Confidential

WCDMA RADIO NETWORK OPTIMISATION GUIDELINES
MARCH 2003

Doc No: Version: Category: Comments:

Spec1267 1 Specification

Date Issued: Version Status: Sub-Category:

11/4/2003 Current Design

Copy No:

Statement of Confidentiality Copyright in this document is the property of Orange Personal Communications Services Limited and its contents shall be held in strict confidence by the recipient hereof and shall be used solely for the purposes of Orange Personal Communications Services Limited. Neither this document nor its contents shall be disclosed to any other person or used for any other purpose without prior written permission of Orange Personal Communications Services Limited. © Orange Personal Communications Services Limited 2000. All rights reserved.

Document Owner: Robert Joyce

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Confidential

AMENDMENT HISTORY
Version Date Issued Originator/ Modified by Reason(s) For Issue/ Re-issue

1A 1 1.1

19/03/03 10/04/03 26/08/03

Robert Joyce Benoit Graves Robert Joyce

First draft, pre-approval review First Issue Minor ammendment, coverage levels brought in line with SPEC1337.

Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1

Issue Date: 11/4/2003

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Confidential

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 5
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................... 5 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 5 Responsibilities ................................................................................................................................... 5 Reference / Related Documentation ................................................................................................... 5 Definition of Terms .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 3

BACKGROUND............................................................................................................. 6 WCDMA BASICS .......................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Frequency Reuse ................................................................................................................................ 7 3.2 Scrambling Codes in WCDMA ............................................................................................................ 8 3.2.1 Scrambling Code Planning .......................................................................................................... 8 3.2.2 Scrambling Code Measurements ................................................................................................ 9 3.2.2.1 Total Received Power Io ........................................................................................................... 9 3.2.2.2 Received Power of a CPICH Ec ............................................................................................. 10 3.2.2.3 The CPICH Quality Ec/Io ......................................................................................................... 10 3.2.2.4 Ec/Io Calculation Example ....................................................................................................... 10 3.2.2.5 Ec, Io and Ec/Io Measurement .................................................................................................. 11 3.3 Handovers in WCDMA ...................................................................................................................... 11 3.3.1 Softer Handover ......................................................................................................................... 11 3.3.2 Soft Handover ............................................................................................................................ 12 3.4 Basic WCDMA Optimisation ............................................................................................................. 12

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COVERAGE OPTIMISATION ..................................................................................... 13
4.1 4.2 4.3 Target Measured Coverage Levels ................................................................................................... 13 Target Measured Ec Levels – In Train .............................................................................................. 14 Link between coverage and capacity ................................................................................................ 14

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MISSING NEIGHBOURS OPTIMISATION .................................................................. 15
5.1 Definition of missing neighbours in WCDMA .................................................................................... 15 5.2 Problems of missing neighbours ....................................................................................................... 15 5.2.1 Downlink quality ......................................................................................................................... 15 5.2.2 Uplink quality .............................................................................................................................. 15 5.3 Solution ............................................................................................................................................. 15 5.3.1.1 Missing Neighbour Detection with a scanner ......................................................................... 15 5.3.1.2 Missing Neighbour Detection with a trace mobile .................................................................. 16 5.3.1.3 Missing Neighbour Detection with a scanner and a trace mobile .......................................... 16

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SOFT HANDOVER AREA OPTIMISATION ................................................................ 17
6.1 Definition of Soft Handover Area ....................................................................................................... 17 6.2 Aim of SHO Area Optimisation .......................................................................................................... 17 6.2.1 Soft HO ...................................................................................................................................... 17 6.2.2 Softer HO ................................................................................................................................... 18 6.3 SHO Area Target............................................................................................................................... 18 6.4 Mechanisms to achieve SHO area target ......................................................................................... 18 6.4.1 Aim of SHO Area Optimisation .................................................................................................. 18 6.4.2 SHO Area Optimisation .............................................................................................................. 18 6.4.2.1 Parameter changes ................................................................................................................ 19 6.5 Methods of SHO Analysis ................................................................................................................. 20 6.5.1 SHO Analysing with a scanner .................................................................................................. 20 6.5.1.1 Display of SHO area ............................................................................................................... 20 6.5.1.2 Identification of cells to optimise ............................................................................................ 20 6.5.2 Method with a trace mobile ........................................................................................................ 21 6.6 SHO Area Optimisation Summary .................................................................................................... 21

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PILOT POLLUTION OPTIMISATION .......................................................................... 22
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Definition of Pilot Pollution ................................................................................................................ 22 Problems caused by Pilot Pollution ................................................................................................... 22 Distinction between coverage and interference problems ................................................................ 22 Practical thresholds for pilot pollution ............................................................................................... 23

Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1

Issue Date: 11/4/2003

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.2......5....... 29 Step 2 – Cluster Optimisation ............... 28 8................... 27 8 OVERALL OPTIMISATION PROCESS ..3 Determine the dedicated best serving cells ...........................................................................................................................................................................6............................................................................................................... 25 7.... 25 7..........................5.. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 4 of 31 .................................... 29 WCDMA vs.......................................................5 Pilot Pollution Optimisation .........1......................4 Determine the worst interferers .....................2 List all cells involved in the pilot pollution area ...........................3 Optimisation Actions ..2 8..............................................7 Pilot Pollution Optimisation Summary .. 30 9 SUMMARY .............................................................5.................... 26 7.................................6 Practical Pilot Pollution Analysis ... 28 Step 1 – Site Verification ...................5.........................................................................................................3 Reduction of interferer Ec levels .....................6..........................................................................1 Pilot Pollution Optimisation Target ...........................5............ 23 7............................6.......... 24 7............................... 25 7..........................................................................................................................................................................6..................................................................................................................... 24 7.........................5..................1...................... 31 Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.................................................................. 25 7......2 Improvement of Ec level .........................1...........1 Analysis with a scanner .....................................................4 Site Verification and Cluster Validation .................... 23 7.......................................... GSM...........................6.................3 8............. 23 7.................2 Analysis with a trace mobile.......................1 Identify pilot pollution areas ..................................................2 Generic method ....1 Pre-check ........................1................................................... 23 7.......... 26 7.................................................................................................Confidential 7.. 25 7...................................................................................1 8................................6...........................................................................2............ 23 7.....2..................................

