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IB Biology Review Sheet

Binomial Nomenclature (Linnaeus System) o 2 main characteristics Species Species Taxa o Kingdom o Phylum o Class o Order o Family o Genus o Species 3-Domain System o Bacteria o Archaea o Eukarya Bacteria o Prokaryotes- No internal membranes o Decomposers- vital role in environment o Pathogens- many, disease causing o Genetic engineering- Escherichia coli, Manufacture insulin o Conjugation- sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic materials o Peptidoglycan- thick, rigid cell wall substance o Some carry out photosynthesis o No Introns (Noncoding regions of genes) o Viruses placed here Archaea o Unicellular o Prokaryotic o Include extremophiles (organisms that thrive in extreme environments) Methanogens- Obtain Energy by producing methane from hydrogen Halophiles-thrive in environments with high salt concentrations Thermophiles- thrive in very high temperature o Introns present in some genes o No peptidoglycan Eukarya o Super kingdom that includes four of the original kingdoms Plants, animals, fungi, and protists o All organisms have nucleus and internal organs

IB Biology Review Sheet o o No peptidoglycan in cells Can be unicellular or multicellular

Organism Placement
Germ Layers o Ectoderm-Outermost layer Becomes skin, nervous system, nerve chord, and brain o Endoderm Innermost Develops into guts or digestive system o Mesoderm Middle layer Becomes blood and bones Open/Closed circulatory system o Open-blood filled spaces called hemocoels Organisms with open circulatory systems: Mollusca, and Arthropoda o Closed blood only in enclosed area Organisms- Annelida Presence of cell wall o Plants/algae- made of cellulose o Fungi- made from chitin Eukaryotes /Prokaryotes o Prokaryotes-no internal membranes; no nuclear membrane, E.R. Mitochondria, vacuoles, or other organelles Circular, Naked DNA Ribosomes very smalls Metabolism is anaerobic and aerobic Cytoskeleton absent Mainly unicellular Cells are very small: 1-10 um o Eukaryotes- contain distinct organelles DNA wrapped with histone proteins into chromosomes Ribosomes are larger Metabolism is aerobic Cytoskeleton present Mainly multicellular with differentiation of cell types Cells larger: 10-100 um Mode of Nutrition o Photoautotrophic

IB Biology Review Sheet photosynthetic organisms that capture light and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 or other inorganic carbon compounds Cyanobacteria and many groups of prokaryotes are phototrophic, as are plants and algae o Chemoautotrophic Need only inorganic compounds such as CO2 as carbon source However instead or light they oxidize inorganic compounds This mode is only unique to certain prokaryotes o Photoheterotrophic Harness energy from light but must obtain carbon in organic form Mode unique to certain marine halophilic prokaryotes o Chemoheterotrophic Must consume organic molecules to obtain energy and carbon Wide spread through prokaryotes Fungi, animals, most protists, and even some parasitic plants are chemoheterotrophic Segmentation o Arthropoda, vertebrae, and Annelida o Bilateral symmetry Deuterostome and Protostome o Deuterostome- the second opening become s mouth and blastopore becomes the anus Organisms include echinoderms and chordates o Protostome- the second opening becomes anus and blastopore becomes mouth Organisms include annelids, mollusks, and arthropods Jointed appendages o Mainly in Arthropods Exoskeleton o In lophophores, Nematodes, Arthropods Nephridia o Flatworms, rotifers, some annelids, larval mollusks, and lancelets o Parasitic flatworms use photonephridia (Flatworm excretory system) Gastrovascular Cavity vs. Alimentary Canal o Gastrovascular Cavity- one opening, characteristic or cnidarians o Alimentary Canal- two openings, in animals with longer digestive tracts, longest part is the small intestine Somites o Muscle segments that develop from blocks of mesoderm, arranged serially along each side of the notochord of the embryo

IB Biology Review Sheet Mesenchyme cells migrate from the somites into two layers that form the lining of coelom o The completion of gastrulation is followed by the first events of organogenesis: the formation of the neural tube, notochord, and somites o Metabolic wasted are removed from the hemolymph by outpockets of the digestive tract Tracheal Breathing tubes o Adaptation of terrestrial animals o The tracheal system of insects is composed of air tubes that branch throughout the body o Larger insects with higher energy demands ventilate their tracheal systems with rhythmic body movements that compress and expand the air tubes like bellows o Alternating contractions and relaxation of flight muscles compresses and expands the body, rapidly pumping air through the tracheal system o Flight muscles are packed with mitochondria and the tracheal system supplies each with ample oxygen o Unlike branching tracheal systems, lungs are restricted to one location Connective Tissue o Types Cartilage- acts as a cushioning dis between vertebrae Adipose- fat tissue, specialized loose connective tissue Blood- different from other connective tissue, contains plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells Bone- mineralized connective tissue Ligaments- connects bones to joints Tendon- connects muscle to bone Loose connective tissue- most widespread o Structure Collagenous fibers- non elastic, dont rip easily, made of collagen (the most abundant protein in the Animal Kingdom) Elastic Fibers- Long threads of Elastin, provide a rubbery quality that completes the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers Reticular fibers- very thin and branched, composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers, they form a tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissue o Circulatory system Artery and arterioles- carry blood away from the hear under enormous pressures Walls made of thick, elastic, smooth, muscle Vein and venule- carry blood back to the heart under very little pressure o

