Language itself needs renewing and language learning needs rebuilding and reconfirming. In whatever kind of language.e. 1994.. However. When it describes what has happened. p. Lock. and most of them reset the procedure of the language acquisition by learning the rules first and then the practice afterwards. Comrie. i. Meuler (1995. 191). p. However. p. 2) pointed out in descriptions of what happened. 192) provided a more vivid organic metaphor—L2 acquisition more likes growing a garden than building a wall. which rooted in the structural organization of language (Klein. the L1 creates “the learners’ primary world of reference for understanding reality”. Tense is grammaticalized expression of location in time. 1994. the “temporal relations” (Klein. the linear model does not suit anymore. time and space are fundamental to cognition and experience. 120) introduced “the basic time concept”.

p. 1997. 1964. “non-finites can have voice and aspect and phase. better understanding time in the real world could help learners use the simple present tense to indicate different moments in the sentences. Moreover. that is. except modal auxiliaries. By giving the first two examples with the English verbal inflection “-s” to indicate the third person singular. the “present” tense is also used to narrate past events to make the narrative more vivid and the indirect use of the “past” tense to express the present with regard to cognition and emotion. 1996. which is helpful for the learners to distinguish the difference between tenses and aspects with systematic learning. yesterday is past and tomorrow is in the future. As Knepler (1990. p. the simple present with the present continuous or the simple past with the present perfect. however. 36) pointed out that. 4. to demonstrate the main focus in the learning of tenses. which is similar to the acquisition of 3 . “The only way of locating a situation in time is relative to some other already established time point”. could they detect and generalize the systematic rules in grammar. it seems that there some problems for the Chinese learners to acquire the English tense system since they are not so sensitive to the expression of time during their speaking and reading in English. Thus. two examples illustrated above seem to be plain and simple. Greenbaum and Quirk’s (1990) idea coincides with one of the principles that claimed by VanPatten (1996. However. Greenbaum and Quirk (1990) displayed the general feature in the simple present tense. last year. to detect the markers of temporal reference is easier than to use the proper tense to express a particular meaning. Therefore.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. adverbials (such as before. In another words. since it is known that. next and then) and clauses are often used to refer to a specific time. Greenbaum and Quirk (1990) presented the tense not from abstract definitions but from much smaller component of a sentence and verbs. a finite verb marked with “-ed” or without that marker could be categorized into tense. 47) demonstrated the difference between the “present moment” and the “present time” by defining “moment” as a certain point located in the line of time that indicates the moment could exist in the past and in the future while there is no paradox in “time”. 293). Further. Moreover. for example. A great number of grammatical features encode some semantic information (VanPattern. p. According to Wallace (1982. tense and verb inflected form of the verb. first of all. This starting point reflects Quirk and Stein’s (1990. but not tense” (Joos. the much more appropriate way is to start to introduce the basic form to enable the learners practice and produce each context before another one can be introduced. Superficially. “Often more than one choice of tenses is correct for any situation”. which provides a reasonable implication that “present” could refer to either in the past or in the future. In Chinese. first. the present tense could also convey future meaning. which are made relative to the present and time markers (Hinkel. For example. For any L2 learners. they all use lexical marker “-s” to illustrate the only grammatical feature the third person singular in the simple present tense. since with these mixed conceptions. However. “Learners process input for meaning before they process it for form”. Simple present tense Greenbaum and Quirk (1990. the order of their presenting differs from the average grammar books. Comrie (1985. however. p. 108) point of view: Vocabulary is the word stock and grammar is the set of devices for handling this word stock. 202). many researches show that. Chinese is one of the languages which have only aspect and no tense (Lock. p. 1996. Greenbaum and Quirk (1990) did not present tenses in contrast. p. p. only after adequate exposure to the target language. learners will be more frustrated. p. 8) mentioned. Thus. yesterday. p. 21). in the sentences “Pairs stands on the River Seine” and “John boasts a lot”. 120). “The English ‘future’ auxiliary ‘will’ in earlier times expressed not so much futurity as desire or intention”. 17). p. 163).

p. This way of classification is benefit for the learners who might seek help from verbs to understand the meaning in tenses. When they explain the simple present tense for present time. On the other hand. it could borrow the activity suggested by Rinvolucri (1984. L2 learners are given a brand new recognition about verbs in stative and dynamic senses. 1994. It is easy to discover that. Meanwhile. the adverbial “every year” in “We go to Brussels every year”.Grammar learning and teaching: Time.1 Simple present tense for present time The simple present tense is the commonest usage for most learners at their beginning level of learning. they provide 4 examples. the circle must try to chorus the right form. the other pronoun using the base “live” and the negative form of the third person singular “does not believe”. e. including the verb “be” (is) and “do” (believe. the common grammar books highlight the forms of verb inflection. 158). which have progressive meanings. on the one hand. p. “2 and 3 make 5”. like in the later example. Greenbaum and Quirk introduced verbs with 4 . stative verbs always fit for the state present/past. since in most cases. tense and verb L1. their starting point differs from the average grammar books. activity and process verbs. 4. the timeless present. For both simple tenses. p. the dynamic verbs are confined to habitual/event/instantaneous present and past. the other students could shout out the verb. e. to present the subtle part in the tenses. It includes the “eternal truths” and less extreme instances of timelessness. while dynamic verbs include what Leech has defined as event. Greenbaum and Quirk (1990) did not simply use the temporal adverbials to present the simple present tense. have and know” and “dynamic” verbs like “drive.. And this is also the principle they define that there are only two tenses in English. Students could sit in a circle with one of them standing in the middle. Before talking about the tenses. etc.. 1990.g. Stative verbs senses refer to “A single unbroken state of affairs that has existed in the past. at the very beginning. 117): “The shout in the circle” to highlight the verb forms. they draw a distinct line between “stative” verbs like “be. live and taste) in the state present. it is undifferentiated and lacking in defined limits. meanwhile. From Greenbaum and Quirk’s peculiar point of view to look at verbs. 1990. When the student in the centre tells others the daily routine of someone or the timeless facts he/she knows well. 11). etc. 4) defined “a state”. Since adverbials constitute abundant and various expressions both in form and function (Klein. they could have a better understanding of the simple present tense in the reality. which is defined as the “state present”. which refers to the repeated event without limitation to specify the frequency of the event.. which emphasizes more on the distinction between verb “be” and “do” with more specific meanings. the 3rd person singular “tastes”. which require the learners to make choice between “the base and the base+s/es form depend entirely on the subject of the sentence” (Knepler. exists now. Talking about the habitual present and instantaneous present. “make” in the sentence and if the verb is incorrect. and is likely to continue to exist in the future” (Greenbaum & Quirk. In order to highlight the different forms of the verbs in this tense in a more restricted time spans. Like what Leech (1971.g. Nevertheless. language teachers prefer to use them to decode the intricate shades of temporal reference in the tenses for the benefit of the L2 learners. especially the 3rd person singular in the simple present tense. all of which are realized by verb inflection. This activity is suitable for the beginners who first need to identify the verb in a sentence and then make a proper choice on the form of the verb. 48). p. p. speak and attack”. while Greenbaum and Quirk focused more on the meaning of the verbs to help learners choose appropriate tenses to meet the needs of sentence expressing and communicative value. Greenbaum and Quirk started their illustration from the most important one in content words and verbs. they appear without argumentation. The distinction between stative and dynamic aspect is clearly important in the grammatical description of verbs in English.

which might enhance their sensitivity to the usage of tenses. a state verb in the clauses. 100) might be a good choice to teach present simple to express habitual action. simple present tense has more functions beyond the present time. this is the distinction between stative and dynamic senses but not between state and dynamic verbs. it conveys the meaning of continuity. But if the sentence has undifferentiated limits.2 Simple present tense for past and future However. tense and verb dynamic senses that events repeatedly occur without limitation and occur with little or no duration. each student is allowed to choose an animal that he/she could related with. now references are in commentaries or demonstrations and past time actions within narrative (Lock. the other is “stative verb senses” and “event (dynamic) verb senses”. e. compare the pairs of sentences and decide what the speaker meant to say about the time of the reported event. 1996. they reused the time of narration or the time of speaking as the criteria to illustrate the subtle parts in the simple present tense. p. 4. When Greenbaum and Quirk explained 3 kinds of usage of the simple present for past and future. (4) They said their office was on Main Street.g. That is to make the choices between “state” and “event” verbal usage for the distinction between the state. the habitual and the instantaneous uses of the simple present/past. Through this activity. The differences between senses could help learners use them in their speaking or writing tasks. it still needs state and event senses to emphasize different meanings according to the time. Leech (1971. Greenbaum and Quirk clearly distinguished two large ranges of concepts: One is “state verbs” and “event (dynamic) verbs”. 35) could be a good one to help learners distinguish these concepts. p.. like examples (1) and (4). like examples (2) and (3). 136). (3) They said their office is on Main Street. which will facilitate grammar teaching. meanwhile. An exercise suggested by Woods and McLeod (1990. 1). If the sentence has “a beginning and an end” sense of meaning. Greenbaum and Quirk related the referential view of time to the meaning of verb. and then students need to complete the sheets as they are the animal in the first person. 4) gave definitions to them. it is not so difficult to find another feature in the Greenbaum and Quirk’s book when they present the tenses. Drawing the picture and imitating the noise that the animal makes.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. That is to say. in which future events are regarded as “already predetermined” (Leech. they need to find a suitable partner and the most dangerous partner while reading their describing sentences. p. action or state. they implied another line for the time of narration (speaking). (2) He said that he is very depressed. students could understand the verbs which are represented as general or universal in a much more vivid way. An activity suggested by Rinvolucri (1984. From the analysis above. Greenbaum and Quirk strictly pointed out that. In the later part. (1) He said that he was very depressed. but verb senses are unique to each situation in accordance with the meanings of the sentence. p. p. they indicate the event past. 153). that is. “Animal habits”. A state has no defined limits and an event has a beginning and an end. p. which he regards them as semantic rather than grammatical terms. verb could be used to refer to an event or a state. which could be presented in Figure 1 (Smith. Although in all the examples. -----------------------------Speech time----------------------------____________________Time line____________________ Past Present Future Figure 1 Relation between speech time and time line 5 . 1991. Much less common in most teaching contexts is the use of simple present with action processes for future time references. 1971. The simple present occurs with verbs rather expressing events than expressing states. they use verb “be”. In order to inspire the interest of the whole class.

“* * * *” indicates repeated occurrence. Here. the sentence uses “last week” to indicate the event happened in the past. Take the example from Leech’s (1971. the historical present is introduced with the companion of an adverbial expression indicating past time. 5. but for the dramatic effect. 333). Comparing the simple present tense and simple past tense. the sentence uses the simple present tense to refer to the moment in the past as if it was happening now. 7) book as an example. up comes Ben and slaps me on the back as if we’re life-long friends”. This implies a kind of tense selection in a rather informal and loose conversation.Time 3 Reality at present……Recalling………. p. the habitual past and state past. It could find the similarities and difference by drawing a chart to indicate the relationship between them (see Figure 3).Grammar learning and teaching: Time. Greenbaum and Quirk used the similar methods to categorize the general past tense into 3 parts: the event past. But in order to make the narration vivid as it happens at the time of narration. but the whole sentence is portrayed as if the event was going on at the present time. it could apply the simple present tense as well. In the example given. the narrator puts himself into the past time to narrate the event happens at the present moment by using the verb “comes”. Simple past tense Mentioning the past tense. Thus. the best approach which could be used is to retell a story or a dialogue. Greenbaum and Quirk hardly relied on the adverbial phrases to indicate the time but on using the verb with tense marker “-ed” on event verb to make the whole story in the past highly colored with the effect of story-telling. “*” refers to a single definite event. when this chap next door staggers past and in a drunken fit throws a brick through our window”. ________/* Event past * Instantaneous present * * * * * * * * *Habitual past * * * * * * * * Habitual present ______________State past ____________State present ———————————(Time line)————————————> Past Present Figure 3 Simple present tense and simple past tense on the time line Notes: “_____” indicates an unbroken state. it could see the narrator stands at the present time to talk about the thing happened in the past. They do not provide a large number of superficial rules. When the events are almost certain to take place at a scheduled time. “Just as we arrived. they provided several examples usually appeared in the dialogues.Reality in the past Simple past———————————>Simple present Figure 2 The changing positions of the narrator in his story When Greenbaum and Quirk explained the situation that using the simple present tense to indicate the past.. Figure 2 is the changing positions of the narrator. which might leave the impressions to the learners that “The relevant grammatical area is bitty and arbitrary” (Stranks. 2003. the other kinds use the dynamic verbs. “Last week I’m in the sitting-room with the wife. From the component of the sentence “we arrived”. the bottom-up approach might be the wise choice for the learners to 6 ... or to take a message for someone else. except the state past and state present use stative verbs. If it wants to introduce the usage of present simple to refer to the past with information communicated which is still valid now or to achieve the dramatic effect of narration. tense and verb The historical present refers to the past. Greenbaum and Quirk pointed out that. Narrator Time 1………………Time 2…………. p. which give the learners the implication that verbs are the most important component in the tenses. Normally.

The teacher should ask the students to work in threes and correct the grammar mistakes on the labels. “Our lives”. The verbs “swarm. 6. Little (1994. Give each student 10 labels. on which need to be written the important things that happened to them in the past. Then he/she can ask the students to stick 30 labels on a sheet of paper in chronological order. Students will throw the die one by one and if the number indicates a certain label. but not structures or rules. Types of meaning within grammatical structures could be identified in several ways. and seethes with delighted anticipation. “The crowd swarms around the gateway. tense and verb learn the rules from rich examples in sentences and context. giving the students some pictures about things happened on someone or 7 . teachers could adopt the exercise from Adamson (1990. The activity ends when all the players finished their description about the events. the meaning changes radically. This activity could help students better understand the situation time in the past tense and provide the students adequate chances to practice the simple past tense. 106) claimed that only after teachers know some of the words. especially verbs. excitement grows. which represents an experience which might involve some personal thoughts and feelings. as suddenly their hero makes his entrance…”. 4). In order to make the learners understand the special usage of simple present/past tense. 9). And if possible. the teachers could let students practice the historic present to reach a dramatic effect and make the whole narration vivid. 59): Writing up a long sentence in simple past tense according to a picture and then telling the class to reduce this sentence to one word by taking out the words up to 3 consecutive words. the whole event is highlighted dramatically. thus. could they know the behavior the explicit grammatical rules described. and for the implicit knowledge of grammatical rules. such as in the example. This could make students aware of the importance of the sentence components. p. But they are not allowed to change any endings or re-arrange words. p. 115) should be a good one to form an idea of time in the students’ mind. Verbs in the tenses The most prominent feature of the introduction about the tenses in Greenbaum and Quirk’s book is the presenting of words. “Silent sentence” is one of the activities recommended by Rinvolucri (1984. p. with the help of the teacher if necessary. they need to build up a sentence by adding up to 3 words consecutively. the author applies the fictional use to put the readers in the place of someone witnessing the events in the past. p. until the hero “makes his entrance”. that is. p. Another way reflected in the examples of Greenbaum and Quirk is the textual meaning. the person who wrote it should speak for one minute about the label described the event. grow” represent a certain sequence of the crowd. According to Richards (1996. Learners derive their grammatical knowledge system from analysis of particular examples of language in use.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. Another activity suggested by Rinvolucri (1984. a developing mental lexicon is the necessity in the development. one way to identify meanings is by experiential meaning. Greenbaum and Quirk treated the verbs as the key of understanding the distinction between tenses and the same tense in different usage. seethe. When students reduce the sentence. Several teaching materials might highlight the key position of the verbs in the learning of tenses. such as the example given by Greenbaum and Quirk: “The plane left at 9:00 am” is about a certain plane (the plane) took an action in the past (left) at a certain time (9:00 am). This activity is to catch the students’ attention to the verbs in sentences and use them in a proper tense when required. too. the month and year. Once they reduced the sentence into one word. Noticing the verb in sentences is beneficial for understanding and exchanging the meanings.

No matter what kind of teaching materials could be. S. And sometimes. Verb is the core in a sentence. These help the learners understand the differences between tenses: The present tense indicates a location at the moment of speaking and the past tense refers to a time before the moment of speaking. especially for the students whose native language has no tenses at all. “Animal habits” is one of the proper exercises to practice a certain tense in a certain situation. which could have an effect to highlight the verbs in sentences. England: Longman. learners could still be aware of the functions and correct uses of the tenses. The teachers could encourage students to apply these special usages to their writing to narrate some events that they would illustrate as examples. In this paper. tense and verb the imaginary incidents happened on the students themselves. Even without the help from the adverbials. and “silent sentence” could be a good exercise for students to reduce and accumulate the components of the sentences. and simple past tense plainly indicates a single definite event in the past. This is one of the examples to present the simple present tense to indicate the past event. Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings. They remind the learners that. (1990). Nevertheless. “Our lives” and the description about the imaginary incidents could be a perfect practice. Greenbausm and Quirk have distinguished moment from time and tense from aspect by drawing two parallel lines: One indicates the time of event that happened. (Eds. and the other refers to moment of speaking about the event.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. References: Adamson. Harlow.g.). verbs become the focus of the induction. (1988). Greenbaum and Quirk taught people to understand and learn the tenses from different angles. Declerck (1991. the stative verbs and dynamic verbs could refer to a state or event while verbs with state and event senses could emphasize different meanings according to the time. not by knowing it. Greenbaum and Quirk presented the tenses in variety ways. that is. Thus. Only within a context. could students break the traditional ideas that simple present tense simply refers to the event happen repeatedly.. place and purpose. Bialystok. learners need to be sensitive to the core of a sentence. could it be more meaningful and understandable. tense does not usually locate a situation in time solely. since it conveys much more meanings beyond the meaning of itself. Thus. 254) said that. Conclusion Learners are learning grammar by using it. a certain grammar book bears the responsibility to tell the learners what he/she ought to do. p. D. Psycholinguistic dimensions of second language proficiency. Greenbaum and Quirk’s idea about learning tenses can benefit for learners a lot. 8 . Practice your tenses. it needs the cooperation of time adverbials or context. Rowley MA: Newbury House Publishers. Before they introduce two tenses of simple present and simple past. E. Only after those practices. Greenbaum and Quirk reflected the grammar rules rather in sentences or contexts than in the formula. Moreover. the author has analyzed Greenbaum and Quirk’s idea about the key role that the verbs play. verb. In: William. e. They can let the student describe the events happened at that time with some key verbs provided. & Michael. which at least leave the impression that learning grammar is a meaningful task but not a tedious one. and sometimes. not simply with the help of time adverbials. English sentences are not always so perfect and complete by providing all the components like a “subject+verb+object” with a couple of adverbials indicating time. Chinese. R. If teachers want students to try some special usages of two tenses. etc. S. “The shout in the circle” is a perfect activity to emphasize the verb forms in a sentence. their viewpoints could be carried out by some teaching materials. 7.

& Stein. G. (1990). N. Perspectives on pedagogical grammar. (1994). M. (1976). (1987). (1996). England: Longman. & McLeod. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (1996). G. B. Nunan. G. Meuler. Comrie. Time in language. In: Christopher. R. (1990). Hinkel. E. Cambridge. Words and their properties: Arguments for a lexical approach to pedagogical grammar. A. The past tense and temporal verb meanings in a contextual frame. Tense in English: Its structure and use in discourse. M. England: Longman. S. Rinvolucri. J. P. & Quirk. Lock. H. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. London: Prentice Hall. J. In: Terence. (1996). G. R. Sidney. G. Input processing and grammar instruction in second language acquisition.Grammar learning and teaching: Time. (1995). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.). (1984). (Ed. Developing materials for language teaching. (1991).). Rutherford. (Ed. In: Brian. TESOL Quarterly. R. C. (1999). O. affective and drama activities for EFL students. London: Longman. Leech. Learning to function with the other tongue: A systemic functional perspective on second language teaching. N. tense and verb Chomsky. B. E. (1991). N. & Spada. Aspect: An introduction to the study of verbal aspect and related problems. (1994). In: Paul. Tense aspect: Between semantics and pragmatics. Declerck. London: Continuum. Heinle & Heinle Publishers. B. English language teaching in its social context: A reader.T. Functional English grammar: An introduction for second language teachers. (Ed. Press. C. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). (1982). (1990). Second language grammar: Learning and teaching. J. Harlow. G. Quirk. Ur. Perspectives on pedagogical grammar.). Wallace. Little. J.T. Cambridge. P. Teaching grammar in context.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2000). (1996). London: Macmillan Press. (2001). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Knepler. (1994). D. Norwood. How languages are learned. English in use. Greenbaum. Figure and ground: The interrelationships of linguistic categories. Comrie.I. (1985). G. Finch. Lightbown. E. The English verb: Form and meanings. Press. England: Longman. The acquisition of syntax in children from 5 to 10. S. MA: The M. Grammar games: Cognitive. (Ed. A student’s grammar of the English language. London: Routledge. NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. O. Harlow. M. D. Joos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (1964). 31(2). C. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 9 . Tense. Representing time in natural language: The dynamic interpretation of tense and aspect. M. C. London: Routledge. & Randolph. Syntax: A minimalist introduction. (2003). Q. (1969). Hasan. Using English grammar: Meaning and form. (1990). B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A student’s grammar of the English language. N. Grammar with a purpose: A contextualized approach. & Neil. (1971). W. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. VanPatten. G. The parameter of aspect. R. Harlow. A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Richards. Klein. W. London: Routledge. 289-313. (1997). Harlow.I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Functional English grammar: An introduction for second language teachers. (1990). & Perrett. In: Terence. Radford. Meaning and the English verb. MA: The M. Materials for the teaching of grammar. Smith. England: Longman. S. T. A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stranks. Linguistic terms and concepts. (Eds. M. (1997). Woods.

Key words: classroom practices. “It is a special profession. A 5-point likert-type scale developed by the author was used for data collection. and much more. Department of Mathematics Education. In Turkey. 10 .12 (Serial No. It seems clear from the results of the study that. 43. a teacher can be a professional on his/her provience. local setting and others (Stigler & Hiebert. general culture helps the teacher to be open-minded to see the events and problems. 2004. of school culture. The process of teaching involves creating a learning community. challenging students to make sense of mathematical ideas and supporting students’ developing understanding. student perceptions 1. mathematics teaching. Cumhuriyet University. 6th. there are no grade level differences in the students’ perceptions of the entire scale and its sub-factors. of students’ learning. mathematics teacher education. (Rubenstein. Turkey) Abstract: Mathematics teaching is a complex process being influenced by several factors.73) US-China Education Review.76. of connections among mathematical ideas. Rubenstein’s (2004) claims also support this: Teaching is a complex endeavor. research fields: affect domain in mathematics education. The sample of the study constituted a total number of 1. The teachers should give emphasis on these rules and should have carried out in their professions. USA Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Yüksel Dede (Department of Mathematics Education. Therefore. Sivas 58140. curriculum. Mathematics teachers play crucially important role in the process. Cumhuriyet University. The purpose of the present study was to examine Turkish students’ perceptions of their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices. and they need to come together and take the forms. Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 construct. 1998). of students. No. 1739.23% of the total variance. instruction and the administrations of the governments function. 1999). 1973. as well as have a contemporary approach. item). The Ministry of Education basic rules mentioned that. all of which together explain the 62. Introduction Teaching is a complex system which affects what will happen in classes through the interactions among the factors of teacher. their classroom practices can influence students’ learning. associate professor. Pedagogical content knowledge in a short way is seen as an Yüksel Dede. Volume 7. ISSN 1548-6613. student. teaching takes the duties of education. Content knowledge mentioned that. cross-cultural studies of mathematics education. Faculty of Education. p.024. teaching needs a specialization and content knowledge. xi) Teachers are considered as one of the most important factors playing a role in students’ achievement and teaching process (WU. pedagogical content knowledge and general culture. June 14. Faculty of Education. Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficient of the instrument was found 0. In this law. General culture. as a profession of teaching mentioned in the National Education Basic Law (No. and criticize the problems. Turkey. The knowledge base behind mathematics teaching includes the knowledge of mathematics.December 2010. content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge help prepare to the teaching”. 7th and 8th grade students selected randomly from 12 primary schools in the different districts of Sivas.

connections and reasoning. For this reason. students’ personnel abilities. what they help. These 4 skills are in line with the NCTM standards (1989. NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) standards (1991. During 2006-2007 education year. strategies and activities. 2002. Turkish students’ math achievement was very low. (3) develop appropriate teaching materials. 32). they are placed in any of the high schools. deciding how and when students will reflect mathematical notation and language to their thoughts. deciding the ideas that can be studied among the ones that were explained during a discussion process and also as orchestrating such activities above. Based on their exam results and their order of preferences. The activities. communication.Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices instruction skill and science. (2) observe the methods of other colleagues and create discussion settings.1 Primary students’ math success Turkish education system is highly centralized and text-based one. students’ learning level will be getting higher (WU. p. 1. The study is important. Therefore. pedagogical content knowledge is seen as a strategies which helps to the methods and structure. Parallel findings were observed in the results of international studies. why they are carried out. showed and carried out by the guidance. from primary school to high school). p. encouraging the students to engage in the given tasks. the origin of the words “pais” and “agogos”. Because it is believed that teachers with high qualification will bring a success in their teaching.g.2 Significant of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the students’ views of math lessons and how the mathematics teachers’ math teaching varies across different grade levels. efforts and accumulation should be considered and each of them should be seen as an individual person (Clark & Starr. includes interactions and interdependencies between knowledge. such as PISA (programme for international student assessment) 2003 and TIMSS (trends in international mathematics and science study) 1999 in which Turkey took pace. giving the opportunity for students to explore and justify their ideas. The word of “pedagogy”. For example. (4) follow the new trends/reforms and alternatives in teaching. From this point. 1994). In order to overcome this problem. learning and teacher. The results of this study revealed that students showed very poor performance in the math items of MECaRE. 1991). 2000). At this time. not only teachers but also students get several benefits (Stephens & Crawley. NCTM (1989) also drew an attention to the understanding that “how to teach” is as essential as “what to teach” in mathematics. 1991. “Pais” means a child. posing the questions. Compared to the other countries’ results of PISA and TIMSS. In a harmonious and cooperative learning environment. because it shows the previous 6th to 8th grade math curriculum and its applications in the class. Stepanek (2000) listed some of the characteristics of highly qualified teachers as the ones who: (1) undertake the common responsibility of students’ learning.. and of course. interests. comes from the Greek language. 1999). why they are useful and used as the technology to show the examples to be explained. math curricula of primary and secondary schools as well as other courses’ curricula have been recently developed again by considering the new educational trends and constructivist learning approach since 2004. The foundations of math skills highly emphasized in the new curriculum are problem-solving. Students are supposed to take an exam to pass from one level to another one (e. it is obvious that how much fixing in-class practices of mathematics teachers is important in finding out whether mathematics are studied effectively or not in the class. and (5) join into the activities that will support their professional development. students in 8th grade should take the MECaRE (Middle Educational Choice and Replacement Examination). 1. exploring the students’ thoughts. 35) also listed the general roles of teachers as listening students’ opinions carefully. At this time. 11 . mathematics teachers should keep up with the reform and new developments in the educational literature to be skillful enough for realizing the mentioned roles above. “pedagogy” means to show the way to a child (Briggs & Sommefeldt. “agogos” means leader. If this is realized.

and (3) SGI (small-group instruction) with 3 items. 350 were from 6th grade.73% for factor 2. Table 1 provides detail description and a sample item for each factor. who were selected randomly from 12 primary schools in the different school districts in Sivas. It is also expected that. This research showed the present situations of mathematics teachers’ classroom practices from students’ point of views. Of the participants.40 to 0. Methodology 2. (2) IAEM (instructional attainments emphasized in mathematics) classes with 3 items. It is expected that. These factors were labeled as: (1) RTS (relationships between teachers and students) with 4 items. Turkey.55% for factor 1. 2000). The cumulative percent variance accounted for by the 3 factors was 62.1 Research design The researcher used a survey method to collect data from the selected students from 12 schools in Sivas.3 Data collection instrument MTCPS (mathematics teachers’ classroom practices survey) developed by the researcher was used for main data collection instrument. Following research questions guided the study overall: (1) What do 6th to 8th grade students think about their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices? (2) Do students’ perceptions differ with regard to grade level? 2.23% for factor 3 respectively. 2.23% with 26.60 for factor 3 respectively.3 Statement of problem The preset study focused upon determining what 6th to 8th grade students think about mathematics teachers’ classroom practices and how these practices differ across grade levels. 12 . because. the students were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed with each item (1—Strongly disagree.76) over the 1. This method is appropriate for collecting descriptive data. the results of the present study will provide in-depth data for curriculum planners and classroom math teachers. 1. Survey is a method which aims to describe a past situation or present situation (Arli & Nazik. as it tries to describe. and 16. Factor loading of items in the MTCPS also ranged from 0. Cronbach’s alpha was found 0. 5—Strongly agree). and 0. in descriptive model. The research results help students understand whether the curriculum have been implemented into practice effectively from the point of studies. Through the instrument. Internal reliability of the entire MTCPS was also calculated (Cronbach’s alpha=0. 18. Some items in MTCPS were adapted from the National Science Foundation’s Statewide Systemic Initiatives Project Literature (2001).Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices 6-year students have started to experience new curriculum and the class practices. The MTCPS is a 5-point likert type scale including 10 items. Turkey. 0. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors underlying the instrument.83 for factor 1.024 primary school students (507 female and 517 male with a range age of 12-15 years). 2001).2 Participants Participants of the study was 1. 346 were from 7th grade and 328 were from 8th grade. the features are found out as their original forms (McMillan. 2.75. This study also provides evidences to compare the educational practices realized recently and practices having realized in previous curriculum. the results will provide a base for further researchers who would like to study on classroom practices in line with current educational reform in Turkey.024 students’ data.67 for factor 2.

72 0.90 0. students in all grades reported that their math teachers used relationships between RTS ( X =4.09) in their lessons. 4 3 3 Description of scales sample item for each scale of the MTCPS Sample items Our teacher really listens to us in class Our teacher emphasizes on reminding mathematical rules and processes Problems are solved by dividing into small groups Description Determining the teacher-student relationships in mathematics class Instructional attainments on which mathematics teacher mostly emphasized during class Teaching mathematics classes as based on small-group instruction 2.15 4.12 1.63 3. Descriptive statistics. On the other hand. the researcher ensured that students’ responses of the MTCPS would be confidential.90 0.5 and analyzed by means of the same program.65 0.04* 0.83 0.4 Procedure The MTCPS was administered to the selected students from 6th.18* 0.77 1.20 4.01. Results When looking at the Table 2.15) and IAEM ( X =4.26 3. Data were analyzed for testing main effect at the 0.38) in their lessons effectively.16 df F Eta squared Entire scale 2-1021 18. and one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and one-way MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) were performed to answer the research questions.05 significance level and by using one-way multivariate factorial model with the 3 factors as dependent variables: RTS.01 RTS 2-1021 10.97 4. 7th and 8th grades in Sivas within a one-month period during spring term of the 2005-2006 educational term in their math class hour.81 4. 3. IAEM and SGI and an independent variable: 13 .5 Data analysis The data were entered to SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 10.87 3. It took only 10-15 minutes to complete the instrument.86 0.77 0.20 4.92 0. Table 2 summarizes a series of one-way ANOVA results performed to examine the grade differences with regard to each of the MTCPS factors.25 3. Moreover.03 Note: *p<0.38 3.43 4.09 SD 0.50 4.61 0.09* 0. students reported that.14 2. 2.68* 0.88 3.02 IAEM 2-1021 14.10 1.62 0.Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Table 1 Sub-categories RTS IAEM SGI Item No.91 3.01 SGI 2-1021 9. their teachers did not use SGI ( X =3. Table 2 One-way ANOVA statistics for the MTCPS factors according to grade level Factor Grade 6 7 8 Total 6 7 8 Total 6 7 8 Total 6 7 8 Total N 350 346 328 1024 350 346 328 1024 350 346 328 1024 350 346 328 1024 Mean 3. The purpose of the study clearly explained to the students in each class by the researcher.57 0. Furthermore.22 1.

the researcher observed 8th grade students perceived their teachers’ classroom practices in a more negative way than the other two grade levels did.01. Teacher-teacher communication can also be important for bringing new pedagogical approaches into class environments.01. 1021)=14. 2005).Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices students’ grade level. In a class environment. p<0. Despite no statistically significant grade level-related differences in the perceptions. The analysis results demonstrated that. the teacher-student relationships in math classes were appeared to be somehow desired level ( X =3.97 for 8th graders. In line with this idea. p<0. according to PISA (2003) study results. The results showed significant main effect of the students’ grade level on the practices of the math teachers (Wilks Lambda ( λ )=0. The study revealed significant. this finding might provide evidence that students’ success might be resulted in math classes in the selected school as a function of positive interaction.18. 1021)=18. For example. p<0. and X =4. student-student relationship is also crucially important for helping students acquire the desired learning outcomes. F(4. However. p<0. Therefore. The findings indicated that. and 6th grade and 8th grade for the entire scale and all factors. It has been observed that teacher-student interaction differed in different countries. The results showed that even though the analyses indicated significant effects of grade level on each factor.68. partial eta squared=0. There was not enough evidence to say that there was an effect of grade level on the factors RTS (F(2.01). IAEM (F(2. there has been observable differences in terms of teacher-student interaction according to students’ 14 . It is believed that the student-teachers positive interaction might directly influence the students’ success and achievement in the schools. 1021)=10. 2006a).03). whether in-class practices of mathematics teachers become different according to the grade level or not were investigated in this study with regard to students’ point of views. in addition to teacher-student relationship. teacher and content (mathematics) play an important role. 14). it was found that about 75% of 8th graders in Turkey shared the common opinion that teacher-student interaction has been in the desired manner (EARGED (Education Research and Development Directorate).04. Perry & Murata. SGI (F(2. it was reported as a result of PISA (2000) that.958. partial eta squared=0.26 for 7th graders. claimed that “Teachers delivered the messages to students as to what behaviors and traits are appropriate for the student role” (p. partial eta squared=0.01). in this regard.01). teachers’ most preference of instructional attainments and whether teachers gave the adequate emphasize on the small-group instructions.52. For example.018)=5. the effect sizes seemed to be very small. A series of one-way ANOVAs were performed as a follow-up test to the MANOVA to examine the pair-wise differences. 4. This significant finding supports the finding of present study as well.20 for 6th graders).02). Irvine (1986). the significant differences were between 7th grade and 8th grade. because the interactions among the factors of student. Both teacher groups participated in Dede’s study reported their cooperation with students in order to increase teaching quality. Discussion In this study. 1021)=9. however. p<0. 1. Wubbels (1993) showed that.01. The results of the present study seemed to support to the results of the researcher’s other research with mathematics teachers in primary and secondary schools (Dede. it was also investigated the status of teacher-student relationship at mathematics classes. In this study. applying new teaching methods and developing appropriate materials for subject to be taught (Lewis.01. partial eta squared=0. the effect size was calculated for the entire scale and for each factor to identify whether the significant differences were really meaningful.09. 2003). X =4. interpersonal teacher behaviors were one of the important learning factors which had a strong relation with students’ outcome. and the entire scale (F(2. but very small effect of grade level on students’ perceptions of sub-factors.

realizing meaningful learning. 1992). Since this study was limited with descriptive statistical data gathered from students.16 for 8th grade. For this reason. While the Danish profile is the highest of the Nordic profiles. and X =4. Fraser and Fisher (2003) with high school Korean students showed that. because mathematics is generally considered as a boring subject by students (Macleod.Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices perceptions in the Nordic countries. Norway and Danish. There are several reasons why the teachers could not use small-group instruction in their classrooms. they believe that 15 . In this study. Hiebert & Lefevre. In the professional educational literature. it was observed that interests of 8-year students towards mathematics decreased when compared with interests of those in other grades ( X =4. At this point. However. The other important purpose is to follow the procedure correctly. PISA (2003) results indicated that. small-group instruction were not adequately given importance in math classes. effectually and appropriately. Instructional attainments that were mostly emphasized by the teachers during lessons were examined trough the use of sub-factor of IAEM. For example. it is indicated that using a small-group instruction directly influence the increase in math achievement of students (CHANG. Finland. Dede further found that. the primary school curriculum that has undergone reform attempts in Turkey (MoNE (Ministry of National Education). although no statistical significance was observed in the perceptions of students with regard to grade level. 1986). students reported that their teachers gave more emphasis on procedural and conceptual knowledge. 1971) and long-term retention of mathematical concepts (Urion & Davidson. X =4. 1999). Furthermore. One important purpose of math instruction is to teach mathematical concepts and the relations among these concepts. In Turkey. mathematics teachers did not use group and individual projects and did not perceive them as valuable teaching activities. students’ previous math success revealed that their procedural and conceptual knowledge seemed to be insufficient. The results of a study carried out with Turkish math teachers seemed to support this finding (Dede. Denmark. “Students should be asked to make comparison between concepts and rules and to solve the problems that can make connection between concrete and abstract representational” (p. teachers do not prefer to use this type of instruction. and further find out the relations. the Norwegian profile is the lowest of the Nordic profiles. on raising students’ interests towards mathematics (Davidson. However. teachers should raise students’ interests towards mathematics. whether mathematical concepts are taught in connection with procedural and conceptual knowledge and whether students are trained for advanced mathematical concepts or not. These dimensions are called as relational understanding—instrumental understanding and conceptual knowledge—procedural knowledge respectively (Skemp. 1996) and it seems as a puzzle (Gray & Tall. 2005). 1977. which helps students connect previous and new experiences. 2005) emphasized this by saying that. Therefore. teachers are observed to be in a position of a director and students are in a position of an obedient. According to Jingsong (2003). further research studies should be performed to explore the reason of this finding. 17). In this research. The study carried out by Lee. Springer. such as students’ interests to mathematics. In other words. it can be suggested examining the differences of teacher-student interaction in math classes in different cultures/countries for further studies. the teacher-students interaction is quite similar to young-old relationship in the society. it was also explored that how well mathematics teachers perform small-group instruction in their classes.56 for 7th grades. 2006c). The students in all grades perceived that. IAEM factor consisted of items. 1971. elastically.53 for 6th grades). is very hard without raising students’ interest towards it. 1992). Iceland. Stanne & Donovan. Similar findings were observed in the study of Dede (2006b) in that interests of Turkish high school students in Turkey decreased as their grades increased. such as Sweden. Turkish students preferred to study in cooperative and collaborative learning environments (EARGED.