2 Scope The document covers only radio aspects of optimisation and does not cover RRM or core network optimisation. 1. 1. 1.3 Responsibilities Access Network Design will be responsible for updating this document as and when required.5 Definition of Terms (Overtype definitions here) (Overtype term here) Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to document guidelines for the optimisation of Orange’s WCDMA radio network.Confidential 1 INTRODUCTION 1. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 5 of 31 .4 [1] Reference / Related Documentation SPEC 1337 – “Shadow Fading Margins & Drive Survey Levels for 2G & 3G” 1.

coverage quality. The document begins by covering the basic metrics of WCDMA radio measurements and introduces new concepts not previously required for 2G optimisation. looking at the various consideration to be made when optimising WCDMA such as coverage level. missing neighbours and so on. These guidelines are the result of the work performed on the Bristol Experimental Network and armed with these guidelines it should be possible for the reader to optimise a WCDMA network so that it delivers a reliable quality of service similar if not better than Orange’s current 2G network. Finally the document summarises the steps required to optimise a WCDMA radio network together with the need to maintain the performance of the Orange GSM network. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. It then goes on to explain how optimisation can be achieved in stages. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 6 of 31 .Confidential 2 BACKGROUND This document is aimed at the Network Planning and Network Optimisation teams and gives guidelines on how to optimise a WCDMA network.

7 1979.9 1914.7 1899.9 2134.9 2149.0 2134. The table and diagram below show Orange’s 3G spectrum allocation alongside the allocations of the other 3G operators.2 2162.9 1914.1 Frequency Reuse This section outlines some WCDMA basics.7 Orange 1969.O2 Licence D .9 1959.Confidential 3 WCDMA BASICS 3. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.6 2x10 + 5 = 25 2x10 + 5 = 25 2x10 + 5 = 25 TDD FDD Uplink FDD Downlink 1910 1920 1905 1915 1935 1945 1960 1970 1980 2110 2125 2135 2150 2160 2170 Licence A .8 = 29.9 1909.4 1972.9 2149.9 2159. Licence A B C D E FDD Uplink Operator From (MHz) To (MHz) Hutchison 3G 1920.7 O2 1934.0 1934.Hutchison 3G Licence B .9 T-Mobile 1959.9 1920. All launch cells will use F1 and therefore Orange’s initial 3G network will have a frequency reuse of 1.Vodafone Licence C . The table below shows the frequencies of Orange’s uplink and downlink carriers and their associated UARFCN (UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number.1 – UK 3G Spectrum Allocations As can be seen Orange has 2 FDD carriers and 1 TDD carrier.9 1904.7 1969.7 2159.T-Mobile Licence E .9 1909.7 N/A N/A 2124.2 TDD FDD Uplink F1 F2 UARFCN 9537 9861 9886 10811 10836 FDD Downlink F1 F2 Figure 3. Orange will initially launch 3G using only the lower FDD carrier (F1). Frequency (MHz) 1907.9 1944.7 2169.3 2124.9 Total (MHz) 2x15 + 5 = 35 2x14.7 1904.2 2167. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 7 of 31 .Orange Figure 3.7 FDD Downlink TDD From (MHz) To (MHz) From (MHz) To (MHz) 2110.9 Vodafone 1944.2 – OrangeUK 3G Carriers (Orange will initially launch using FDD carrier F1).2 1977.

The Orange scrambling code plan follows a code group reuse approach leading to a reuse of 64. 3.2.2 Scrambling Codes in WCDMA Since every cell in a WCDMA network can transmit on the same frequency some means of differentiation is required. In WCDMA every code has the same ability to interfere with every other code therefore there is no concept of adjacent code interference. It means a field op. For example a site assigned a code group of 2 will have the following scrambling codes. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 8 of 31 . Engineer only needs to know the code group for the site and from this they can derive the scrambling codes of each sector of the site It increases the probability of a UE camping on to the network. This means each site is assigned a code group and each sector of each site is assigned codes from the group in numerical order.   Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. Code Group 0 Code Group 1 Code Group 2 … Code s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Figure 3.as in the case of GSM.  It simplifies the planning without degrading performance (a reuse of 64 provides same cocode protection as a reuse of 512). these 512 codes are grouped into 64 groups of 8 codes. Orange’s 3G scrambling code planning will be performed by Access Design and a full scrambling code plan can be found on the Access Design Doc Cabinet for all planned 3G sites. This differentiation is achieved through the use of Scrambling Codes.Confidential 3.1 Scrambling Code Planning In WCDMA Scrambling Codes (SCs) require planning rather than frequencies . In the downlink there are 512 DL Scrambling Codes. Sector A Sector B Sector C Sector E Sector F Sector G 16 17 18 19 20 21 This scrambling code group planning approach by site rather than cell has many advantages.3 – First three downlink code groups of WCDMA.

The Total Received Power (dBm) .Confidential 3.The Received Signal Level of a particular CPICH (dBm) . Initial 3G network optimisation will be performed purely from CPICH measurements.2.5 – UE receives its total power from a number of sources In a WCDMA network the User Equipment (UE) may receive signals from many cells whether in handover or not Io = The sum total of all of these signals + any background noise (dBm)* *Note: Sometimes Io is referred to as No. It carries no information and can be thought of as a “beacon” constantly transmitting the Scrambling Code of the cell. Ec Io Ec/Io . CPICH Figure 3. Golden Rule: If the UE can’t see the CPICH the UE can’t see the cell. It is this “beacon” that is used by the phone for its cell measurements for network acquisition and handover purposes. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 9 of 31 .The CPICH Quality (The ratio of the above two values) 3. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.2.2.4 – Each cell broadcasts a CPICH (Common Pilot Indication Channel) The majority of 3G coverage measurements are based upon measurements of the CPICH. Three key related measurements for 3G optimisation are.1 Total Received Power Io Figure 3.2 Scrambling Code Measurements The Common Pilot Indication Channel (CPICH) is a common channel broadcast from each and every cell within a WCDMA network. RSSI or ISSI.

