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While by no means comprehensive, this listing provides an overview of many of the men and women who have played

or are playing an important role in the development of the landscape architecture profession in the U.S. and Canada. Dr. Jacob Bigelow - Nineteenth-century designer of Mt. Auburn Cemetery near Cambridge, Mass. He was among the first in the United States to propose multiple uses for cemeteries such as picnicking, ceremonies and general open space purposes. Thomas D. Church (1902-78) - Prolific U.S. landscape architect (more than 4,000 projects) and creator of the modern "California garden," a distinctive garden type that is suited to a moderate Mediterranean climate and features outdoor "rooms," low maintenance, high livability and the use of native plants. Horace W.S. Cleveland (1814-1900) - American landscape architect who proposed fundamental changes in American cities, pressing for better sanitation, park systems and public planning commissions. He designed estates, state capitol grounds, parks, private town residences and suburbs throughout the Midwest. Robert Morris Copeland - Pioneer American landscape architect who formed an early partnership with Horace Cleveland in the late 1850s. Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-52) - U.S. nurseryman, landscape gardener and writer whose partnership with Calvert Vaux marked the beginning of a shift away from the older American landscape gardening design traditions of individuals such as Thomas Jefferson. An early campaigner for public parks, Downing also developed early plans for the White House and the Smithsonian Institution. The curving suburban front lawn is one of his legacies. Garrett Eckbo (1910-2000) - American landscape architect who helped formulate the 1930s "Harvard Revolution" in landscape design, which rejected preconceived Beaux Arts forms in favor of functional, site-specific plans. During the 1940s, Eckbo helped steer the profession back toward a responsiveness to public need through the design of migrant housing. Other achievements include refinement of the "California garden" after World War II, mastery of the use of offset forms to change the apparent size of a site, and the design of the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque and the Denver Botanical Gardens. Charles Eliot (1859-97) - The son of a Harvard University president, he began work with Frederick Olmsted and later became among the first to set up methods of charging for services and job definition constraints to distinguish landscape architects from architects. His achievements include the metropolitan park and open-space systems of Boston and the founding of the first U.S. organization devoted to historic landscape preservation. The first U.S. course in landscape architecture was endowed in his name at Harvard University in 1900. Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872-1959) - Landscape architect ("landscape gardener" by her reference) trained at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts. She was a founding member of the American Society of Landscape Architects and is known for her work on the Yale University quadrangles and the grounds of Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C. Horatio Greenough (1805-52) - American design theorist and colleague of Ralph Waldo Emerson whose theory that "form follows function" was later adopted by Frank Lloyd Wright and other twentiethcentury "functionalist" architects and landscape architects. Lawrence Halprin (1916) - U.S. landscape architect, lecturer and writer who helped establish the "California garden," refined the use of water as part of a project and advanced the analysis and notation of movement by people in open areas as a basis for outdoor design. His achievements include the integration of architecture, civic design and landscape architecture in such landmark projects as the FDR Memorial in Washington, D.C., and Ghirardelli Square, the renovation of a chocolate factory and