Managing effective learning and teaching. Gazi Education Faculty. there are some problems about training teachers. (1971). 7th National Congress of Science and Mathematics Education. Probably one of the most important problems to consider is the MECaRE. J. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. The other reason might be the unnecessary repetition in the curriculum and heavy course schedule. September. Dede. CHANG. (2002). (2006b. generally. Y. T. 16 . 2005). in particular. new primary math programs give emphasis of that. so it is expected for them to use in their lessons. It is emerged from the present study that exploratory studies including extensive classroom observations and series of interviews with math teachers and students should be carried out so as to give in-depth answers to the findings of the present study. The findings pointed out that. Gazi Education Faculty. the effect size was quite small. Özyar. I. (2006a. A. How students and teachers understand these terms should be investigated in future researches. S. these skills must be done in the classrooms (MoNE. Although this positive picture does not have more effect about the success of math in Turkey. 72-76. Briggs. P. Turkey. Ankara. Dede. and of math teacher. Determining students’ affective traits towards mathematics. Ankara. The teachers who take this education will know the approaches and new techniques. Also. ideas and whatever helps improve the students learning. & Sommefeldt. September). M. (2001). Davidson. The teachers should follow new educational terms. Turkey. Mathematics teachers’ self-development levels. ED162879. N. the responsibilities of education faculties were revised according to the students’ needs. Ankara: Gazi Publication. The small group-discovery method of mathematics instruction as applied in calculus (Technical Report No. The research studies carried out the years between 1994 and 1997 revealed that. Y. In Turkey. conceptual and procedural knowledge. and so on. In Turkey. (1977). the prospective teachers who educate in these faculties start to learn the constructivist approach in the year of 1997-1998. 2005). 2006.). In the previous primary math curriculum (MoNE. Conclusion and implications At the end of this research. 7th National Congress of Science and Mathematics Education. 2000). Teachers are supposed to cover all the topics in the curriculum in limited time. in general. Secondary and middle school teaching methods (6th ed. 11(2). math teachers put more emphasis on the relationships between teachers and students. This situation may be the other cause that the teachers do not use small-group instruction. L.Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices their classrooms are so crowded and not appropriate for this type of instruction. September. Introduction to scientific research. Gazi University. Because of that. although statistically significant differences were observed among the grades with regard to classroom practices. The findings of the present study might have been influenced by their different understanding of these terms. D. September). 168). This may create burden on the teachers and they may tend to use lecturing and other teacher-centered methods. were not explored in this study. 2003). it can be said that. R. Clark. H. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. The Mathematical Association of Two-Year College (MATYC) Journal. students and teachers’ understandings of the concepts. A. H. The other reason might be that teachers feel unqualified for using small-group instruction. References: Arli. & Nazik. the schools and teachers’ success is measured in the success of MECaRE. M. skills are needed to be improved by teachers. Eric Document Reproduction Service. there is still some researching about teachers’ training (GDTT (General Directorate of Teacher Training). 2006. (1991). and gave more importance to the instructional attainments that emphasizes the relationship among mathematical concepts and operations and interests towards mathematics. Gazi University. and density of the concepts to be taught (IaTC (Instruction and Training Committee of Ministry of National Education). 2006. 5. & Starr. small-group instruction. In addition. Furthermore. Small group instruction: A study in remedial mathematics.

Portland. Student and teacher behavior. Stephens. Ankara. Ministry of National Education (MoNE).tr/programlar/program_giris/ program_temel_yaklasim. Hillsdale. UK: Pengium Books Ltd. A. Hiebert. Perspectives on the teaching of mathematics (Sixty-sixth yearbook). Northern lights on PISA: Unit and diversity in the Nordic countries in PISA 2000. & Crawley. University of Minnesota: College of Education & Human Development. Turkey: Education Association Publication. J. A.). 112-115. T. England. L. National education statistics: Formal education 2006/2007. (2000). U. (2005). Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (1989). S. A. N. (2004). Retrieved November 12. Primary school mathematics curriculum. Education Research and Development Directorate (EARGED). D. J. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. C. Pirjo. Mathematics teacher survey. P. Grade 6-8. Teaching is a cultural activity. V. Retrieved March 25. Instruction and Training Committee of the Ministry of National Education (IaTC). (2006). A. (1998). Mathematics Teaching. Becoming an effective teacher. (2005). T. Section 7. & Murata. 67-85. Perry. Ellenborough House: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.htm. Irvine. & Donovan. 142. 69(1). Success and failure in mathematics: The flexible meaning of symbols as process and concept.. R. (2000). P. Development studies program of instruction and training committee. 11). April. Wubbels.). K. (1992). Department of Educational Research and Development (EARGED). from http://ttkb. In: Svein. national report. Turkey. V. 2007. Principles and standards for school mathematics. American Educator. 2. Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (1986). Practical inquiry: Effective practices that support teaching and learning in mathematics and science. Reston. Y. Jingsong. Curtin University of Technology. (Eds. Ankara. No. OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory..). A. Painless mathematics. 257-264. Stigler. L. Springer. Lesson study and teachers’ knowledge development: Collaborative critique of a research model and methods. PISA 2003 project. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). & Fisher. Student achievement in small-group instruction versus teacher-centered instruction in mathematics. (2007). Reston. J. B. 21-51. S. (1994). D. J. R. Eric Document Reproducement. (2001). (2005). 535-542.. & Astrid. Macleod. Reston. (2003. (1999). IL: Division K. Chicago. 1-27. V. from http://oyegm. Skemp. Norway: Department of Teacher Education and School Development University of Oslo. (Ed. (Programme for International Student Assessment). and technology: A meta-analysis. (1996). (1999). (2003). McMillan. Review of Educational Research. PISA 2003 project. April). International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. A. 2007. ( (1992). Educational research: Fundamentals for the consumer (3rd ed. A. Symposium on teacher training and employment. April). J. R. V. National Science Foundation’s Statewide Systemic Initiatives Project. J. (1971). (2005). General Directorate of Teacher Training (GDTT). S. 14-21. N. 2(3). Ankara: National Education Press. (2003).). L. (2000). Teacher-student interactions: Effects of student race. E. The psychology of learning mathematics. Stepanek. Lewis. W. Primus. engineering. Stanne. (2006c. Olsen. Cultivating the interest of students in higher mathematics courses. Perth. J.pdf. Teacher-student relationships in science and mathematics classes. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 17 . General information about teacher training system in Turkey. & Hiebert. (2003). Lee. In: Hiebert. Western Australia: National Key Centre for School Science and Mathematics. ED451 044. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications. mathematics. Professional standards for teaching mathematics. H. Reston. (2000). E. Rubenstein. Professional development of mathematics teachers. and grade level. R.J. 4(5). Urion.Turkish students’ perceptions regarding their mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Dede. (1991). WU. Turkey: National Education Press. Ankara. Fraser. Gray. 4-11. Middlesex.. Notices of the Ams. (1993). (1986). & Lefevre. L. Primary school mathematics curriculum. S. (2003).meb.meb. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). R. J. Ankara: A Publication of Official Statistics Programme. Özyar. 15(4). Assessing mathematics teachers’ instructional activities. Teacher-student interactions in Korean high school science classrooms. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). R. H. Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). & Davidson. Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics. & Tall. national report. (What research says to the science and mathematics teacher. 6-10. Istanbul: National Education Press.. Grade 6-8. 175-178. Bell Library QA11 S57. (Winter). 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applied linguistics. through an awareness of how a language works.12 (Serial No. in some ways. Faculty of Education. However. In other words. teacher training. and that. theoretical and applied linguistics. linguistic theories 1. Trakya University. Widdowson (1984) stated that language teachers have the responsibility to mediate changes in pedagogic practice. ISSN 1548-6613. the students at Trakya University admit the effectiveness of linguistic courses and have found a way to applied linguistics from theoretical linguistics. that is. Faculty of Education.. Edirne 22030. the role of linguistic training in language teacher education programs has long been discussed. The results specify that. covers two main areas: theoretical and applied linguistics (Frawley. Therefore. such as foreign language teaching. linguistics.73) US-China Education Review. whereas applied linguistics has its concerns on the base of application of the concepts and findings of linguistics to a variety of practical tasks. Introduction Learning a language and learning about a language are two different concepts. this study is concerned with the main problems for the students taking linguistic courses in ELT Department at Trakya University in Turkey. However. so as to increase the effectiveness of language learning. 18 . Thus. English Language Teaching Department. Volume 7. language teaching. Ph. to dismiss theory is to undermine the possibility of such understanding. research fields: English language education. while applied linguistics is driven by real-world problems. Trakya University. Key words: linguistics. Applied linguistics deals with the application of linguistic theories in the areas. In the field of foreign language teaching. No. 1999). Theoretical linguistics studies language and languages with a view of constructing a theory of their structure and functions. In this respect. both linguistics and applied linguistics can be assumed as considerable parts of the academic studies. including language teaching (Lyons. such mediation depends on understanding the relationship between theoretical principles and practical techniques. 2003). knowing a language may not be enough to express both functional and conceptual meaning at all the levels of language skills. translation and literary studies. Theoretical linguistics puts forward theories by describing language and explores ideas on it. theoretical linguistics deals with theoretical explorations. The survey was carried out with 21-item likert type scale designed by the researcher. Besides. the way Muhlise Coşgun Ögeyik . is the linguistic research in language teaching. assistant professor. the learner can continue to develop his/her personal linguistic inventory. Turkey) Abstract: Linguistic courses in ELT (English Language Teaching) departments. which has been the base of many studies in the field of language-related disciplines in the academic realm. The purpose of the study is to investigate the attitudes of the students in ELT departments towards attending linguistic courses. USA A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations Muhlise Coşgun Ögeyik (English Language Teaching Department. which is a bridge between theory and practice. Linguistics as a scientific study of language.December 2010.D. may create obstacles due to their firm theoretical framework.

in the present paper. which are discussed in order to specify the attitudes of prospective teachers towards linguistic courses. In general. involving comprehensible input and meaningful tasks. In this sense. (2) Semantics: The study of the meaning of words and the meaning of the way they are combined. 2005). which are Introduction to Linguistics I.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations a language teacher will choose to get benefit from theory in practice may be effective in the language teaching and learning processes. in other words. Yates & Muchisky. pragmatics is the relation between language and its context of use (Hudson. but this has not been a common assumption (Johnson. but also of anything which stands for something else. (3) Semiotics: The study of not only what is referred as “sign” in everyday speech. Moreover. signs take the form of words. (4) Pragmatics: The study of language use within context. the issues of a designed linguistic course in teacher training departments are: (1) How theoretical linguistics can be connected to applied linguistics in the course. in the study by Garshick (2002). 1986). or the starting point from which the whole meaning of a particular utterance is constructed (Kearns. optimum conditions have to be provided by teachers. In this curriculum. The course design of Introduction to Linguistics II based on the theoretical and practical issues is arranged in the following orders: (1) Structuralism: The study of the interrelationship between units and rules. which are taken together from the core of meaning. Depending on the content of the courses offered by YOK. inferences. The implication of this view regarding language teaching and learning is that. images. and so on. sounds. gestures and objects (Chandler. Therefore. In this sense. (3) Morphology: The study of the word structures in English. Snyder. and (2) What benefits are gained by prospective teachers at the end of such a course. while some are concentrating on practical aspects of teaching profession. for effective language learning and teaching. which are determined by their place in the system. the course design of Introduction to Linguistics I at Trakya University is arranged in the following orders: (1) Phonetics: The study of sound system of English. 2000). it deals with the language choice. language appropriateness. 2002. 2001). such as reality (Beedham. 2004). on the part of teachers for the pursuit of linguistic theory as an aspect of their professional development. 2000). the foreign language teacher training departments in the body of the faculties of education follow a standard curriculum offered by Higher Education Council. 2001). (2) Phonology: The study of patterns of the basic sounds in English. 19 . while questioning the professional relevance of linguistic training. pragmatics mainly focuses on communicative action on its socio-cultural context (Rose & Casper. language learning and second language acquisition. linguistics is taught in the interrelated courses. In Turkey. others may perceive linguistic-oriented aspects as functional for presumed pedagogical problems. it has been cited that. Since language is a social fact and communication takes place in society. not by some outside points of reference. as well as language awareness-raising activities (Corder. 2002. neither teacher educators nor prospective teachers have interest in linguistics. there will be hesitation in teachers’ mind about what to do precisely. The contents of the courses mainly focus on the linguistic studies by creating linguistic awareness and fostering language acquisition of prospective language teachers. YOK. In a semiotic sense. (4) Syntax: The study of words combining to form sentences and the study of sentence structures in English. Moreover. dealing with the tendencies of language teachers towards linguistic courses. Introduction to Linguistics II and Language Acquisition. language teachers need to know about theories of language.

18 and 20. 2. In consequence of reliability analysis. 1990). 8. of the negative statements about linguistic theories. its subject is composed of any meaningful communicative event. so as to enhance the proficiency of language learning and teaching. 11. The students are the 4th year students. The research questions of the study are: (1) What do the prospective teachers at ELT Department think about the linguistic courses? (2) How do they connect theoretical linguistics to applied linguistics? (3) Do they find linguistic courses beneficial for teaching profession? 2. the students were questioned about the difficulty of the course. Of the positive statements about theoretical linguistics. investigated whether the students think linguistics as resourceful for teaching profession or not. The statements about the disadvantages of linguistics and linguistic terms for teaching profession. “Disagree” and “Strongly disagree”. were initially included into the scale. item 1 was excluded from the scale. the item 13. Twenty-two items with 5 options. searched for if the students evaluate linguistic studies as a cooperation of theory and practice for the acquisition of reading. The aim of conducting the research on the 4th year students is that. 9. dealt with the obstructions of the theories. “Agree”. 5. which is regarded as a text. Fifty-five undergraduate students attending the ELT Department at Trakya University participated in the survey. 20 . The ones in negative manner were assigned in numbers 1-5 from “Strongly agree” through “Strongly disagree”. The statements examining the effectiveness of linguistic studies on language skills. Some of the items used in the scale were worded in positive manner.1 Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitudes of prospective teachers towards linguistic courses regarding their experiences and expectations about the courses. In the statement about linguistic course. 4. 3. investigated the students’ attitudes towards the benefits of learning the linguistic terms while dealing with the texts and the articles on teaching profession. social and psychological context and providing insights into the problems and processes of language use and language learning (Cook. 12 and 14 suggested the beneficial aspects of the linguistic theories regarding language teaching and learning processes. On the other hand. a likert type attitudes scale designed by the researcher was used.2 Sample The research study was conducted on the students attending the ELT Department at Trakya University in Turkey. 17. it designates any work in language science devoted to text as the primary object of inquiry (Beaugrande & Dressler. the items 16. 2. 10. The main aim of designing linguistic courses in the mentioned order is to enable prospective teachers to get theoretical perspectives in the field of linguistics and find a way to intervene modifications in educational realm. “Undecided”. the items 1.3 Instruments In the survey. Method 2. The statements about linguistic terminology. they all completed linguistic courses. the items 6 and 7.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations (5) Text-linguistics: The study of texts in a scientific perspective. the items 15 and 21. (6) Discourse analysis: The study of discourse types by examining the stretches of language in their full textual. The individual responses in positive manner were assigned numbers 5-1 from “Strongly agree” through “Strongly disagree”. 2. the item 19. which are “Strongly agree”. listening and speaking skills. while some are in negative manner. 1981). writing.

Table 1 Structural validity and reliability of the scale Alpha 0. teaching profession item 1.8506 0. linguistic education is beneficial and useful. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was found out to be 0. in a holistic way. 0.8476 0.665 0. (6) Linguistic courses are beneficial for terminology enrichment. The responses for the item 8 about using structuralism as a language teaching procedure reveal that. which may signify that the students find structuralism less effective than semiotics.8594 0.8503 Factor 0. so as to evaluate if the responses were affirmed in a self-assured way. (7) I can easily understand the articles written in the field of language after the linguistic courses.8462 3.8476 0. The recognized usefulness of linguistics with respect to linguistic applications item 4. 10. terminology enrichment item 6 and gaining language skills item 13 are predominantly the agreed points by the students.8483 0. SPSS 11. learning and teaching target language item 2. pragmatics and text-linguistics.567 0.602 Items (1) Linguistic theories. so I cannot use them for the analysis of target language.749 0.679 0.379 0. (12) Text-linguistic studies are useful for differentiating text types. (20) Linguistic theories do not offer practical ways for language acquisition.587 0. 9. (17) Linguistic theories are abstract.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations The reliability and validity of the scale was determined.8508 0.761 0. (3) Linguistic theories are the passageways for applied linguistics. (5) Linguistics is the base of language teaching issues.475 0. semantics. (18) The paradigms of linguistic theories are complicated for me to interrelate the theories. On the contrary.8479 0. As Table 2 indicates.640 0.636 0. In addition.541 0.8587 0. (9) Semiotics is required in language teaching.4 Data analysis Carrying out in-depth statistical evaluation of data was not aimed in the study. they have a strong tendency to approve pragmatics as 21 . Findings The items. the students were questioned about usefulness of the linguistic studies in the field of language teaching (items 8. (13) Linguistic studies are helpful for acquiring language skills (writing. (10) Semantics is useful in language teaching. nearly half of the students find it not useful in language teaching process.542 0. reading. (19) Linguistics is the most difficult course in foreign language teaching departments.596 0.638 0. (2) Through linguistic theories. (8) Structuralism can be used as a source in language teaching. For data analysis. 2. the students mostly think that.85.8552 0.8743 0.0.554 0.8574 0.521 0. (4) Linguistic theories are beneficial in linguistic applications. (11) Pragmatics is functional in language teaching. which are worded positively and negatively. (15) Linguistic terms are difficult to learn. I can easily perceive the characteristics of the target language I learn. are guiding in language teaching process. the percentages of the responses given to the items in the scale were explored in order to determine the attitudes of the students attending linguistic courses. As a substitute.8433 0.8452 0.743 0. were evaluated separately and displayed in Tables 2 and 3 with the percentages so as to avoid from obscurity in the evaluation phase of the responses. (14) Linguistics is a field in which both theoretical and practical cooperation can be provided for language acquisition and awareness.618 0. was used (see Table 1). (16) Linguistic theories are not applicable in the field of foreign language learning and teaching. speaking and listening skills).8540 0.8555 0.646 0.8584 0. 11 and 12).8538 0.596 0. the statistical program.8505 0. (21) Linguistics is not necessary for foreign language teaching profession.8454 0.

2 50. In this sense. (14) Linguistics is a field in which both theoretical and practical cooperation can be provided for language acquisition and awareness.9 40. so I cannot use them for the analysis of target language. as a whole. (17) Linguistic theories are abstract.0 52. Besides.5 5.8 56.8 58. (8) Structuralism can be used as a source in language teaching.0 41. (12) Text-linguistic studies are useful for differentiating text types.0 61.7 29. (2) Through linguistic theories.6 7.1 18.8 9. (3) Linguistic theories are the passageways for applied linguistics.4 61.1 18.1 15.8 10.4 45. I can easily perceive the characteristics of the target language I learn.7 56.8 1.2 29. the students mostly have 22 .6 1. Table 2 Items (1) Linguistic theories.5 65.3 Agree 2 (%) 24. prove that the students find linguistic studies as functional in second language learning and teaching environments. (4) Linguistic theories are beneficial in linguistic applications.5 In Table 3. They find linguistic courses in the curriculum of foreign language teacher training departments as beneficial.1 50. Table 3 Items (15) Linguistic terms are difficult to learn.1 9.1 60. (21) Linguistics is not necessary for foreign language teaching profession.8 29.7 21. (20) Linguistic theories do not offer practical ways for language acquisition. the responses for the items 7 and 12 demonstrate that. All responses.1 14.4 60.3 66.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations the most efficient theory for language teaching environments (item 11). the students’ responses for the items worded in negative manner are displayed.9 29.8 Strongly disagree 1 (%) 1.3 1. (18) The paradigms of linguistic theories are complicated for me to interrelate the theories.3 Disagree 4 (%) 37.8 - Items worded in negative manner Strongly agree 1 (%) 7.3 26.9 16.1 18.9 20. (5) Linguistics helps me understand the base of language teaching issues.9 21.8 29.2 12.4 5.5 Undecided 3 (%) 23. (11) Pragmatics is functional in language teaching.8 21.5 17.6 43. speaking and listening skills.7 21. (6) Linguistic courses are beneficial for terminology enrichment. (9) Semiotics is required in language teaching.8 12.1 23. linguistic courses are of assistance for gaining competence for reading texts and differentiating text types. Items worded in positive manner Strongly agree Agree 5 (%) 4 (%) 18.2 Disagree 2 (%) 5.6 3. (10) Semantics is useful in language teaching.4 29. (13) Linguistic studies are helpful for acquiring language skills (writing.7 10.8 Strongly disagree 5 (%) 7.5 1.6 5.5 12.6 1. but the responses reveal that they do not have negative attitudes towards linguistic courses.4 56.5 21.5 12. in a holistic way.9 Undecided 3 (%) 25.6 1.5 50.8 69. (16) Linguistic theories are not applicable in the field of foreign language learning and teaching.5 14.8 3. (19) Linguistics is the most difficult course in foreign language teaching departments.0 30.5 69.6 5.5 3. are guiding in language teaching process. reading. (7) I can easily understand the articles written in the field of language after the linguistic courses.1 70.2 29.0 23.9 25.8 3.1 20.

By taking the students’ attitudes towards linguistic courses. Thus. Results and discussions The survey results indicate that. In this sense. linguistics can be regarded as a component of language teaching and learning processes. in text analysis process). terminology enrichment is provided via linguistic courses. nearly half of the students (44. for the students in ELT Department. and argued that the demands of teaching necessitate professionals to integrate knowledge in these 4 disciplines. Furthermore. essentially two academic disciplines have been in the foreground: linguistics and philosophy. the 4th year students’ attitudes towards linguistic courses in ELT Department at Trakya University were investigated and evaluated. students can easily gain awareness about the correlation of theory and practice. Thus. Grabe. When the results are re-evaluated. can be more meaningful for those who are debating the role of linguistic knowledge in teacher education. prospective teachers need to be guided to use linguistic terms they learn (for instance. linguistic courses in foreign language teaching departments of universities can be assumed as beneficial for raising students’ awareness in the field of language learning and teaching. In this sense. the relationship between theory and practice and gaining awareness on linguistic terms. throughout the history of language education. 5. linguistic theories are functional for identifying the characteristics of the foreign language. In addition. they may obtain data to evaluate the benefits and weak points of linguistics on language teaching and learning while incorporating linguistic knowledge into teaching practice. the application of the theories on written and oral discourse types for linguistic and contextual analysis may be beneficial for defeating firm theoretical difficulties. linguistic studies can be acknowledged as channels to comprehend language related issues.6%) find it difficult to deal with the terms (item 15). should be the foundation for teacher preparation. Thus. it can be recommended that linguistic courses may be available for increasing language awareness. Moreover. it is seen that. As Byrnes (2003) pointed out review of disciplinary knowledge in language learning and teaching points out. linguistic courses are favourable. Conclusion In the present paper. various text types can be introduced in order to enhance students to comprehend how to produce and analyse different text types. Although they mostly (85.5%) think that linguistic terms learnt in the courses are functional in the field of language teaching (item 6). Such modifications. 23 . they may get the opportunity to acquire linguistic terms which they will deal with in their professional lives. In addition. The overall results indicate that the students strongly acknowledge the advantages of linguistic courses in the foreign language learning process. by introducing linguistic theories. 4. psychology. while dealing with linguistic theories in practice.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations positive manners towards linguistic courses. the study focused on the assistance of linguistic studies in language learning process. the prospective teachers attending the ELT Department at Trakya University have positive attitudes towards linguistic courses in the curriculum. and text production and text analysis can be comprehended consciously and efficiently. when included into teacher education curricula. Depending on the results. Therefore. linguistics among those disciplines can be employed as an agenda for prospective teachers to understand the nature of their profession. Stroller and Tardy (2000) stated that 4 disciplines: linguistics. anthropology and education.

The authors respond: Defending the discipline. (2000). TESOL Quarterly. 2002-2004. Massachutes: Blackwell Publications. New York: Palgrave Publications. The intensive value of theory in teacher education. Contribution to the discussion: The role of linguistic and language acquisition theory in teacher development. International encyclopaedia of linguistics. Johnson. Language teaching and applied linguistics. 12. Stroller. England: Multilingual Matters. G. J.). 40(3).berkeley. (2002).edu/TESL-EJ/ej22/f1. (Eds. Byrnes. US: Routledge. E. R. K. TESOL Matters. (2000). Textlinguistics. 38. (2002). Retrieved November 9. Grabe. P. D. 40. 38(2). G. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 24 . H. and profession. Semiotics: The basics. (1981). Directory of teacher education programs in TESOL in the United States and Canada. Widdowson. D. Amstredam: John Benjamins Publication. 178-194. W.. (1999). K. Beedham. C. (2002). D.html.). English Language Teaching Journal. Second language teacher education. & Eggington. 84. H.A passage from linguistics to English language teaching: Students’ experiences and expectations References: Beaugrande. & Tardy. (1986). R. Cook. Introductory linguistics. Clevedon. Language and meaning: The structural creation of reality. Hudson. 472-494. New York: Longman. from http://www-writing. English Language Teaching Journal. Chandler. & Casper. B. W. In: Hall. (1990). F. Pragmatics in language teaching. W. Frawley. L. (2001). 2006. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. G. 134-140. (2003). Yates. Language and linguistics. (2004). (2005). (2003). Alexandria. Shaping the discourse of a practice: The role of linguistics and psychology in language teaching and learning. 185-190. Semantics. W. (Ed. field. C. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. (1984). VA: TESOL Publications. Disciplinary knowledge as a foundation for teacher preparation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Modern Language Journal. (2000). 86-90. Rose. & Muchisky. (2001). Lyons. G. 1-8. K. The sociopolitics of English language teaching. Discourse. Corder. Oxford: Oxford University Press. K. Kearns. & Dressler. G. J. Garshick. Snyder.

Faculty of Education. the cognitive configures the affective and vice versa. University of Extremadura. in schools and universities. USA The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers* María Brígido1. Introduction The processes of learning and teaching science are not merely cognitive. University of Extremadura. Badajoz 06071. Ph.. psychology of education. The results show a great difference between the emotions related to the subjects of physics/chemistry and the nature sciences (biology/geology). science is for the most part portrayed as a rational. except in nervousness in physics/chemistry. the emotions are mostly negative. there is a correlation between the emotions felt as secondary school pupils learning science and those they feel as teachers. 25 . In nature sciences. No. Ph. Faculty of Education. emotions. Department of Science and Mathematics Education. María Brígido. M. Department of Science and Mathematics Education.D. candidate.D. 2. men declared a greater predilection for science content than women. The study consisted of a questionnaire completed by 63 primary education students at the University of Extremadura. Faculty of Education. While in nature sciences they are very positive.. Spain. since. Department of Psychology and Anthropology. research fields: the emotions in teacher education. Turkey.12 (Serial No. August 31st-September 4th. By gender. Key words: teaching and learning science. Spain) Abstract: A study was made of different emotions that prospective primary school teachers report with respect to science subjects. but not in the men. University of Extremadura. Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Badajoz 06071. and during their practice teaching. This work was financed by Research Project EDU2009-12864 of the Ministry of Education and Science (Spain) and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).December 2010. initial teacher education. The results highlight the influential role that emotions play throughout the professional growth of future primary teachers. In physics and chemistry. associate professor. taking into account the variables gender and the speciality they studied in the secondary education.73) US-China Education Review. M. there is a correlation in the women between the emotions felt as secondary school pupils learning science and those they feel as teachers. M. psychology of education. both in learning and teaching. Istanbul. Volume 7. M. University of Extremadura. research field: science teacher education. Carmen Conde1. research field: science teacher education. Vicente Mellado. professor. The memory of their emotions in learning science at school is more negative than in teaching science during their teaching practice. Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Department of Psychology and Anthropology. Carmen Conde. primary teachers 1. The scientific subject influences the emotions of pre-service primary teachers. but are highly charged with feelings. Vicente Mellado1 (1. when they were pupils.D. Nevertheless.D. Ph. analytical and non-emotive area of the curriculum. Luisa Bermejo2. * An earlier version of this article was presented as a paper at ESERA Conference 2009. Faculty of Education.. Luisa Bermejo. according to the theory of affective cognitive moulds of Hernandez (2002). research fields: the emotions in teacher education. In physics and chemistry. Ph. University of Extremadura. University of Extremadura. Spain. Recent results have questioned the independence of the rational and the emotional. with more of them describing such feelings as sympathy or confidence. ISSN 1548-6613. Faculty of Education. Faculty of Education.

et al. attitudes. He suggested that. beliefs. it limits their teaching effectiveness. these aspects are often out of phase with each other. attitudes. and may be seen as constitutive of the activity of science teaching. traditional teaching models may be overcome by applying meta-cognitive and meta-affective strategies to control and regulate the emotions that arise when the model is changed. There is growing evidence that change is more likely to be consolidated if all its aspects are integrated and related (Sanmartí. and to use teaching methods that are very close to what they preferred in their teachers when they were at school (Mellado. While this allows them an apparently greater control of the class. Simpson & Oliver. It requires active personal involvement. As noted by Day (1999). Murphy & Beggs.. depending on the teacher and the context. emotions in science teaching are constructed at a deep level. relational and socio-political. The affective domain is of increasing importance as a regulatory system of learning. Also. or to perform teaching actions. 2006). they are subjected to many dilemmas and stresses that naturally cause them anxiety and insecurity. goals and teaching styles which are strongly internalized and difficult to change. et al. and changes in one are not necessarily accompanied by a change in the rest (Mellado. In initial teacher education. primary school pupils usually show interest. and will subsequently be difficult to modify. and contribute to greater personal job satisfaction. play an important role in teachers’ construction of pedagogical content knowledge. Oosterheert and Vermunt (2001) included emotion regulation as a functional component of learning to teach.. and hence. especially during secondary education (Beauchamp & Parkinson. and argued that emotions. values and classroom practice are related. but that decrease with age. 2006).. and advocates the need to consider the cognitive and affective dimensions (Koballa & Glynn. p. teachers’ change is not just a matter of the head. It will be difficult to put changes into effect unless they are compensated affectively. Their own experiences at school lead many teachers to take as referents for their science teaching. both positive and negative. 1990. 2001). They construct and use emotional knowledge to establish or strengthen their connections with pupils and content.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers Research in science education also recognizes the importance of emotions in teaching and learning. and as a result. “Metacognitive regulation should be expanded to include not only cognitive but emotional regulation as well”. Vázquez & Manassero. excitement and generally positive attitudes towards science. 2003. Otero. Ramsden. 2005). For Hugo and Sanmartí (2003). attitudes and emotions. but also of the heart. the teachers themselves had when they were pupils. whether positive or negative. that are different aspects of their pedagogical content knowledge (Zembylas. This component is a form of 26 . Affective aspects are important during initial teacher education. et al. emotions. reflection on the teaching process and practice in teaching the specific material in particular school contexts. curriculum planning and relationships with children and colleagues. Zembylas (2001. As Efkelides (2009. 1994). Numerous studies have noted that. 1998). 139) observed. makes them feel safer. 2002. 2008). have beliefs. Teachers have an “emotional ecology” that exists on 3 levels: individual. 2004) reviewed the relationship between science teaching and emotion. 2007. during their teaching practice. These negative emotions can cause them to adopt defensive teaching strategies that are centered on the teachers and the contents rather than on the pupils and learning. This dynamic component is generated and evolves from the teachers’ own knowledge. Their teaching routines and strategies become most firmly set during their first teaching experiences in their teaching practice. values. Osborne. feelings. The anxiety that teaching science provokes in prospective primary teachers also has a repercussion on their self-efficacy in science teaching (Czerniak & Scriver. 2008. Prospective teachers themselves have been pupils for many years. and even plainly in contradiction. Although teachers’ conceptions. 2003. 1998.