2.2.Confidential 3. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 10 of 31 .2.2 Received Power of a CPICH Ec Ec1 Ec2 Figure 3.7 – For each received CPICH Scrambling Code the UE is able to make an Ec/Io quality measurement From the previous two measures we can calculate a signal quality for each CPICH (Scrambling Code) received Ec/Io = Ec .6 – UE can differentiate between signals from different cells using the property of scrambling codes.3 The CPICH Quality Ec/Io Ec Figure 3. Ec = The Received Power of a Particular CPICH (dBm)* *Note: Sometimes Ec is referred to as RSCP 3.2.8 – Ec/Io Calculation Example Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.2.Io (dB)* *Note: Sometimes Ec/Io is referred to as Ec/No 3. Using the properties of the WCDMA downlink scrambling codes the UE is able to extract the respective CPICH levels from the sites received.2.4 Ec/Io Calculation Example Ec1=-95dBm Ec2=-90dBm Io=-80dBm Figure 3.

Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. Io and Ec/Io measurements.-80 = -15dB (Ec/Io)2 = -90 . A screen shot from the Anritsu scanner is shown below.2. 3.10 – Softer Handover in WCDMA Softer handover occurs between sectors of the same site. Io and Ec/Io Measurement All commercial scanners and test UEs are capable of Ec.9 – Anritsu scanner screen shot showing a number of pilots being measured.5 Ec. A UE is said to be in Intrasystem handover when it is communicating with more than one BTS.-80 = -10dB Clearly in this example the second pilot is seen by the UE as the stronger.3 Handovers in WCDMA Various types of handover (HO) exist in WCDMA. 3. 3. Figure 3. It is these measurements that are used for cover analysis and basic optimisation.1 Softer Handover Figure 3.3. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 11 of 31 . Another way of saying this is that its active set (the set of cells the UE is communicating with) is greater than 1.Confidential From the above three measurements we can calculate for each pilot the Ec/Io for that particular pilot (Ec/Io)1 = -95 . Those between WCDMA sites (intra-system HO) Those between WCDMA and GSM (inter-system HO) For initial WCDMA optimisation we will concentrate primarily on intra-system HO.2.

11 – Soft Handover in WCDMA Soft handover occurs between sectors of the different sites.Confidential 3.2 Soft Handover Figure 3. For both softer and soft it is the Ec/Io levels used to determine whether a cell should be added or removed from the active set.4 Basic WCDMA Optimisation The remainder of this document will now show that using the basics introduced in this section it is possible to optimise a WCDMA network using mainly Ec and Ec/Io measurements. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 12 of 31 .3. 3.

0 -96. All values assume Orange Default CPICH transmit power of 33dBm.0 -79.0 -72.0 -65.0 -97.0 -79. The most onerous Ec level is used.95% -81.0 -84. Service 12.0 -87.0 -103.0 -86.0 -90. It is possible to make voice calls below the values given in the table.0 -75. Obviously drive routes may cross many types of environments.0 -96. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 13 of 31 .0 Table 4.0 -94.0 -100.95% -88.0 -90. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.0 Urban/Suburban Deep Indoor . However below these levels it is impossible to offer any guaranteed level of service quality.0 -100. Therefore using this approach it is possible to derive target measured Ec levels to guarantee a particular service. The planning levels have been derived using appropriate link budgets with appropriate shadow fading margins.0 -88. However when actually measuring coverage these shadow fading margins are no longer required in the target measured coverage levels since the levels measured are actually after some or all (depends on environment and where measurement is made – indoor/outdoor) of the shadow fading.0 -90.1 Target Measured Coverage Levels Based on the February 2003 WCDMA link budgets the following target measured Ec levels have been derived. therefore it is important that during the analysis the drive route is classified into the different types of environments so that the correct measured Ec levels can be used.0 Indoor 95% -102.0 -95.0 -100.0 -90.0 -84.0 -96. For example if a voice and 64 PS data were the target services then clearly in this case voice has the higher signal level requirement because of its associated body losses.90% -102.0 -99.0 -94.0 -103.0 -95. For the time being this document concentrates on the launch services of voice and PS 64kbps.95% -71.0 -71. Spec 490 – Summary of Orange 2G & 3G Coverage Planning Levels details the required coverage levels to be achieved by network planning when planning both 2G and 3G networks.0 -102. The correct type of environment is assumed for the drive run.0 -66.0 -101.0 -80.0 -82.Confidential 4 COVERAGE OPTIMISATION The aim of this section is to provide details on how to analyse 3G coverage from drive test measurements to determine whether or not sufficient coverage has been provided to a particular location.1 – Target Measured Ec Levels for WCDMA (dBm) Notes on Target Ec Levels (these target levels should be check against those found in SPEC1337) All levels are in the above table are specified for outdoor measurement (except indoor).95% -95.2k Speech 64k CSD 64k PSD 64k CSD Videophone 144k CSD 144k PSD 384k CSD 384k PSD Dense Urban Deep Indoor .0 -93. It is expected that survey vehicles with carkit measurements will be used however care should be taken to ensure such equipment is calibrated such that the feeder and the antenna system has a gain of 0dB or any such gain/loss is removed during analysis.0 -101.0 -76.0 Rural Outdoor .0 -103.0 -82. other service types are included for completeness 4.0 -73.0 Environment Rail Indoor Window .0 -70.0 Road Indoor Window .0 -69.

