This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
S y n o pCS i S I
of an nternatIonal onferenCe
Kwadwo Asenso-okyere, Kristin Davis, and Dejene Aredo
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) was established in 1975. IFPRI is one of 15 agricultural research centers that receives its funding from governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations, most of which are members of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
IFPRI’s research, capacity strengthening, and communications work is made possible by its financial contributors and partners. IFPRI receives its principal funding from governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations, most of which are members of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). IFPRI gratefully acknowledges generous unrestricted funding from Australia, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the World Bank.
This synopsis is based on a consultative conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in April 2008. IFPRI gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) www.gtz.de, the ICT-KM program of the CGIAR www.ictkm.cgiar.org, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) www.jica.go.jp, Research Into Use (RIU) www.researchintouse.com, the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) www.cta.int, and the World Food Programme (WFP) www.wfp.org.
The authors are grateful for the support of Jifar Tarekegn in the preparation of this synopsis.
AdvAncing Agriculture in developing countries through Knowledge And innovAtion
synopsis of An internAtionAl conference
Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere , Kristin Davis, and Dejene Aredo
International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, D.C., November 2008
Fax: +1-202-467-4439 www. International Food Policy Research Institute 2033 K Street.ISBN: 10-digit: 0-89629-780-2 13-digit: 9788-0-89629-780-7 DOI: 10. DC 20006-1002. USA Telephone: +1-202-862-5600. Sections of this report may be reproduced without the express permission of but with acknowledgment to the International Food Policy Research Institute.org .org for permission to reprint. NW. All rights reserved. Washington. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org/0896297802 Copyright © 2008 International Food Policy Research Institute.ifpri.
contents 1 introduction 1 2 understAnding Knowledge And innovAtion 3 concepts in innovation Knowledge creation and Management learning for innovation innovation Approaches 3 orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion 7 4 technologicAl innovAtion 11 technical Knowledge enhancing investment in research and development Benchmarking innovations 5 institutionAl innovAtion 14 the nature of institutions partnerships facilitate innovation 6 policy innovAtion 18 7 strengthening cApAcities for Knowledge And innovAtion 20 8 conclusion And the wAy forwArd 23 iii .
Diagrammatic Representation of Knowledge Management 4 Boxes 1. 3. 9. Market-Driven Extension System: The Case of India Monsanto Agricultural Technology Social Networks in Knowledge Sharing Adding Value to Tomato Production in Morocco: A Model of Partnership in Knowledge and Risk Sharing IAASTD Science and Technology Policy Developing Capacity for No-Till Packages for Small-Scale Farmers in Argentina Building the Capacity to Forge Public–Private Partnerships in Latin America Developing Farmer-Based Organizations in South India 8 9 10 12 15 16 19 21 22 22 7. 6. Rural Knowledge Networks and Agricultural Innovation: The Case of Bolivia Demand for Advisory Services in Africa: The Cases of Nigeria and Uganda A Decentralized. 2. 5. 10. Farmer-Led.iv contents figure 1. 4. 8. .
often involving the entry of new players. however. technological. institutional. the private sector. The setting for institutional and organizational innovation is changing rapidly as well. 1 . often knowledge-intensive. institutional. Fortunately. Agricultural development in these areas is often constrained by issues of access to appropriate technologies. “institutions” are defined as the system of rules that constitute the environment within which innovation occurs. and most of them are involved in farming. Important lessons can be learned and scaled up from the successes that are occurring. The report refers to a series of mutually supportive. immense “institutional weaknesses”1. awareness of the vital role that agriculture plays in development is increasing among policymakers and donors in most countries. The 2008 World Development Report emphasizes the importance of knowledge in bringing about innovation. The new world of agriculture is opening up space for a wider range of actors in innovation. The strategy is to bring about new 1 In this context. in part as a result of the current global food-price crisis and in response to the publication of the 2008 World Development Report.1 introduction bout 75 percent of the world’s poor people live in rural areas. and policy innovations that are transforming agriculture and leading to growth and development. which focuses on agriculture. Many countries and agricultural systems thus remain mired in underdevelopment and face major barriers to the use of knowledge and innovation for development. In science. and deep problems with the organization and management of research. Linking technological progress with organizational. including farmer organizations. and policy innovations and with markets to engage this diverse set of actors is important for future productivity growth. there are examples of organizational. and civil society. Agriculture remains crucial to developing countries. and extension systems. education. innovations that enable a country’s agricultural producers to move up the value chain in international agricultural export markets. it has been observed A that GDP growth from agriculture benefits the incomes of poor people two to four times more than GDP growth in other sectors of the economy. revolutionary advances in the biological and information fields have the potential to enhance the competitiveness of market-oriented smallholders and to overcome disease and the effects of drought in production systems. Despite this. as well as from examining cases that did not work.