. and hence. worry or despair. The instrument used was a questionnaire. which were those that they experienced when learning the different subjects of science as secondary school pupils.. based on the availability of time and of cases. University of Extremadura: 29 in the 2nd year and 34 in the 3rd year. did not answer. While this decrease in negative emotions is encouraging. such as confidence or enthusiasm. coding and digital storage in order to proceed with their descriptive analysis using SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions) 13.1 Physics and chemistry Their recall of the subjects of physics and chemistry at secondary school (see Table 1) suggested fundamentally negative emotions: nervousness. The resulting data were subjected to the necessary processes of checking. Purpose The authors consider it necessary to study the affective and emotional factors in how future primary teachers teach and learn science. 2. The aim of the study is to identify the emotions aroused by learning and teaching the subjects of physics/chemistry and nature sciences in a sample of pre-service primary teachers during their period as secondary school pupils and when doing their undergraduate teaching practice. One observes that the two are fairly strongly correlated. it makes of the negligible impact that their initial teacher education has had on their positive emotions as teachers. the percentages are relative to the sample that answered these questions as pupils or as teachers. Methods and samples The subjects participating in the study were 63 students of primary education at the Faculty of Education. after their periods of teaching practice. Figure 1 compares the emotions as pupils when they were learning physics and chemistry in the secondary education with those experienced as teachers when teaching this content during their practice. et al. The questionnaire items were organized in terms of tables of emotions (Brígido. since their beliefs and emotions can greatly affect their pupils’ achievement. 2008). Caballero & Guerrero. 3. 2009). They were selected by a non-probabilistic sampling procedure of convenience. The sample as teachers is smaller than that as pupils since many participants did not teach these subjects during their teaching practice. tension. the 2nd and 3rd year prospective teachers were different since they were from two distinct courses. and therefore. is related to the teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (Garritz. Data were collected during the 2007-2008 academic year. beliefs and attitudes towards learning science. the low percentage of positive emotions is still a cause for concern both for how it will affect the students’ learning on how to teach these subjects.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers knowledge in action. they recalled more negative than positive emotions when teaching topics related to physics or chemistry. in which the subjects noted from among the positive and negative emotions offered. anxiety. the negative emotions have decreased more notably when they were teaching these subjects than when they were learning them in secondary school. and when teaching them in their teaching practice (Blanco. Results 4. and except for nervousness. and for the reflection. Obviously. et al. 27 .0. and only rarely positive emotions. During their practice teaching also. 4. There were 49 women and 14 men. 2008). In each case.

5 7.9 14. more reported by women. 28 .6 44.4 Fun Tranquility Congeniality Confidence Capacity Pride Gratification Satisfaction Enthusiasm Pleasure Devotion Joy 17.5 30 37.9 47. when they were learning physics or chemistry at school (see Figure 2).7 47.5 47.5 20 Students (%) 31.9 7.5 5 10 Figure 1 Emotions aroused by topics related to physics and chemistry as pupils at school and when doing practice teaching There were few differences between men (14 participants) and women (49 participants) in the emotions.2 1.5 20 10 17.5 37. except for nervousness. except for the feelings of hate and uncertainty which were more reported by men.5 10 17.9 7.7 3.7 42.1 7. Figure 3 shows the emotions reported by men (10 participants) and women (30 participants) when teaching physics or chemistry.5 35 25 30 30 25 25 30 22. the women report more negative and fewer positive emotions than men when they were teaching these subjects.2 3.3 15.4 42. One observes that. or of tension.7 3.4 44.3 25.6 Tension Nervousness Worry Uncertainty Fear Anxiety Frustration Despair Pessimism Hate Anger Depression Contempt Sadness Negative emotions Teachers (%) 37.9 46 34.6 47.9 34.9 39.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers Table 1 Emotions aroused by topics related to physics and chemistry as pupils at school and when doing practice teaching Positive emotions Teachers (%) Students (%) 12.2 11. It is noteworthy that men who taught these subjects during their teaching practice showed a noticeable improvement in their emotions relative to what they felt when they were studying these subjects in secondary school.6 33.5 15 25 17.9 12.

2007. congeniality. etc. congeniality.2 Nature sciences (biology/geology) Their recall of the subjects of nature sciences during their time in secondary school suggested to them fundamentally positive emotions: fun. tranquility. For the nature sciences. they also experienced positive feelings. confidence. Various studies of pupils’ attitudes towards science in general which have included studies of their emotions have found that males tend to show more positive attitudes than females (Caleon & Subramaniam. 2007). satisfaction. satisfaction. capacity. Koballa & Glynn. 29 . On teaching topics related to nature sciences during their teaching practice. Both groups had many positive and few negative emotions. For men. even to a greater extent than when they were at school (see Table 2). there stood out feelings of capacity.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers Figure 2 Prospective teachers’ emotions when they themselves were pupils learning physics or chemistry by gender Figure 3 Prospective teachers’ emotions when they were teaching physics or chemistry in their practicum by gender 4. tranquility and pleasure. pride. there was a strong correlation between their emotions when learning at school and as teachers during their practice teaching (see Figure 4). joy. 2008. The results show a great difference between the emotions related to the subjects of physics/chemistry and the nature sciences. Vázquez & Manassero. Figure 5 shows the results of differentiating the emotions reported in learning nature sciences between men and women (14 men and 49 women).

1 12. Again both groups report few negative emotions in teaching these subjects.2 31.3 9.3 Fun Tranquility Congeniality Confidence Capacity Pride Gratification Satisfaction Enthusiasm Pleasure Devotion Joy Tension Nervousness Worry Uncertainty Fear Anxiety Frustration Despair Pessimism Hate Anger Depression Contempt Sadness Figure 4 Emotions aroused by topics related to nature sciences as pupils at school and when doing practice teaching Figure 5 Prospective teachers’ emotions when they themselves were pupils learning nature sciences by gender Figure 6 shows the results for the emotions of the men and women reported when they were teaching nature sciences (12 men and 35 women).3 39.3 3.3 14.2 41.7 38.1 2.2 3.4 10.5 11.3 14.6 76.5 9.6 4.8 38.3 0 2.2 6.7 53.3 4. and 30 .3 4.4 31.5 6.1 2.7 30.1 44.6 59.9 49.1 23.9 55.9 6.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers Table 2 Emotions aroused by topics related to nature sciences as pupils at school and when doing practice teaching Positive emotions Teachers (%) 76.1 Negative emotions Teachers (%) 6.3 7.6 59.7 6.2 47.6 38.1 44.1 0 0 Students (%) 17.3 2.2 57.3 Students (%) 42.4 51 53.1 4.6 68.1 2.

It is. men declared more positive emotions than women in nature sciences. not all the participants taught science subjects. to enable them to develop the capacity to act to change and self-regulate those emotions. but positive in teaching. the emotions are mostly negative in women. men report positive emotions when they were teaching physics/chemistry. 2008. Comparing by gender. Koballa. therefore. 2008) in order for them to gain in emotional competence—an aspect on which the authors are currently working. In physics and chemistry. and both of them reported negative emotions in learning physics/chemistry. the authors believe that the study of emotions is important in the context of initial teacher education (Shoffner. 31 . men declared more positive emotions for teaching science content than women. 2005). Blanco. except in nervousness in physics/chemistry. In physics and chemistry. The first is because of the questionnaire may not have captured all the nuances of the emotions. Overall. but negative emotions when they were learning these subjects in secondary school. become aware of their own possible emotional vulnerability. both in learning and teaching. This is to help them. This was especially so for men. Bradbury. their memory of emotions in learning science at school is more negative than in teaching science during their teaching practice. In nature sciences. the emotions of both men and women are very positive. there is a notable coincidence in the pattern between the two groups. Except for nervousness. of their time at school and of how emotions affect teaching and learning the different science subjects. the emotions felt as secondary school pupils learning science are strongly correlated with those they feel as teachers. both in learning and teaching. With respect to the implications. For this. and on the other hand. And the second is because of the small size of the sample of prospective teachers enrolled in the year of the study. Conclusion and implications The present results reflect a great difference in the emotions aroused in pre-service primary teachers by the subjects of physics/chemistry and nature sciences (biology/geology). but not in men. it would have to be supplemented with other more qualitative methods. while men recall negative emotions in learning. Caballero & Guerrero. 2009). on the one hand. necessary to develop programs of intervention and emotional support for prospective teachers (Appleton. such as interviews. The present study is subject to two types of limitation. In nature sciences.The emotions in teaching and learning nature sciences and physics/chemistry in pre-service primary teachers present very high values for the positive emotions. Although the percentages are slightly higher for men than for women. there is a correlation in women between the emotions felt as secondary school pupils learning science and those they feel as teachers. 2008. Glynn & Deaton. Younger teachers are more likely to incorporate educational changes into their practice and to consider the emotional dimension of those changes (Hargreaves. Figure 6 Prospective teachers’ emotions when they were teaching nature sciences in their practicum by gender 5. In learning science. particularly when one considers that in their practice teaching.

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Bangkok 10800. computer discipline 1. Key words: factors affecting. USA Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology Rungaroon Sripan1. King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. The teaching and learning do not only need the theory. Thailand) Abstract: This research aims to analyze and compare factors affecting teaching and learning of the computer disciplines at RMUT (Rajamanala University of Technology). The survey resulted from 92 teachers and 307 students were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods.12 (Serial No. RMUT (Rajamangala University of Technology). Rungaroon Sripan. learners have to create and improve the contribution based on independent and logical thinking initiation and development of capability by oneself. a number of departments in the ministry of education largely focus on the policy of lifelong autonomous learning by using IT as an educational tool. A questionnaire was used as a research tool to survey perspectives of teachers and students. the factors can be classified into 3 clusters. 2. teaching and learning. Bandit Suksawat. with high correlation coefficient at 0. 33 . Recently. Bangkok 10800. Bandit Suksawat2 (1. whose the operation is starting from primary schools up through university (Intratat. No. ISSN 1548-6613. King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok.05 level. The analysis of affecting factors of teaching and learning of the computer disciplines found that. the factor of student and the factor of learning materials. The factor of student and the factor of learning materials significantly differed at 0. All analyzed factors that affect to teaching and learning of the computer disciplines will be determined as an important weight for a concept selection in order to develop the teaching and learning system of the computer discipline at RMUT. Thailand. Ph.73) US-China Education Review. Introduction According to its development.505-0. research field: education technology. Faculty of Technical Education.D. Graduate School. King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. research field: engineering education. The numbers of sample were determined from Krejcie and Morgan table by using multistage sampling technique. The Thai government together with international organizations also have initiated and supported several projects to accomplish this policy.875.D. is willing to produce skillful and high performance workforces that are suitable for industrial sectors and other segments. RMUT also focus on developing the computer science disciplines for supporting several professions or enterprises. Volume 7.. 2007). an institute of science and technology under the ministry of education. Faculty of Technical Education. Department of Teacher Training in Mechanical Engineering. opinions of teachers and students have at least one factor different.December 2010. Department of Teacher Training in Mechanical Engineering. Comparison of the 3 factors by using one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) found that. IT (information technology) has been used in several fields especially in education. candidate. Graduate School. Ph. According to Piyamongkonkul (2000). King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. but also require practices to achieve the objective of curriculum. consisting of the factor of instructor.

This factor is an interface tool between learning materials and teaching methods with learning object in order to create the knowledge of learning content to the learners (Leelitthum. Therefore. because instructors have played a role in management of learning (Promchun. the right form of education appropriates to their learning style and the environment (Vatawatanasak. most teachers did not evaluate students before teaching and learning in order to acknowledge the student backgrounds and classify the study groups. good education management and modernization. Therefore. According to the concepts proposed by Pudenpar (2000). Leelitthum (2000) found that teaching and learning materials are important factors in learning management. 2. 2005). because people who are interested in learning can learn more in class and has more understanding with the materials. Literature review Factor of learning material has strongly positive effect on learning computer discipline. teachers should have good abilities to teach subjects and to manage a large number of students. Methodology The study of general problems of teaching and learning in the computer disciplines at RMUT was performed by using questionnaire as research tool to survey teachers and students’ perspectives. Furthermore.Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology This strategy aims to establish the learners’ knowledge and ability for working in the occupation. The survey resulted form 92 34 . the teaching and learning system is based on the important factors consisting of professional lecturer. The suitable factors for curriculum operation at the university can conduct learners to be the professionals. the teaching materials were unavailable for students’ learning. in order to facilitate learning and build knowledge and skills of computer usages. These problems significantly and directly impact on the development of learners’ knowledge and skill. 3. the teachers and the students also represent a significant impact on group learning of computer courses. appropriate facility. In addition. The numbers of sample were determined from Krejcie and Morgan table by using multistage sampling technique. this paper aims to analyze and compare the factors affecting teaching and learning of the computer disciplines at RMUT. 2000). meet the needs of the labor market and have basic knowledge and skills for further higher education (Pichetgid. learning objects. contexts and learning methods and have to focus on learning experience that is relevant (Thammetar. the inappropriate number of students per group results in very uncomfortable classrooms and unpleasant teaching and learning environments. general problems were only reported in the previous study. 2000). The specification in statistical analysis of factors affecting teaching and learning of the computer disciplines has not been reported yet. 1998). Therefore. The results showed that. Accordingly. 2005). Piyamongkonkul (2000) found that. the study of general problems and confinement of teaching and learning in the computer disciplines will provide important information for improving the teaching and learning method or curriculum development at RMUT. Since enhancement of the students’ practical knowledge and skills in computer discipline. Instructors must understand the curriculums. Sripan and Suksawat (2009) investigated general problems of teaching and learning in the computer disciplines. However. Features of the learning materials should be properly aligned with the content and purpose of education. The group learning of computer courses should provide sufficient computers to all the students in each group.

hence the set of measurable variables are not correlated or each measurable variable is indeed a factor influencing response. the QIMNE (quantity of instruction media is not enough) and the UCTOS (use of computer time outside of students). if Bartlett’s test is not significant. 2004). And Bartlett’s test of specificity to determine whether correlation exists between measurable variable is shown in Table 1. (3) It should compute the structure communality coefficient for each measurable variables. subject matter. 35 .0. The value of statistical test for specificity based on a chi-square transformation of the determinant of the correlation matrix was 0.5 significant level. communality variable can measure the amount of variance. The rule of thumb is that. if the sum of the Eigen values are greater than or equal to 1. The factor analysis process was performed as follows: (1) It should compute the KMO (Kaiser-Myer-Olkin) measure of sampling adequacy. (2) The factor of student consists of SLSC (students who lack skills in computer) and ENSG (excessive number of students per group). (4) The factor of learning activities consists of CLATAS (consistent with the level of activity and teaching ability of students) and TPCS (time to practice on a computer student). It should be noticed that. which are summarized into that the KMO value should be greater than 0. and each factor must be weighted from 0. And Bartlett’s test of specificity to determine whether correlation exists between measurable variable. this implies that correlation matrix is not significantly different from the identity matrix. The data analysis consists of the factor analysis method and ANOVA to compare the regression of the factor at 0. (3) The factor of subject matter consists of BSMT (balance between the subject matter when teaching) and items related to RBPTTP (relationship between the time of theory and the time of practice). (2) Factor extraction based on principle component analysis is computing the Eigen values of the correlation matrix.50 above (Thompson. The magnitude of the Eigen values exceeding a certain pre-predetermined threshold will identify one significant factor.1 Analysis results of the KMO measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test of specificity The samples to be back up 399 people to test the KMO measure and Bartlett’s test of specificity values have to verify for appropriateness factor analysis. The details of 5 factors including 11 aspects are described as follows: (1) The factor of instructor consists of the NTTCD (number of teachers who teach the computer discipline) and the UIMCE (using of instruction media and computer equipment). and the associated significant level was 0.852. (5) The factor of learning media includes QCES (quantity of computer equipment of students). The data of 5 factors.Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology teachers and 307 students were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results 4. consisting of teacher. (4) It should varimax orthogonal factor rotation. the rule of thumb is that the KMO value should be greater than 0. were used to analyze and compare in this paper. student. learning activities and learning media. 4.5 for a satisfactory factor analysis to proceed.5 for a satisfactory factor analysis to proceed.

The factor extraction based on the following basis factor is key factor that must be Eigen values greater than or equal to 1.747 0. and then describe the variability of most variables. (2) The factor of student consists of SLSC and ENSG.999 3.445 61. was considered as a separated factors and defined as follows: (1) The factor of instructor with 5 aspects. the BSMT. The independent variables consist of the factor of instructor. (3) The factor of the learning materials with 4 aspects. NTTCD and the UIMCE.852 Approx.50 above.134 0.2 Analysis results of the factor extraction based on PCA (principle component analysis) PCA was the variables that have correlation with other variables to extract significant factor.505.875.644 3.343 0. The combination of items with loadings.440 0.118 2.178 13.309 6.619 0. the UCTOS. 1412.730 to 0.810.505 to 0.542 74. Table 2 Aspects Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4.076 Cumulative (%) 25.459 1.511 0. The detail of 3 factors including 11 aspects is in follows: (1) The factor of instructor consists of QCES. chi-square df Sig.266 10.200 1.364 94.611 to 0.519 Cumulative (%) 38.000 4.626 5.363 97.242 23.0 and each factor must be weighted from 0.821. loading between 0. The obtained factors were named on the basis of research carried out on the general problems of teaching and learning.436 13. representing 61.789 6.754% of the variance of the respondents’ scores on the 11 variable scale as shown in Table 2.754 4. The dependent variable is teaching and learning of the computer disciplines.438 Total variance explained Rotation sums of squared loadings Variance (%) 25.719 90.138 5. loading between 0.3 Analysis results of the component factor analysis The principal of component factor analysis was used to determine the average of variance in teaching and learning of computer disciplines. The results showed that. The results of component factor analysis in confirmatory model of each variable are shown in Figure 1. student and learning materials as mentioned above.413 4. (3) The factor of learning materials includes items related to RBPTTP.242 48.578 1.754 68. CLATAS and TPCS.277 Initial Eigen values Variance (%) 38. loadings between 0. the principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution.Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology Table 1 KMO measure of sampling adequacy Bartlett’s test of specificity KMO and Bartlett’s test 0.000 Total 2. the QIMNE.595 0. (2) The factor of student with 2 aspects. which was greater than 0.949 55 0.777 2. 36 .675 0.678 61.481 100.680 80.178 51.306 85.

4 ANOVA for comparison of 3 factors The data of 3 factors consisting of instructor.505 0.812 Learning materials 0.821 Student 0.611 TPCS 0.05 level.642 NTTCD 0.742 Instructor 0.625 0.730 SLSC ENSG Figure 1 Model of confirmatory factor analysis of factors affecting teaching and learning of the computer discipline at RMUT The factor loadings analysis results are shown in Figure 1. The factor of instructor was not significantly different at 0.Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology RBPTTP 0.772 Teaching and learning of computer discipline 0.875 in learning materials factor for the teaching and learning of the computer disciplines. UIMCE is the less important variable as 0. Table 3 shows that opinions of teachers and students have at least one factor different. The results revealed that RBPTTP is the most important variable as 0.810 0.665 0.779 0. student and learning materials from the model of confirmatory factor analysis were used to compare analysis of variance as shown in Table 3.875 0. 4. Meanwhile.05 level. The factor of student and the factor of learning materials were significantly different at 0. 37 .029 UIMCE UCTOS CLATAS BSMT QIMNE 0.037 QCES 0.505 in the factor of instructor for the teaching and learning of the computer disciplines.837 0.

(Master Thesis. (Master Thesis. Leelitthum. Therefore. The National of Ramkhamhaeng University Research Conference. and the opportunity for students engaged in learning activities should also be advanced. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Thammetar. A.016 232. (In Thai) Pudenpar. (2) The learning materials should be selected to fit to computer disciplines.869 14.C. A study of status problems and needs of the computer teachers of Rajabhat Institute and in Rajamangala Institute of Technology.058 0. Status. References: Intratat. Thailand: Silpakorn University.058 All factors were to give students the skills to learn effectively. (2000. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 38 . (2009. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi) (In Thai) Pichetgid. Investigation on advantages and disadvantages in using English CALL according to the opinions of Thai university students and lecturers.934 196. (1998). B.016 0.191 220. 3-19. January-June).478 F 0. B. (2000). Retrieved May 26. S.: American Psychological Association. C. 2009.Factors affecting teaching and learning of computer disciplines at Rajamangala University of Technology Table 3 Factor Instructor Gender Error Total Gender Error Total Gender Error Total One-way ANOVA analysis for comparison of three factors Sum of squares 0.562 232.05. and the content of the course should always be improved to be modern. Vatawatanasak. Promchun. Didactic for technical course. S. (2007. Thailand: King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. needs and problems of computer instruction for bachelor degree of business computer in private higher education institutions. Journal of Research and Development Center Vocational. (2004).000* Learning materials Notes: *p<0. September 3-4). T. 33-36.993 df 1 397 398 1 397 398 1 387 398 Mean square 0.000* Student 14. (2005). January-March). (2005). (In Thai) Thompson. 5. so the teachers should have a computer course in computer expertise for understanding of content. S. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi) (In Thai) Sripan. Washington.191 0.75 0. (2000). (Master Thesis. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi Journal. R.682 7.html. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi) (In Thai) Piyamongkonkul.555 7. Bangkok.03 P 0. Problems of vocational development. 389-399. Learning generality/10000-13295. the proposed research is the concept of teaching computer disciplines. C. Conclusion Analysis of factors affecting teaching and learning of the computer disciplines at RMUT found that the factor of the learning materials. the factor of instructor and the factor of student are critical elements. (2000).578 8. S. & Suksawat. Bangkok. Thailand. D. it has been concluded that: (1) The teachers should be taught skills including the ability to transfer knowledge to students of insight. Bangkok.586 8.57 0. The concept of teaching and learning of computer. 8-14.491 228. Survey of status and problems of computer track in Rajamangala University of Technology. so that the learning materials should be appropriate to the level of knowledge and experience of students. from http://school. Creating the laboratory sheets of C language programming as required by higher vocational education certificate course in computer technology (electronics).

2003. lesson study is a process by which teachers and teacher educators work together to critically improve the quality of classroom practice through a planning. Indonesia University of Education at Serang Campus. 1999). researcher. In this paper. Introduction Literatures state that.December 2010. its systematic practice has a scant regard until the lesson study program—originated from Japan. teacher and teacher educator) work together to critically improve the quality of classroom practice through a planning. M. research fields: instructional design and technology. science education. teacher reflection. therefore. develop and articulate many aspects of practice in better way as part of their knowledge base and able to link theory and practice. Key words: lesson study. critical reflection—of teacher reflection. This paper describes the nature of Indonesian teacher reflection based on the authors’ experience in implementing lesson study program at Indonesia University of Education with collaborating subject teacher groups in two districts in West Java province. the authors outline the context of lesson study implementation and its strategy to promote teacher reflection and identify the structure and types—descriptive. Sofyan Iskandar. observation and reflection cycle based on the principles of collegiality and mutual-learning to develop a learning community (Suratno & Cock. Sofyan Iskandar (Elementary Teacher Education Department. No. Although reflection is viewed as a means to improve teacher professionalism in Indonesia. field study and videos of reflection phase of lesson study were analyzed by using the interpretative and discourse analysis approach. Ph. Indonesia) Abstract: Although reflection is seen as a means to improve teacher professionalism. Volume 7. teaching and learning. lesson study is a process by which educators (i.. teacher professional development.. can be used as a meaningful way of approaching learning about teaching in order to understand the knowledge base of teaching from practice setting (Loughran. 2003). observation and reflection * The authors would like to thank Professor Didi Suryadi of IUE for his comments on earlier draft of this manuscript. primary education. substantive aspects 1. teacher reflection is seen to sustain teacher professional health and competence (Day.73) US-China Education Review.e. was implemented around 2000s. In Indonesian context.Pd. Teacher reflection. reflection is considerably beneficial practice to support teacher professional development and teachers’ efforts to improve student learning (Fendler. Hoffman. Furthermore. 39 . teacher can consider. USA Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program* Tatang Suratno. research fields: teacher education. and future directions of the development of teacher reflection in Indonesia. researcher. Data gathered from program documents. lecturer. In addition. Elementary Teacher Education Department.D. Tatang Suratno. Elementary Teacher Education Department.. dialogic. 2002). its practice in Indonesia has a scant regard until the lesson study program was implemented around the year 2005. Indonesia University of Education at Serang Campus. primary education. Through reflection. ISSN 1548-6613. Indonesia University of Education at Serang Campus. In Indonesian context. Serang 42116. lecturer. 2009).12 (Serial No. Artiles & Lopez. the paper also discusses issues and lessons learned of teacher reflection from the program.

such as “what that problem is”. Suratno & Cock. This paper has 3 foci: (1) to outline lesson study implementation in Indonesia. On the other hand. Liliawati & Hikmat. therefore. Lesson study in Indonesia: A brief Lesson study was originally developed in Japan at the beginning of the 20th century and it was derived from the Japanese word “jugyokenkyuu”. as a difficult session and less fruitful to improve their practice. Follow-up IMSTEP (2003-2005) and the SISTTEMS (Strengthening In-Service Teacher Training of Mathematics and Science Education project) 40 . participant roles. Therefore. 2. 1995). 2007) show that. content of teacher reflection is discussed in terms of emerging theme. curious and perplexing situation) (Loughran. which can also be translated as “researching lesson”—indicating the level of scrutiny applied to individual lessons (Lesson Study Team UPI. and (4) critical reflection (Hatton & Smith. the analysis of structure and content of teacher reflection will help reveal the context. An element in teacher reflection is the notion of a problem (a puzzling. Lesson study researches in Indonesia (e. According to Loughran (2002). reflective practice must be effective in order to avoid those problems. discussion setting. the paper describes the structure of teacher reflection in terms of activity. Daryanti. it discusses the analysis of structure and content of teacher reflection by using interpretative and discourse analysis to lesson study documents.. et al. types of content and level of teacher reflection. Furthermore. In particular. This concern derives from the tendency that. Loughran (2002) stated important aspect of understanding the nature of reflection and the value of reflective practice. 2006). but research agenda to explore the nature of teacher reflection and the degree of current reflective practice through lesson study is rarely conducted. (2) descriptive reflection.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program cycle (Suratno & Cock. These efforts will reveal the current development of teacher reflection and provide bases for further improvement of its practice. 2007. teachers perceive lesson study. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta and Universitas Negeri Malang). 33). the development of lesson study in Indonesia is closely related to a cooperation program between Government of Indonesia and JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency).e. (3) dialogic reflection. “the way it is framed” and “what reframed is” (p. 2009). In general. particularly reflection phases. its underlying principles and processes.. field observation and videos. Through interpretation to current practices. Lesson study. 2009). the nature of the problem and the way to make a valuable reflective practice.. Maria & Supriyanti. is an approach to improve teacher professional learning in which involves teacher reflection. In addition. in which the program appoints 3 FOMASE (faculties of mathematics and science education) at 3 universities (i. there are many studies on how to develop an engaging lessons. The aim of the program is to improve the quality of mathematics and science education. analysis of types of content of reflection is adapted mainly from criteria for the recognition of evidence for different types of reflection that differentiates it into the following: (1) descriptive story. 2007.g. This paper focuses on FOMASE IUE experiences (Hendayana. guiding questions and flow of talk. 2007. lesson study at FOMASE IUE program derives from the following important projects: IMSTEP (Indonesian Mathematics and Science Teacher Education Project) (1998-2003). IUE (Indonesia University of Education) or known largely as Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia at Bandung. Therefore. and (3) to identify lessons learnt from current situation and to propose a framework for teacher reflection of lesson study in Indonesia. 2002). (2) to identify cultural and practical constraints emerged in teacher reflection through lesson study implementation.

At the same time. based on the principles of collegiality 41 . In this context. SISTTEMS project was executed for a large scale of lesson study implementation between universities and partnering districts. teacher education institutions provide consultancy to the piloting teachers (on-service box) to intervene in the quality of mathematics and science instruction in school. In the Indonesian context. Initially. piloting schools and the subject teacher groups (e. are able to improve teacher professionalism within their community. the participating teachers. According to Eisuke Saito. lesson study is defined as a model of professional development for educators by studying teaching and learning activities collaboratively and continually. mathematics or science teacher group) as an on.. 2009)..Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program (2005-2008) (Suryadi. a JICA expert (Hendayana. 2005). The main idea of the triangular scheme is the lesson study activity. et al. 2007). IMSTEP program implemented “piloting activities” to introduce a new way of professional development that engaged teacher and teacher educator in a collaborative ways. Hendayana. the implementation of lesson study was based on the triangular scheme approach (see Figure 1). Suryadi. yet it was not realized as lesson study until the follow-up IMSTEP implemented a “piloting” of lesson study between universities and several partnering schools. et al. Pre-service (FOMASE UPI) Feedback on school reality Feedback on teacher’s needs Producing good prospective teachers Enhancement of education quality Consultancy Intervention to students On-service (Schools) Professional development In-service Consultancy Sharing experiences Opportunities for expansion (Subject teacher association) Figure 1 Follow-up IMSTEP approach Source: Hendayana. In the SISTTEMS phase.. 2007. At the time (2005). The improvement of mathematics and science education is achieved when there is collaboration between the teacher education institution as a pre-service provider. lesson study program is developed by the principles of school-university partnership (Suratno & Cock. teacher education institution (pre-service box) produce quality student teachers after having received input from school based experience.. The expected outcome is that.and in. the nature of lesson study was actually introduced at that time. there is a greater understanding of the overall impact of the approach and greater understanding of how it works to improve learning outcomes for the students (Hendayana. In short. Furthermore.. together with teacher educators. et al.g. Subject teacher associations (in-service box) serve as a forum for professional development and the dissemination of the instructional innovations. et al. This period could be viewed as the piloting phase of lesson study. The pilot program focused on the technical development of the lesson study approach. the term “lesson study” had gained popularity and familiarity among the faculty and school staff. 2007). 2007. 2005. Basically.service teacher education provider.