A simplified approach has been taken. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.2 – In Train Target Measured Ec Levels for WCDMA (dBm) 4.0 -102. Urban/Suburban and Indoor.0 Table 4. A margin of 4dB (60% UL load) is taken for Dense Urban.0 -102. If this is the case the following target Ec levels should be used.0 -100. however this coverage will disappear as the network becomes loaded. When the load of the network increases. whereas a margin of 3dB (50% UL load) is applied for In Car.0 -96.2k Speech 64k CSD 64k PSD 64k CSD Videophone 144k CSD 144k PSD 384k CSD 384k PSD In Train Indoor Window 95% -100. In Train and Rural. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 14 of 31 . Therefore be warned of using the load margin to achieve coverage … one day your coverage will disappear!! If more coverage is required then just as with GSM either downtilts or new sites are the answer.Confidential 4. A full representation of the coverage with load from drive test would be impossible. Whilst the network is unloaded coverage will be provided at locations with signal levels a few dBs below these targets.3 Link between coverage and capacity In UMTS coverage and capacity are closely related.0 -96. therefore we shall not expect to get a cell capacity figure out of a drive test. basically the Ec coverage levels given above are defined for a loaded network and simply include a fixed margin to represent the shrunken cell.0 -98.0 -99. the cell will shrink and its coverage will be reduced.2 Target Measured Ec Levels – In Train It is now common practice to take rail coverage measurements from within trains. Service 12.

2.1 Definition of missing neighbours in WCDMA By a missing neighbour we mean a cell (MISSING_N) not declared as neighbour of the best active cell (BEST) although it could be included in the active set.2. In other words: EcNo MISSING _ N  EcNo BEST  Addition _ window Orange default: Addition_window = 1 dB.2 Uplink quality In the uplink the missing neighbour cell can experience an UL noise rise. 5.1 Downlink quality In the downlink two effects can occur  1: Increased DL interference  2: Call drop because of excessive DL interference 5.1. 5. hence cell shrinkage can occur leading to the possible deterioration of all calls on the cell. RF scanners are the best tool for this job and therefore it is recommended that they are actively used for WCDMA missing neighbour optimisation.1 Missing Neighbour Detection with a scanner When used with “Top N” functionality a scanner will report all decoded scrambling codes seen within the band.2 Problems of missing neighbours In WCDMA a missing neighbour leads to both downlink and uplink quality problems. 5. The difficult part is to identify the missing neighbour. Any cells found to be missing neighbours need to be added in the neighbouring list of the source cell at the OMC. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 15 of 31 . Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.3 Solution The way to solve missing neighbour is straightforward. 5. However for drive test analysis a larger margin is recommend such that: EcNo MISSING _ N  EcNo BEST  M arg inMISSING _ N Where Margin_missing_n = 5 dB. 5.3.Confidential 5 MISSING NEIGHBOURS OPTIMISATION The aim of this section is to give details on how to analyse and solve missing neighbour issues using drive test measurements.

3.1. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 16 of 31 . The process is as follows: Step 1: Merge two sources on a time basis Step 2: For each timestamp.2 Missing Neighbour Detection with a trace mobile When only a trace mobile is available it is far more difficult to detect missing neighbours. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. edit all neighbours reported within Margin_missing_n (5 dB) for both sources. But a few events may help identifying missing neighbours:  If the missing neighbour causes the call to drop. The scanner source will give all necessary neighbour declarations.Confidential With a post-processing tool we can list all required neighbour pairs fulfilling the condition: EcNoMISSING_ N  EcNo BEST  M arg inMISSING_ N A comparison can then be made between this list and the declared neighbour list and this will give the missing neighbour list for the corresponding drive. the UE will “lose the network” and revert to scanning mode in order to select a new suitable cell. Basically the trace mobile will obviously not report the missing neighbour in its monitored set because this neighbour is not declared. Step 3: The comparison gives the list of missing neighbours Note that this method does not require any comparison with a list of previously declared neighbours although this can also be done for completeness. cell_C appears to be the best server then it was most probably a missing neighbour of cell_A. 5. Missing neighbours will be the biggest cause of call drop and quality degradation in a WCDMA network it is therefore highly recommended that OrangeUK uses WCDMA scanners and either method 1 or 3 above to detect missing neighbours within its WCDMA network. As can be seen from the above method without a WCDMA scanner missing neighbour detection is very difficult. The problem is identical in both connected and idle mode.  5. Correlating the last connected cell and the newly selected cell is likely to give a missing neighbour pair. This is why scanners are really required for this purpose.3. In this case the UE will most probably select the missing neighbour cell. whereas the trace mobile source will only reports neighbours if declared. a handover from cell_A to cell_B will suddenly trigger the reporting of cell_C’s level. The method with a trace mobile is similar to that used to detect missing neighbours in GSM.1.3 Missing Neighbour Detection with a scanner and a trace mobile A comparison between neighbours detected by the trace mobile and those seen by the scanner will immediately point out any missing neighbours. If when first reported. If cell_C is a missing neighbour to cell_A but declared as neighbour of cell_B.