IB Biology Review Sheet Thin walls have valves to help prevent back flow; veins are located within skeletal muscle, which propels blood upward and back to the hear as the body moves Capillary- allows for diffusion of nutrients and wastes between cells and blood Walls are one cell thick and so small that blood cells travel in single file Association with other organisms Sponge and hydra- no circulatory system Lungfish- three chambered heart (one ventricle, two atria) Crocodilian- four chambered heart Birds/mammals- four chambered heart Fish- two chambered heart (one atrium, one ventricle) Amphibian- three chambered heart (two atria, one ventricle) Reptile- three chambered heart (two atria, one ventricle (separated by septum))

Muscle o Smooth or involuntary- make up the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tracts, not striated appearance o Cardiac- makes up heart and is not striated o Skeletal or voluntary- very large and multinucleate, they work in pairs, one contracts while the other relaxes Flatworms-Platyhelminthes o Invertebrate o Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry, and anterior end, three distinct cell layers, and cephalization o Have true tissue and organs o Digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion and egestion so food cannot be processed directly o Flatworms are acoelomate, they have no coelom; they have a solid body with no room for true digestive for respiratory system to circulate food molecules or oxygen; have solved this problem in two ways o Body is very flat, which keeps the body cells in direct contact with oxygen in the environment o The digestive cavity is branched so that food can be spread to all regions of the body Countercurrent exchange o The flow of adjacent fluids in opposite directions that maximizes the rate of simple diffusion

IB Biology Review Sheet Ex: seen fish fills, blood flows towards the head in the gills, while water flows over the gills in the opposite direction. This process maximizing the diffusion of respiratory gasses and wastes between the water and the fish Feedback mechanism- bill regulating mechanism that increases or decreases the level of particular substances o Positive feedback- enhances an already existing response o Negative feedback- common mechanism in the endocrine system that maintains homeostasis Viruses o Composition Capsid- protein coat enclosing DNA and RNA Envelope- derived from the membranes of host cells, cloaks the capsid, and helps the virus in inspecting the host o Lysogenic Cycle Viruses replicate without destroying of cell The phage virus becomes incorporated into a specific sites in the hosts DNA It remains dormant within the host genome and is called a prophage As the host cell divides, the page is replicated along with it and a single infected cells gives rise to a population of infected cells At some point an environmental trigger causes the virus to change to go lyctic phase o Lyctic cycle- age enters a vote fell, takes control of the cell machinery, replicates itself, and then causes the cell to burst, releasing a new generation of infectious phage viruses o Viruses is capable of both methods of reproducing, lyctic and lysogenic, within bacterium are called temperate viruses Protista- characteristics o Include the widest variety of organisms, but all are Eukaryotes o Include a organisms that do not hate into fungi or play kingdoms, such as seaweeds or slime molds o Consist of single and primitive multicellular of organisms o Includes autotrophs and heterotrophs o Amoeba and paramecium are heterotrophs o Euglena are primarily autotrophs with red eye spots and chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis o Protozoans like amoeba and paramecium are classified by how they move o Mobility by varied method: amoeba- pseudopods; paramecium cilia; euglenaflagella o Some carry out conjugation, a primitive form of sexual reproduction o Some cause serious diseases like amoebic dysentery and malaria o

IB Biology Review Sheet o Freshwater protists and have contractile vacuoles that pump out excess water Phylogeny o Cladograms/derived character Cladeogenesis or branching evolution-occurs when a new species branches out from a parent species Anagenesis or phyletic evolution- occurs when one species replaces another o Comparative embryology Closely related organism move through similar stages in their embryonic development EX: all vertebrae embryos go through a stage in which they have gilled pouches on the sides of the throat. In fish, the gill pouches developed into gills and in mammals they develop into Eustachian tubes in the ears o Homologous structures-have, in origin and reflect a common ancestry o Analogous structures- similarity is superficial and reflects the adaptation to similar environments, not descent from a recent common ancestor o Vestigial structures the appendix is a vestige of a structure needed when human ancestors ate a very different diet Digestion o The water-soluble vitamins vitamins and minerals are small enough to be absorbed without digestion Molecule digestion Mouth- starch (break down) Stomach beginning of protein digestion Duodenum digestion completed Bile produced in the liver stored in the gallbladder released into small intestines as needed and acts as an emulsifier to break down fats, creating greater surface area of for digestion enzymes Experiment o States a clear hypothesis o Experiment must be reasonable to carry out, must work o Have a control o Only change one variable at a time o Have a large enough sample o Experimental organisms must be as similar as possible o State that the experiment must be repeated Amniotic eggs o Allowed organisms Reptiles and birds Mammals o Different membranes and functions