2009). However. hands-on activity. Hendayana. one teacher.. the cyclic nature of the approach. government provides appropriate support for lesson study dissemination across the nation in which FOMASE UPI plays a key role for lesson study development in western Indonesia. student worksheets. teaching materials. conducted a planned lesson by applying the developed teaching model in the classroom. involves two partnering universities: Universitas Negeri Surabaya and Universitas Negeri Malang. The focus of the observation was student activities. also called as “open lesson”. (2) to design and to develop teaching models (lesson plans. and 500 teachers from 30 junior high schools in each area. as well as other educational agents (e. hands-on activity and connection to students’ daily life. Learning community PLAN Collaborative planning Collegiality Local materials. implementation and observation and reflection of teaching and learning processes (see Figure 2).. the faculty is conducting similar project in 3 districts in Java island in cooperation with Sampoerna Foundation: Karawang. starting at 2008-2011. teachers and teacher educators along with superintendents and local education office officials conducted several workshops aiming: (1) to identify teaching and learning strategies used and to then identify how they could be improved. 2007. collaborative planning. Suratno & Cock. daily life Mutual learning SEE Reflection Continuous improvement Figure 2 The lesson study cycle DO Implementation & observation Figure 2 describes the overall activities of the lesson study approach (Suryadi. and 3 micro-indicators: local materials. or called as “model teacher”. The gist of these lesson study activities is the development and analysis of teaching and learning based on 3 macro-indicators: collegiality. Finally. superintendants and government agencies staff) in a “plan-do-see” cycle. et al.. This project.g. of FOMASE UPI. In the mean time. Observers gave comments and suggestion regarding possible improvement for future lessons. 2005. the target rural regency near Bandung. that is. in the “see” stage. about 80 lecturers. In the “plan” stage. Recently. while teacher educators. student-teacher as well the interaction between the students and the teaching materials. Pasuruan and Surabaya. et al.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program and mutual-learning to develop a learning community among educators (Hendayana. During the “do” stage. Implementation of lesson study dispatches almost all faculty staff. and (3) to try out developed teaching materials. hence. Accordingly. the success of lesson study implementation has gained momentum along with the government’s 42 . mutual-learning and continuous improvement in a learning community. other teachers and prospective teachers observed the lesson. The faculty has already finished SISTTEMS project that involved 94 junior high schools and 556 mathematics and science teachers in Sumedang. such as interaction of student-student. lesson study involves teachers and teacher educators. assessment strategies and classroom arrangement). 2007). the teacher and observers met for post-class discussion to reflect upon the lesson.

this approach is not considered as a systematic way and perceives as too individual. (4) Missing link: They are not able to make a connection among planning. Ovens (as cited in Hoffman. it seems that lesson study have become a working framework—albeit with the potential to develop and become an effective strategy. 2003) identified 3 discourse communities in teacher reflection: (1) phenomenological discourse community. it relates to teachers’ ability to reflect upon teaching and learning processes. This causes the level of coherent analysis for reflection is weak. the writers believe that. For instance. judging negatively to teacher is avoided. issues around being observed by others and people making judgements about the quality of their work. The authors’ observation reveals that. teacher reflection activity has been developed particularly through classroom action research. it derives from tendency to criticize teachers. it would argue that. Its systematic approach based on the principles of collaboration and collegiality is viewed as key factors to improve teacher reflection practices. Artiles & Lopez. Teachers’ inability makes teacher reflection bored and meaningless practices. how and why of the lesson study and to convince teacher that observation and reflection focused only on student learning. Although lesson study is considered as a successful method to establish the culture of teacher reflection. 3. (2) Surface interpretation: Teachers have difficulty in understanding the relation between observed facts and it leads them to make superficial analysis. This is evident particularly in reflection session. Secondly. Through “see” phase of lesson study. Therefore. One of the main thrusts of the implementation strategy to deal with the cultural issues was to ensure that the main effort faculty took to tackle this constraint was to make every stakeholder understand the what.. such as 43 . 2007). The first two focuses on individual reflection to quest for emancipation. translating the lesson study into the Indonesian context faces some cultural barriers as indicated by Firman (2007). (5) Quality of content: Previous problems affect to the content of reflection in terms of some aspects. there is tendency that teachers perceive lesson study as a new way that fits with their professional learning need but they find a bored session to attend. the changing nature of its development has two main constraints particularly in the initial stage of lesson study implementation. The next section discusses the nature of teacher reflection in lesson study program at FOMASE IUE. generally. teachers find difficulties in determining students’ behaviours whether they study or not. teacher and educator have opportunity to reflect upon lessons. On the other hand. These are such things as the concerned teachers had about colleagues intruding into their classroom. The followings are identified constraints to reflection abilities: (1) Theoretical-driven: Teachers tend to put forward their reflection based on a certain theoretical framework instead of observed facts. the growing concerns on the importance of teacher reflection emerge since lesson study was introduced.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program commitment to increase teacher competence and professional careers (Hendayana. In this case. prediction and anticipation with situation happened in teaching and learning process. et al. Firstly. However. and (3) situated learning discourse community. Teacher reflection in lesson study program: FOMASE IUE experience Basically. The teachers have difficulty in discovering lessons learnt from their reflections. In the context of teacher professional development in Indonesia. These constraints seem obvious particularly in teacher reflection. (3) Misinterpretation: Teachers are also difficult to interpret observed facts. (2) critical discourse community. teacher reflection is a discourse phenomenon. or to go in the other direction completely. the last one considers reflection in collaborative and collegial ways situated in school culture. However.

and classroom setting. 3. compare to others. (3) guiding questions. Besides. exploring alternative solution and critical level of reflection. and (4) video analysis setting. and (4) flow of discussion. these underlying principles underpin the development of teacher reflection guideline in which consists of the following aspects: (1) Developing teacher reflection mechanism. Through video analysis. (2) discussion setting. Conventional setting usually emerges in the early phase of lesson study implementation and it is seen effective for a large number of participants. and (4) resource person. the structure of teacher reflection consists of two main activities: (1) briefing (pre-class discussion). During briefing session. during debriefing. (3) Emphasizing on factual observation analysis. Furthermore. Overall. On the other hand. In this case. therefore. This can be seen in terms of the structure and quality content of teacher reflection. such as FOMASE IEU lecturers. However. but it is so afterward when the expected culture of reflection is understood by teacher (i. Meanwhile. such as: (1) organizing the turn of discussion. emerges in several small groups of teacher reflection sessions. the moderator plays an important role. there are 4 identified roles of participants. (2) “U” shape. guiding questions were developed to help teachers in analyzing observed lesson. particularly the objective and activity of the lesson. conventional and “U” shape settings are the most used so far. In general.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program argumentation. Therefore. (2) applying discussion rules particularly when a commentator tends to make negative judgment to the model teacher. (3) maintaining the flow of discussion. “U” shape—as well as circle shape. there are several settings of discussion. Usually. In order to make a structured observation and reflection. participants can understand the context of observed lesson to discuss. 44 . discussion settings place model teacher. these questions can be used for structuring the flow of discussion. and (4) Emphasizing on lessons learned and alternative solutions analysis from observed teaching and learning situation and problems. Basically. and (4) stimulating how to have lessons learnt and alternative solution. setting. (3) circle shape. In addition.e. although it is seen more meaningful ways. moderator and UPI lecture in front of observers. teacher reflection should be based on the following principles: (1) Emphasizing on scrutinizing on how student learning. the structure of teacher reflection can be identified in terms of: (1) the role of participants. such as: (1) conventional—a meeting-like. through reflection session. These approaches are expected to reduce teachers’ resistance to reflection practice and even more improve teachers’ ability and sensitivity on how students learning as feedback for their teaching improvement. a polite and positive climate of discussion).1 The structure of teacher reflection Basically. these settings are seen can develop a “friendly” psychological-emotional relations of participant that make it flow. namely: (1) model teacher—teacher who delivers a lesson. framing and reframing problem. video analysis setting is rarely emerged due to school facilities limitation. In the further development. Current teachers’ reflection development shows an evolutionary effort to make a meaningful and useful reflection to improve practice. Considering those barriers and constraints. and (2) Designing a conducive discussion for reflection. model teacher explains his/her experience of delivering the lesson and clarify changes he/she made as it is planned. (3) observer. model teacher explains his/her lesson plan. (2) Developing guiding questions for classroom observation and reflection. teachers can explore and study many aspects of teaching and learning processes. (2) moderator. On the other hand.. and (2) debriefing (post-class discussion). Observers then suggest their findings and the moderator leads the flow of discussion. Table 1 shows the evolving nature of guiding questions from the earlier phase of lesson study implementation. other participants confirm things that need to be clarified so that they can imagine what will work in classroom. The changes reveal that initially there is no question related to teacher.

the unity of themes concerns to analyze how a teacher facilitates collaborative learning for students to reach (to jump) their ZPD (zone of proximal development) as suggested by Vygotsky (as cited in Suryadi. in the earlier phase. So far. 3. and (4) teaching strategies. Overall.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program Table 1 Mode 1 Modes of guiding questions Mode 3 Do students learn and how is the proces? Is there any student who does not study and why does not he/she study? What is teacher’s effort to handle students who do not study? Does it work successfully? Mode 2 How is the interaction between student? When is student starting to learn? How is the interaction betwen students When does student feel bored? and teaching material? What lesson is learned from the How is the interaction between students teaching and learning process? and teacher? Observation to teacher reflection sessions shows that. she will look at Anwari.” “Thanks to model teacher who gave me precious lesson especially with things that relate to teaching material. (3) 45 . in student worksheet. (2) descriptive reflection. I think that substance prepared in the lab is rarely found by them. However. Example of each type is shown in Table 2.. Teachers. She rare works with other students instead of Eva who sits in front of her. (2) students’ learning.” “Congratulation to model teacher. I see Kharis Erik works alone. the most important thing is work instructions. lessons learnt and alternative solutions are discussed. and (2) unstructured. teachers can convey anything they have in their mind. I think teaching material become necessary to be developed and it is not difficult. Table 2 Types of content of reflection Judgement Types of content of reflection Descriptive story Descriptive reflection Dialogic reflection Critical reflection Examples “In practicum. It will stimulate students’ way of thinking process. In this case. there are some identified levels of reflection. More over. there are some identified themes: (1) teachers’ teaching. Widia is active and wants to work together with Ahmad only. The results of discourse analysis identify types of content of reflection: (1) descriptive writing/story. and (4) critical reflection (Hatton & Smith 1995). there are at least two types of discussion flow: (1) structured. I agree with model teacher who gives freedom to student to determine the measurement of element that they want to observe. From transcripts analysis. teaching materials. the structured flow of discussion can be classified into two main types: (1) based on guiding questions. 2008). (3) teaching materials. (2) argumentation. and (2) based on preferred themes (i. (3) dialogic reflection.). I think it is better if we provide alternative substance easily gotten by them such as vinegar or alcohol with grape fermentation water. I think we will see different experiment results.2 Content of teacher reflection Content of teacher reflection relates to theme. particularly the moderator. descriptive modes are the most emerging type. meet difficult session. In group C. These were determined according to the following aspects: (1) negative judgment to teacher. Overall. In an unstructured discussion. Certainly. I can see that it helps students learn. Anwari has ability but Elly is silent and works alone and if she makes mistake. From the previous lesson. In group A. A change understanding happened from Anwari to Asri when the teacher is explaining fraction. which usually emerges in early phase. type and level of reflection. In group D. I see that all students study actively. at the end of the flow.” “Usually. we see different results and then we know the level result of the experiment that they did.e. We saw that the teaching material is simple and the materials are able to be attained around school. Initially. Therefore. It will trigger my creativity and I think school will support that. it is explained detail procedure of what should be measured. For that reason. teaching strategies. it will be real for students. direct comments to a teacher’s teaching (judgments) is common. It seems that the teacher does not do her job even it is her job to give explanation for students in order to be able to do their task.” Based on the analysis of the type of reflection content. etc.” “I salute to model teacher who has prepared well this practicum as a result students learn actively. the structured flow starts to emerge. by providing alternative substance. It will stimulate students to think why it is so.

This tendency can be seen such as in the following expression stated by some teachers that “Lesson study and reflection is good but bored. teacher will think and reflect on how to develop pedagogical-didactical situation (i.. there is issue to be dealt which could inhibit lesson study implementation and teacher reflection practices. it is not merely a need. FOMASE IUE tried to convince the need for teacher reflection. (2) situational analysis (“do”). This notion defines teacher reflection as the unity of activity of teacher from lesson planning to reflection session (the context). a substantive aspect of teacher reflection. Although there is positive improvement in terms of structure and content of reflection. 2002).e. the nature of the problem. These constitute the substantive aspect of teacher reflection. Table 4 Prospective analysis Analysing LTD (learning trajectory design) Analyze possible learning demands and obstacles Identify possible student responses (prediction) and teacher intervention (anticipation) Develop LTD Proposed frameworks for teacher reflection practices of lesson study Situational analysis Analysing ALT (actual learning trajectory) Does prediction and anticipation appear? How is the process? Is there any new response beyond the prediction and how does teacher interfere? Does it work? Do students experience learning obstacles? How to help them? Retrospective analysis Analysing LTD vs ALT Analyse student responses (student learning) and how teacher intervenes Analyse learning obstacle and how to overcome it in vise versa Frame and reframe the analysed problem for alternative LTD 46 . i. but it should be fruitfully articulated in a meaningful ways. In order to sustain teacher reflection. that fits student learning demands for which promote student learning.e. and (4) relation to previous experience and wider context (see Table 3). This concern derives that. Therefore. the “see” phase of lesson study is promising to promote teacher reflection. Overall. From this notion. Table 3 Levels Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Levels of teacher reflection Description Statement still evaluates teacher based on no fact (refer to certain theory) Statement still shows superficial observation result without reason Statement has shown observation result followed by reason Statement has reflected observation analysis with its solution Statement analyzes one and another phenomenon that are happened which have the same type in order to make a generalization 4. In this case. further development to reach its improved level need to be realized. what is reflected on. but also in “plan” and “do” phases as well.. teachers should understand the context. the authors propose that there are 3 types of teacher reflection (or thinking). what are meaningful and useful things we achieve from this activity?”. and the anticipated value of such reflection in all impact on what is reflected on and for what purpose (Loughran. Lessons learned: Proposed framework for teacher reflection One outcome resulting from current lesson study implementation is the growing concerns of teacher to reflective practice. teaching and learning situation). This issue needs to be tackled by any efforts starting from the understanding of the nature. during lesson study implementation: (1) prospective analysis (“plan”). by development of teacher reflection guideline of lesson study. the nature of the problem. and (3) retrospective analysis (“see”) (see Table 4). The evolutionary nature of structure and content of teacher reflection proofed the efforts that FOMASE IUE made to make teachers understand the nature and value of teacher reflection. in this case.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program alternative solution. Teacher reflection activity in lesson study program does not only apply in “see” phase.

It is expected that the framework can be a guiding principle to sustain and develop further teacher reflection practice and lesson study in Indonesia. Researching teaching through reflective practice. et al. July 27th. Prospective analysis will produce what is called a LTD. Critical success factors for developing subject teacher group lesson study: Lessons learnt from Sumedang District experiences. Day. purpose and value of teacher reflection). 5. 11(1). model teacher thinks. 16-25. H. Fendler. Concluding remarks As Stigler and Heibert (1999) stated that.). During this open lesson session. 32(3). the substance of lesson planning is prospective analysis. such as openmindness. it demands an effective teacher reflection. (2003). 33-49. it is expected that teachers attain a fruitful understanding. therefore. FOMASE UPI. that is. L. because it is a holistic way in nature. The proposed framework which is considered can promote reflection effectiveness. students’ perspective). Hendayana. “retrospective analysis” is applied during reflection session in which emphasizes on the nature of inter-relation between teachers’ teaching and students’ learning (teachers’ perspective vs. July). artefacts or even the wisdom in practice (i. Through this framework. Researching teaching: Methodologies and practices for understanding pedagogy. Paper presented at National Seminar on Exchange of Experiences on Best Practices of Lesson Study. N. responsibility and wholeheartedness (Loughran.e. should be discussed during briefing session in order that the observers understand the planned context of teaching and learning processes.e.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program Accordingly. Furthermore. (Ed. analyzed the designed and actual learning trajectory and possible alternative of LTD for future lessons. teaching is culture. teacher can develop their understanding about the way they do their work. Hatton. Developing teachers and students’ self-concept through lesson study. framework can promote the exploration of teacher tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge that enriches the knowledge base of teaching. 2007. Therefore. On the other hand. Prospective analysis. In addition. (2007). References: Daryanti. articulation. FOMASE IUE. (1999). (1995). Lesson study: A strategy to improve educator professionalism (IMSTEP-JICA experiences). Firman. & Smith. July 27th.. J. The need for reflection is that. J. C. D. acts and reflects directly to the situation. By using that framework. i. Bandung: 47 . and so does lesson study. Teaching and Teacher Education. In: Loughran. whereas observers think and reflect as if they are teaching in that situation. Educational Researcher. The framework views teacher reflection as a holistic process. Finally.. it believed that. to establish their culture of teaching. It is believed that at the heart of lesson study is teacher reflection. It is believed that an effective reflection is based on a sound understanding of the nature and value of teacher reflection. This belief undepins current effort in so doing as it is being introduced to participating teachers. London: Falmer. situational analysis is applied during lesson implementation in which observers are able to compare between LTD and ALT to understand the nature of pedagogical (teacher-student interaction) and didactical (student-subject matter) situation. it can impact teachers’ attitude to reflection.. 2002). 2007. analysis of prediction and anticipation to student learning demands. teachers can make meaning from the situation to understand the practice setting from a variety of viewpoints. Paper presented at National Seminar on Exchange of Experiences on Best Practices of Lesson Study. (2007). ability to frame and reframe problem from effective reflective practice. Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. S. (2007.

Theory into Practice. July). C. L. Improving the quality of teacher through lesson study. A. (2005). Effective reflective practice. & Brook. & Hiebert.). (2008). In: Lim. J. Suratno. (Eds. P. In search of meaning in learning about teaching. 33-43. The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. S. Journal of Teacher Education. 27-28. Profiles of teacher ability to observe and to reflect upon lessons. T. July 27th. (2006. T. K. Improving the quality of mathematics and science teaching for primary and secondary education in Indonesia. (2003). (1999). Teacher Institute Sampoerna Foundation-Provisi Education. Paper presented at National Seminar on Exchange of Experiences on Best Practices of Lesson Study. D. (In Italic) Maria. Hoffman. & Cock. November 14-18. July 27th. July). Bandung. L. 248-254. Paper presented at Indonesian Teacher Conference: Toward Education Quality. Cock. October.. K. Lesson Study Team UPI. FOMASE UPI. Metapedadidaktik in mathematics lesson: A strategy of self improvement towards professional mathematics teacher. Paper presented at National Seminar on Exchange of Experiences on Best Practices of Lesson Study. National Institute for Educational Policy Research (NIER) and the Asia Pacific program of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) UNESCO. (2007. Paper presented on International Seminar on Best Practices in Science and Mathematics Teaching and Learning. the case of subject teacher group C in Sumendang city. Suryadi. J. Bangkok. G.Teacher reflection in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from a lesson study program UPI Press. W. Lock. (2009). J. 2008. Suryadi. 2005. 42(3). Stigler. & Torres. November 2006. & Hikmat. D. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 48 . K. Jakarta. & Supriyanti. 2007. Innovative practices in pre-service teacher education: An Asia-Pacific perspectives. P. Beyond reflection: Teacher learning as praxis. Artiles. New York: The Free Press. W. C. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher.. (2007. Liliawati.. J. Loughran. 2007. A school-university partnership in Indonesia: Lessons learnt from lesson study. November). (2002). F. Collegiality as a means of improving teacher self confident in conducting chemistry instruction in junior secondary schools in Situraja region. 53(1). (Professorial Inauguration Lecture of Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia). FOMASE UPI.

educational leadership and counseling. research field: education. During that time. assistant principal.12 (Serial No.. USA) Abstract: This study describes the collaborative partnership between a Big Brothers Big Sisters organization. student participation Thillainatarajan Sivukamaran.Ed. The partnership utilized a mentoring system consisting of elementary students.D. M. assistant dean. instructor. University of Louisiana Monroe. mentoring. BBBS of Northeast Louisiana was founded in 1998. Big Brothers Big Sisters of Northeast Louisiana. Glenda Holland. research fields: teacher preparation. Jack Hayes Elementary School. USA. research fields: electronic assessment systems. Leonard J. college students. partnerships. professor. service learning. BBBS of Northeast Louisiana has partnered with various schools to work with young students. Monroe LA 71209. Leonard J. “To create hopeful futures for children and youth through professionally supported one-to-one mentoring relationships with measurable outcomes”. 49 . an elementary school and the College of Education at a public university. Texas A & M University Kingsville. USA Serving. 2. research fields: education. Clark1. M. University of Louisiana Monroe.D. USA. Concerned for their welfare. collaboration 1. Texas A & M University Kingsville. partnership and resource development coordinator of Big Brothers Big Sisters of Northeast Louisiana. Introduction The idea for BBBS (Big Brothers and Big Sisters) was conceived in 1906 by New York City court clerk Ernest Coulter who noticed a trend in the same troubled young boys who kept appearing in court. 2007). 4. Glenda Holland2. Clark. Their core mission is.. Monroe LA 71202.Ed. Sarah Tyman. Ph. This statement accurately communicates the conviction of the BBBS of Northeast Louisiana and captures the dream of the visionaries. who believed that mentoring could make a difference in the lives of children. elementary teachers and university faculty. research field: service learning.. Benefits of the various stakeholders are discussed. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program Thillainatarajan Sivukamaran1. research fields: leadership. service learning. Sarah Tyman3. service learning. The Big Sisters organization was later formed and the two officially merged in 1977 to become an international organization. No. University of Louisiana Monroe. chair. Karen Marissa Boyd. that is now operating in 35 different countries across the world. developing positive relationships that have a direct impact on the lives of children and youth (Karcher & Herrera. Coulter started the Big Brothers organization. Key words: education. Jack Hayes Elementary School has participated in the BBBS Program for 4 years. Monroe LA 71203. Volume 7. For over 100 years. Karen Marissa Boyd1. Jack Hayes Elementary School. assistant professor. BBBS of America has been the leader in one-to-one youth mentoring. Patricia Ellerman4 (1.73) US-China Education Review.. Ed. USA. Patricia Ellerman. Kingsville TX 78363. which then spread rapidly throughout the country. 3. assessment. ISSN 1548-6613. University of Louisiana Monroe.December 2010.

3. A national poll conducted by MENTOR (2006) estimates that. students with mentors are more likely to perform well academically due to improved confidence. One of the strengths for SBM is that. individuals are working towards finding their purpose and meaning of life. Due to the direct supervision of the matches. even with the understanding of how much a mentor may affect a child’s life. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program greatly increased from 6 to 47 students and continues to increase. In addition. teachers and teacher education students were not more involved in taking a proactive approach to the youth of today.000 adults are mentoring children in schools. This growth has been particularly noticeable in SBM (school-based mentoring). Additionally. mentoring has seen unprecedented growth. The school context may also provide mentors with salient opportunities to influence school-related outcomes. children with mentors are less likely to abuse drugs. which is a relatively new form of mentoring. This estimate does not include the thousands of high school-aged volunteers currently mentoring in schools. SBM can reach children whose parents might not have the resources necessary to seek out mentoring services for them (Herrera. BBBS has also collaborated with institutions of higher education. This growth shows that. as more mentors become trained and available to participate in the program. 1999). close to 870. Literature review Over the last 10 years. Teacher education instructors have long been concerned with doing valiant work in preparing candidates to use effective teaching strategies to teach content and address the needs of diverse learners as well as assessing their learning. 1999). the College of Education and Human Development collaborated with BBBS of Northeast Louisiana. bringing mentors into schools to meet with students. to work with their teacher education candidates who serve as mentors (Bigs) to P-12 students (Littles). but have not as steadfastly involved teacher candidates in offering services to the community of students they may someday teach. other groups of mentors. 50 . such as the University of Louisiana Monroe. Methodology In an effort to bring meaningful service learning programs to the teacher education program at the ULM. can be involved (Karcher. It is surprising that. Questions addressed in this study are: (1) How do P-12 students who participate in the BBBS Program benefit? (2) How does BBBS benefit by having a collaborative partnership with the ULM? (3) How do teacher education candidates who participate in the BBBS Program benefit? and finally (4) How do Jack Hayes Elementary School children benefit by participating in the BBBS Program? 2. 2005b). This study examined the benefits of various stakeholders in the partnership between the BBBS of Northeast Louisiana. Jack Hayes Elementary School and the ULM (University of Louisiana Monroe). some school-based mentors may even become a voice or advocate for the children at school (Herrera. including high school and college-aged individuals who may prefer or require the additional structure of the school context and on-site supervision. skip school and engage in violence or other risky behaviors. the mentor’s presence may provide youth an incentive to come to school more often and a disincentive to misbehave or drop out of school. For example. Teacher education candidates (Bigs) were paired with students (Littles) in P-12 schools that participate with the BBBS. because teachers nominate students for the program. in the past. A review of current research supports the notion that.Serving. staff can supervise mentor-mentee matches at the school.

class preparedness. but also a friend on which the children can count regardless of what happens in the children’s life. Additionally. Research shows that nearly 3 in 5 Littles (59%) are being raised by a grandparent or single parent due to a variety of family dynamics. the Big-Little pairs met weekly for an hour at schools. In addition.1 Benefits to Littles There are great benefits for Littles who participate in the BBBS Program. 70% improved in core academic subjects. A survey conducted on 39 teacher education candidates revealed that 47. 4. such as playing basketball. 84% demonstrated improved self-confidence and 68% improved in their relationships with peers and adults. In a study conducted in 2009 by an outside evaluator for BBBS of Northeast Louisiana. In these meetings. the Bigs did a variety of activities. divorce.Serving. Instructors found affirmation that. tutoring.3% agreed they felt positively about participating in the program. such as Jack Hayes Elementary School. However. death or an absent parent. A Big Brother or Sister is not only a child’s mentor. Additionally. During this time. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program Bigs mentored Littles for one semester (approximately 4 months). Any influential perspectives relative to the mentoring experience teacher education candidates have had with BBBS can best be reported by the teacher education candidates themselves. Outside evaluators conducted annual evaluation in 2009 of the BBBS Program and the data from that evaluation were used to evaluate the effect of the mentoring programs on the Littles. such as incarceration. Additionally. every teacher education program should have a component of mentoring and service learning. teacher education candidates were surveyed on their perceptions of serving as mentors in the BBBS Program. such as those requiring listening skills and reflective language used by teachers to help students resolve personal conflicts. Interviews with administrators and staff of the BBBS Program provided qualitative data on the benefits of the partnership between the College of Education and Human Development at the ULM and the BBBS of Northeast Louisiana. Finally.4% of candidates were initially either neutral or disagreed with the idea of participating in the BBBS Program before the semester started. the involvement of BBBS with teacher education candidates has allowed faculty to make informed decisions that can help candidates find relevance and congruity in teaching as an art and science. 4. after participating in the program. because they may not always have someone at home that they can look up to for companionship and unwavering support. simply talking or helping the Littles with homework. the college found that participation has influenced the teacher education program on two distinct fronts: one from the perspective of an instructor in the teacher education program. 76. 71% said they would 51 . statistics showed that 59% of participants improved in class participation. the end of the year data collected by Jack Hayes Elementary School on disciplinary issues provided data regarding the effects of the BBBS mentoring program on the Littles. Not only do Littles display advancement in all of these areas. At the end of the semester. Results 4. university faculty are firmly convinced that they can better recognize and address dispositions.2 Benefits to teacher education students & faculty (Bigs) After only a year of partnership with Big Brothers Big Sisters. such as that offered by the BBBS or another similar program. and the other from the perspective of teacher education candidates themselves. These children are exposed to greater vulnerability to being involved in high-risk behaviors. but they also get the added advantage of having a positive role model in their lives. behavior and attitude. observation data from faculty members who supervised or taught these students during that semester was logged.

and participated in the college’s fundraising gala. This partnership provided the university with an opportunity to implement the model with other local universities and community colleges. the academic development of the teacher education candidates and those whom they mentored. This evidence was illustrated in class discussions and informal comments that indicated what began as a course requirement quickly became what should be found in the dispositions of one who has chosen the teaching profession. 9 candidates continued serving as mentors. This decrease in disciplinary issues was attributed in part. After the required semester.4 Benefits to BBBS The BBBS of Northeast Louisiana organization also benefited greatly from the partnership with the ULM. culture and the community in which they live. Each semester. This respect carried over to the classroom and could be discerned through relationships the students grew with their teachers and classmates. A great benefit of the partnership was that BBBS could count on ULM’s College of Education and Human Development’s professors for any support needed to further the mission of the organization. The academic achievement of these students amplified due to increased compliance to classroom rules and to the goals students set for themselves in cooperation with their Bigs. Through observation. Perhaps the biggest benefit to the BBBS Program was that. As the semester drew to a close. The organization gained visibility with attendance increases among volunteers as well as cash and in-kind donations through publicity and promotions throughout the community. the members were able to increase their capacity to serve more children in one-to-one mentoring relationships as a result of this partnership. Jack Hayes Elementary School saw a 60% drop in disciplinary issues among the most violent and/or behavior disordered students. The relationships formed between the Bigs and Littles during these visits were of mutual respect. a field trip coordinated by ULM for the Littles. The Bigs were able to teach the Littles correct replacement behaviors through activities they did with each other during their weekly visits to the school. or for participation in the annual fundraiser. approximately 5% of P-12 student population does not respond to traditional disciplinary methods. Students eagerly awaited the arrival of their Bigs each week. Importantly. it was apparent that it was more important that the teacher education candidates made the best of their limited time to positively influence the life of the young person they mentored. The BBBS Program has been especially effective with these particular students. have been enhanced by this partnership and engagement with BBBS of Northeast Louisiana. and the disappointment was evident on students’ faces when they were occasionally unable to meet on their designated day. They also attended the ULM College of Education and Human Development’s showcase and convocation. ethnicity. The Littles could not wait to show their Bigs test papers or behavior reports when they showed improvement! The enthusiasm the Littles had for the BBBS Program was conspicuous. 4. 52 . they are guaranteed mentors through the university’s curriculum 386 class. The university was able to count the Bigs’ volunteer hours toward grant requirements. to the students’ participation in the BBBS Program.Serving. The faculty and staff of Jack Hayes Elementary School look forward to continued participation in the BBBS of America program. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program recommend the program to others. 4. These students may be emotionally disturbed or suffer from some other behavior related or environmental disorder. the authors were able to see obvious growth and understanding of differences in students in terms of race.3 Benefits to the school Of 661 students. whether it was a letter of support for BBBS’ grant initiatives. University faculty strongly feel that. as well as the faculty’s own instructional experiences. 66% reported that participating in the program will help them as educators.

Psychology in the Schools. Whether they are encouraging the Big BBBS Program to expand at their schools or introduce the program to schools. The ones who benefit most are the Littles who. the lives and the cultures of students like ones they will one day teach. Handbook of youth mentoring. Teacher education candidates (Bigs) also gain invaluable personal and educational experiences in return for working with Littles. because of the partnership between the university. In: Rhodes. 42. Conclusion The partnership created by this mentoring program allows each participant to benefit in multiple ways. Thousand Oaks. Karcher.A. School-based mentoring: A first look at its potential. M. C. March). D.). J.: MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnerst State of Mentoring. & Herrera. 2007. BBBS and the schools. can benefit from mentors who serve as a wonderful resource and support. 65-77. BBBS of Northeast Louisiana benefits from being able to continuously promote strong social and civic commitments within a successful program. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 53 . J. & Karcher.). and connectedness. C. Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. Jack Hayes Elementary School benefits from having teacher education candidates in their school to help their students in countless positive ways.S. 5. (Ed. (1999). M. (2005c).mentoring. L. from http://www. Retrieved April 23. M. Mentoring Latino adolescents in schools: What program practices and mentor characteristics are most important? San Antonio: U. they will be helping the organization to further its mission by reaching out to more children in more schools. The effects of school-based developmental mentoring and mentors’ attendance on mentees’ self-esteem. (2005a.: Sage Publications. References: Herrera.pdf. C. E. Cross-age peer mentoring. Karcher. learning and mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program The mentors in this partnership.Serving. Issue 6: School-based mentoring. (Eds. Department of Education. 266-285. Research in action. M. Karcher. J. The teacher education program at ULM gained a valuable learning experience for its candidates through this partnership. (2007). Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures. an experience that might never be taught in a les/pollreport. Lastly. Alexandria. who are future teachers. They gain the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of those in need while learning about themselves. Karcher. M. V. In: DuBois. behavior. will be great resources for the schools they will eventually work for by being able to share their experience with BBBS.A. J. (2005b). J.

Josefa Parreño-Selva.D. visual ergonomics. Department of Health Psychology. sociology of development.12 (Serial No.D. Department of Communications and Social Psychology. associate professor. pharma marketing. Department of Optics. University of Alicante. Mª Dolores Fernández-Pascual. Mª Dolores Fernández-Pascual. Jasone Mondragón-Lasagabaster.. mediation. research fields: evaluation..D. General Linguistics and Literature Theory. b-learning. University of Alicante.. María José Rodríguez Jaume. José Tomás García García. University of Alicante. research field: visual perception and psychophysics. María Dolores de Fez Sáiz. Esther Perales Romero. Accounting and Marketing. University of Alicante.D. María José Rodríguez Jaume. University of Alicante. Ph. Department of Optics. Department of Finance.. world system. research field: color science and technology. Alicante E-03690.. professor. Enar Ruiz-Conde. Department of Sociology II. Herminia Provencio Garrigós. University of Alicante. No. Department of Applied Economic Analysis and Inter-university Institute of International Economics. Department of Sociology I. Esther Perales Romero. Juan Ignacio Ferreiro Prieto. research fields: color science and technology. Juan Ramón Rico-Juan. prototypes selection. Department of Optics.D. Department of Health Psychology. Ph.D.D.D. research field: cyberjournalism. Josefa Parreño-Selva. professor. professor. Ph.D. Department of Communication and Social Psychology. professor. working on different work linkages with the university. professor. articulation and consolidation from 2007 of a social network of b-learning (blended learning) in the UA (University of Alicante) (Spain). Begoña Lucía Fuster García. USA Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Francisco Miguel Martínez-Verdú. Valentín Viqueira Pérez. research field: psychology of crime. research field: colour science and technology. research fields: pattern recognition. University of Alicante. and the momentum and advice of professor Angel Fidalgo (UNESCO (United Nations Educational. research field: international economics. research fields: compensatory education. social participation and participatory research methods. Valentín Viqueira Pérez. professor.. Ph. University of Alicante.D. Pharmacology and Anatomy. University of Alicante. Natalia Albaladejo-Blázquez. Ph. Department of Software and Computing Systems. research field: price promotions. research field: adoptions international in Spain. Mar Iglesias. The social network currently has more than 25 teachers. Herminia Provencio Garrigós. research field: visual perception and visual ergonomics. researcher. candidate. Volume 7. edit distances. Ph. 54 . professor. Department of Sociology I. Department of Graphic Expression and Cartography.D. University of Alicante. Ph. Department of Finance. associate professor. Ph. Ph. professor. University of Alicante. with the institutional backing of the Office of the Vice President for Education Technology and Innovation. Juan Ignacio Ferreiro Prieto. Natalia Albaladejo-Blázquez. Ph.73) US-China Education Review. Pharmacology and Anatomy... professor. Jasone Mondragón-Lasagabaster. Scientific and Cultural Organization) chair for University of Management and Policy). research field: sociology of the population. Pharmacology and Anatomy. Juan Ramón Rico-Juan. research fields: diffusion of innovations. Ph. Ph.. research field: graphic expression applied research in geographic information systems. Accounting and Marketing. Pharmacology and Anatomy. Mar Iglesias. University of Alicante. Diana Jareño Ruiz.D. José Tomás García García. professor. lecturer. Department of Optics. social structure. María Dolores de Fez Sáiz. University of Alicante. professor. University of Alicante. University of Alicante. University of Alicante. gender studies. Ph. University of Alicante.December 2010. innovation in higher education.D. technology. conflict resolution.. nearest neighbor techniques. implementing or intending to apply the teaching methodology Francisco Miguel Martínez-Verdú. Elísabet Chorro Calderón. Spain) Abstract: This work describes the genesis.. University of Alicante. Department of Optics.. Begoña Lucía Fuster García. Enar Ruiz-Conde. Elísabet Chorro Calderón (University of Alicante. professor. Diana Jareño Ruiz. ISSN 1548-6613.. Department of Spanish Studies.D. Ph. research field: psychology of crime. Pharmacology and Anatomy. research fields: Spanish language.

feed-back methods for students. etc. particularly in b-learning. it implements a context where resources can be applied. Key words: b-learning. administration staff. Wimba Create. This social network is intended to be a cooperative vision of Web 2.). management indicators. this network of educational innovation will try to do as much as possible to ensure that the global future of the UA involves a model of quality and excellent practice in b-learning teaching. e-learning (electronic learning). but always from a point of view of cooperative (bringing together) and team (distribution of tasks) work. any social network builds a clear strategy of cooperative and teamwork among its members. computer-supported collaborative work 1. etc. etc. a set of software for development (blogs. the factor of humanization. but it is also possible to practice the various roles of a teacher. In this way. etc. collective and cooperative) of the students and teachers in virtual activities that strengthen the paradigm based on learning and serving to improve the academic performance of the students.0 development (strategy).) to share resources (design and organization of learning contents. several resource centers (blogs. Therefore. wikis. and digital platforms (Virtual Campus of the UA. This aspect is key to achieving the objectives set by the guidelines of the European Higher Education Area. but at least some. 55 . Internet-based technologies.e. some tools. and the UA objective to boost strategic and tactical levels over the next few years in order to achieve a high level of teaching quality differential over other competing universities and institutions. education practice trends and issues. the combined strengths of the master class (as a paradigm example of teaching) and ICTs (information and communication technologies) to promote the active participation (individual. In the case of a social network in educational innovation. Wimba Create (before CourseGenie). tutoring and coaching.. paradigms and methodologies for teachers to apply or test can be more like b-learning (blended learning). such as situational leadership. such as the depletion curve. the context is focused on teaching practice at any level: pre-college. etc. These are quality.0 approach. Moodle.) are used. and with the support of administrative staff. empathy and excellence. such as the following are widespread among teachers. a centre/communication forum for sharing resources. where members communicate and exchange resources through a digital communication platform. The main motivations that encourage a teacher to participate in social networks of educational innovation can be numerous. Introduction A social network is a direct consequence of the Web 2.. the potential of the b-learning methodology in their teaching practice to achieve excellent levels of quality and academic performance (see Figure 1). educational software. And. mainly a software package for development (blogs. Moodle. etc. dedication to service. tutorials. To do so. i. providing both individually and generated in the group. Therefore. and even UA students who are concerned with and interested in educational innovation.) and context (subjects of the degrees) where resources can be applied. wikis. The social network of UA (University of Alicante) b-learning aims to bring together teachers.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante b-learning during the course 2007-2008 in a variety of courses and degrees. the main objective of this social network is that the whole collective research and teaching staff of the University of Alicante knows and implements. where appropriate. and in particular. wikis and networks). university.