1 Definition of Soft Handover Area By SHO area we mean the area where a UE has several cells in its active set. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 17 of 31 .2. As a reminder soft HO means HO between a 2 cells from different NodeBs. The soft HO area is defined by the equation: Ec Io _ best  Ec Io _ 2nd _ best  SHO _ window Where SHO_window is the average of Addition_window and Drop_window (Current Orange Default parameters add_window=1dB. Based upon the parameter settings for SHO. The definition of SHO is slightly different depending on the type of measurements used: 1) Trace mobile in connected mode (call up): SHO <-> nb_cells_in_active_set > 1 2) Trace mobile in idle mode or scanner: In this case. 6. whereas softer HO means HO between 2 cells from the same NodeB. Note that there is no quality problem linked to large SHO areas when the network is unloaded. that is to say SHO in this section refers both soft and softer HO. and not only for the users in SHO but also other users of the network who may not be in SHO. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. An excessively large SHO area generates a loss of capacity on the network since each UE in SHO uses 2 links or more for its connection. in the WSP Card) are required for the call Twice as many backhaul resources are required up to the RNC.1   Soft HO A UE in Soft HO means:Twice as many channel elements in the NodeB (hard resources. 6. we need to calculate the SHO area from Ec/Io measurements. For convenience of analysis we will not distinguish soft from softer HO. Only when the load increases will excessive SHO areas generate measurable quality degradation. recommended SHO window=2dB) is the CPICH Ec/Io value of the best serving cell is the CPICH Ec/Io value of the 2nd best serving cell Ec/Io_best Ec/Io_2nd_best 6. drop_window=3dB.Confidential 6 SOFT HANDOVER AREA OPTIMISATION The aim of this section is to give details on how to analyse and optimise soft and softer HO areas from drive survey measurements.2 Aim of SHO Area Optimisation The aim of SHO area optimisation is to limit the SHO area within the network to a reasonable area.

the way to achieve this target is to reduce the Ec level from some of cells in SHO which are not best server. EcNo _ best  EcNo _ 2nd _ best  SHO _ window 6. Globally if a Softer HO area increases. What will most certainly happen is just a shift of the Soft HO area. See also “Pilot pollution module”. i. No change in UL (no combination in UL for soft HO. but in terms of surface area the area will not be smaller.Confidential   2 cells transmitting dedicated DL power.3 SHO Area Target SHO_area < 30% The target for SHO is 6. 6. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.4. the RNC selects the best signal received from the UE by the cells in soft HO) Globally if a Soft HO area increases.2 SHO Area Optimisation After having displayed the SHO area and sorted the cells in terms of priority (refer to the later subsections of this section for details) optimisation shall be carried out. it means a loss of hard NodeB processing capacity. 6. otherwise the mechanical tilt 2. Changing the antenna. Modifying the tilt of the antenna. More precisely we should reduce the Ec level of the 2nd best (or up to nth best if there are n cells in the active set) so that the optimised cell is no longer eligible for the active set. In a non-optimised network the SHO areas will be much higher than this. it means a loss of DL capacity.1 Aim of SHO Area Optimisation The aim is to achieve a network where the overall percentage of the area in SHO is around the SHO area target of 30%.e. an unchanged hard capacity and a gain of UL capacity. In practice. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 18 of 31 . In this section we shall focus on purely on SHO area optimisation. backhaul capacity and DL capacity. SHO area optimisation will be achieved by either. yet slightly less power per cell than if only 1 cell was serving the UE thanks to the combination gain in DL at the UE.2    Softer HO A UE in Softer HO means:The same number of channel elements in the NodeB (hard resources) 2 cells transmitting dedicated DL power. 1. UE is transmitting less UL power thanks to the combination at the NodeB for softer HO.2. softer HO reduces overall system capacity.4.4 Mechanisms to achieve SHO area target The reduction of SHO areas is achieved through the reduction of the overlaps between cells. and an unchanged UL capacity. yet slightly less power per cell than if only 1 cell was serving the UE thanks to combination gain in DL at the UE. However as it is expected that in downlink will be the capacity limiting link.. preferably the electrical tilt if adjustable. 6. in order to obtain a narrower beamwidth Note that adding tilt to an antenna will not help reducing the Soft HO area if the SHO area is located close to the site.

we do not recommend any change in CPICH power. Therefore replacing a H85 antenna by a H65 can be a useful optimisation technique to reduce the SHO area. A different type of default parameter (Aw = 4 dB. however the current Orange default parameter setting are:   Addition_window = 1 dB Drop_window = 3 dB And therefore the addition window cannot be reasonably reduced. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 19 of 31 . we cannot reduce the drop window either.Confidential Tilt will be most useful in the case when the Soft HO area in which a cell is involved is remote from the site. If we simplify the analysis by focusing on softer HO between 2 sectors of a same site. Some specific SHO parameter may prove useful to be optimised in the future. however with the current Orange default parameter set.4. two main RAN parameters will impact the size of the SHO area. The following table is a theoretical calculations of the softer handover areas for each of the 3G antenna types currently employed by Orange. and bearing in mind that the drop window should always be greater than the addition window (required hysteresis) to avoid ping-pong. 6. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. but not the current one. The beamwidth of the antenna also has a great effect on the SHO area. it is unnecessary and not recommended. these are “addition_window” (Aw) and “drop_window” (Dw).2. We can see that a H65 antenna gives better results than a H85. Antenna Type H65 Cross Polar H85 Cross Polar H85 Plane Polar Theoretical SHO area (SHO_window=3dB) 7% 13% 11% Table 1 Softer handover area Caution: above values are with only 2 cells and are not comparable to the SHO figure of 30%. Reducing the values of Aw or Dw will effectively reduce the SHO area.1 RAN Parameter changes No parameter changes at the time are being recommended. For the same reason detailed in the section on pilot pollution document. Dw = 6 dB) would have left room for parameter optimisation. an H65 antenna will give better (less SHO area) results than an H85. Apart from the physical antenna downtilts.