IB Biology Review Sheet Allantois-disposal sac for certain metabolic waste produced by embryo Amnion-protects embryo in a fluid filled cavity that cushions against mechanical shocks Chorion-used as exchange between embryo and the air Yolk sac- contains a stockpile of nutrients o Adaptations Allows embryo to develop on land in its own product pond, hands reducing the dependence of tetrapods on an aqueous environment for reproduction Nine Common Animal Phyla o Porifera-The Sponges-Invertebrates No symmetry Have no nerves or muscles; are sessile, meaning they do not move Filter nutrients from water drawn into the central cavity called a spongocoel Consist of two Sellers only: dictator and a node are connected by a noncellular mesoglea Have no true tissues or organs although they had heard that the cells Choanocytes collar cells, line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water Spicules for support sponges are classified by the material that makes up the spicules Amoebocytes a cell that move on their own and perform numerous functions: reproduction, carrying food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of materials that form the spicules Evolve from colonial organisms; if a sponge is squeezed through a fine cheesecloth, it will separate into individual cells that will spontaneously regenerate into a sponge Reproduce a sexually by fragmentation as well as section, or are hermaphrodites o Cnidarians hydra and jellyfish Invertebrates Radial symmetry The body plan is a polyp (vase shaped) or the medusa (upside-down bowl shape) Life cycle some go through a planula larva stays then go through two reproductive species: asexually reproducing and sexually reproduced To cell layers: echinoderms and odor connected by non-cellular mesoglea Have a Gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs

IB Biology Review Sheet Also carry out intracellular digestion inside body cells, carried out in lysosomes Have no transport system but every cell in in contact with the environment All membranes has stinging cells: cnidocytes Platyhelminthes flat worms including tapeworms Invertebrate The simplest animal with bilateral symmetry, and anterior end, three distinct cell layers, and cephalization At true tissues and organs Digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion and egestion so food cannot be processed continuously Flatworms are acoelomate, they have no coelom; they have a solid body with no room for true digestive for respiratory system to circulate food molecules or oxygen; they have solved this problem in two ways The body is very flat, which keeps the body cells in direct contact with oxygen in the environment The digestive cavity is branched so that food can be spread to all regions of the body Nemtoda roundworms Invertebrate On segmented worms with bilateral symmetry but little sensory apparatus Protostome pseudoctelomate Pseudocoeom transports nutrients, but there is inadequate room for circulatory system Many are parasitic One species, Caenorhabeitis elegans, is widely used as a model in studying the link between genes and development Annelida segmented worms: earthworms and leeches Invertebrates Protostome Coelomate with bilateral symmetry but little sensory apparatus Digestive tract is tube within a tube consisting of crop, gizzard, and intestine Nephridia were excretion of nitrogenous waste, urea Closed circulatory system heart consists of five parts of aortic arches Blood contains hemoglobin and Carries oxygen Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through moist skin Are hermaphroditic, but the animal does not sell self-fertilize Mollusca switch, octopuses, slope, clams, and snails Invertebrates

IB Biology Review Sheet Protostome coelomates Have a soft body is often protected by a hard calcium containing shell Have bilateral symmetry with three distinct bodies zones Head -foot - which contains both sensory and motor organs Visceral mass- which contains the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction Mantle- a specialized tissue that surrounds the visceral mass and secretes the shell Radula- movable, tooth-bearing structures, acts as tongue Open circulatory system Most have gills and Nephridia Arthropoda- insects, crustaceans, and arachnids Invertebrate Protostome coelomates Jointed appendages Segmented: head, thorax and abdomen Having more sensory apparatus than annelids giving them more speed and freedom of movement Chitinous exoskeleton protects animal and aids in movement Open circulatory system with a tubular heart and hemocoels; lack capillaries Malphighian tubes for removal of nitrogenous wastes, uric acid Air ducts called trachea bring air from the environment into hemocoels Some have book lungs or book gills Echinodermata- Sea Stars and Sea Urchins Invertebrate Deuterostome coelomates Most are sessile or slow moving Bilateral symmetry as an embryo but reverts to the primitive radial symmetry as an adult; the radial anatomy is an adaptation to a sedentary lifestyle Water vascular system, which is a modified coelom, creates hydrostatic support for tube feet, locomotive structures Reproduces by sexual reproduction were fertilization is external Also reproduces by fragmentation and regeneration; any piece of the sea star that contains part of the central canal will form an entirely new organism Sea stars have an endoskeleton consisting of calcium plates, which grow within the body Chordata- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Vertebrate

IB Biology Review Sheet Deuterostome coelomates have a notochord- a rod that extends the length of the body and serves as a flexible axis Dorsal, hollow chord Tail aids in movement and balance- the coccyx bone in humans is a vestige of a tail Birds and mammals are endotherms and homeotherms- maintains a consistent body temperature; all others are ectotherms, although some reptiles can raise their body temperature to a limited extent