56 .0 and 2. advertising and public relations. Then. with the logistic support.0 2. both in human and technical resources. but with great motivation. nursing 2007/blearning. etc. skills and teaching methods. assessment modules. both at the methodological level (design and generation of interactive educational documents using CourseGenie.) and official postgraduate programms (advanced optometry and vision sciences. representing a wide variety of courses and degrees at the UA. social work. etc. etc. commitment and initiative to share teaching experiences and resources in the b-learning format. 4-year programms (administration and business management. economics. psychopedagogy. now called Wimba Create. criminology. the authors want to develop some actions as follows: (1) Sharing teaching experiences (bazaar model) of individual initiatives using blogs. the own learning content management system). since the original members of the network cover different knowledge bases.). some students from the final graduate and postgraduate courses have been incorporated. etc. wikis and the own learning content management digital platform. It is a multidisciplinary and heterogeneous team. real estate studies.). etc. Virtual Campus (CVirtual-UA. marketing and market investigation. optics and optometry. etc. From the beginning of the 2008-2009 course. sociology. (2) Joining in complementary training courses about b-learning methods. of the VRTIE-UA (Office of the Vice President for Education Technology and Innovation) and the ICE-UA (Education Sciences Institute). Description and methodology The core team of this network comes after attending a b-learning course (http://www. The network includes teachers associated different subjects and degrees (see Figure 2).).ua.). 2007 and given by professor Angel Fidalgo. public management and administration. 5-year programms (computer engineering.html) at the UA in spring.) and the technological level (Moodle.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Figure 1 Schemes for marking the differences between paradigms Web 1. including 3-year programms (management computing. public works engineering.

(3) CourseGenie (now Wimba Create) use in teaching. 57 . as an additional signal of the social projection of UA and in non-university training centres. the “Working Group” tool provides a resource centre trying to cover such activities as: (1) implementation experiences of blog and wikis for subjects. managers and students for the social network. (5) Supporting to the VRTIE-UA and ICE-UA in training and joint actions of new teachers. Part of this social network was stated as research network in university education. At present.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Figure 2 Teaching staff and students of the b-learning social network of the UA (3) Joining in any events related with educational innovation networks. when new opportunities occur. centres and student unions. using for example. through the CVirtual-UA. (4) Supporting the VRTIE-UA and ICE-UA in disclosure and training initiatives of new educational innovation methods. (2) external and internal dissemination of the social network. it will be possible to progress in the development of educational documents suitable for networking members. etc. (7) individually-directed work management. (6) cooperative work management. and especially those related with b-learning methodology. for instance. and externally. etc. (3) implementations of training evaluation. (2) innovative methodological plans. 3. and from the last course. with some interests focused on: (1) design and implementation of teaching methodologies for development of competences and skills. and (4) generation and implementation of curricula documentation. In this way. or classroom blogs. and promotion of active participation and team work. Teaching experience results Now it can show some examples of individual contributions from some network members. both internally through departments. (4) Moodle use in teaching. MSWord plug-in CourseGenie (now Wimba Create) for designing and generation teaching documents for in-classroom and virtual sessions. (5) assessment strategies. (8) teaching guides applying b-learning methodology.

67 3. degree in optics and optometry The most relevant features of this subject are: (1) classroom blog: http://blogs. (4) informal survey distributed at the end of the course about strong and weak points and improvement suggestions for this subject.67 0.52 Student number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 58 .02 0.00 2.81 7.78 4. such as the OpenCourseWare at the UA.00 0.00 10.44 6.27 8.50 8.88 8.22 1.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante and prepare and request new educational innovation projects.74 0. webquest and short presentations Opinion 9 3 0 3 2 3 8 9 10 7 9 7 3 Solved problems 10. Figure 3 Instructions in Spanish language inside the classroom blog for doing in team work the short presentations on classroom at the end of the course for the subject visual ergonomics Table 1 Results for continuous assessment (maximum 50% of total mark) in the same course.04 8.50 9. 3.42 5.00 0.11 Short presentation 8.50 0.95 0.48 6.50 8.67 4.50 8.71 category/ergonomia-visual/.11 0.33 1. solved numerical problems.00 0. taking into account several activities: opinion.78 1. (3) continuous assessment (see Table 1): participation in blog.84 8.00 0.00 Total/10 8.1 Visual ergonomics.00 0.11 1.50 8.11 6.00 10.00 0. (2) feed-back in-class sessions intercalated among virtual sessions.50 9.00 7.00 9.00 10.00 Webquest 7.00 0.00 10.00 0.00 10.00 0. short presentation using GoogleDocs or PowerPoint (see Figure 3) by teacher coaching (situational leadership).50 8.

2 Demographic analysis. Figure 4 Examples in Spanish of several pro-active tutoring activities for the subject demographic analysis (to be continued) 59 . (3) hypermedia teaching documents for in-classroom sessions (see Figure 6). degree in sociology The most relevant features of this subject are: (1) proactive tutoring (see Figure 4) using the tool “debate” in CVirtual.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante 3. (2) hypermedia teaching documents for virtual sessions (see Figure 5) including in some cases auto-assessment questions.

3 Graphic expression for engineering.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Figure 5 Examples in Spanish of a virtual session (top) and its associated hypermedia teaching document (bottom) for the subject demographic analysis Figure 6 Example in Spanish of a hypermedia teaching document for an in-classroom session of the subject demographic analysis 3. 60 . civil engineering The most relevant features of this subject are: (1) group work tool from CVirtual-UA for students (see Figure 7). (2) webquest activities (see Figure 8) in CVirtual-UA. sobre la superficie terrestre necesitamos definir un Sistema de Coordenadas. ¿Qué sistema de coordenadas utilizas para situar un punto sobre la superficie terrestre? of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Figure 7 Example in CVirtual-UA of a group work tool applied to teaching experience with students Webquest: Diseño en Ingeniería por Ordenador y Diseño Gráfico en Ingeniería civil Introduction: Para definir la posición de un punto de interé ¿Qué es un sistema de coordenadas? http://www.personal. Para definir la posición de un punto sobre un plano o un mapa también necesitamos utilizar un Sistema de Coordenadas. un edificio. raised for the subjects of design in engineering and graphical design in civil engineering 61 . un pueblo.rincondelvago.htm http://www.pdf http://html.cartesia.ssr. Questions: 1..ssr.elgps.htm http://www.html Final question: ¿Qué relación existe ente el sistema de Coordenadas que se utiliza para localizar un punto sobre la superficie terrestre y el sistema de coordenadas que utilizas para localizar un punto en un plano o en un mapa? Figure 8 Example in Spanish of webquest activity focused on systems of coordinates.htm http://www.sitiosespana.pdf http://www.fpolar. ¿Que sistemas de coordenadas puedes utilizar para situar un punto en el espacio? ¿Qué sistemas de coordenadas puedes utilizar para situar un punto en el plano? 3.upm. ¿Cuáles son sus características? Resources: http://www.

ning. (5) Student comments in video format about the virtual activities of this subject: http://ticsl2le. Figure 9 OpenCourseWare guide in Spanish of the subject NTICs in teaching Spanish and English as second/foreign languages Figure 10 Examples of hypermedia teaching documents in Spanish of the subject NTICs in teaching Spanish and English as second/foreign languages 62 . (3) Hypermedia teaching documents for virtual sessions (see Figure 10) http://ticsl2le. (2) Classroom blog: http://blogs. (4) Icons for teaching activities (see Table 2).com/video/ video/comentarios-sobre-la-docencia9.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante 3.4 New ITCs in teaching Spanish and English as second/foreign languages The most relevant features of this subject are: (1) OpenCourseWare guide (see Figure 9).

In this context. the students have to use a simulation game to adopt commercial decisions. among others. from everywhere.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Table 2 Examples of icons used in “new ITCs” subject to design hypermedia teaching activities Activity>virtual>individual>specific topic>reading and visualizing Activity>in-classroom>collaborative>specific topic>key activity for topic Tutoring>in-office>collaborative (even virtual-type) 3. the CVirtual-UA allows the authors to incorporate innovative educational and teaching techniques. Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences Administration This subject focuses on commercial policy decisions and marketing strategies in a virtual market. Figure 11 Virtual computer classroom in the CVirtual-UA Figure 12 Example of proactive tutoring using the “debate” tool for the subject “marketing strategy and simulation” 63 . Within this kind of market. the most relevant features of this subject are: (1) Virtual computer classroom (see Figure 11): In this page. For example. masters in marketing and markets investigation.5 Marketing strategy and simulation. the students of the UA can access the simulation program.

Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences Administration The most relevant features of this subject are: (1) Institutional RUA (Repository of the University of Alicante): RUA offers open access to full-text online documents generated by UA members in their academic and research activity. “regional disparities”. for the subject “Spanish economy” in the institutional repository of the UA 64 .6 Spanish economy. degree in economics. Figure 13 Example of a document. for the subject “Spanish economy” in the institutional repository of the UA Figure 14 Example of statistics of a document. in order to take the commercial decisions for the simulation game. Several documents about the subject Spanish economy have been placed on RUA (see Figures 13 and 14).Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante (2) Proactive tutoring (see Figure 12) using the tool “debate” in CVirtual-UA: It allows the members of each group of students to communicate amongst themselves and also with the teacher. However. “regional disparities”. 3. this information is not accessible to the other students of the subject. (3) Hypermedia teaching documents for in-classroom sessions.

aims.) is offered freely and it is accessible universally in OCW-UA (see Figure 15). Figure 16 Examples (in Spanish) of debates in the physiological optics course 65 . methodology.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante (2) OCW-UA (OpenCourseWare-UA): The syllabus of the subject Spanish economy (contents. resources. including for all the topics the accomplishment of activities and self-assessing questionnaires. degree in optics and optometry The most relevant characteristics of this course are: (1) tutoring activities/group debates (see Figure 16) by means of the tool “debates” of the CVirtual-UA. practical activities.7 Physiological optics. didactic. (3) Proactive tutoring/teaching interaction using tool “debates” in the CVirtual-UA. bibliography. etc. Figure 15 Example of UA’s OCW for the subject “Spanish economy” 3. exercises. (2) resources for the virtual sessions (see Figure 17). (3) resources for a practical in-classroom session (see Figure 18). notes.

Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante (to be continued) 66 .

all of 67 .Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante Figure 17 Example of virtual session (in Spanish) in the CVirtual-UA along with the available resources. the offer of self-work activities and self-assessment questions for the physiological optics course Figure 18 Example (in Spanish) of a hypermedia document for a practical in-classroom session for physiological optics course 3.8 Psychopaths and multiple killers The general objective addressed is that. the student should acquire the necessary bases for responsible learning focused on developing their competence and skills in the subject psychopaths and multiple killers.

in which the tasks that the student is required to perform both in class and online are indicated for each block of subjects. diagrams and examples which all makes the student comprehension and study more flexible. clear in design. providing clear explanations in documents.. structuring the organization of information and using summaries. Figure 19 shows a diagram of the 3rd session in which themes on the definition and aetiology of multiple killers are raised. students should watch an audiovisual presentation which may be found on the attached web link as well as carry out exercises which they should subsequently send through the assessment option “checks” provided by the CVirtual-UA for evaluation by teaching staff. (2) Online activity indicating that.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante which is implemented by applying a b-learning teaching methodology and the student-centered learning paradigm. Figure 19 Example of virtual session (in Spanish) in the CVirtual-UA 68 . As may be seen. The lecturer makes use of the CVirtual-UA work tool which is the distance learning platform most commonly used at the UA. (3) Web links. presence of visual elements. (4) Bibliography pertaining to the session. with an internal structure. etc. students are provided with the following sections: (1) PowerPoint presentations concerned with the various themes of the subject addressed during contact classes. This platform has organized all the resources through the “sessions” option. Efforts are made to ensure that the contents provided are varied.

F. & Borges. J. Pérez. Teaching innovation and ICTs use in university teaching. more advances to the educational initiatives shown above will be described. The authors want to do this by generating a website. articulation and consolidation from 2007 of a social network focused on b-learning within UA was described with the institutional backing of the Office of the Vice President for Education Technology and Innovation.php? option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=20. A. Retrieved from http://blogs. R. Monograph on b-learning or bimodal learning. analysis elements and educative proposals. Educative innovation blog. H. I.dmami. Martínez. G. Retrieved from http://blogs. the Education Sciences Institute.lacuestionuniversitaria. Retrieved from Fidalgo. which has allowed people to share teaching experiences in b-learning methodology following a preliminary strategic plan in order to both internally and externally project this network into pre-university and university environments. Use of tools.utpl. (2009). Journal of University and Knowledge category/ergonomia-visual/. Provencio. Retrieved from http://www. (2009). 5.php?id_articulo=12. (2009). Design of treasure hunt. Teaching method for distance education. Teaching guidance of the subject “new ITCs” in the guidance of second foreign languages. (2008). Conclusion The UA (Spain) wants to boost.htm. from http://www. J. Retrieved from http://www. (2001).org/website/index2. Bautista. & Llorente. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. (2007). Retrieved February P.wordpress. Methodologic proposal for higher education in virtual environments: An experience based on the student participation. M. R. De Miguel. and the momentum and advice of professor Angel Fidalgo (UNESCO Chair for University Management and Policy). and even other cooperative and teamwork tools. (2004). Ministry of Education. & Mestre. The genesis. S. RIED (Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia). (2006). Universities pioneer blog. or any free type-LCMS digital platform which permits interaction among members and active participation of observers (non-members). Madrid: Nancea. Pérez.php?option=com_content&task= view&id=453&Itemid=83. M. U. in the near future. A. Spanish Government. (2007). (2001). Bautista. Education technology & innovation blog. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 69 . Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU. Future trends and issues With the support of VRTIE-UA and ICE-UA. F. Borges. La Habana: Editorial Universitaria. I. (2001). University of Oviedo. Study of the education innovations based on ICTs in on-classroom and virtual university teaching. Teaching methods focused on the development of competences: Guidances for promoting the methodologic change in European higher education area. Office of the Vice President for Education Technology & Innovation. a blog and a wiki for this network. as a differential quality signal in educational innovation. (2004). Retrieved from http://www. M. (2007). G. Therefore. 1(1).upm. Commission for updating of teaching methodogies in the Spanish University. 2007.Development of the social network b-learning in the University of Alicante 4.e-learning21. edu. (2005). such as Google Docs. University art of teaching in virtual environments of learning-teaching. the b-learning teaching methodology among its teaching and management staff and students. References: Bartolomé. Retrieved from http://rua. G. Proposals for updating the teaching methodologies in the Spanish university. Retrieved from Oral communication presented in the First Meeting on Application of New Technologies in On-Classroom and Virtual Teaching.isabelperez. & Forés. B. F. a new step to consolidate this social network will be the external projection of the current resources centre (opened projects inside of “work team” in CVirtual). The current work shows that the advances developed along the last and current courses in many degrees to articulate and consolidate this educational social network. The interaction in network learning.

interviews. however.1 The new resources in the teaching of sciences Since textbooks. Nowadays. the use of ICT (information and communication technology) and NT (new technology) alone is no guaranty of improvement in the teaching and learning processes in formal educational contexts. speed. in reform contexts. 2007). Computer-assisted experimental activities have permitted to increase the quality. 70 .73) US-China Education Review. it is not surprising to encounter a science laboratory with management programs. they believe that ICT must be used to teach science. For example.. Nevertheless. The author considers that. For example. Onrubia & Rochera. 2001. devices and instrumental required for the experiment. With the aim of describing curricular beliefs about practical activities in laboratory and ICT (information and communication technology) resources. interfaces and sensors. both in his classroom activities and those in laboratory. USA Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher Saúl Alejandro Contreras Palma (Department of Education. science teacher thinking. all of which has offered a number of advantages. It is particularly in the teaching of science where this trend has gained more relevance. taking into account this kind of incoherence is essential in order to reflect about teachers’ knowledge of sciences. 1994). the use of the PC (personal computer) in physics laboratories is quite frequent for the processing of experimental data and carrying out virtual practices and simulations. questionnaire. No.12 (Serial No. Research indicates that. Volume 7. ISSN 1548-6613. The sources of information include field notes. Thus. Chile) Abstract: The influence of teachers’ beliefs in curriculum implementation has been explored in a number of contexts.D. the author has carried out the case study of a physics teacher. what teachers believe is not the same as what they do. planning. activities. Theoretical framework 1. pedagogical knowledge of science content. In fact. the most utilized resource is the textbook.December 2010. practices and the relationship between these. simulations have allowed to reproduce natural phenomena which is hardly observable in a direct way. the results are far from a qualitative change and it has generated a continuity effect of the traditional models rather than changes in teachers’ practices (Sierra & Perales. The results indicate that. laboratory practices can be developed in a way that the student is in physical contact and be able to manipulate the instruments. research fields: science teacher’s beliefs. Ph. pedagogical content knowledge. one of the most widely instruments used by teachers. it comes to incorporate informatics means in educational activities. Department of Education. University of Santiago de Chile. 2000. University of Santiago de Chile. planning and class observation. Santiago 8330001. Smith & Southerland. storage and security in data collection (Martínez & Parrilla. and the relationship between thinking and practice. Another advantage is that. Saúl Alejandro Contreras Palma. appearing more constructive in thinking and more traditional in practice. resources. quantity. ICT 1. Key words: beliefs. in practice. which teachers and students do in classrooms that incorporate ICT may not differ much from what was used to be done in the classroom before ICT incorporation (Colomina.

there is a predominance of the traditional tendency in the aspects related to class development (Martínez. how the sequence of actions will be about (Porlán & Rivero. it has been pointed out that in physics. In fact. 2000. 1998. Luft. Osborne & Ratcliffe. physics teachers believe that. constitute a necessity if what people want is change (Manjares. 2002). 2000. experimental science teachers believe that one of the most important purposes of science teaching is the transmission of scientific knowledge and to experiment (Gustafson & Rowell. Particularly. 2000. but moreover. Thus. generators of a personal knowledge and a reference for action and change. they influence about what knowledge must be taught. though when linked to practical activities (García & Martínez. 2004. González. pen and paper activities among others (García & Martínez. i. 2005). new actions are considered and practices are changed (Haney & Mcarthur. Bryan. 2005. how to teach them and how to be assessed (Pajares. 2003).e. Gil (2007) pointed out that. 2004). Nieto. Sánchez & Valcárcel. For instance. Lemberger. et al. routines and action guidance that allow to predict which and how the activities to carry out in class will be. 2001. researching thinking and its relationship with practice. Skamp & Mueller. Hewson & Park. 1995. say must be done. 2001). questioning. Barberá. et al. the role of experimental practical activity and the use of new technologies among other aspects. 2006. Martínez. believe they do. Bartholomew. 2003. it also involves beliefs. Beliefs help teachers interpret what is going on in the classroom and guide them towards new challenges. contents and new curricular materials (Powell & Anderson. Mauri & Onrubia. say they do. teachers’ thinking plays an important role in this focus for change and beliefs make up for a central element (Porlán & Rivero. Therefore.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher Twining. such as problems. when and how to incorporate diverse activities. Therefore.. 2009). 2003. 2002. This is related to the types of activities that teachers develop and discourse in practice (De Longhi. constituting into informative elements of attitudes. 1994. 2004. teachers must teach oriented by a rather instructional objective (Friedrischen & Dana. 2000).. Thomaz. Montagut & Sanson. 1992. indicated that science teachers believe in traditional learning and teaching objectives. Gil & Rico.. 1. For example. It has also been found that. As Tardif (2004) pointed out. beliefs correspond to that. et al. 2001. 2005). even though physics teachers tend to incorporate scientific and empirical evidence into their classes. Tardif. 2001. 2002. 1999. for instance. On the other hand. In this sense. the most important thing is experimentation (Aiello & Sperandeo. Contreras. In this sense. 2008). Treagust. 2004). SanMartí & Conxuta. 2001. beliefs can also show affective aspects of the teachers’ personality and their personal truths. 2003. without an adequate pedagogical focus. Osborne & Ratcliffe. the same technologies might have a negative effect. science teachers value the procedures. 2009).. 2000. 2003). Carrillo. About this. practice-related decisions depend on the beliefs and knowledge that teachers posses. problems or dilemmas. chemistry and biology teachers. Wallace & KANG. 2003. knowing how to design and plan a set of activities involves knowing what.. Azcarate & Cuesta. 1996). Contreras. 2004). Pozo. 2002). Wallace & KANG. Chan & Elliot. and that which they think they are going to do or mean to do (Porlán & Rivero. 1998. In this sense. Bryan. Bartholomew. et al. 2002. Nonetheless. which is always guided by the scientific method (Rodrigo. laboratory practices. Namely.2 Beliefs and practice This pedagogical focus that people talk about does not only refer to the teaching process and the utilization of diverse activities and/or resources. researches indicate that. 71 . Beliefs are filters and precursors. 1998. they present serious difficulties for designing and developing experimental activities (Taylor & Dana. De Longhi. through which the new learning take place. there is the tendency to believe that. Bryan (2003). 2004). they deal with aspects related to knowledge and professional development of experimental science teachers. which teachers identify as peculiar. Roehrig & Patterson. rethinking teaching ways.

Rivero & Porlán. it is done in a linear way (Moreno & Azcarate. 2005). S: student) Provided by the participant (a physics teacher.2 The sources of data The data and the results. 2006). The sources of data that are analyzed are presented in Table 1. Meyer. 2003. Table 1 Provided by the course (design and observation) Sources of data analyzed in the present study Design and purposes of the course Class sessions (based on a semi-structured guide provided by the researcher) Questionnaire (beliefs and curricular practice beliefs) Interview (what he does in his classes) Lesson planning (design) Record guide. 2001). For this. physics teachers believe it is important to plan the laboratory activities. non-participating observation (T: teacher. The purpose of this project is to contribute to improving the quality of science teaching by means of the implementation of a system of LBM (laboratories based on microcomputers) networking and connected to Internet. Tabachnick. Peme-Aranega. will be to explore teachers’ thinking and practice and the relationship between these (Skamp & Mueller. In this stage. that are presented and discussed. considering for the experimental activities an active role of the student and a cooperative learning. the objective that the author set out is to explore the beliefs that a physics teacher possesses and how these are related to their practice. and in the case that there is a transfer towards practice of that constructivist thinking. here it describes the case of a physics teacher. in a case study with a physics teacher. Luis has 15 years of experience and is involved in the Advanced Technology in Scientific Education Project (TAVEC. whose objective is to explore the curricular beliefs and practices of experimental science teachers in Chile. Particularly. the 72 . Richoux and Beaufils (2003) pointed out that. to the improvement of practical activities development and the use of more and better resources. Moreno and Ruiz (2009). This indicates an incoherence between what the teacher believes and does. 2004). the development of the teaching and the use of ICT resources and the relationship of this thinking with practice. WU & Krajcik. In this sense. 2002-2006).1 Context and general description of the case study The work described in this paper is part of a wider research. 2003. a substantial contribution to the knowledge and teachers’ professional development. Methodology 2. as indicated by Martín (2001). De Longhi. with the purpose of knowing what to do with the materials and to achieve students learn the concepts. and therefore. it will also be important to focus on the content of beliefs and their relationship to practice. specifically to explore the thinking of a physics teacher. However. in terms of planning. 2. are collected from a case study. the author observed teachers and recorded in written form data concerning their participation in the developing of the course.3 The analytical procedure and the categories system The training course had a 30-hour duration. however. Lemberger and Park (1999) suggested that. which constituted the first stage of the research. 2. it took place the exploration of teachers’ beliefs and curricular practices. stated that the most explicit conceptions are constructivists but these are not related to practice unlike those more implicit and traditional. Thus. In the second stage. the teachers involved in the project have been trained from a constructivist perspective. For that.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher Chittleborogh & Mamiala. For example. Hewson. Mellado. Luis) 2. there is no relation among the more constructivists with practice (So & Watkins. In this line.

Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher

author utilized questionnaire, semi-structured interview, didactic unit (experimental activity proposal) and a guide for observing his classes in the laboratory, which correspond to the levels of identification, declarative, design and action respectively. The categories were proposed in advance and correspond to those proposed in a majority of researches that deal with teaching and their associated curricular beliefs, that is: contents, methodology and assessment as shown in Table 2 (Barquin, 1991; Carrascosa, Fernández, Gil & Orozco, 1991; Rodrigo, 1994; Martínez, et al., 2001, 2002; Luna, 2007; Fernández, Tuset, Pérez & Leyva, 2008; Contreras, 2009).
Table 2 Category The categories system Sub-category B.1. Planning B.2. Class development B.3. Adaptation to teaching processes B.4. Motivation and participation B.5. Resources

B. Methodology

The data was submitted to a content analysis (Bardín, 1996; Candela, 1999; Martín, 2001; Rivero & Porlán, 2004). The selection and classification of the information units was carried out in function of the categories. Thus, the definitive analysis was carried out in 3 stages: categorization of the units of each source of data (questionnaire, interview and didactic unit), registration guide for class observation, course design and course sessions recording. Data triangulation is from different sources in each category and data triangulation from different categories. The dimension of the data collected makes it impossible, within the boundaries of a paper, to present the analysis of all the categories. Therefore, given the purpose of this paper, here the author presents the results related to the sub-categories of planning (B.1), class development (B.2) and the resources used (B.5) to teach physics.

3. Presentation and analysis of the results
3.1 Curricular practices observed during the developing of the course In relation to the perfection stage, Luis presented a passive participation, limited to take notes and carry out the activities the instructor indicated. The most meaningful aspects to be pointed out are: (1) Luis presents a limited knowledge in the handling and use of computers; (2) At the beginning of the course, Luis presents a technological perspective that is characterized by the scientificity criterion he attempts to put on every activity proposed by the instructor; (3) Although the instructor insists on considering the importance of students ideas in the formulation and development of the experimental activities, Luis reduces them to conceptual errors that can possibly be clarified with the use of these new technologies; (4) The didactic unit worked out by Luis during the course (practical activity proposal) follows a recipe structure, in which the students must follow predetermined steps until they reach the elaboration of a final report. 3.2 Beliefs and curricular practices related to class design (B.1) Luis identifies himself with the didactic units to plan his classes, but he considers that, it is more appropriate to plan in rather structured lessons, which corresponds with his practice beliefs. On the other hand, in the interview, he declares to extract the contents for his class from a diversity of sources, among which he mentions technological means, Internet and textbooks.


Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher I extract the information for my classes from the knowledge I acquired previously, from the exchange with other teachers, technological means, Internet and textbooks. (Unit 9, Interview)

Moreover, he declares to plan once a week for all courses, always in function of those who advance more rapidly. He comments that teachers should plan with the purpose of extracting the contents that must be taught and follow the official program, since in this way, it is possible to direct, put in order and feedback the work. Following this line, he declares to use planning as a line of action that can enrich his classes.
Teachers should plan their lessons because you achieve order with it, besides, this allows you to take a step back and get feedback. (Unit 16, Interview)

When analyzing the design of his classes, the author finds that he designs to work on the contents in a preset time and that he sets out to develop contents and activities related to conceptual acquisition mainly.
The heading of this unit is waves and sound. The expected learning outcomes in this unit are: ... The compulsory minimum contents of this unit are: ... The activities for this unit are: ... The transversal fundamental objectives in this unit are: ... The estimated time is: 8-9 weeks. (Unit 5, Design)

Moreover, although he pretends to work on diverse activities (solving exercises, experimental activities, demonstrative activities and construction of models), he gives special importance to the application of formulas. It is not mentioned in an explicit and detailed way the resources he means to use. 3.3 Beliefs and curricular practices related to class development (B.2) Regarding class development, Luis identifies himself with the notion that contents must be explained following the textbook that the teachers must facilitate students’ learning with different activities including the restructuration of ideas. However, these practical activities must help prove the theory fundamentally, all of which correspond to his teaching practice beliefs. In a declarative level, Luis states that he does not do the same in all of his classes. He comments that he has 3 types of class: content development classes, practical activities and solving exercises. He explains that the practical activities in laboratory are symmetrical with a work guide through which students must hand in a report.
I don’t always do the same. I have 3 types of classes, one is content development, one is laboratory activities and another is exercising. In laboratory class, often once or twice a semester, I often bring a work guide, an experimentation equipment that I bring already armed, because it is a bit difficult and they work on the guide. In the first laboratory I make them an entry test with previous concepts and then they develop the experiment using the guide. Of the latter, they must hand in a report that contains a series of steps to follow. (Units 19, 19.1, 19.2, Interview)

On the other hand, he indicates that, in the exercising class he works on the content trough a list of exercises he extracts from the textbook, and when there is not the opportunity of working in the laboratory, he declares to build some models suggested in the textbook and presents them in his classes, the latter with the purpose of achieving the students understanding of how an experiment works.
In exercising class, I take the content and propose a list of exercises. For example, within the textbook there are good questionnaires with exercises, which they have to solve. (Unit 19.3, Interview)

Luis declares that a teacher must present and work on the content in different ways, with purpose of favoring, the diversity of students or at least having two different ways of delivering the content, because physics contents are very abstract, difficult to explain and apply for the students. Besides, he considers that first there must be a theoretical exposition based on the textbook, then solving exercises in order to apply the content, and finally, a


Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher

practical activity in laboratory.
To teach physics one must search for 2 or more ways for developing a concept, this because science content is an abstract content, difficult and not very applicable. Sometimes, one gets a bit carried away with the theory, that is why I say that, first there must be a theoretical exposition that is generally within the textbooks or some other backing document. After the theoretical part, there must be exercising in order to achieve students’ applying and comprehending. This may be verbal or quantitative and if possible linked to experimentation. (Unit 20, 21, 21.1, Interview)

In addition, Luis says that it is fundamental that the students carry out practical activities in laboratory, however, it is precisely there where his students participate.
I do not see my students with much initiative in the experimental and practical area, it is like they are used to be given everything. I remember when I was in college, we were given the materials and that was it. We had to figure out how to put the experience together. I think that is the way it is supposed to be but it takes me a lot of effort to have them working. It is fundamental the frequency in which the students go to the laboratory, we go once every semester but the most adequate would be to go once a month. (Unit 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, Interview)

In congruence with what he declares, at a design level, he thinks of developing a variety of activities, among which the author finds practice in laboratory, demonstrative classes, solving exercises and the construction of models. Moreover, the author finds procedural contents, for example, designing, distinguishing, describing, constructing, analyzing, calculating and solving exercises (frequency, period and amplitude). However, the activities focus on the acquisition of concepts and resources are practically not mentioned.
The activities to be developed with the students on this unit are: experiment with stretched strings, vibrating planes and air in cavities, carrying out and designing experiences to visualize and characterize vibrations. They distinguish frequency, period and amplitude in them; they confirm that frequency and period are inverse; they describe the ear anatomy and relate it to the process of hearing; they analyze the features of the acoustic spectrum distinguishing infrasound, sounds and ultrasounds; they construct a musical using simple elements of sound. (Unit 6, Design)

On the other hand, during the practice, he constantly uses the textbook to explain the content he delivers in his classes and he uses the textbook to extract information, exercises and/or activities.
T: Therefore, it is the distance between the equilibrium point and the mount or valley. Then we go to page 17 in the textbook to complete the exercises. “B” is the wavelength or length of wave that is symbolized by the letter “٨”. (Unit 35, Class 2) T: So ... if it is a number, what else can be done? (Students do not respond to the questions made by the teacher) T: Counting ¡¡ ... and what do we use? S: Hour, seconds ... (¡). T: There is an exercise on the page. (Unit 38, Class 2)

During the activities, he constantly gives students instructions about procedures they must follow, both to solve and develop the activities he proposes. Furthermore, he usually uses concept maps he extracts from the textbook and dictates in order that the contents remains written down in students’ notebooks.
T: The first part is only about definitions of concepts, only answer those who know (Students pay attention to what the teacher says and take notes). T: In the second part of establishing relations: What does it mean to link the concepts and establish two relations only. (Students write or take notes of what is being explained). T: In the third item, point out units of measurement. S: How many magnitudes do we have to write down? T: All of them ... (¡). (Unit 4, Class 1) (He finishes distributing the textbooks. He requests to observe and analyze first concept map) 75

. the content must be presented in the most varied way 76 .. the activities. they determine experimentally the speed of the sound wave. (He uses the word “monito”. the author gets a majority to learn and comprehend. (Unit 30.4 Beliefs and curricular practices related to resources (B. Luis sets a number of objectives and procedures which are related to what students may record. A variety of resources should be used in science classes. Otherwise. You do these “monitos”. He declares that. for instance. although he is not identified with the textbook as the main resource.1. next class. He also mentions the use of videos which can help start or close an activity. Class 1) T: Do not forget when I check your notebooks all of that must be written down. In his opinion. on his practice beliefs. etc. When you throw a stone into the water. When I start an activity. then I give some explanations trying to justify what was seen. these resources have been made by himself and that he uses them during a whole week with all the classes. Generally. Ultimately. the best you can. Moreover.6) Moreover. models that he builds based on the textbooks.. the resources I use in the most are the flipchart. I also use video for 15 minutes. Students copy a graphic the teacher obtains and they restrict to answering the questions that are proposed on the guide.. Class 2) The author finds two types of activities: pen and paper and laboratory practices.. I have more or less ready the materials I’ll use during the week. graph and analyze sounds by means of a software. the activity becomes demonstrative and does not work on what is proposed in the guide. the teacher works with two crosswords from the textbook.. “what is a wave. he declares that. This can help start or close an activity. that is to say. T: To represent graphically a wave these diagrams are the most frequently used. the author finds information of what is pretended to be done and what is actually done. what do you observe in the movement of the cork? Does it move horizontal or vertically? (Excerpt from the laboratory guide) Finally. what features does the movement of the fans have? Do the fans go with the wave? When putting a cork in the water and be reached by a wave. 30. he mentions he uses it frequently. Some due to visual aspects. We must teach for diversity.3. some transparencies and video. for example.5) In reference to resources. you can draw upon the dictionary to elaborate a definition and then .. it is possible to achieve a majority of students learn. hence. The first content we will see for the next class will be waves and sound. the assessment and the intention to contextualize conceptual contents. however.5. we will elaborate a definition and then . 30.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher T: There . right? It is on page 11 with the activities you must do. so the students identify concepts and get to establish relations between them. T: Therefore. He draws on the board) (Unit 31. In this way. what do you observe in the water? What shape does the observed have? When the fans form a wave in the stadium. who receive sensory and in several other ways. He also declares that a diversity of resources should be used in science classes for students learn in different ways and with different stimuli. 30. you will be able to understand how the content is developed. he mentions about the use of flipcharts with less frequency transparencies. he brings materials and resources to the classroom. If a wide range of resources is offered. how is it generated and what does it carry? What type that characterizes the wave?” (Excerpt from the laboratory guide). the minimum contents. he uses an experimentation equipment and a guide for the students to work on. 3. those work well when I remake them and reuse them. for we serve diverse students. model or diagram to refer to the same. others to sound issues.. I present a video. For example. In a declarative level. Though . (Unit 17. it is necessary to manage waves and sound concepts. he elaborates a laboratory guide in which he sets the objectives. Luis introduces attitudes (values) related to environmental care that he exposes to the students by means of transparencies. the map is not quite clear. In practices in laboratory. when he has the chance to develop a practical laboratory activity. the activity turns out completely different. a way to favor the learning of students is by presenting the contents in different fashions and using every means at hand. a laboratory. including those contributed by the students.