5 Methods of SHO Analysis 6. Therefore as it is difficult to decide that a particular area requires optimisation. We shall then introduce some cell based statistics: Defining the expression “In_SHO_not_best_server(i)” as the area where the cell (cell_i) is not best server but may be eligible for inclusion in the active set: 0dB  EcNo _ best _ server  EcNo _ cell(i)  SHO _ window A performance indicator will be the ratio of this area over its best server coverage area: SHO _ perf (i )  Count _ In _ SHO _ not _ Best _ server (i ) Count _ best _ server (i ) this a similar metrics will be implemented in the post-processing tool. we can trigger optimisation action. Ideally a cell should have a large best server area and a small 2nd or 3rd best server area.1. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. The issue requires a broader picture where percentage of SHO is assessed on a larger scale than bin level. based on the following formula: EcNo _ best  EcNo _ 2nd _ best  SHO _ window Note that the timing issues are not considered with this expression.2 Identification of cells to optimise Unlike in the case of pilot pollution we cannot define an area as being of “excessive SHO” at a bin level. Quite simply we compare the Ec/Io levels of the best and the 2nd best cell.5.1.1 Display of SHO area With a scanner. but they would not really matter to get a global figure of SHO area. 6. in order to assess the “cell’s performance”. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 20 of 31 .5. After double-checking on a map display where the cell is best server and “In_SHO_not_best_server”. it will be handy to calculate figures on a cell basis.Confidential 6.1 SHO Analysing with a scanner 6. We need to extrapolate from the scrambling code measurements where a UE would be in SHO or not. If all cells follow that rule we will indirectly get good SHO percentage figures for the network. no call can be made so no HO will be performed.5. The worst cells will be those to be found to have the highest SHO_perf(i) and will be the top priority cells to be investigated.

However SHO optimisation may require antenna changes and should therefore be considered before quality degradation is experienced on the network.6 SHO Area Optimisation Summary Both a scanner or trace mobile can provide relevant results in terms of SHO areas.2 Method with a trace mobile A good analysis of SHO areas with a trace mobile first requires that all missing neighbour issues have been cleared. SHO area optimisation should not be an issue before the network reaches a significant load.5. 6.Confidential 6. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 21 of 31 . Note however that a planning tool will be required for simulating possible optimisation actions. simply logging in-call where SHO <-> nb_cells_in_active_set > 1 The rest of the analysis is exactly similar to the method using a scanner. Optimised SHO areas will provide a higher capacity from WCDMA network. Then displaying all areas in SHO is straightforward. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.

Bad quality can be directly related to CPICH Ec/Io levels. The reason being.2 Problems caused by Pilot Pollution Pilot pollution leads mainly to downlink quality problems.3 Distinction between coverage and interference problems Before trying to optimise areas with poor quality (Ec/Io) it is important to clearly distinguish problems of coverage from problems of interference. that at cell edge the CPICH levels is less than the noise floor of the UE. 7. In this case coverage rather than interference may be blamed for the poor quality. Call drops should only occur when the load increases. first make sure that no neighbours are missing otherwise a bad CPICH EcIo value could be due to a missing neighbour rather than pilot pollution. only level 1 should be experienced. 7.Confidential 7 PILOT POLLUTION OPTIMISATION The aim of this section is to provide details of how to analyse and optimise pilot pollution from drive test measurements. However when the coverage (Ec) is poor the CPICH Ec/Io value naturally decreases. similar to those experienced from missing neighbours but not for the same reason. even for the single cell case. Generally the meaning of pilot pollution is that an excessive number of scrambling codes are received within a certain area leading to degradation of downlink quality on the best serving cell. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 22 of 31 . In the downlink two effects can occur   1: Increased DL interference and cell capacity loss 2: Call drop because of excessive DL interference Note however that in the case of an unloaded network. however if measurements from a trace mobile are used.1 Definition of Pilot Pollution Confusion is often made between pilot pollution and missing neighbours or number of cells in the active set. An extra Ec threshold is added so that we focus only on areas where coverage is not the major issue. 7. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. This is why a single Ec/Io threshold is not enough to identify the problem as being interference. Pilot pollution is a form of downlink interference and we shall define pilot pollution by the following condition: Best server CPICH_Ec is “good” And Best server CPICH EcIo is “bad” Caution: this formula can be applied as it stands for measurements from a scanner.

7. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 23 of 31 . The area is worth optimising. There are no extra sites planned to come on air in the near future 3. Note that these levels are defined for an unloaded network and therefore include a load factor so that the network is optimised for load. 7.2 Improvement of Ec level It may be surprising to recommend signal enhancement when tackling interference. When the load increases less aggressive thresholds will be preferred (lower CPICH_Ec/Io thresholds depending on the load). but in some cases it is the most straightforward and easiest solution to implement. this solution should be handled with care and simulation should first be performed using the planning tool. Due to the risk of creating interference areas elsewhere. we need to improve CPICH Ec/Io of the best server to –10dB or above.2. no optimisation maybe required 7.4 Practical thresholds for pilot pollution The current recommended thresholds for an unloaded network are: A pilot pollution area is defined by: Best server CPICH_Ec > -100 dBm And Best server CPICH Ec/Io < -10 dB Below –10 dB Ec/Io. in other words discard any maintenance issue from fine tuning problems 2.5. All sites in the area are up and running properly. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. OR Reducing the Ec level (a fraction of Io) from some of the interferers.1 Pilot Pollution Optimisation Target In order to tackle pilot pollution. call quality is not guaranteed.1 Pre-check Before any kind of optimisation on pilot pollution areas.Confidential 7.5. 7. if the potential traffic is very low.2 Generic method As defined previously we should either improve the best server or reduce the interferers. we need to check that: 1. This can be done be either: Improving the best server Ec level. This method is recommended when the best server cell has an excessive tilt .if reducing the tilt does not create other new interference areas.2.5.5 Pilot Pollution Optimisation 7.5.