nearby building in San Francisco. Henry V. Hubbard (1875-1947) - Partner in the Olmsted landscape architecture office in Brookline, Mass., before assuming a teaching post at Harvard University in 1906 where he was known for his innovative use of actual design problems in the classroom. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) - Prominent American political figure who was also the most influential landscape designer in the early years of the United States. His projects include the design of his Monticello estate and the University of Virginia grounds. Jens Jensen (1860-1951) - U.S. landscape architect, born in Denmark, who refined the use of plant masses in a "prairie style" of design that attacked any sort of formal line or geometry in the landscape. He also advanced the technique of using existing trees and shrubs on a property to indicate soil conditions and to use as a reference in selecting plants for a site. Projects include Columbus Park in Chicago and the park system in Racine, Wis. Warren H. Manning (1860-1938) - Massachusetts-born landscape architect who apprenticed in the Olmsted office before opening his own firm in 1896, concentrating on city planning and estate and park design. Manning was also a founding member of the American Society of Landscape Architects. George Marsh - Nineteenth-century conservationist, author and early advocate of the preservation of forest and other wild lands. Thomas H. Mawson (1861-1933) - English landscape architect who divided his time between offices in Great Britain and Canada. He is well known for his pioneering Canadian landscapes, including designs for public grounds in Regina, Saskatchewan; master plans for the Universities of Dalhousie and Calgary; civic improvements for Ottawa; and proposed modifications for Coal Harbour at Stanley Park in Vancouver. Ian McHarg (1921-2001) - Scottish and U.S. landscape architect and ecological planner best known for his groundbreaking book Design with Nature published in 1969. He is recognized for his development of a highly original means of overlay analysis, incorporating geographic, climatic, vegetative and use studies of a given landscape area, and for his role in founding the landscape architecture department at the University of Pennsylvania. Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) - Connecticut-born landscape architect, journalist, founder of the profession of landscape architecture in North America, and designer of such landmarks as Central Park in New York City (with Calvert Vaux); the grounds of the U.S. Capitol in Washington D.C.; the campus of Stanford University in California; the pioneer planned suburb of Riverside, Ill.; and Mount Royal Park in Montreal (also with Vaux). His achievements include the advancement of the design and planning of public parks into both an art form and a well-practiced profession; establishment of a pioneering full-scale professional office in Brookline, Mass., for the practice of landscape architecture; and initiation of a landscape architecture apprentice system that combined personal instruction, assigned reading and practical experience at graduated levels of difficulty. Olmsted is also credited with being the first to adopt the professional title "landscape architect" and is widely viewed as the most influential landscape architect in American history. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (1870-1957) - Son, student and partner of Frederick Law Olmsted. In addition to producing hundreds of successful landscape architecture designs, Frederick Olmsted, Jr. created and taught the first American course in landscape architecture at Harvard University in 1900. John Charles Olmsted (1852-1920) - Son, student and partner of Frederick Law Olmsted. He also produced numerous successful landscape architecture designs. Along with his brother Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., he was a founding member of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Samuel H. Parsons Jr. (1844-1923) - U.S. landscape architect best known for his Beaux Arts park designs for the City of New York and other clients. A partner of Calvert Vaux from 1880 to 1895, he was a founding member of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Hideo Sasaki (1919-2000) - U.S. landscape architect and professor whose work demonstrates a

studied, detailed and highly polished integration of building and landscape. Sasaki is credited with helping to shape the profession in the twentieth century by insisting that landscape architecture need not imitate its sister arts but instead can be part of a lively dynamism with architecture, civil engineering and planning. His achievements include landscape and urban design improvements on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C., and the development of the grounds of Deere and Company in Moline, Ill., Boston Waterfront Park in Massachusetts, and Harbour Town at Sea Pines Plantation, Hilton Head, S.C. Frederick G. Todd (1876-1948) - New Hampshire-born landscape architect who worked for the Olmsted firm from 1896-1900 before moving to Montreal to supervise work on Mount Royal Park and eventually to establish his own office. He popularized naturalistic landscape designs, including the idea of a "necklace of parks" as linked open space. Projects include the Parc des Champs de Bataille (Plains of Abraham National Battlefield) in Quebec City, site planning and design for Trinity College in Toronto, and restoration of Ile de Ste. Helene in Montreal, in the St. Lawrence River. Calvert Vaux (1824-95) - English and American architect and landscape architect who entered into partnerships with both Andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted. With the latter, he laid most of the groundwork for and created many of the early masterpieces of American landscape and park design, including Central Park in New York City and Jackson Park in Chicago. Vaux also designed the grounds of the Canadian Parliament in Ottawa. Jacob Weidenmann (1829-93) - Swiss architect and engineer, emigrated to the United States in 1861 and collaborated with Frederick Law Olmsted on a number of projects. He also advanced the design theory that cramped graveyards should be transformed into landscaped parks through such projects as Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford, Conn.