(Students pay attention to what the teacher is explaining. Luis considers varied types of activities.. there must be a theoretical exposition. (Unit 31.. (Students start to push it.1. extract activities and exercises. computer. because the printer does not work) (Unit 56. computer and printer . he declares to use varied resources for teaching. interfaces.5) Luis does not identify with the use of textbooks alone. we will do a demonstration. The latter is coherent with what he actually designs. However. he does not use them and goes back to focus on recordings and concepts. some others talk) T: Read the guide in the group first . for dissertations they do a fine work and use PowerPoint a lot.. including computer resources. where possible following the textbook and developing various activities. planning is a route that guides and feedbacks his work. in fact. which corresponds to the level of identification. 4. and in their development. the author observes that he uses and works with the textbook to explain the contents. 77 .g.. Synthesis and discussion of results 4. In Table 3...2 Class development (B. he declares the importance of the development of a varied type of activities and using a variety of resources.1) Luis believes that. Luis has thought of using a variety of resources for practical activities. sound transmitter. which is coherent with his practice. he does not refer to the resources in his planning. due to timing issues. what does not seem right to me is your group distribution.3. Always within the means at hand. and end up drawing the diagram on their notebooks. all of them with a back up guide. e. and as noted earlier. he constantly gives instructions.” (excerpt from Didactic Unit). textbook and his own planning.2) Luis identifies explaining the contents properly as something important. In fact. The main subject is sound. However. At a design and action level. the most appropriate is to use well-structured lessons to plan the classes. only with what you know so far. On the other hand. (Students work on the puzzle) T: Look. sensors. 4. sound sensor (microphone). including those activities in which he uses NT making the activity become demonstrative. Interview) At an action level. it will be enough. In this line. “.2. including Internet. In this sense. the author observes that he constantly makes use of the textbook as a source and resource to extract and explain the contents. Now . however. T: The first activity we’ll do is the crosswords over there. the activities are extracted from the textbook.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher that is possible. 31. He indicates that he extracts information for his classes from a variety of sources.. Necessary equipment: interface and accessories. printer.. TV set. And then each of you is going to work on their monitor. he points out that.1 Lesson planning (B. he comments that. Class 3) 4. focused on concept acquisition though. although he uses means of ICT and/or NT resources in the end. the author presents this synthesis by level of research. Moreover. for instance. before a practical activity. Students prepare materials as well. 31. which is coherent with what he declares and what he does in practice. 31.3 Resources (B.. since the purpose of practice is to prove theory. the author finds varied activities. plus. he declares to use various types of activities. Moreover. the whiteboard and the activity guide. but with a bit of creativity it can be achieved.

I explain the concepts properly and for this I use varied resources and activities. 1994. but the main one is the textbook. 2003. He develops varied activities. In other words. planning the activities in detail represents knowing why and how to use the resources in their classes. computer resources (ICT and NT) among them. Richoux & Beaufils. 2001. and basically.. but it does not represent that planning is necessary (Rodrigó. for teachers. Besides. Martín. but the main one is the textbook. 2005). 2004). 2000.1 It is important to organize teaching knowing why and how to use the resources For science teachers. planning tends to focus on hierarchical contents. 1986. He focuses on concepts and cares more for the registration of data. I am going to develop various types of contents (concepts. here the author presents the following conclusions and discussion. In this line. Martínez. Skamp & Mueller. Computer resources and practical activities are present in my planning.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher Table 3 Level of research Synthesis of the results by level of research Luis What he believes he does Identification I plan well-structured lessons. 1994. The practical activity becomes a demonstrative activity. they consider about concepts. On the other hand. In this sense. until reaching data collection and the elaboration of a report. although Luis tries to develop all the contents. What he says he does Planning guides work. it is important to organize teaching and consider various activities (Bricones. He uses varied resources. So & Watkins. 2004). What he believes he is going to do My students are going to follow the instructions step by step. procedures and attitudes). the results of this study indicate a planning more focuses on a wide variety of specific concepts about a particular topic that arranged as lists and few times fully developed (Martín. these plans are very general. Rodrigó. 2003.. 78 . like in Luis curricular proposal. 2001). 2001. Declarative Design Practice 5. Wallace & KANG. Specifically. I develop a diversity of activities. He gives computer resources (ICT and NT) an accessory value and does not use them finally. I am going to use varied ICT and NT resources. exploring the level of appraisement that teachers give to curricular aspects related to planning. et al. Conclusion and discussion As indicated at the beginning of this article. this modification implies only a reduction of concepts or simplification. 2002. What he does The development of the class does not follow as planned. the development of teaching. 2001. he always seems to be conditioned by the textbook and he only sometimes modifies the activities or contents extracted from this resource. I use varied resources. with few relations and some linear and cumulative sequences (Sánchez & Valcárcel. the author considers that. In this sense. the author considers that a substantial contribution to teachers’ knowledge and professional development will be to explore the content of beliefs and their relationship with practice. However. et al. The purpose of my practical activities is to prove theory. 2000). objectives and time (Sánchez & Valcárcel. Richoux & Beaufils. Wallace & KANG. 5. the use of ICT resources and the relationship between this concept and practice. I use guides for practical activities. I use a diversity of resources. but all of them focused on concepts.

2009). Fernández & Tuset. teachers tend to focus on scientific terminology and in the solid comprehension of scientific concepts. et al. In fact. Luis focuses his practical activities in the use of various instruments and resources. explanations are fundamental part of a necessary pattern to follow in order to make students learn the contents (Gil & Rico. it is fundamental that students manipulate the LABPRO software and record the data through sensors. the choice of activities is related to contents and they consider that it is not necessary to plan for them and rather they organize these activities around a central question of a conceptual kind (Tobin.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher 5. Azcárate & Cuesta. ICT among them. Porlán & López. On the other hand. they focus on the manipulation of various materials.. in practice. 2003. Tippins & Hook. students understand and learn better (Porlán & López. Nevertheless. practical activities are used as a vehicle to reach the contents (Aiello & Sperandeo. 2003. Moreno & Azcárate. Bartholomew. 2003). For instance. 1994. their role is explaining contents which they take to practice (Mitchener & Anderson. teachers consider important to explain the concepts properly. 2005. Roehrig & Patterson. the more manipulable and simple the activities to 79 . 2006). declaring and planning the teaching of a variety of contents and the development of various activities (Martínez. Hirvonen and Viiri (2002) and Verjovsky and Waldegg (2005) agreed in indicating that. Moreno & Azcarate. 2008.2 It is important to convey and explain properly scientific concepts There is a tendency to attach importance to the transmission of concepts. 1989. Chan & Elliot. 2005). Osborne & Ratcliffe. Gustafson & Rowell. Wallace & KANG. The author considers that an important factor leading to this tendency is related to the predominance of traditional conceptions and beliefs about learning (Hollon. in developing the practical activity. In fact. 5. Gil & Rico. In other words. 2001. Bulte and Verloop (2005). 1996). Treagust. Skamp & Mueller. 2004). a majority of interventions of teacher are questions. even in practical activities (Rodrigo. Thereby. This tendency is also pointed by Van. These explanations. as readings. 2004). instructions. 1987. WU & Krajcik. 1999. 2004. 2004). Van. For instance. 1998. As observed in Luis’ case. 2000. Wallace & KANG. Hence. 1993. concept clarification and solving exercises. the author has also detected that. 1995. Bryan. with few liaisons to the social and technological aspects of science (De Longhi. 2001. i. On the other hand and in line with the results of this study. it is agreed that. 2003. there is a tendency of focusing the practical activities on conceptual contents (Meyer. Martínez. Pérez & Leyva. despite identifying. teachers believe that. et al. 2005.. 2003). chemistry teachers always more focus on the concepts of theories and methods.3 Practical activities are important to prove the theory Just like the results of this study. 1993. motivation and interest increase and corroborate theory.e. physics teachers consider that by means of these activities. Thus. instructions. students comprehend and learn better... 2001). Therefore. exercises and guides. various researches indicate that. Bulte & Verloop. 1994. but concepts are always the most important aspect. because in this way. Roth & Anderson. material handling and records are the fundamental. Luft. Martín. Moreno and Azcárate (2003) stated that laboratory practical activities are instrumentalist. 2002. Friedrishsen & Dana. 2001. 2003. explanations are accompanied by external aids. such as handling of materials and resources (Rodrigo. 2003). Chittleborough & Mamiala. concepts. 2000. 2002. In this line. for teachers. Wallace & KANG. Luis shows a tendency to design and practice considering to relate the concepts to daily life. et al. Mellado. Friedrichsen & Dana. Tuset. as observed. In this sense. teachers declare and perform considering that laboratory practices are verifications allowing to illustrate concepts (García & Martínez. This implicates that teachers regard as important that students learn procedures. a number researches indicate that. 2005). Fernández. 1994. can be repeated as many times as necessary (Mitchener & Anderson. For example. 2004).

294. Madrid: Akal. The evolution of the teacher’s pedagogical thinking I. the teacher uses the textbook to explain contents since it is regarded as reference for validity (De Longhi. (2005). For “ What the teacher believes does not equal what he does”. R. Content analysis. Science Education. Azcarate. In this line. H. including ICT and NT. In this sense. the author considers that. 80 . & Sperandeo. Hewson & Park. In this sense. García & Martínez. there are differences in thinking between “What he believes he does. M.. even though teachers consider important to plan and develop varied activities and use various resources. projects for the incorporation of new technologies have contributed to improve the quality and equality of teaching. this rating is not coherent with what they do in practice. Therefore. Osborne. & Onrubia. Jauhiainen. España: Grao. the beliefs teachers have regarding the role and use of the various resources. Barquín. it is that Azcárate and Cuesta (2005) pointed out. M. what he believes must be done. For people must consider that. G. R. 2001). the more they help students to understand (Lavonen. teachers’ present beliefs about teaching and learning of sciences influence their practice. Teaching students “ideas-about-science”: Five dimensions of effective practice. Mauri. Sánchez & Valcárcel. J. 22(10). (1996). 2000. Bartholomew. Practices of general physics laboratory in internet. Alejandro. define their true utility in science teaching. Joram. Koponen & Kurli.. L. there is the tendency of frequently using the textbook as a reference to organize contents and as a source for selecting activities. 3(2). In this sense. Electronic Journal of Science Education. References: Aiello. to differentiate what is said about how they teach of what they do in their practices. In other words. & Ratcliffe. 1999. Novel secondary teachers and their practice: A case study in the areas of science. 2004). Bardín. However. (2000). in science teachers. (1991). i. 245-274. Enseñanza de las Ciencias. (2004). T. no matter the improvements that can be done to learning and teaching environments. J. International Journal of Science Education. Moreover. 2001.Are practical activities and ICTs important? Thoughts and practice of a physics teacher develop. F. J. C. 655-682. 2002.. Revista de Educación. 88(5). & Cuesta. 6. 2007). questioning teachers’ thinking is a fundamental axis when proposing any task that holds as an objective to contribute to initial and continuous training of teachers.e. and take into account the incoherence constitutes a key factor. 1085-1097. to differentiate those implicit conceptions from the explicit ones. the exercises to solve and as a reference for planning (Lemberger. an important aspect that has not been discussed extensively is knowing which is the opinion teachers have about experimental activities and the use of new technologies. Barberá. (2008). Therefore. what the author promotes is a reflection about those aspects to transform action guidance’s and to relate teachers’ professional development influencing in the process of knowledge construction and its progression. the textbook is used as a source of contents and activities to carry out. How to value the quality of ICT-based teaching: Guidelines and instruments of analysis. et al. and in congruence to the results of this study. 393-402. if what is wanted is to improve teaching practices. 23(3). E. (2004). Martínez. the textbook is a guide and fundamental resource to develop their classes. Implications The results of this research contribute relevant information about the elements that must be taken into account for the processes of transformation and change of teaching practices. Educational reconstruction of physics content to be taught and of pre-service teacher training: A case study. 1999.4 The textbook is one of the most important resources For teachers. Ultimately. and moreover. A.. 5. knowing their thoughts and how these are related to their practice. what he says he does” and “What he believes he is going to do”. 2000. As the author observed in Luis case.

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out of the estimated 140 million citizens declared by the Federal Government of Nigeria. Department of Teacher Education.. Nigeria. Considering these two among the broad goals. Findings further showed that the teachers were of the view that e-learning platforms should be utilized in schools as soon as possible to support learning. Volume 7. The duration is 6 years given in two stages—junior secondary school and senior secondary school. moodle. 83 . one would realize that there is a need for self-development among the students. 2004). the tier is also faced with other challenges. Alaba Agbatogun2 (1.Ed. the programme is likely to enroll about 14 million students in Nigerian secondary schools from year 2008 (Okebukola. e-learning platforms. while the senior secondary school is “comprehensive with a core-curriculum designed to” broaden pupils’ knowledge and outlook. According to the National Policy on Education (2004). UK) Abstract: This paper examines the view of Nigerian secondary school teachers on the introduction and utilization of e-learning platforms (blackboard.73) US-China Education Review. knowing fully well that the students’ enrolment is outrageously high. UK. Department of Teacher Education. research fields: educational technology. high students to teacher ratio. Taking a critical look at the broad goals of secondary education. research fields: educational technology. M. lecturer. 5-point likert scale questionnaire was validated and used for the study. Web CT) to support and enhance learning. Highbury College. e-college. Highbury College. Suggestions were given on how to make this feasible in Nigerian schools despite the challenges. Moray School of Education. Portsmouth PO6 2SA. Introduction Secondary education in Nigeria is the form of education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. ISSN 1548-6613. However. based on the 2006 national census exercise.December 2010.D. research methods. curriculum development. each for 3-year duration. A 25-item. online learning. the curriculum is expected to “provide trained manpower in the applied sciences. Despite the astronomical growth in enrolment. teacher education. With the implementation of the UBE (Universal Basic Education) scheme. such as shortage of professionally qualified teachers. The result showed that there was no significant difference in perception based on gender. shortage of space and facilities and inadequate Peter Ayo Ajelabi.12 (Serial No. Key words: perception. Ph. candidate.. 2. Moray School of Education. Alaba Agbatogun. there was significant difference as a result of the school type. No.D. USA Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction Peter Ayo Ajelabi1. instruction 1. Six hundred teachers were drawn from 50 different schools in all the education districts located in Lagos state. Ph. technology and commerce at sub-professional grades” and “inspire the students with a desire for self-improvement of excellence”. the junior secondary school is both “prevocational and academic”. Edinburgh EH8 8AQ.

com/ definitions. chalkboard. Others equate it with online learning.intelera. Also. The popular ones include WebCT. various technologies had made impact and contributions in the past—invention of the alphabets. practice of skills. induction and support. Cattagni and Farris (2000) claimed that. training or education program by electronic means. The reform should make the instruction in Nigeria secondary schools much more interesting and relevant to meet not only the needs of the smaller society. E-learning was given various definitions on the web. Many Institutions now adopt different learning platforms to support learning. one web defines it simply as “Internet-enabled learning that encompasses training. This is because it is obvious that the Nigerian Government should look for alternative means (apart from the face-to-face teaching) to ensure that the large number of students are taught effectively with or without the shortage of the professionally qualified teachers. 2007). it is “any virtual act or process used to acquire data.Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction instructional materials among others. various “new” educational technologies have been touted as the revolutionary pedagogical wave of the future.htm). This is the reality on page/php). video referencing. it is “the delivery of a learning. training and structured information delivery by computer through the Internet. which is also known as Internet-based hybrid learning. Learning platforms are software-controlled infrastructures that attempted to replicate what teachers do in the face-to-face classroom.wayne. This involves the application and integration of technology. 84 . video projector and the computer. electronic learning. but also the outside world as well. educational television. the major question that one should address right now is: “How do we resolve this challenge(s) in secondary education curricular in Nigeria practically”. which is any type of online learning that is relevant and realistic to the user. books. blackboard and e-college. A chronological analysis of the application of technology in education shows that. Some of the tools and activities that make up e-learning were highlighted by Ajelabi (2005). the evolution of Internet in K-12 schools is having a profound impact on the evolution of computer use and the curricular integration of new learning technologies in America. chalk and talk combined with class discussion. Carr (2000) noted that since early in this century. the learning manager. topclass. computer-assisted instruction. e-learning is an amalgamation of education. and more recently. just-in-time information and communication” (http://www. are now adopted and integrated into the curriculum with varying degrees of success most especially in the developed countries. It can be used for students’ enrolment.eng. education. information or knowledge in a virtual world where technology merge with human creativity to accelerate rapid development” (http://www. virtual learning environment. These include Internet chatting. is now one of the most significant new learning technologies to emerge in the last 10 years.mountainquestinstitute. Moodle. interactive videodisc. Many nations in the world had transformed their educational systems and training by new ICT (information and communication technologies) production methods (Brill & Galloway. Certainly. These platforms are normally located on a computer on the Internet (or an Intranet) and are typically accessed by means of a web-browser. Another web says that. Classroom films.htm). the web or from the hard drive of the computer. there is a need for innovations and reforms. It is further revealed that. assessment and accreditation. It involves the use of computer to achieve these” (http://www. If the above scenario is what Nigerian secondary school system is facing. In summary. language laboratories. discussion forum and other tools that can be shared. overhead projector. e-learning.

Ed. First (B. (2) There will be no statistical significant difference in teachers’ perception on the introduction of electronic learning for instruction based on school ownership (public/private). Their status also vary. modern technologies.. the use of e-learning platforms is still a developing link in Nigerian educational system and training. a colleague in the Faculty of Education and 2 experts in ICT (one based on the faculty. Furthermore. (Ed..05 level of significance: (1) There will be no statistical significant gender difference in teachers’ perception on the introduction of electronic learning for instruction. Purpose of the study The current study was carried out to investigate the perception of secondary school teachers on the adoption of e-learning technology for teaching and learning in Nigerian junior and senior secondary schools. the instrument was given to 3 senior tutors (teachers) in private and public secondary schools. the study aims at finding out the extent of technological gaps in the Nigerian secondary educational system. They all hold various certificates ranging from NCE (National Certificate in Education).1 Sample Six hundred secondary school teachers drawn from 50 different private and public schools in all the 6 education districts in Lagos State. Precisely.A. B. This was designed by the researcher. This 25-item 5-point likert scale questionnaire was captioned “perception of secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning for instruction”. 4. The subjects were randomly selected from both the junior and senior secondary schools. Four hundred and nineteen female and 181 males constituted the participants. Ph. M. B. H. and the other on the Faculty of Science). the study seeks to find out whether gender factor will bring about a difference in perception. 4.Sc. so it is pertinent to state that there may be a need to introduce it for instruction in Nigerian secondary schools. Also. (Ed. However.D (Higher National Diploma). M. Nigeria constituted the participants for the study..Sc.) degrees. Methodology 4. The Nigerian educational system must be alert to meet these intellectual challenges in solving Nigerian secondary school instructional programs. 2..Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction Since it has been realized that. Hypotheses The following null hypotheses is postulated for this study and will be tested at 0. such as electronic learning platforms present new opportunities and enhance individualized instruction at the secondary school level.D.. M. 3.Sc.A. It was properly scrutinized and appropriate corrections 85 .A. In order to ensure the face validity of this questionnaire. the paper is interested in examining the difference in perception based on school type (private or public).). as well as determining the suitability of e-learning to Nigerian secondary education curriculum.2 Instrument A questionnaire was used in collecting data for this study.N. The same applies to their years of teaching experience which was between 1 year and 31.)) to postgraduate (PGD. B.

2.40 79. 1.1 Hypothesis 1 There will be no statistical significant gender difference in teachers’ perception on the introduction of e-learning for instruction.96 4. Since the t-calculated is greater than the t-critical. the test-retest co-efficient was determined within two weeks interval.36 SD 10.55>1. This implies that. the t-calculated value is more than the t-critical value.2 Hypothesis 2 There will be no statistical significant difference in teachers’ perception on the introduction of electronic learning for instruction based on school ownership (public/private). there are 6 findings as follows: (1) There is no significant gender difference in teachers’ perception on the introduction of e-learning for instruction.3 Data analysis The researcher subjected the data collected to statistical treatment in order to obtain means and SD (standard deviation).e.98 8. Therefore. (2)There is a significant difference in the perception of teachers in private and public secondary schools on the introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction. there is no statistical significant difference in the perception of female and male teachers on the introduction of electronic learning for instruction. (4) The teachers strongly perceive that. e-learning for instruction in the secondary schools should be 86 . Table 2 Variable Private owned Public owned T-test analysis of public and private school teachers’ perception on introduction of e-learning platforms N 243 357 x 88.95 SD 8. whereby. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected. it upholds hypothesis 1. Table 1 Variable Male Female N 181 419 T-test analysis of male and female teachers’ perception on introduction of e-learning platforms x 81.99 df 598 t-calculated 2.55 t-critical 1.96. this implies that there is a statistical significant difference in the teachers’ perception on the introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction based on school type or ownership. The two hypotheses stated earlier in the research were tested by using the t-test. (3) Teachers in privately owned secondary schools were more favorably in support of the introduction of e-learning for instruction more than their counterparts in the public schools.77<1. The value obtained was 0. Thereafter.43 9. 4.40 71. From Table 2. i.96. and the alternative hypothesis is upheld. Findings were held significant at 0..96 5. i.55 df 598 t-calculated 1. Major findings From the above data.3..e. 4. This was high.88.77 t-critical 1.Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction were made.05 alpha level. Table 1 clearly shows that the t-calculated value is less than the t-critical value. it was subjected to content reliability.3.

87 . students and even the government. the government should provide adequate funding to cater for internet facilities which would make e-learning much easier. there is a great gap in the application of “educational technologies” to teaching and learning in the secondary schools. and are aware of the importance and application of computers to enhancing instruction.Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction introduced as soon as possible for the improvement of instruction. (5) Majority of the teachers were of the view that.2 Implications of the findings Today. 2003). few of the teachers were of the opinion that e-learning may not be suitable in the Nigerian secondary education system for now. This may be due to the fact that most of the teachers in the private schools (which are usually fee-paying) are youths. the result in Table 2 shows that there is no significant difference in the perception of teachers in private and public schools on the introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction. Table 2 further reveals that.1 Discussion of the findings From the above findings. On the part of the teachers. This is because the use of computers and information technology is regarded as essential to everyday activity. This may be because males are more interested in experimenting than the females and they are more interested in trying new skills. compared to their counterpart in the public schools. 5. Therefore. especially computers and other gadgets. The study also revealed that the teachers are interested in the introduction of e-learning. and there is increasing pressure to adapt teaching to accommodate new technologies (Villegas & Reiners. Government should also acquire teachers and students to learn how to use computer effectively for teaching and learning. most of the teachers were of the view that e-learning should be introduced. They had already seen the uniqueness of the Internet and its usefulness to education. In addition. Second. This has always yielded positive responses. (6) Finally. all teachers should be encouraged to be computer literate. those in private schools obtained a far higher mean score. Notwithstanding the male respondents obtained a slightly higher mean score than the female respondents. they will need to meet with pressures and expectations from the society. and had been giving assignments to students on the Internet. A developing nation like Nigeria is faced with lots of challenges in order to meet up with the new technological demand. However. Table 1 shows that. technology application and interaction in the classroom is one of the most challenging innovations that several teachers have to contend with. they must have access to the new technology. On the part of the schools. They must also have access to and make appropriate use of relevant technologies. parents and students. Recommendations First. In addition. power and energy failure as well as the resistance to change by Nigerian teachers. The teachers certainly wants to move with technological developments. gender does not have a significant difference in perception on the introduction of e-learning for teaching and learning. Other challenges include finance. some of them have been using computers to support learning. This is because it is an innovation. 6. Practical training programmes should also be organized for the students. Issue of power supply should also be reviewed. because of environmental and political factors. 5.

(2000). Perils and promises: Universities instructors integration of technology in classroom-based practices. Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2000). & framework. M. Teachers professional development.Perception of Nigerian secondary school teachers on introduction of e-learning platforms for instruction Finally. Lagos: Federal Government Press.2 million students were participating in on-line learning at institutions of higher education in US. as at 2005. References: Ajelabi. 38(1). 1-6. July 26th. British Journal of Educational Technology. teachers. J. Promoting the integration of ICT in higher education: The Nigeria experience. Retrieved from http://www. P. An international review of the literature. Lagos: Raytel Communications Limited. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 88 . Brill. For example. more than 3. Essentials of educational technology. Retrieved from http://www. Villegas. (2005).ncrel. (2004). ICT providers. administrators. & Galloway. (International Institute of Educational Planning). engineers as well as government and the society representatives to meet and find a practical means of making the use of e-learning a reality in Nigeria.unesco. Computer aided learning in the United States. Abuja-Nigeria. Teaching adoption and diffusion. H. there is a need for all the stakeholders—students. (2003). Paper presented during the Sub-Regional Ministerial Conference on Integration of ICT in Education.nlm.htm. Cattagni & V. C. the citizens should learn to adapt to new situations. C. (2004). Retrieved from http://tlc. Ministry of Education Okebukola. F. A. In conclusion. Carr. 133-136. National policy on education. (2007).

Romania. a system should at least interlink the material and make it easy for the student to go from an in-class slide to the corresponding content. most of the world’s teaching probably uses a blackboard and chalk. lecturer. web-based university 1. The “tutor-web” is an international project for web-assisted education. Currently. storing handouts online are rather petty uses of the web’s potential. tutoring systems. For example.December 2010. USA On building a web-based university Dana Constantinescu1. which is the primary interest of this project. Iceland) Abstract: This paper describes some of the principles for building a freely available web-based university with open content. These simple uses are not of much interest since they merely give the student access to copies of slides presented during class. Apart from savings in printed matter. 2004). research field: statistical models in education and marine science. dynamical systems and Hamiltonian dynamics. 1981). the main features of the “transformative learning” are discussed (Moore. University of Craiova. 2. distinctions are made between traditional schools and adult education (Mezirow. This applies to the actual use of most commercial and open-source systems available today. Using web-assisted in-class learning is fairly recent and in most areas considered a very modern tool. Reykjavík 121. Similarly. Some of these models are used to classify different teaching methods and/or methods of assimilation of new material. Gunnar Stefansson2 ( as the home location. 1988). To use the possibilities of the web. Key words: e-learning. Dana Constantinescu. Department of Applied Mathematics. etc. Volume 7. University of Iceland. Mathematics Department. Introduction Many theories and (conceptual) models are available of how students learn and many approaches have been suggested on how to change a student’s learning experience or simply to drastically change approaches to teaching (with a given purpose in mind). to point out its specificity and to arouse interest for collaboration in the project. University of Craiova. which uses http://tutor-web. The aim of this paper is to present this project.73) US-China Education Review. among them the University of Craiova. indicating how the teacher can get the attention of all students by catering to how each “type” of student learns. This project was initiated by the University of Iceland in partnership with many universities around the world. Craiova 200585. including such free and open access. Elaborate uses of electronic media abound but most uses actually consist of the lecturer making electronic slides available in electronic or paper format (Stefansson. professor. research fields: education. Gunnar Stefansson. in neither case is anything gained over and above simply distributing printed information in the classroom. but this distinction is blurred in the case of undergraduate and graduate studies. A more formal approach to defining key dimensions of learning and teaching is considered (Felder & Silverman. ISSN 1548-6613. 89 . No. Department of Applied Mathematics. in many cases.12 (Serial No. Mathematics Department. Romania. although some systems may offer more options. whereas the Western world is moving towards whiteboards and pens along with (electronic) slide presentations in many cases. 2005). University of Iceland.

Several online private and closed source/content initiatives also exist. presentation and interactions between instructor and students. Different systems for computer-aided instruction have different characteristics. when referring to the OCW at MIT . Alternate systems include Moodle (http://moodle... . therefore. A totally different approach is taken with the Educommons OCW (Open and others.. typically consists of only a few lectures. Most of these systems appear to be highly specialized and only applicable for the narrow topics for which they were designed. nor the tight coupling of slides and slides. there is no grading mechanism nor are credits given in any form. Finally.”.usu. The tutorial can.wikibooks. a few systems have been developed paying great attention to detail and learning theory. quite prohibitive for an individual instructor in any given year. e. also be on a more isolated topic. In many cases.e. Most of these systems require extensive instructor-student interaction (more than in a regular classroom) and this is not acceptable in most scenarios.. these tend to be PDF (portable document format) files containing lecture slides and notes. i. portability between systems or open standards for content (which are needed for complete portability from the teacher’s application to the end product. should be mentioned. and thus. printed or web page). http://cosl. which can also be more easily reused in several different courses. permanently static. However. this gives no credit to the immense possibilities in the interactive nature of the web. on the other hand. 4-10 projects/educommons) approach used by many universities.usu. Notably. Attempting to set up an online version of a complete course is. including USU (Utah State University. 1-3 weeks of lectures. A simple description of the system can be found on the MIT web-page. Encyclopedias on the web include Wikipedia which is exactly that: A free and publicly available encyclopedia on the web. these are merely repetitions of paper schemes.htm). Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (http://ocw. (2) Content provision alone does not offer evaluation of students. which has many resemblances with the “tutor-web” but does not include any form of evaluation. http://ocw. Such providers do not include quizzes.. Comparisons between the various approaches to storing and presenting educational content are virtually impossible since these approaches are based on completely different design principles.jhsph. The complete courses and the tutorials represent the two main forms for the presentation of the scientific information. not suitable for editing by others. Two main features of the web-assisted learning systems will be analyzed in the following comparison: (1) Most systems are used mainly for storage of educational material. Setting up a computer version of such a small subset of a course is a much more feasible undertaking. but not the kind of material best suited for collaboration and exchange of teaching material with the intent of also enhancing it. This is useful material. Other content providers include Connexions (http://cnx.e. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( Wikiversity (http://en. “It is a snapshot in time of how a particular subject was taught by a particular member of the faculty in a particular semester .. A tutorial. 90 . which is not as tightly integrated as the “tutor-web” and relies on a fairly different philosophy regarding content. but notice should be taken by some of the approaches used.On building a web-based university The same comments apply to most online testing schemes. i. a student is handed a fixed set of questions and required to solve the test in a given amount of time. a Wikipedia university which only stores content. These are not really competitors with the “tutor-web”.. http:// ocw. Although this may save

students and programmers from around the world. Presentation experience taken into account when designing the “tutor-web” includes regular classroom teaching through public presentations to highly variable audiences. 2. the text of some complete courses can be inserted in the “tutor-web” in a PDF format. interlinked electronic slides and handouts.. The tutor-web The “tutor-web” has been developed with input from several teachers. underprivileged students and/or universities can gain free material. as is clearly seen by the general use of Wikipedia. slides and applications There would be considerable benefit if teachers should join hands to allow general access to all their material. since it has already been demonstrated that students tend to prefer the online quiz over homework. e.g. in order to be 91 . typically corresponding to 5-10 lectures.g.1. courses. From a researcher’s view. the system permits collaboration on and exchange of teaching material from slides to books and quiz questions. The “tutor-web” is a system for computer-assisted education and research on education. The corresponding material includes a variety of topics (mathematics. However. fishery science. both for in-class use and for remote learning. The more teaching material is put into the public domain. 2. the better the chance of understanding difficult material. It would certainly benefit students to have easy access to course materials from as many good instructors as possible. From an instructor’s view. the use of the online quiz has a positive impact on knowledge. Further. the system is a vehicle for research into.1 To provide a database of teaching texts. the online student’s behavior and the effect of grading schemes. In this manner.On building a web-based university The fact that content providers do not generally provide (free) evaluation of student knowledge is a weak point of a system. the better a teacher can make his/her course. 2006).1 Objectives The main objective of the tutor-web is to contribute to the development of an accessible online system of education that can be used for in-class activities and home study. These modules are called “tutorials”. 2. evaluation schemes and collaboration by using free educational sites. applied and theoretical statistics. There is a need not just for public domain software. the more tutorials a student can get access to. e. but schools of any quality can improve their material through accessing high-quality publicly available material. the system provides freely available online access to material and the freedom to take quizzes at any location. It includes an internal database based on structured storage of text. as demonstrated by the statistically significant on-going improvements while using the web (Sigurdardottir. From a student’s view. free of personal or institutional concerns. This system is thus based on experience gained by instructors while teaching university courses or giving presentations at several universities and funded by several organizations. with corresponding quiz questions. The “tutor-web” shares the idea of using small parts of lectures as a knowledge unit. figures and other objects in predefined formats. The system is a freely accessible resource which can store the educational material used in a classroom and provide online evaluation. computer science and even business proposals). Publicly available teaching material is also needed.. Some objectives are presented in the following. It will be seen in the following that the principles underlying the “tutor-web” provide all the functionality needed in a classroom.