which is not advisable when coverage is an essential target. Details on this analysis will be found in the following sections.5. otherwise the mechanical tilt Modify the azimuth of the antenna Change the antenna. such that the interference area from the remote site can be greatly reduced while the main coverage area of that site can remain unspoilt. or to get an adjustable tilt device.3 Reduction of interferer Ec levels The first difficulty when trying to reduce interferers is to identify the interferers in an area of pilot pollution. Hilly areas have a tendency for interference since line of sight is possible with many sites. In order to achieve an increase or a reduction of Ec level. A few questions need to be asked: 1. The preferred option is to tilt the interfering antenna(s). Which cells are the dedicated serving cells of the area? 3.Confidential An example where this method might be useful is the case where an antenna is pointing towards a hill with downtilt of 6 degrees. we need to clarify what changes we allow on the network: Ideally we should be able to: 1) 2) 3) Modify the tilt of the antennas. In these areas pilot pollution is quite likely. optimisation action should be carried out in order to reduce their interference.2. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. 7.3 Optimisation Actions When the worst interferers are identified. to increase the fixed electrical tilt (T6 antenna instead of T0). Which cells are the worst interferers? The answer is not straightforward. Which cells are received in the area? 2. In this case it is much easier to clear the problem by increasing the Ec level from a specific site close to the hill by uptilting the antennas towards the hill. 7. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 24 of 31 . Trying to tilt the antennas of all the interferers received on the hill can be an impossible task since too many cells may be involved. preferably the electrical tilt if adjustable. We could argue that reducing the CPICH power helps to reduce the interference generated by a cell.5. however reducing the CPICH power creates other issues: a straight power reduction means that the whole cells coverage is reduced (including indoor areas close to the site). We do not recommend the modification of the CPICH power at this stage. in order to get a more narrow beamwidth (H65 instead of H85 for instance).

No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 25 of 31 . First choice is to keep as best servers the 3 reported cells which are the closest to the area of pilot pollution Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.2 List all cells involved in the pilot pollution area All decoded scrambling codes in the pilot pollution area should be listed.1.6. Secondly within an area Ec levels will fluctuate and the 3 best cells will not obviously remain the same. Pilot pollution areas can be displayed by means of a post-processing tool based on the condition described in 7. Since all cells are transmitting on the same frequency.4. We may end up optimising a site that is not actually interfering in the field. Support from a planning tool is also an option.6. Beware however that all the interferers will not be decoded. This is not pilot pollution in itself. we shall most of the time consider that the 3 best serving cells are not interferers. namely: 1.Confidential 7.6. very few samples may be recorded.1 Identify pilot pollution areas When used with “Top N” functionality a scanner will report all decoded scrambling codes on the carrier. Firstly we need to clarify how many best servers are relevant. Indeed when pilot pollution is experienced on a short stretch of road – leading a UE to drop when the network is loaded. How can we then identify the interferers? In normal conditions most important interferers should be decoded.1. Bearing in mind that the maximum number of cells in the active set (in soft(er) handover) is 3. The determination of the best servers then requires a pragmatic approach when there is a doubt on the best servers. Driving side streets or repeating the drive at slower speed if possible will help decoding more scrambling codes.3 Determine the dedicated best serving cells From a list of decoded scrambling codes we need to identify cells which are “natural” best servers in the area from other cells. It might seem obvious but the issue is real. 7. even for a short period of time. Extra drive dedicated to the pre-identified pilot pollution area is also an option to get more information on the interferer list.1. the interferer themselves are interfered until their own Ec/Io gets so weak that they will not be decoded and will not be reported by the scanner. Between 2 sites it is natural to get at a certain point 3 cells at equal level.1 Analysis with a scanner 7. however caution should be given on the reliability of the simulation. which involve differences between signals.6. meaning that the CPICH Ec/Io will be at most –9 dB. especially on Ec/Io values.6 Practical Pilot Pollution Analysis 7. 7.

All of them should not be optimised.1. Note that with a scanner such a doubt will not occur: when used in “Top N” mode the scanner decodes all possible scrambling codes regardless of neighbour declarations.5. This is why special care shall be given when tilting antennas not to reduce useful coverage. Finally when the worst interferers of an area have been identified. It is therefore necessary to sort out any missing neighbour problems before studying pilot pollution effects. yet some further issues will arise. ask yourself whether this cell is absolutely necessary in the area.6. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 26 of 31 . Priorities can be given to the degradation they induce. Then when selecting cells to optimise we need to look at the broad picture rather than at a local analysis. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.3.Confidential 2. If not it shall be considered as an interferer rather than as a wished best server. A peculiarity of UMTS will be that by tilting cell_i we may paradoxically end up creating new pilot pollution areas. their Ec level shall be reduced as explained in 7. If a remote cell appears consistently as best server. 7. Those will be the worst interferers. A useful condition will help display the interference effect of a single cell (cell_i) on a whole area: 0dB  EcNo _ best _ server  EcNo _ cell _ i  5dB If this condition is fulfilled it means that cell_i is not the best server but is potentially interfering the best server. The main difference is that the trace mobile is affected by missing neighbours. A degraded Ec/Io value may be caused by a missing neighbour rather than pilot pollution. The most important issue when tilting antennas will be not to reduce the useful coverage. the remaining cells on the decoded list are the interferers. The larger the surface the worst the interference generated by cell_i. The main optimisation action is to perform a tilt of the interfering antenna.2 Analysis with a trace mobile The general method with a trace mobile is the same as with a scanner. A global analysis of a city may show that a few cells pollute large areas and create numerous pilot pollution areas.4 Determine the worst interferers When all best servers have been identified. 7.6. Sorting the list by descending Ec/Io will give a priority order. Worst cells will be those involved with a high priority on the highest number of pilot pollution areas. Such analysis can be done by means of a post-processing tool.

7 Pilot Pollution Optimisation Summary The scanner is the required tool for pilot pollution analysis. This set is the list of declared neighbours for the cells within the active set. However. and will required antenna modifications . No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 27 of 31 .Confidential The trace mobile only reports Ec/Io levels for cells within the monitored set. make sure before analysing that no missing neighbours remain. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. Pilot pollution areas can be easily displayed but may be quite difficult to optimise. therefore pilot pollution areas will require pre-emptive actions before the network quality rapidly degrades. the main source of downlink interference will be missing neighbours and only few quality problems are expected due to pilot pollution. the best reported cell will not be the strongest. For more details refer to the missing neighbour module. If only the latter is available though. Note that as long as the network load is low. If the strongest cell has been omitted in the neighbour declaration. not the trace mobile. 7. We can stress then that the dedicated tool for pilot pollution tracking is the scanner.mainly tilts. interferences will arise quickly with load.