This provides the instructor with the layout seen in Figure 2. accessible and clear manner. the information must be organized and presented in an attractive. some representative images and examples.On building a web-based university seen by a large community of interested persons. so instructors have full control over their own tutorials as well as improved accessibility for instructors. references. main graphic. more detail on a topic. A typical tutorial may correspond to 5-15 real-world lectures.g. The “tutor-web” is intended for use in a wide range of situations (in-class activity.. Instructors are given access to insert whose content ranges from a handout or a few slides to a complete tutorial.g. and hence. initial tutorials in mathematics. and so forth. which again group into tutorials. Figure 1 presents the “tutor-web” structure of content. The structure implies certain implicit links. The material is arranged around “slides” with examples and handouts.. Subsequent development will include improved previews. A slide may contain links to additional material. the obvious being that slides belong within lectures and quiz questions also belong within It must contain the main informational text. correspond to 5-10 tutorials. Each tutorial has lectures that in turn contain the actual educational material and quiz questions. The “tutor-web” has been developed to include an easy-to-use interface for instructors. corresponding to a topic within a course and a department. handouts or homework. statistics and fishery science can be found on the “tutor-web”. 92 . and so forth). A slide can have certain pre-specified features (title. which are grouped along with quiz questions into lectures. e. home studies. examples. The material is aggregated around slides. Currently. Figure 1 The “tutor-web” structure of content Notes: Departments contain courses that consist of tutorials. easier text entry. Hence. eventually. as prerequisites for taking a real-world course). more format options. e. see http://plone. the “tutor-web” has access control. Although not the ideal approach for storing and sharing material. this approach has been used to store (legally) scanned books which thus supplement other teaching material. Since its implementation in Plone (a leading open source Content Management System. a course may.

which may of course be correct or incorrect (or a similar option of “all of the above”).. Ankenmann & Spray.2 To realize the online evaluation of the students The “tutor-web” can be used in the evaluation of the students. where there are typically 30 credits in one 15-week semester. Thus. students may be directed to undertake independent studies or may have done so on their own accord. several possibilities. instructors have full access to their quiz items. CHEN & LEI. but there are many more questions of interest with regard to how student learning is affected by different question allocation schemes. 2. Typical credit systems in the real world give 10-30 credits for a full-time semester with. In the more general case. 2005). In addition. the instructor is in control of material and the students take an exam at the end of the semester. a finer scale is needed since each course may consist of 10 tutorials. it is a fairly easy matter to various programs. An obvious attribute to a tutorial is a list of prerequisite tutorials. The quiz formats basically consist of a question. The relation between item exposure and the computerized adaptive testing has been of considerable interest (CHEN. linked to the possible uses which a university may put the “tutor-web”. iterative presentations of the same quiz items. a correct answer and 2-3 incorrect answers. In this case. because most lectures are accompanied by online multiple choice quizzes. An internal credit will therefore be defined so that 10 internal “tutor-web” credits correspond to 1 credit in the ECTS (European credit transfer system).On building a web-based university Figure 2 Design of an interface for the teacher Note: This includes simultaneous access to all content related to a slide. This is a typical method for testing the students’ knowledge (Briggs & Wilson. e. with an option of a “none of the above” answer. It is in these cases that the most interesting scenarios arise and they give rise to the greatest 93 . Here.1. 2007. the “tutor-web” merely augments the usual in-class sessions. 2003). such schemes to see the effect of reminders on performance.g. The “tutor-web” permits quantification of the effect of different item allocation schemes on various such aspects. another is a definition of internal “tutor-web” credits which need to be included with the “tutor-web” as in any other system. There are. 4-5 courses. In-class uses of slides and corresponding uses of quizzes for a basic usage. etc. How (and if) the “tutor-web” credits transfer into real-world credits will depend on the real-world university and some research is warranted before any suggestions are made on this topic. however.

A student directed to take a tutorial (sequence) in order to accommodate an instructor’s requirement is a simple example. but it is not obvious whether he/she satisfies the basic course requirements. rather than fail the course. this implies that the instructor has accepted the “tutor-web” content as a surrogate for taking certain courses and this is an easy way of merging the “tutor-web” into real-world requirements. The recipient university (or instructor) could simply advise the applicant to take a certain course on the “tutor-web” and submit the resulting grade. a student might prefer to pay a colleague to take the online quizzes but this is no more of a concern than general forgery of documents. In a sense. early on in a class that certain students have problems with their homework or mid-terms. the students will not have completed the formal prerequisite coursework. or TET 94 . In such cases. such as registering. an instructor sees. These students can then be told that they should take a remedial tutorial until they pass it with a high grade. The scheme of the possibilities to interact with the “tutor-web” are presented in Figure 3. this is not a “hard” requirement. In addition to the above examples. and in many cases. In these cases. and several views for the student who may be accessing different parts of the system. improving the grade. Many other possibilities can be envisaged on how the “tutor-web” may be used in the educational process. It requires no work at all from the instructor to tell the student to complete a certain online tutorial and come back with a high grade before taking the class in question. Naturally. Since the student is permitted to learn within the system.On building a web-based university potential. there are many situations when online evaluation is necessary and it is desirable or impossible to allocate instructor time to the issue: (1) The student wants to take a course. Figure 3 Different user “views” from the “tutor-web” database correspond to “views” into a data base Note: These include a method to view slides in a classroom. a view for a content provides when inserting content. it would be highly beneficial for all parties to have a general method of evaluation. (2) Some remedial measures may be imposed if a student has problems: Commonly. thus. One such concerns applications from little-known universities for graduate studies at other (larger) universities. Another important quality feature of the “tutor-web” will be to include teacher evaluation of teachers. it is then left to the discretion of the instructor whether or not the student is permitted to register. studying or taking a quiz.

the present proposal will generate a more general test-bed for evaluating how on-line quiz material can be utilized. The “tutor-web” provides the tools required to explore alternative methods better suited for Internet-based environments. 2. and allowing a student to use these from other locations. data behind an image can be 95 . 2010). i.On building a web-based university (teacher evaluation of tutorials). if this is permitted. (4) Material is “Open content”. but is quite important when there may be many instructors with material of variable quality.1. This would be a useful feature in many systems. examples. These should not be designed only for evaluation but much more importantly for enforcing learning. It has been found that students tend to take online quizzes enthusiastically and tend to try to continue until the maximum grade is obtained. and doing this in a linked manner using only non-proprietary solutions. (3) Code is “Open source”. The first such test.. It has been demonstrated that current models for analyzing quiz results are not adequate in the dynamic and learning-based quiz environment provided by the Internet (Stefansson & Sigurdardottir. will be a non-statistical (qualitative) social study on how low-income participants respond to a requirement of the form “You do not have the requirements for entry into this program. for example.3 To facilitate research on computer-aided education The “tutor-web” forms an excellent platform for research on how students accumulate knowledge and how students respond to and learn from online quizzes. but you will be considered for entry when you complete course X on the “tutor-web” with a grade of Y”. The uniqueness of the “tutor-web” thus comes from having all of the following features: (1) Storage of all educational content. as well as for student evaluation. the best approach is to allow instructors to evaluate (“grade”) material. (2) How to select questions to give to students and how to evaluate their grade in a dynamic environment. research is needed on the most effective online quizzing methods. additional details. In this case. The term “enforcement” refers to setting a grade requirement for continuation and permitting the student to continue to request work until a satisfactory grade is obtained. but also to use experimental design with subjects randomly placed into groups.. to transform quiz-taking into a learning experience. slides. In a social research context. e. In particular. (5) Source material is available in raw form (not just as PDF) so. as booklets containing slides interspersed with other material.e. within the project. The “tutor-web” has already been used for evaluating simple research questions: (1) Is there any gain from using such a system in conjunction with a classroom? The answer is positive. (2) Stored material is linked and can be viewed in various ways: as web-slides or PDF-slides. other views can be generated.2 Uniqueness of the “tutor-web” The “tutor-web” is intended for handling and storing everything an instructor might use in class. The “tutor-web” provides an environment where researchers can not only test theories on real data and where it will be possible to evaluate and develop testing schemes on pre-collected data. handouts and quizzes. 2.g. The same approach will be tested on active graduate students who lack background in math or stats as well as on other student groups. where it appears to be optimal to permit students to repeat requests for questions ad infinitum? Earlier analyses of “tutor-web” data have been based on contingency tables along with (generalized) linear models but future analyses will be based on specially designed experiments where mixed effects models will play an obvious role.

A major part of this project is to entice other instructors to use and expand the “tutor-web”. Barbados. Future work The current (beta) version of the “tutor-web” at “http://www. India. Initially. Swaziland. A new front page could then be set up merely to guide the user to select a language. On a technical note. (9) Content can be viewed in different ways (will be user-defined). (6) Students can freely take online quizzes. Malta. Romania. although the basic concept of an online university already exists in several forms. but the system will mostly be self-sustainable like other open” for a Spanish version is a trivial matter. Asia and Africa) to use and add to the “tutor-web” is considered. Test-bases will include some with a clear need for support and others with capacity to participate in evolving the “tutor-web”. The partnership A considerable part of the work involved is conducted by Ph. but other languages can certainly be accommodated (several tutorials in Icelandic were inserted in a pilot version of the “tutor-web”). 3. Iceland. This is a very easy thing to do and could be done with no central coordination. The first test-base will be within the University of” along with existing test cases should be considered a proof of concept. text or graphs can be borrowed for inclusion in another lecture. the proposed strategy is to recruit academic professionals and students from Europe (in particular. such as using “http://es. which specifies the language of content. Further. More than 20 academic staff of universities from Australia. postdocs and other staff (at present with the main thrust coming from the University of Iceland and the United Nations University). (10) All views are easily modified. Future hardware upgrades and research will be funded by grants. However. Benin. Bulgaria.D. Norway. none of these encompasses the simple requirements of being freely available. content is “moderated”. Romania. Taiwan and USA make up a consortium to support the “tutor-web” initiative through submission of material. (7) Students can take quizzes repeatedly until results are satisfactory.tutor-web. stored within a content management system. initially in statistics and mathematics. and so forth. following an initial pilot study which led to the present system. such as Wikipedia. providing complete access to all material and providing evaluation.. only “instructors” are permitted to insert material. Nigeria. Botswana. The documentation and much of the material is currently written in English. New Zealand.On building a web-based university viewed by the student. Malawi. students. An important difference between the “tutor-web” and Wikipedia is that. Iceland and Romania) and beyond (including South America. this 96 . Individual tutorials can be in any language and there is nothing in the “tutor-web” design. most courses within the system are developed in English. a coordinated approach. In order to obtain a critical mass of students and university lecturer using the system. (8) Content is stored in a modular manner (object-orientated data base). it would be useful to split up this web according to the language of the tutorial.tutor-web. programmers. The following describes on-going development to enhance the “tutor-web”. Most of the cooperation around the “tutor-web” will be informal in that selected professors and students in each target university will become a test-base. 4. In order to better accommodate languages. since the “tutor-web” is designed in part for in-class use.e. Greenland. i.

P. More generally. J. 43(4). It is thus a step towards building a web-based university accessible from any part of the world. S. M. 40(2). Engineering Education. J. The tutor-web: An educational system for classroom presentation. The only links between languages occur when a student takes courses in more than one language. Analysis of student progress within a web-based quiz system. A. G. 131. 674-681. evaluation and self-study. 129. Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Applied Psychological Measurement. The simplest is by providing an e-mail address where students can report errors in questions. 315.g.On building a web-based university approach also implies an easy way of modularizing the “tutor-web” since different languages can reside in different domains which again can live on different servers (in different countries for that matter). (Master’s thesis. G. Moore. J. Journal of Instructional Psychology (forth coming). (2010). & Silverman. 76. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 97 . Controlling item exposure and test overlap in computerized adaptive testing. 44(2). Y. M. Adults Education Quarterly. S. All these features will transform the “tutor-web” to a steadily more useful tool in a modern educational environment. Generalizability in item response modeling. where a lecturer may select in-class slide format. & Spray. (2005). 78(7). though not arbitrarily modify an instructor’s material without permission (but they are free to copy the material). & LEI. D. C. J.. References: Briggs. D. (2005). Felder. L. 204. students and other instructors must be able to comment on the quality of lectures. 3(1). Mezirow. (2006). (2003). student-selected content-view layout (e. Journal of Educational Measurement. 29(3). The relationship between item exposure and test overlap in computerized adaptive testing. Journal of Transformative Education. Y. CHEN. This is already very useful since it can be quite hard to verify hundreds of questions but students inevitably find these errors. A critical theory of adult learning and education. Stefansson. University of Iceland) Stefansson. CHEN. Several technical upgrades will be implemented: (1) Extensions will include user-selected designs. A. K. theory and examples side-by-side) and quiz questions may contain pointers to explanatory material and/or an explanations for incorrect responses. R. Computers & Education. & Wilson. Ankenmann. view slides. (2) The correction of errors in material may be made possible by instructors (and officially pointed out by students). (1988). 3. Sigurdardottir. This expansion of use and content in one language does not affect the use of the “tutor-web” in another language. Is higher education ready for transformative learning: A question explored in the study of sustainability. J. and so forth. A. Web-assisted education: From evaluation to learning. 32(1). & Sigurdardottir. Journal of Educational Measurement. (2007). R. W. (1981). (2004)..

The author’s points of interest were how instruction and learning of young children in kindergarten was perceived in the past and the contemporary view on modern instruction and learning of pre-school children in kindergartens. Key words: teaching. curricular theoreticians are those that should define the basic guidelines of a curriculum for each educational level and thereby direct the focus of people implementing it. pre-school child. As it is not convinced that. Kindergartens must strive to ensure quality teaching and learning environment for very young children. are split to a certain extent. to the principles. Objective The objective of this paper is to account for the significance. yet he claimed that these experts are primarily committed to a planning logic that arises from the subject and special didactics. and on the other hand. which in addition fosters an atmosphere of pleasure and comfort. Volume 7. Kroflič (2001) said that. kindergarten 1. The key research questions the author will try to provide answers to are: (1) Why is it important to discuss instruction and learning of young children? (2) What is the historical view on instruction and learning of young children in kindergartens? Jurka Lepicnik Vodopivec. Faculty of Education. which often tends to lead to overly “scholarised” educational activities. i. there is a uniform viewpoint among curricular theoreticians regarding this issue.73) US-China Education Review. regarding instruction and learning of small children.12 (Serial No. to adequate forms and methods these should use in their teaching. methods and forms of teachers’ work that should optimally contribute to pre-school child development and learning. associate professor. Kroflič also defended a position that modern planning of pre-school curricula cannot circumvent experts in specific subjects. kindergarten teachers. learning. Faculty of Education. research fields: environmental and media education. on the one hand. Maribor 2000. in particular that within the institutionalised education (in kindergarten). University of Maribor. in particular in light of the institutionalised education (in kindergartens). development of teachers and cooperation between parents and teachers. Ph. This paper aims to present the significance of instruction and learning of pre-school children today. it is believed that it is necessary to encourage polemic discussions supported by expert argumentation of curricular theoreticians. in view of instruction and learning of young children. which have been included in the planning process for each activities area.. 98 . is huge. hidden curriculum.D. in present time. experts in different subjects and practitioners. Introduction Opinions of experts. education in kindergarten. It is for this reason that the responsibility of kindergarten teachers. Department of Preschool Education.e. USA Teaching and learning in kindergarten Jurka Lepicnik Vodopivec (Department of Preschool Education. University of Maribor. Slovenia) Abstract: Teaching and learning in kindergarten is related. ISSN 1548-6613.December 2010. No. to the issues of the developing their reasoning and other aspects of their personality. 2.. of teaching pre-school children and their learning. which defend diverse opinions on encouraging reasoning and learning with very young children. One of the bases for such a discussion is the psychological theories on learning.

most commonly quoting the authors. Erikson and their colleagues or disciples in the very basis of kindergarten curriculum itself.g. Methodology This paper is a theoretical discourse on teaching small children in kindergartens and their learning. but also in view of encouraging other skills.. These have been marked by scientific discoveries of psychology and developmental psychology as part of the latter. Freud. It is about the possibility of widening and deepening children’s experience and knowledge. pedagogy. The development proceeds in foreseeable directions towards improved integrity. which is in interaction defined by both the heredity and the environment. for example through drawing. as well as a number of other disciplines (philosophy. Bowman and Stott (1994) agreed with Bronfenbrenner (1989). followed by object and word transformation (children use a random object to represent a phone and converses through it with a person that does not exist). such as Piaget. Malaguzzi (1993) used the metaphor of “100 languages” to describe the diverse models which children use to illustrate a certain meaning. Bruner. Children will use different sets of symbols to represent their experience and knowledge. sociology. which people naturally acquire prior to the ability to walk. Heredity and the environment (physical and social) are important for a child’s development. anthropology and ethnology) and prevailing educational concepts over individual periods. The majority of recent pedagogic concepts eclectically combine the discoveries of various theories. such as imitations as part of symbolic play (using a cooking spoon to imitate the mixing moves of a grandmother). Social context and supportive atmosphere are also vital for children’s development. a child’s temperament. is determined only by heredity or only by the environment (external influences). Vygotsky. whereby the latter implies both the physical and the social environments. none of the physical traits. a child represents the centre or the basis of any educational activities in kindergarten and in this respect of developmentally adequate programmes or curricula. which was formed in distinctive socio-historical contexts. shape of nose. In most contemporary concepts in pre-school education. not only in the development of walking as a skill. 4. etc. organisation and internalisation. yet it also depends on the environment. which are always more or less dependent on the ruling ideology (Woodhead. When trying to interpret a child’s development. Learning to walk thus depends on the muscle strength and the development of coordination (both of which is hereditary). Although heredity has greater influence on. energy level or sequence of physical or intellectual development. using different levels of symbolic knowledge. synthesis and description. e.Teaching and learning in kindergarten (3) What is the view on contemporary young children in kindergartens? 3. sitting and climbing. who said that children’s development can be understood best within a 99 . it cannot and should not by-pass the plurality aspect of developing and growing up in different cultures and therewith neglect neither the influence of various circumstances within a culture or among cultures nor views on a child’s development and learning. 1999). pertaining to developmental psychology. excluding the black-white dichotomy of nature versus nurture. such as rolling. apart from maybe eye and hair colour. discourse. Why is it important to discuss instruction and learning of young children? A child’s development is a dynamic process. Development is intertwining of quality-and quantity-related changes or development periods and development linearity. whereby new aspects of the development incorporate the preceding ones and build on them. Both determinants contribute to their growth and development. painting. based on a descriptive method of non-experimental pedagogic research and on the methods of analysis.

Classical antiquity. a child learns through habituation (which is considered the simplest form of learning). That being the case. and with it their learning and development. depends exclusively on the environment. Today. Through researches. The first focuses its theory on the influence from children’s environment. for example. assumes that children need protection and special and great care. Bandura’s social learning theory is also considered as one of behaviouristic approaches. alphabet) are the ones that are commonly used within his/her culture and transferred to him/her from the adults. and the third is mostly engaged in children’s evolution roots. Western culture. the second emphasizes the role of children’s cognitive development. including children at 3-6 years of age. by underlining that the rules are the same for all children. shaped as a result of their own development. 5. they must look back onto children and childhood as perceived in the past. his/her behaviour is based on the principle of trial and error. results in understanding of different symbols. In the Middle Ages. A child tests his/her own hypotheses in various ways: through social interaction or physical manipulation or by means of his/her own structures of mind. did understand the significance of infancy but did not dedicate enough care in relation to children. is innate and children are entirely a result of their action and the environment. 1998). it can come to the 100 . which Slovenia people are a part of. infancy was a dangerous period. Bandura discovered that children observe and imitate adults from their birth on (Hayes & Orrel. classical or respondent conditioning (learning. according to which. a child is on principle ready for action. and thus. Haith & Miller. Locke. operant conditioning (use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behaviour) and discriminating learning (learning in which children adjust their responses to the stimulus) (Lepičnik Vodopivec. for example. History hence recognises different views on children’s development and infancy. Behaviourists believe that. 1989) are the main founders of the 3 theoretical traditions which have marked scientific developmental psychology and pre-school education until the present day. 1995) are founded on literally “clear” theory on environmental influences.Teaching and learning in kindergarten socio-cultural context. yet the symbols that the child uses (numbers. 5. Based on this concept. according to which. learning via modelling is of utmost importance in children’s development. not a single personality trait. Historical aspect of instruction and learning of young children in kindergarten The attitude towards children and childhood keeps changing all the time. 2006). the latter is considered as a vital period in the development of a human being. The development of mind structures. the church emphasized the pure and innocent nature of children on the one hand and exploited and abused children on the other hand. With the emerging of child study movement in the 20th century. In Renaissance. The personal history determines who are as people. psychoanalysis and cognitivism. research into children’s development has become an interdisciplinary matter. people started to take greater care of children and in the 17th century. In order to be able to understand people’s attitude towards children. pedagogic viewpoints on children’s development adhered mostly to the Descartes’ mind/body dualism. They believed that. Extreme viewpoints of the supporters of behaviouristic theory (Vasta. yet the social context is the one that shapes children’s development into different forms. based on unconditioned stimulus that always causes an unconditioned reaction). laying foundations for future analyses of children and their development which is recognised in 3 major disciplines: behaviourism. Rousseau and Darwin (Horvat & Magajna.1 Behaviouristic approach This theory is based on Locke’s viewpoint that children’s environment and experience are the basis for understanding their behaviour. Children’s development is first and foremost a result of conditioning and learning processes.

Teaching and learning in kindergarten

conclusion that behaviourists perceive the environment as a set of stimuli that determine the way of development and therewith learning and behaviour of each individual. 5.2 Psychoanalytical approach According to Gudjons (1994), Sigmund Freud was the first theoretician who was committed to interactive view on development, according to which children’s development is a result of heredity on the one hand and the environment on the other hand. So, there is the unconscious mind hidden behind every conscious and rational thought or behaviour. Mental structures are formed in the process of cognitive and emotional interactions among parents, children and the environment. According to Freud, a child is developed through interaction with the environment, which has remained valid despite numerous critiques of his theory on children’s development. On the other hand, the theory of psychosocial development by Erikson is equally important. As Piaget before him, he too defined the development of a child/human as a transition between interdependent stages (as cited in Horvat & Magajna, 1989; Gudjons, 1994; Vasta, Haith & Miller, 1995). He distinguished 8 stages, and at each one, the individual has to reorganise his/her relation to the environment and the personal understanding of himself/herself. Reorganisation is a result of changes in each individual (maturity, new experiences) and variability of requirements of the environment towards the same individual. Erikson’s theory argues that a person’s ego is being developed across one’s whole lifespan and that every stage of life brings about a different set of problems and conflicts. This theory, placing particular emphasis on constant and lifelong development, differs considerably from the Freud’s theory. But regardless of whether it talks of Freudian psychoanalytical approach to development or Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, the basic postulate in both cases is the assertion that infancy is an optimal phase of human learning and that childhood experience has indelible consequences for one’s entire future development. The first interactions of a child with the environment set a pattern for any future adaptations and control over primal anxieties (Čudina Obradović, 1995). 5.3 Cognitive approach The bases of this theory date back to the 18th century. Rousseau saw the development as a series of foreseeable stages with only minimal aid of the environment (Mitzenheim, 1985). Piaget assumed that, assimilation (a new experience is interpreted on the basis of existing recognised structures) and accommodation (a sub-process that produces changes in the existing cognitive structures towards aligning them with new experience) go hand in hand. In the course of reciprocal impact of these two sub-processes, Piaget (as cited in Labinowicz, 1989) established yet another vital aspect of his theory—the concept of constructivism. He determined that, instead of a passive absorption of knowledge from their environment, children actively engage in its formation. Piaget claimed that, a child helps form the knowledge of the world rather than just taking it in and storing it. Over the past years, there has been increasing interest in researching children’s social development. A number of psychologists who research this area are convinced that both nature and level of a child’s cognitive skills influence his/her social development. A new research area, social cognition, has emerged thereby, focusing research activities predominantly on understanding social phenomena pertaining to children, such as children’s perception of themselves, their deduction regarding moral issues and alike. In order to be able to understand children’s behaviour in the first place, one first needs to know and understand the knowledge structures that a child has in a given moment and be at the same time familiar with how child’s behaviour changes with growing up. The basic principle of cognitive approach to development as well as the Kohlberg model of moral development (Vasta, Haith & Miller, 1995; Kroflič, 1997) is the development of cognitive abilities of empathy, which provides the foothold for moral judgements. Supporters of social constructivism hence believe that, learning is not an isolated process which takes place inside each individual but

Teaching and learning in kindergarten

rather a process that emerges through dialogue (among children as well as between children and adults), the possibility of verifying the sense of what has been learned, taking one’s personal stand in a group and the like. Throughout the history of institutionalised pre-school education, two opposing concepts seem to have been alternating constantly, appearing on the one hand as a tendency towards a carefully planned and systematic education, and on the other hand as a tendency to enable and allow children to engage in as free, playful and care-free childhood as possible. In the background of both concepts is the question of the relation between learning and development (Kamenov, 1987; Kroflič, 2001). It is a dilemma whether teaching and learning is tailored according to the development or is it the development that is subject to teaching and learning.

6. Outline of modern teaching and learning in kindergarten
The perspective that emphasized the importance of the environment in which a pre-school child lives and of the quality and quantity of incentives he/she receives, considering that he/she is developing intensely at this stage, gained ground in pre-school pedagogy and developmental psychology only in the 1960s. As a result of scientific discoveries, speaking in favour of the respective viewpoint, the so-called compensation programmes (such as head start) started to spawn. The main goal of these programmes was to provide necessary incentives to children from socially underprivileged environments and thus diminish the difference among children entering school. Yet over the last decades, it has been increasingly more often assumed that, the role of kindergarten is not just in minding pre-school children but also in their upbringing and education. The role of kindergarten is thus not so much about correction and compensation of less favourable learning circumstances, but above all, about supplementing children’s upbringing within families as it offers a completely different set of experiences compared to kindergarten. The highly structured programmes that prevailed in the 1960s and 1970s focused mostly on preparing children to school. The educational objectives of programmes based on such concepts were normally defined through deduction of mental functions or derived from the contents of school subjects and basic notions of scientific disciplines (Špoljar, 1993). According to Hagan and Smith (1993), the main function of kindergartens was to prevent any future failures in one’s education. A typical example of a didactic-oriented programme, as quoted in literature, is the compensation programme by Bereiter and Engelmann (Lay-Dopyera, 1990). In the 1980s, experts (Kamenov, 1987; Špoljar, 1993; Bredekamp, 1996) increasingly criticised the didactic-oriented programmes, basing their arguments mostly on the highly structured nature of these programmes and suggesting they be replaced by less structured and “open” programmes, which provided more opportunities for taking into account the features, interests and wishes of each individual. Bruce (1997) and Kamenov (1987) talked of “child-oriented” and “developmentally adequate” programme (Bredekamp, 1996) or curriculum. What distinguishes different curricula is the perception of nature, knowledge and ways to acquire knowledge, which all define the base for different strategies of defining educational objectives and practice evaluation (De Vries, 1990). The prevailing strategy, which is subject to most criticism in the expert circles today, is cultural transmission which is frequently related to the behaviouristic interpretations of development and learning. In that respect, Kroflič (1997; 1999) connected the cultural-transmission model of education with content-based and goal-based planning of instruction activities. Typical for the cultural-transmission model is behaviouristic theoretical base and thereof proceeding instrumentalism and technicism, which are frequently cloaked in a make-believe scientificality. These two imply that, it is possible to express the objectives of a certain programme in the form of desired changes of one’s behaviour and reasoning. As opposed to this, the process-development model does not set goals


Teaching and learning in kindergarten

in the form of desired ideal images but rather as procedural principles. The main goal of planning is to find such content and methods that will yield maximum contribution to children’s development (Kroflič, 1997). Modern concepts of pre-school education underline the principle of active learning, which is in line with the ascertainment that a pre-school child can acquire most knowledge through active participation and specific experience. This idea was first observed in Fröbel’s kindergarten and later on in Montessori and Waldorf kindergartens (Bruce, 1997). The active learning principle was mentioned in the theory by Montessori (as cited in Loschi, 1996), which points out that a child builds his/her knowledge and personality through experience which he/she gains in his/her environment and through interaction with objects and people. This same principle is supported in a number of psychological theories of cognitive development, such as the one by Piaget or the one by Vygotsky (as cited in Thomson, 1995). Among the circumstances that influence development of one’s thinking, Piaget specified physical experience which a child gains through manipulation with the objects in his/her environment and the use of all senses (as cited in Thomson, 1995). Similarly, Vygotsky also claimed (as cited in Thomson, 1995) that children build their reasoning by taking part in activities that help them develop the latter. It is a process in which children internalise the results of their interactions with the environment. Marentič Požarnik (2000) considered that active learning arouses a child on all levels (mentally and emotionally) and is in addition of great importance to him/her and incorporated in real-time life situations. The author further elaborated that, learning is still predominantly considered a process of piling and memorising what other people have learned. In contrast to this type of knowledge (transmission), she juxtaposed that learning is a result of numerous interactions between a teacher and children, and among children themselves (transaction). According to Marentič Požarnik, active learning also implies changes of one’s views of the world as well as transformation of one’s personality. According to the Kindergarten Curriculum (1999), active-learning principle implies ensuring an encouraging environment, which allows for following the teacher’s planned or unplanned guidelines on the one hand and observing children’s initiatives on the other hand. Developing one’s sensitivity and awareness of the issues is in the forefront of learning, next to getting children accustomed to the use of various strategies and aids in their search for answers, helping and encouraging children to use language in different functions and to use alternative means to express themselves. “Through active learning, having direct and immediate experience and deriving meaning from them through reflection, young children construct knowledge that helps them understand their world. As they follow their intentions, children invariably engage in key experiences, creative, on-going interactions with people, materials and ideas that promote children’s mental, emotional, social and physical growth” (Hohmann & Weikart, 2005). Active learning is a base for complete development of one’s abilities. Piaget claimed that, knowledge is derived neither from objects nor from a child but from the interactions between both. So it could define active learning as learning, in which a child has a certain effect on objects and interacts with certain people, ideas and events which all lead to new uncovering and understanding. In kindergartens that promote active learning, children always have enough room to play either alone or with other children. By taking into consideration individual differences in children’s development and learning as well as the principles of an integral and balanced child development, by recognising and understanding the children’s perception and experience of the environment, by offering a wide variety of subjects, methods and forms of work, and by assuring professional autonomy of all practitioners, it can create optimal conditions for playing and learning in kindergarten. The planning must also take into account children, so one needs to respect them as unique and complete personalities, accept them as competent individuals, and consider the differences on the level of individuals as well as that of a group. In order to be able to realise the planned development process, it

children with special needs. etc.. goals. forms of work. type and duration of programmes. it is the process that emerges from the interaction between children and adults and among children that is vital for a successful instruction and learning. It may be concluded from this that infancy is the optimum stage for learning which is why people should pay considerable attention to instruction and learning. political and economic changes. just as it is.). Today. for example. play-oriented approach to pre-school education. talented children. this is considered a generally accepted principle of pre-school education. the age of children attending kindergarten. it cannot identify it. Behaviourists believe that children learn by means of habituation (the simplest way of learning). et al. Recent researches. 7. based on unconditioned stimulus that always causes an unconditioned reaction). institutionalised pre-school education is based on providing support to parents in raising their children. It is thus obvious that. pluralistic democracy. Kindergarten education should be based on children’s abilities and lead them to acquisition of 104 . tolerance. respondent conditioning (learning. Yet despite the differences. learning and instruction. 2002) who have been exploring this area. Wiltshire and Melbuish (as cited in Marjanovič Umek. This provides children with their first practical experience in exploring themselves and an environment. Yet it should take as much advantage of each development stage. 1995). in particular due to their absence because of their jobs. it can be observed that. new discoveries that regard development. Pre-school education is generally considered exceptional in light of a child’s actual life and treated merely as preparation to the next educational stage. difference in the number. Tietze. Psychoanalytic approach argues that. regardless of their current political or economic situation. solidarity and rule of law. Owing to differences in the way pre-school education is being organised across Europe (different working hours. teachers’ level of education. The idea that a child learns best from concrete experience is traced back to Fröbel’s kindergarten and is later on found in the concepts by Montessori (1990) and in Waldorf kindergartens. Instead of a conclusion The view on children and infancy has been changing throughout the history and with it also the view on instruction and learning of young children. Modern curricula of pre-school education underline the principle of active learning which arises from the understanding that a pre-school child acquires most knowledge by virtue of concrete experiences and participation in activities.). in particular in view of the subject matter. quoted by Bredekamp (1996).Teaching and learning in kindergarten is best to include children in the planning process. Behaviouristic theory is based on Locke’s idea that perceives environment and experiences as the basis of understanding children’s behaviour. as well as new scientific paradigms foster changes in education in all countries. confirm the findings that a child learns best when subject to concrete. in most countries. These values represent the basis for the organisation as well as for any programmes of pre-school education (even short ones) within it are intended for various individuals and/or members of individual groups (gypsies. have recognised the quality of kindergarten as an institution as one of the determinants that influence child development. etc. Values that constitute the foundation of the European dimension in education are human and children’s rights. methods. Several authors. operant conditioning (use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behaviour) and discriminating learning (learning in which children adjust their responses to the stimulus). as possible. allows for several ways of presenting their discoveries and creates a number of opportunities to use basic mathematic skills or spoken and written language. Cognitive models of development argue that. childhood is the optimal phase of one’s learning and experiences in our childhood bear indelible consequences for the entire future development of an individual (Čudina Obradović. Sylva.

(1998). W. Becoming a teacher of a young children. Ljubljana: State published Slovenia. (2002). M. (1993). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. London: Bailliere Tindall. M. Therefore. B. Ljubljana: The National Education Institute. R.). Maribor: Založba Obzorja. et al.). (2005).). Ljubljana: State published Slovenia. R. (2001). Labinowicz. Underlying assumptions.. T. (2000). G. L. Loschi. & Forman. 13-20. The discovery of the child. O’hagan. B. Community Consultation Kindergatens Slovenia. The emergent curriculum and social constructivism. A.. Washington. In: Kohlberg. In: Vasta. (2006). New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Zagreb: Educa. C. Lay-Dopyera. (1997). K. De Vries. children can develop certain notions on their own. Quality in kindergarten. & Stott. (1999).). S. Rinaldi. R. Kroflič. Montessori. Office of Education. (2000). Čudina Obradović. Children in kindergarten: Guide to the curriculum for kindergarten. Ecological system theory. Office of Education. reading.).). Newcombe. C. M.). Portoroz: Slovenia Kindergarten Community. (1). Lepičnik Vodopivec. Ljubljana: State published Slovenia. J. (1985). Original Piaget. & Moss. In: Monessori pedagogy. Haith. Napredak.. 5-23. Ljubljana: Glotta Nova. In: Eckardt. & Magajna. writing. 64-76. M. J. Washington. L. (1995). In: Mallory. Natural childhood: A practical guide for the first seven years of life. A. E. S. Horvat.). R. (Ed. (Ed. (1993). L. Hohmann. P. Ljubljana: Scientific Institute of the Faculty of Arts. encounters and understanding by means of setting reasonable requests and problems that encourage children’s active learning which in turn enables expression. L. Radovljica: Didakta. B. Berlin: Mouton.(1989). M. R. Educating young children. (1989). M. Gudjons. Modern kindergarten. e. Psychology learning and teaching. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 105 . R. yet without being included in formal education. Constructivist early education. Beyond quality in early childhood education and care: Postmodern perspective. L. recognising letters or numbers. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. & Bergant. New approaches to an active education program in modern concepts of preschool education. (Eds. D. (1994). In: Marjanovič Umek. (1995). Woodhead.). Bronfenbrenner. Špoljar. Marjanovič Umek. 2008). Thomson. L. Marentič Požarnik. (Eds. B. G. New York: The Modern Science. Child development: Change over time. Learning-goal and process of curriculum development planning. & Orrel. Ljubljana: Scientific Institute of the Faculty of Arts.). Michigan: High/Scope Press.). (Ed. S. M. T. L. (2008). 119-33. Gandini. (1993). Environmental education in kindergarten. Dahlberg. J. M. (Ed. to other people and to life in general. V. E. each situation is an experiential moment on which a child builds his/her relationship to himself/herself. P. (Ed. Contributions to a history of developmental psychology. (Eds. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Ministry of Education. In: Puš Seme. Process-development model curriculum for public kindergartens. & Fekonja Peklaj. Education and learning pre-school children. L. L. C. (1999). K. V. Beograd: Institute for Textbooks and Materials. Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company. N. History. New York: Teachers College Press. (Eds. (Ed. Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices: Challenges for early childhood education. D. In: Pence. & New..: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Malaguzzi. & Sprung. (1). (Ed. F. involvement and a strong social and emotional engagement. The importance of Rousseau’s developmental thinking for child psychology. (1990). (Ed. Special issues in child care. N. (Eds. Bruce. (1994). Bringmann. G. Bredekamp. R. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers. Grenwich: Jal Press.). M. D. Psychological merits of preschool education in kindergarten. London: Falmer Press. U. (1999). M. In: Dopyera. Ljubljana: State published Slovenia. (1990). Kroflič. A. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. (1987).Teaching and learning in kindergarten new experiences.).. References: Bowman. (1989). P. (Ed. Child psychology (2nd ed).. Montessori: Children build their autonomy. Kindergarten curriculum. About education (XII ed. Mitzenheim. Six theories of child development.). solely on the basis of direct experiences. (1996). London: Hodger & Stoughton. P. Hohmann. (1993). The hundred languages of children: The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. they will be able neither to learn most of sign systems nor to reach the level of abstract ones. Gandini. & Weikart. Experts claim that. Pedagogy. Preschool pedagogy. 18-24. Ljubljana: Ministry of Education. Curriculum content. In: Barle. Developmental psychology. G. L. principles and objectives of the curriculum for kindergarten. (1995).: NAEYC. In: Edwards. L. Ljubljana: National Curriculum Council. algebra (Marjanovič Umek & Fekonja Peklaj.g. In: Smith. New York: Ballantine Books. In: Weikart. Vasta. Educa. & Forman. & Miller. (Eds. (1990). G. the key guideline of each kindergarten should be the awareness that. (1996). (5). S. Marjanovič Umek. (1997). In: Edwards. Towards a global paradigm for research into early childhood education. D. U. Kroflič. Ljubljana: AWTS. (1995). Developmental psychology. Kamenov. C.). Early childhood education.). H. ideas and basic philosophy. (1996). Hayes. The hundred languages of children: The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education.C.

12 (Serial No. which ranged from inadequate financial resource due to economic and social crisis to the challenges posed by the HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) pandemic. This shabby contribution by the continent could be likened to a result of some imminent challenges. Today. the continent is demanded by academic institutions shaped by colonialism and organized according to the European model as in the case of the developing worlds. This can be affirmed by the increase in the number of states and federal universities in the country over the years since independence. among which are limited access. ISSN 1548-6613. higher education. Key words: role. In addition. Ph. which made the provision for the establishment of private universities. multi-campus should be encouraged in order to allow for more access to higher education. Faculty of Education. traditional centers of higher learning have all disappeared or were displaced by the effects of colonialism. founded as. Faculty of Education. which further increased the nation’s total number of universities to 93 from 59 and further strengthened the nations contributions to higher education development in the continent. The study therefore recommended that budgetary allocations to higher institutions of learning be increased to meet the financial demands of the institutions. senior lecturer. higher education is highly subsidized by the public sector. Alzaazhar.. policies 1. No. 106 .December 2010. The policies of the colonial higher education in Africa The colonial higher educational policies had some peculiar features. Nigeria) Abstract: In most countries of the world. research field: quality assurance and system control in higher education. Ibadan 234. USA Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa Akinwumi Femi Sunday (Department of Educational Management. enrolment. the nation is yet to reach her potential in the development of her higher education sector as the percentage of potential students that gained admission into the nation’s higher institutions of learning still stand below 15% of the total number of applicants. and still the major academic institution in the world organized according to the original Islamic model. Akinwumi Femi Sunday.D. Enrolment into higher institutions of learning is quite low in Africa compare to other continents of the world due to the continent’s low and declining spending on her higher institutions of learning. knowledge-based economy. quality assurance. University of Ibadan. The contributions of Nigeria to the development of higher education in Africa is quite worthy of note. The subsidy is a result of the role of higher education sector on the economy and good governance of the nations. the deputy coordinator of Distance Learning Centre of Department of Educational Management. University of Ibadan. 2. the fact is that. The oldest university still existing in the world of Egypt. Volume 7. This can be further reaffirmed by the promulgation of Decree 9 of 1993. Africa higher education: A historical perspective Higher education in Africa is as old as the pyramids of Egypt. “Higher education in Africa is an artifact of colonial policies” (Altabach & Selvarantnam. the Obelisks of Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Timbuktu.73) US-China Education Review. 1989). In spite of all efforts made by the FGN (Federal Government of Nigeria). All other universities in Africa have adopted the western model of academic tradition.

The state of higher education in Africa According to the report of UNESCO (United Nations Educational. Subotzky (2003) opined that South Africa has more than half a million students in her 21 universities and 15 technikons. Zaire. That colonial authentic feared a widespread access to higher education. the total number of African students enrolled in institutions of higher education both in Africa and abroad has been estimated at 165. In addition to its functions of teaching and advancing knowledge through research. Higher educational institutions in Africa have assumed a positive role in improving the entire education system and the pattern designed to prepare young people at all levels for an improved and commendable citizenship. engineering. At present. Addis-Ababa. However. now Democratic Republic of Congo. at independence. The Addis-Ababa reports stipulated that. agriculture. Nigeria came second with close to 1 million. pharmacy and dentistry). the roles of higher education in Africa are as follows: (1) to ensure unification of Africa. 1988). Egypt has the highest number in Africa with over 1. and all other fields. most trade and industries throughout the continent were foreign-owned and only 3% of high school age students received a secondary education. forestry.000 studying in Africa and 24. A World Bank study of 1991 reported that. 2003). etc. the present estimation shows that 4-5 million. a truly African institution of higher learning dedicated to Africa and its people. the size of the academic system was very small as at the time of independence. 60% of students enrolled in the universities would be studying in scientific and technological fields. In 1961. the number of students’ enrolment in the continents’ higher educational institutions was within 1 million. students are currently enrolled. medical studies (medicine. 93. Tanzannia and Uganda) turned out a total of 99 graduates. limited freedom. (2) to maintain adherence and loyalty to world academic standards.000 abroad (Conference of African States on the Development of Education in Africa. (4) to train every individual for nation building. 3. French-speaking African countries could only produce 4 graduates in the field of agriculture in 1952-1963. less than one-quarter of all professional civil service posts were held by Africans. got her independence without a single engineer. medical science. because this may jeopardize their missions. (3) to encourage the comprehension and appreciation of African cultural heritage. 1968).Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa language. Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 107 . lawyer and doctor who were citizens of the country. a period of 11 years while English-speaking African countries turned out 150 (Eisermon. social science and technology.000 students enrolled in her post-secondary institutions (Jubril. it appeared that the actual distribution of students enrolled in middle African universities according to their fields of study was in the following arrangement: science. by 1980. They were only interested in the training of a limited number of Africans to assist in administering the colonies. Zambia had only got 100 universities graduates. After independence. Throughout Africa then.5 million (including about a quarter of 1 million part-time students).000 with 141. She has the third largest number of enrolled post-secondary school students in the continent. a kinship to the larger society. Among the findings of studies undertaken for the conference. form a combined area of a population of 23 million at the same year. University of East Africa (Serving Kenya. (5) to develop over the years.

Not only is the demand for access unstoppable particularly in the context of Africa’s usual low post secondary attendance levels. importance and illustrative. the financial resources had not been able to meet up with it. the curricular was dramatically restricted. this reduction in spending has adversely affected higher education in Africa. long standing economic and social crisis in many countries and the challenges of HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in part of the continent. There is over 150. UNESCO Report (2005) confirmed this asserting that. Another challenge facing the higher education in Africa is the legacy of colonialism—For most of the African countries. the enrolment rates for higher education in Sub-Sahara Africa are by far the lowest in the world. and African countries have introduced innovative policies to strengthen tertiary education systems there.000 students and 31. the demand for enrolment is gradually restricting the resources of higher education institutions. 17% of the worldwide education sector expenses were on higher education. At the beginning of this century.000 students in 92 universities. enrolment stood at 1% or less in 2003.000 students. but from 1995 to 1991.000 academic staff. Jubril (2003) asserted that. The average percentage of gross enrolment conceals wide disparities among countries. the central reality for all African higher education systems was severe financial crises.000. colonial authorities feared widespread access of higher education. As regards limited access. independence has been the national reality and the former colonizers have remained strong. Among the challenges facing higher education in Africa are inadequate financial resources coupled with an overwhelming demand for access. The International Development Community has begun to recognize the importance of advanced schooling. At independence. signs of progress for higher learning are now appearing in sub-Sahara Africa. Since the enrolment increased rapidly. Task Force on Higher Education (2000) in a report put this figure at 3.3489. but also higher education is recognized as a necessary factor for modernization and development. In several countries. 4-5 million students are currently enrolled in the continent’s post-secondary institutions. However.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa 2002. The impact of the colonial influence remained crucial in an investigation of African higher education. Academic faces economic problems everywhere but the problems are more pressing in Africa 108 . Egypt has the highest number of enrolment with 15. Considering inadequate financial resources in virtually all the African countries. Institutions were the order of the day. 1990). Also. Africans held less than a quarter of professional civil service posts.000 academic staff in African’s post-secondary institutions. the portion allotted to higher education declined to just 7% as the focus shifted to primary education (World Education Conference. They were only interested in training a limited number of Africans who would assist in administering the colonies. Some colonial power. Nigeria came closely behind with about 900. Students had to be admitted into institutions designed originally for fewer students. Portuguese. only 3% of high school age students received a secondary education and the language of institution was the language of the colonizers—limits on academic freedom and on the autonomy of academic. The fact that in many African counties. Between 1985 and 1989. notably the Spanish. the legacy for colonialism. Belgians and French. South Africa with more than half 1 million students in its 21 universities and 15 technikons is the third in the procession. the colonial language has been adopted as the language of instruction is significant. though the gross enrolment ratio has increased in the past years. In the estimation. kept their enrolment very small thereby making the size of the academic system very small at the time of independence. Higher education in Africa faces novel challenges at present.

The chain of administrative power starts with the vice-chancellor and then moves to the deans or directors and finally the departmental heads. there is twice as many administrative staff as there are academics and more than 60% of the institution’s budget goes on the staff’s salary. Nigeria had suffered serious social. (2) Individual African countries’ fiscal problems have made it difficult to increase the funds for higher education. and the extensive development of the intellect. they include: (1) The pressure of expansion and massification. orientation and values imbued in the individual in question at the primary and secondary levels are conceptualized as higher education (Longe & Agabi. Maliyamkono (1991) reported that at the National University of Lesotho. it is a more or less 109 . In many cases. economic and political upheavals. has been able to provide for her higher education sector with adequate funds. such as the tradition of providing highly subsidized or even free accommodation and food to students. (4) Misallocation and poor privatization of available financial resources. The causes of these problems are not difficult to discern. The administrative bureaucracy in African universities is disproportionately large. During a series of military regimes in the past. the teaching and research staff in quite a large number of African institutions are smaller in population than the administrative staff.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa than anywhere else. Confirming the fact that the expansion of the tertiary institutions through greater enrolment has led to inadequate financial and personnel resources.2% under the current elected government. In many parts of Africa. Excessive intake of non-academic staff is another challenge facing the higher institutions in Africa— Observation results give it that. In Madagascar. (5) The inability of students to afford the tuition rates necessary for financial stability and some cases of inability to impose tuition. In fact. The financial situation appears to be relatively less severe or be improving gradually in few places in Africa. The deans and directors in most cases are appointed either by the vice-chancellor or directly by the government officials constituted for that purpose (the boards of directors or trustees). Botswana. For instance. such as World Bank and International Monetary Funds led to it. (3) A changed economic climate induced by multilateral lending agencies. it is considered that. 1990). which has a small population and considerable mineral wealth. This is typical of the Anglophone countries in Africa. This legacy is reflected in the current governance structures in many African universities. which have added large number of students to most African academic institutions and systems. and maintaining a large cumbersome non-academic personnel and infrastructure is faded. fellow members of the department elect the departmental heads. the head of State holds the ultimate authority as the president in appointing the vice-chancellor and other administrators in the institutions. 4. public higher education institutions predominates Africa and governments’ involvement in university affairs is the norm. and that the available resources are not well allocated. Jubril (2003) opined that funds are expected to increase by 25. Jimenez (1987) reported. “The student-to-administrator ratio remained highly relative to other countries (with 6 students to each administrator)”. Development of higher education in Nigeria The height of a process of maturity and systematic training through experience. In the area of governance.

Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa

specialized type of education that individual students obtain at the post-secondary levels of schooling, such as universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, colleges of agriculture and other monotecnics. Akinwumi (2004) opined that, the establishment of higher education institutions in Nigeria emerged as part of the colonial struggles championed by the nationalist elites, majority of who obtained tertiary education outside the country. Education was perceived by the nationalist as the most forceful weapon for mental de-colonization, political and socio-economic developments. Considering the nationalist’ relentless agitation for higher education, the British government established the Yaba Higher College in 1932 with the objective of providing average manpower in relevant government departments by offering sub-degree courses in medicine, engineering, agriculture, teachers’ education, and other vocations. The British Colonial Administration also found the Elliot Commission on Higher Education in West Africa, in 1945. This body recommended for a University College in Nigeria. The University College, Ibadan was then established in 1948 as an off-shore and branch of the University of London. In 1949, a delegation of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education in the British colonies gave another report which made a strong case for promoting technical education at the regional levels, hence, the establishment of 3 polytechnics, one in each administrative region of the country. These polytechnics, namely, the Nigeria colleges of arts, science and technology, Zaria, then for the Northern region (1952); Ibadan, for the Western region (1954) and Enugu for the Eastern region (1955). The Ashby Commission named after its chairperson (Sir Eric Ashby) submitted its report that more courses should be introduced into technical education in 1959. Consequently, the number of the universities increased to 7 in order to accommodate an expanded production of high level manpower to meet the Nigerians needs. Longe and Agabi (1990) opined that historical inventories of the first sets of universities in Nigeria are the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, which was established in 1960, Obafemi Awolowo University in 1962, University of Lagos in 1962, and the University College, Ibadan, was converted into an autonomous institution at the same year. Thus, by the end of 1962, there were 5 universities in Nigeria. Four more universities were established in Sokoto, Maiduguri, Jos and Calabar in 1975 for wider geographical spread of institutions of higher learning. Three colleges were also instituted in Ilorin, Port-Harcourt and Bayero University Kano respectively. Several state governments instituted universities alongside those of the federal government in many states in 1980. Private universities later equally came into the scene in 1999 with the emergence of Igbinedion university, Babcock university and covenant university. At present, there are 27 federal universities, 34 state universities and 41 private universities. Altogether, there are 102 universities in Nigeria (NUC (National Universities Commission, 2010) (see Table 1).
Table 1 Present state of universities in Nigeria Period 1948 1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2009 Total Federal 1 4 8 9 3 2 27 State 1 6 6 21 34 Private 3 38 41 Total 1 4 9 15 12 61 102

Sources: NUC, 2010; Okebukola, 2010.


Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa

5. The Nigerian educational system
The exit of the Colonial government in Nigeria in 1960 provided opportunities for Nigeria to recognize education as an important tool for the development and strategic for changes in demographic dynamics. The pluralistic nature of the Nigeria and different religious inclinations made the realization of policies difficult in all sectors. The dichotomy between the Northern and Southern Nigeria also manifested in their educational policies. While because of their long-time exposure embraced Western education in the Southern, the North vehemently adhered to Islamic education. English language is associated with Western education while Arabic is the language associated with the Islamic education. In an attempt to bridge the gap between these two regions, the national policy on education which was formulated in 1970 adequately took care of the interests of the entire population by addressing both formal and non-formal systems and providing parallel systems of education to include all the segments of society. Before the year 1970, the system of education in Nigeria was a 6-5-2-3 system which is similar to British system of education and a legacy of Nigeria’s colonial part (Odejide, 2002). After the end of the Civil War, Nigeria emerged with a realization of her true potentials and the pursuit in greater degree of policy of self-reliance in all fields of national life. The National Development Plan (1970-1974) laid down 5 social, political and economic objectives for the nation which also is seen as the foundation for the national policy on education: (1) a free and democratic society; (2) a just and egalitarian society; (3) a united strong and self reliant nation; (4) a great and dynamic economy; and (5) a land of input and full opportunities for all citizen. The national policy on education is associated with a numerical formula 6-3-3-4 which represents the number of years that a child is expected to spend at various level of education. The first 6 stands for 6 years in primary, followed by 3 years at the junior secondary, 3 years at the senior secondary and 4 years at the tertiary level. The new policy is in conception and design, a radical departure from the former British implanted educational system in Nigeria. A striking feature of colonial education in Nigeria was that, it was guided by the imperial utilization considerations. The primary education curriculum is designed to enable pupils use their minds and hands. The objective is to produce better farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, carpenters and better citizens. The secondary system is divided into two: the junior and senior secondary. At the first level, which is junior, students are expected to have a good mastery of craftsmanship, carpentry, wood works, etc. Its belief will make them to be self-reliant and independent. Instead of becoming job-seekers, they would be job-creators. However, for those who can make it to senior secondary school, higher curriculum tailored towards sciences and humanities are designed for them. However, what as good as the system is, it lacks foundational planning. Teachers with relevant knowledge or competence, in vocational and technical education were nowhere to be found. Because of their non-professional teachers lacked the methodological aspect of delivering their lectures. These amongst others, therefore, makes a mockery of the system both academic and practical disciplines in the universities and polytechnics. They are designed to produce high level human resources.

6. Is there any role Nigeria is playing at all?
The above question leads people to the main topic of this paper. The Federal Government of Nigeria has being


Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa

doing well in bringing improvement to the higher education in Nigeria. Some of the efforts include the follows. 6.1 Private participation in higher education in Nigeria The recent upsurge in secondary education has multiplier effects on the demand for higher education in the country in which government finds it difficult to cope with. Many youngsters in Nigeria are left scrambling for places in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. According to Oyebade (2005), since 1991-1992 academic year, the unsatisfied demand for university education has been above 70%. In 1992-1993 academic session, the unsatisfied demand was 83%. This issue of unfulfilled demand for university education coupled with the undignified system run by the public universities which is characterized by strikes, poor funding, cases of cultism and of most predominantly declining in quality had increased the request for private universities by stakeholders (see Table 2).
Table 2 JAMB (Joint Admission and Matriculation Board) application and admission profiles (2006) No. of application 1986-1987 1987-1988 1988-1989 1989-1990 1990-1991 1991-1992 1992-1993 1993-1994 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 193,774 210,525 190,353 255,638 287,572 398,270 357,950 420,681 508,280 472,362 419,807 550,399 828,214 828,334 851,604 913,559 No. admitted 39,915 36,356 41,700 38,431 48,504 61,49 57,685 59,484 32,473 76,430 72,791 60,718 78,416 83,405 91,280 92,103 Percentage admitted (%) 20.6 17.3 21.9 15.0 16.9 15.4 16.1 14.1 6.4 16.3 17.3 11.0 9.5 10.1 10.7 10.1

Sources: (1) Jegede 2000 Experts consultants report on Commonwealth of Learning World Bank Project; (2) Executive Secretary of NUC (2005), paper delivered at the National Workshop on Distance Education in Nigeria.

In the words of Adekanmbi (2007), he posited that the universities could not afford to become a beehive of commercial activities, where the search for money beclouds the search for knowledge and the truth. It becomes a kind of contradiction in terms if it were to be. It must satisfy the yearnings for its existence. How for example would it be different from the ordinary business organization? To allow universities to become financial corporations is itself a dangerous enterprise. The university must be the theoretical basis for development, and the guide for the praxis of such a goal. Due to this massive demand for education, government in Nigeria in 1980s received several applications for the establishment of private higher institutions. Concern for quality and for the need to set out guidelines led to the applications not being approved until the end of 1990s. Several private higher institutions have since been approved. The private sectors have responded by successfully getting so many private higher institutions licensed in the past 9 years. This private sector response to creation of higher institutions has been quite intense and has


and (5) establishment of National Open University (see Table 3).73 435. “Government often respond to the demands of the society concerning relevance of academic programmes through policy statements and directives from the NCE (National Council on Education). The packaging and repackaging of some university programmes to meet the changes in the knowledge environment goes a long way to improve the old moribund curriculum. 6.926 85. factors that had a serious telling effect on the institutional facilities. (4) approving the establishment of more private universities. bio-chemistry and geo-physics are in response to the market trends. (3) introducing an admission quota system to address regional and class imbalances. One of these strategies is the inclusion of new content in the field of study arising from public.574 1994-1995 256.416 2006-2007 723. according to Babalola and Jaiyeoba (2008). 2007). which communicates such decisions to the NUC and in turn issues directives to the universities for action”. With this development. reducing the unemployment.213 323. university graduates are commonly viewed as half-baked (Dabalen. There is therefore the need for tracer study by institutions of higher learning to find out the relevance of their degree programmes. As a result.914 219. it will be of great interest to note that the Federal Government has taken steps to expand access to higher education in Nigeria. academic standards have fallen considerably over the past decade and that a university degree is no longer a guarantee of communication skills or technical competence. the inclusion of courses like. One other way of strategizing curriculum in Nigeria.134 61. disseminating. Table 3 Type of institution University Polytechnic College of education Enrolment — — — 1987-1988 158.758 72. in which producing. the injection of entrepreneurial studies and citizenship education into the curriculum is like a harmattan fire spreading the self-sustainability of the graduates and thus.738 95. Babalola and Jaiyeoba (2008) opined that. demand with existing programmes. there has been serious concern about the quality of products of private higher institutions especially in the light of the sudden rise in their number as well as of the number of students. For instance.396 Increase from 1987-1988 to 2006-2007 (%) 418.780 187. Bankole & Olatunde. Apart from the above. (2) expanding enrolments.53 348. Employers believed that. requires the university curriculum and its implementation and must be dynamic and be relevant to the needs of the society in a rapidly changing world. 2001). where private sector participation is taking a pride of place in the provision of what was originally regarded as government preserves. screening by all the universities in Nigeria is a giant step aiming at sanitizing the quality of education in Nigeria.46 Source: National Manpower Board (NMB.684 331.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa made Nigeria become aligned to the change in the deregulated education industry worldwide. Besides. However. Some of the giant steps taken by the Federal Government include: (1) increasing the number of both state and federal universities. The curriculum of university education should prepare student for global labor market.759 106. adapting using and applying knowledge are the key factors of economic growth and competitiveness. The introduction and adoption of post-JAMB.890 Distribution of students by institution 1990-1991 195.502 1998-1999 319. the Nigerian government through NUC (National Universities Commission) of recent introduced some new dimensions to salvage the battered image through re-positioning of curriculum.770 105.2 Curriculum development The reality of a knowledge-based economy. due to the dynamic nature of the society and nature. is the 113 .

16 293. Ibadan National Open University Total Source: NUC (2008). because of low salaries and deteriorating facilities in Nigerian universities. Nasarawa Caritas University. University. federal government is encouraging scholars through the provision of scholarships and research grants.321 21. As academic systems become more similar and academic degree more widely accepted internationally. Oyo City University. Table 5 University Igbinedon University. Universities in developing countries are under tremendous pressure to carry out their responsibilities due to government inability to provide adequate fund to sustain university education. Ilorin.757 1994-1995 48. Curriculum development should follow a due process.147 2006-2007 97.266 1.286 25.766 45. Ota Bowen University. Globalization encourages these flows and will ensure that growth continues. Admission quota into Nigerian private universities for undergraduate programme (2007-2008) Total 1. This will enable graduates to acquire the required skills that will make them self-reliant. Also. New Karu. Ilisan Remo Pan African University. Iwo ABTI America. a large exodus of Nigerian academic to the Southern African Countries. Yola Bingham University.348 Increase from 1987-1988 to 2006-2007 (%) 161. Okija Babcock University. US. Ede Ajayi Crowther University. Table 4 Type of institution University Polytechnic College of education Distribution of total graduate out-turn by types of institution and academic year 1987-1988 37. the NUC has introduced entrepreneurial programme to the university curriculum.158 1998-1999 61. Enugu Al-Hikmah University. as immigration rules are tailed to people with high skills level and as universities themselves are more open to hiring the best talent worldwide.965 19. Lagos Redeemers University. At present. That is.500 981 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 — 9.00 Enrolment — — — Source: NMB (2007). Canada and UK is very rampant. a proposed curriculum should be drafted by the department to faculty board then to the senate.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa systematic and professional approach.219 43.097 2.937 200 960 1. Benin Covenant University.573 19.376 100. The approved document should now be sent to NUC and finally to the Ministry of Education for ratification (see Tables 4 and 5).64 129.578 Globalization poses a big threat to universities in South.823 21. 114 . Lagos Benson Idahosa University. Kwara State Cetep City University.497 31.749 58. There is substantial migration abroad for academic work.803 1990-1991 41. Okada Madonna University. However.

This is not unconnected to the International Monetary Fund which has played an important role in setting the conditions for nation/states to develop economically. opportunities and threats. These organizations conduct seminars and competitions for girls at the secondary school level and work to sensitize parents and girls to the benefits of science education. The IMF is concerned primarily with reducing the cost of public service delivery. The NUC has ratified the establishment of pre-degree remedial programmes in science in most of the universities. it has no gendered targets. The issue has not been resolved. which always include girls’ colleges. as well as boys’ colleges. However. This in turn means the reduction of public spending relative to the private sector. A major part of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) package for countries preparing the IMF package for countries preparing themselves for “sound” economic growth to reduce the size of the public deficit and shifting national resources form government control to the private sector. 6. In addition. and is therefore relevant to education policy. A policy on Department of Science and Technology in the country is woven into the teaching of the subjects at the higher institutions of learning. best in teaching Nigerian UMIS (University Management Information System). pedagogic and management training programme for university staff and managers and database of expert in higher education. This issue of commodification of knowledge has been resisted by both academic staff unions and students unions. such as GASAT (Gender and Science and Technology) and the TWOWS (Third World Organization for Women in Science). These include virtual library. They have settled on 3 main finance driven reforms: (1) the shift of public funding for education from higher to lower levels of education. and (3) higher education. It is expected that. It will make each university to know their strengths.5 Science and technology The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology was created in 1979 by the Federal Government to provide leadership in the Development of Science and Technology in Nigeria. knowledge has always been power as well as a public good and access to it and its role in innovation determine both the place of nation in the world order and of individual in the society. while this has enhanced access for many 115 . the National Universities Commission has introduced new initiatives to stimulate quality university system. 6. This will have an overall effect on the productivity of labor and higher educational institution. (2) the privatization of secondary. NUNET (Nigerian Universities Network). Special academic grants and research awards have also been given via these organizations to encourage retention of women in the field and to show case role models. particularly the issue of cost sharing as government alone. Further efforts to promote science and technology have been noted more amongst non-governmental organizations and international networks. Their stand is based on the fact that. This annual rating of universities will help promote healthy rivalry among the institutions. e-learning.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa 6. The Helena Rubenstein Award for women in science has promoted this and 2 Nigerian female academics won this global award consecutively in the late 1990s. weaknesses. It is only at the secondary school level that the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology has encouraged good performance in science and mathematics through various inter-school competitions and awards. Nigerian universities COMPULIE (Computer Literacy Programme).4 Finance driven reforms Government in recent times has introduced the finance-driven reforms.3 Competitive driven reform The competitive driven reform introduced by the National Universities Commission is a welcome development. but that commodification displaces the creation and passing on of knowledge. This in essence will help universities bring innovation into their programmes and this will enhance creativity and resourcefulness.

O. G. F. Influence of federal character on university administration in Nigeria. Isuku. P. 37-52. B. Altabach. Journal of Higher Education. J. (2001). F. The knowledge context: Comparative perspectives on the distribution of knowledge.. Ibadan. Higher Education Policy. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 12(8). Deregularing the provision and management of education in Nigeria. Akinwumi. F. (Eds). Federal Ministry of Education. & Fagbamiye. Education sector status report. 2 (forth coming). Curriculum development for effective learning in higher education during knowledge and digital revolutions. MD: The John Hopkins University Press. Pricing policy in the social sector: Cost recovery for education and health in the developing countries. O. & Olaniyan. O. (2008). E. Babalola. Altabach. Akinwumi. Nigeria: Abuja. V. Fabunmi. Labor market prospect for university graduates in Nigeria. (2002). M. in developing countries. Since education is perceived as a public good and therefore its demand always surpasses its supply.chea. P.. U. 117-129. Akinwumi. African Journal of Educational Management 9(2). E. 116 . J. F. Dabalen. This obviously will facilitate the development and competitiveness of local universities with their foreign counterparts. more girls than hitherto now have the opportunity to improve their eligibility for entry into the science courses. Retrieved July 22. S. G. Benefitting from basic education. Jamenez. Ibadan. D. A.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa students through bypassing the UME (University Matriculation Examination) examinations in favor of internal examination. A. Bankole. (2009). F. 325-335. R. & Emunemu. (2004). M. G. the study therefore recommends that budgetary allocations to higher education be increased in order to meet that ever-increasing demands of the institutions. Analysis of university autonomy in Nigeria. Altabach. 349-373. (Eds. Finally. Federal Ministry of Education. B. A. O. (1989). O. & Olatunde. T. Udoh. Statistics are required to show if this has positive affect on girls’ access. Eisermon. S. Nigeria. In: Akpa. the adoption of multi-campus system should be encouraged among the higher institutions of learning for both regular and distance learning students in order to increase accessibility to higher education among the populace of the nation. (2007). G.). Tertiary distance education in Africa: A response to trends in world higher education. G. (2004). A. & Akinwumi. (2004). Association of African Universities. school quality and functional literacy in Kenya. In: Babalola. E. P. D.O. Hayward. & Agwaranze. J. Olaniyan. from http//www. Jos: Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning. & Selvarantnam. 7. (1987). Baltimore. Nigeria: Abuja. (1986). 1. such as NUC. A. Recommendation Based on the above discussions. Intergenerational conflict in the management of university in Nigeria: A case study of University of Ibadan. Ghana. B. Knowledge and education as international commodities international higher education. Redressing the problem of access: The relevance of private universities in Nigeria. Issues in higher education: Research evidence from sub-Sahara Africa. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Ibadan: Awe mark Printers. Journal of Research on International Education. & Jaiyeoba. Paper presented at the Higher Education Research and Policy Network. in order to ensure favorable comparison and competitiveness with the foreign counterparts. S. 2008. Communiqué: National summit on higher education. (2007). (2004).. University education deregulation in Nigeria: Pros and cons. E-learning could also be strengthened to further boost this cause. Quality assurance and accreditation of higher education in Africa. Journal of Higher Education. References: Adekanmbi. (Eds. D. S. 141-159. S.. A. Nigeria. (1987). From dependence to autonomy: The development of Asian universities. Alani. S.). (2002). Albany: State University of New York Press. a standard procedure for quality control should be embarked upon by the higher education regulatory body. (2001).

Abuja. Subotzky.: The World Bank. 2010. World Bank. . National Manpower Board. L. Reforming higher education in Nigeria. (2010. African Journal of Educational Management. Prospects. S. US: New York. (2003). R. (2003).aau. (2003).: the World Bank. Washington D. Odejide. Status of management information system in higher educational institutions in Nigeria. (2000).C. WCEFA. Task Force on Higher Education and Society. Globalization and higher education reform. T. Retrieved from http://www. & Agabi. Maliyamkono. Accra-Ghana: Association of African Universities. towards understanding change and continuities in switch African higher education. Zaria: University of Maiduguri and Northern Nigeria Publishing Company. (2007). A. ub-Sahara Africa. 104-115. (Ed. L.).C. P. Okebukola P (2010): Fifty years of higher education in Nigeria: Trends in quality assurance. A weekly NUC Monday Bulletin. J. Paper presented at a senior policy Seminar of Enhancing Effectiveness and Efficiency in African Higher Education. A weekly NUC Monday Bulletin. World Declaration on Education for All. & Labode. Nigeria: Abuja. Nigeria: Abuja. Challenges facing African universities: Selected issues.Role of Nigeria in the development of higher education in Africa Jubril. Quality and stress in Nigeria education. Gender participation in university education in Nigeria and some commonwealth country. (1990). Ranking of Nigeria universities according to performance of their academic programmes. September 27-29. (2008. Sawyerr. H. (2003). A paper presented at the National Conference on the Contributions of Nigerian Universities to the 50th Independence Anniversary of Nigeria. Symbolism and substance. Dakar: UNESCO Regional Office for Africa (BREDA). D. 351-362. (Eds. Nigeria: Abuja. Annual publication of the NMB. Recent developments and future prospects of higher education in sub-Sahara Africa in the 21st century. London: Open University Press and the Society for Research in Higher Education. (2002). J. Washington. (1991). 5(36). Women in higher education in Nigeria. 21(3). A. M. O. National Universities Commission. S. Ngu. 3(18). Higher education in developing countries: Peril and promise. University of Ibadan. B. (1990). (2003). 38(3). NUC National Universities Commission. Paper Presented at the Africa Regional Training Conference. (Edited by Nicole and Sunny) 117 . O. McGill Journal of Education. A. “Improving Tertiary Education”. 4(1& 2). UNESCO. (2002). Oyebade. May).org/english/document/ass-challengesfigs.). G. Longe. (2008). (1992).pdff. Higher education in eastern and southern Africa. Improving regional cooperation. In: Babalola. National Universities Commission. Higher Education Research and Policy Network (APNET)/Postgraduate School. Ndiaye. Ibadan. (2002). Constructing knowledge societies: New challenges for tertiary education. September). In: Eggins. The relevance of African higher education. G.

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