Regarding the typical number of sites to be included in a cluster. (Delay to overall cluster completion. In this case it is up to IE/Network Optimisation to make a judgement on how to proceed. (Labour Intensive) 2) Optimise the initial cluster and then integrate other sites. reduction in number of cluster optimisations) It must be remembered at all time that a new site transmitting in an already optimised cluster can cause massive problems. around 20 is the current recommendation by Access Network Design. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 28 of 31 .1 1) 2) Site Verification and Cluster Validation Site Verification Cluster Optimisation WCDMA optimisation should be a two stage process As can be seen from the table below. The options would be 1) Optimise the initial cluster and then re-optimise the cluster every time a new site is integrated into the cluster.Confidential 8 OVERALL OPTIMISATION PROCESS Given the above considerations to be made when optimising a WCDMA network. in WCDMA a adding a new un-optimised cell to an already optimised cluster could have a negative effect not only to calls on the new cell. Once new sites are integrated and on air in “live” areas cluster optimisation should be performed as soon as possible to avoid significant network degradation. but this number will be reviewed as feedback comes in from cluster optimisations across the network. it optimises the cluster. Analysis Single cell Cluster of cells Coverage Yes Yes Missing Neighbour No Yes Pilot Pollution No Yes SHO Area No Yes The problem with cluster validation is that it is just that. keeping the new sites locked down (no RF transmission) until the cluster is complete and then bring all the remaining sites on air and perform the final cluster validation. 8. Therefore cluster validation should be performed ideally when all cells in that cluster have been built and are operational. Unlike GSM. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. for some clusters it may not be possible for all sites to be on air for cluster validation. but also to calls in all surrounding cells. Obviously because of build/integration problems. add a new cell and we have a new cluster and therefore further cluster optimisation is required. it is now possible to specify the steps to be taken to optimise the network and in what order of priority the above considerations should be made. very little network optimisation can be done at the Site Verification stage and because of the nature of WCDMA the majority of optimisation must be performed at a “cluster” level.

Adding more and more channel elements to a WCDMA site will not improve the capacity of the site if the bottleneck is the radio interface because of a poorly optimised network. Steps 3&4 optimise the network to avoid dropped calls when loaded and to improve capacity and are therefore not necessarily required for launch but should be performed at some stage after launch to delay the time when the network becomes capacity limited. in WCDMA it is not just the number of channel elements (WCDMA equivalent of TRXs) that dictate the site capacity but also how the network is optimised. Therefore whilst point 3 may not be important for launch in the medium to longer term it will be point 3 which goes a long way towards improving the profitability of Orange’s WCDMA network.Confidential 8. Whilst the document suggests that the Engineer attempts SHO. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.) Make sure that the network is operating optimally and that the maximum achievable capacity is obtained from the network The overall aim of cluster optimisation is as follows. Clearly for launch steps 1&2 are the most critical and these must be performed for all areas before launch. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 29 of 31 .2 Step 1 – Site Verification The process to be followed for site verification is given in Plan 413. takes calls. Provide the user the required quality of service Extract maximum capacity from the network It therefore follows that cluster optimisation should be carried out in the following order of priority 1) 2) 3) 4) Coverage Optimisation Missing Neighbour Optimisation Pilot Pollution Optimisation Soft Handover Optimisation Steps 1&2 provide the coverage and quality of service. Point 3 is new. unlike in GSM. Therefore we can rank our optimisation aims in the following order 1) 2) 3) Provide the user with the coverage required by marketing (there’s no point optimising further if there’s no coverage). 8. Therefore the only realistic optimisation that can be performed at this stage is Coverage Verification/Optimisation. handover success etc. Points 1&2 are obvious and as we know from our GSM experience these are benchmarks that will be used to compare us to the competition. This verification should allow the Engineer to verify that the cell is transmitting.3 1) 2) 3) Step 2 – Cluster Optimisation Make sure the network provides the coverage required by marketing to users within the cluster Make sure that the users experience a high quality of service within the cluster (call setup. call success. whilst steps 3&4 provide the capacity optimisation. it is unlikely at this stage that the necessary adjacencies have been created at the OMC.

Missing Neighbour optimisation was where the majority of the optimisation effort in Bristol was spent and it is expected that this will also be the case across the rest of the network.4 WCDMA vs. Therefore we can state that the initial optimisation set out in this document for launch of Orange’s WCDMA network should have not degrade. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc. call and handover success rates on the experimental network are now >90% without a single antenna downtilt being adjusted.Confidential 8. and may improve the GSM network. however this should only be done when it can be shown that this will not degrade GSM coverage/performance.1 priority and will be for the foreseeable future. GSM The optimisation of the GSM network is still Orange’s no. In fact to back this up. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 30 of 31 . Fortunately steps 1 & 2 of cluster optimisation should not require too much downtilt adjustment (3&4 are where downtilt becomes key and by this point the WCDMA network should be taking enough traffic to justify optimisation). Obviously there will be areas where 3G coverage could be improved by downtilt adjustment.

The document then introduced the concept of cluster optimisation and stated the order in which these different types of optimisations should be performed on the clusters. Missing Neighbour Optimisation. Document Owner: Robert Joyce Doc.Confidential 9 SUMMARY This document has summarised the key optimisation principle for WCDMA. Finally the document clarified the position of WCDMA optimisation with respect to GSM. It began by looking at WCDMA basics and then considered Coverage Optimisation. No: Spec1267 Current Version: 1 Issue Date: 11/4/2003 Page 31 of 31 . Soft Handover Area Optimisation and finally Pilot Pollution Optimisation.

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