policymakers. In April 2008. and international cooperation in knowledge and innovation. Section 7 discusses capacity building for the innovation process. . development practitioners. Ethiopia. and Section 5 looks at institutional innovation. Section 4 deals with technological innovation. (c) to provide a forum for researchers. Smallholders and other rural people will ultimately benefit through improved policy and research specifically addressing the complex agricultural system in which they are embedded. Accordingly. and through wider and more consistent application of knowledge and innovation for development. and civil sectors). (b) to demonstrate useful methods and applications of the knowledge base for scaling up and out.” The objectives of the conference were (a) to showcase research results and other experiences in agricultural knowledge and innovation for development. Section 6 presents policy innovations.ifpri. Conference proceedings may also be found at http://www. private.asp. Topics dealt with include (a) the role of knowledge and innovation in meeting the challenges of reducing poverty in developing countries. and private entrepreneurs. entitled “Advancing Agriculture in Developing Countries through Knowledge and Innovation. This document is a synopsis of the conference presentations and discussions on ideas and experiences relating to knowledge and innovation among different innovation agents (including public. (d) and to identify areas for further research. policymakers. the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) held an international consultative conference in Addis Ababa. it is expected that useful lessons will be drawn from the issues presented and discussed in this synopsis. The next section reviews the concepts of knowledge and innovation and their relevance to poverty reduction.org/events/ conferences/2008/20080407. Section 3 focuses on organizational innovation. in endeavoring to promote agricultural knowledge and innovation in developing countries. The conference contributed to the higher goal of improving smallholder livelihoods worldwide through sound policy and better application of knowledge and innovation for development. and (c) whether new and appropriate technologies and policies are available for the purpose of reducing rural poverty. nongovernmental project managers. and practitioners from different sectors to discuss issues in agricultural knowledge and innovation. and Section 8 offers conclusions and a way forward.2 introduction or adapted knowledge to produce innovations that increase agricultural productivity and reduce poverty. Papers were presented by agricultural researchers. advocacy. The synopsis is one of a number of conference outputs and is intended to provide a concise overview of the outcomes. (b) the roles different actors play in agricultural development and poverty reduction.
depending upon how and where it is competitiveness. practices. it is situated in systems of ideas. and indigenous or scientific. Tacit knowledge forms gradually livelihoods of agents in social value from knowledge. use. and commercialization. concepts in innovAtion I 3 . Increased mobility of knowledge Knowledge creAtion has made recycling knowledge easier. and political in performance. which of participation in practice. the process of circulation itself. It is not just an idea. economic. innovation can include new codified knowledge is partly transferable and universal. ecological. And MAnAgeMent What is important is the presence of knowledge Knowledge has become a key factor in development. and extraction of economic. or codified. knowledge or technologies related to primary Knowledge can be acquired only through some form production. and it is in a manner that brings about a significant improvement a product of social. when knowledge nnovations are new ideas. thus. The process over time through repetition and recurrent the value chain. through training and experience. In agriculture. but a workable conditions. Emphasis has shifted toward development processes.2 understAnding Knowledge And innovAtion necessary for pro-poor agricultural growth and development? . Such knowledge can be tacit form of technologies. accumulation. and acquired. On the other hand. the competence. Thus. competitiveness. which data. and sharing of knowledge in knowledge accumulation and application will drive support of innovation. In the 21st century. systems that either enable or constrain the creation. Knowledge. and this trend is set to intensify. The production of and livelihoods of farmers and others in rural areas. cultural. which can be defined as is successfully or products that are successfully organized or processed information or transformed it can introduced into economic or social yield innovation. How can knowledge best putting knowledge to use. tacit knowledge depends on learning idea. is fundamental in the pursuit of processes. of innovation further involves putting interactions. institutions. Innovations can take the in turn enhances innovation. knowledge is achieved by exposing what is known to what is not known. . or policies and involve the productivity. processing. and it is transformed by can positively affect the productivity. organizations. and technology to work ongoing practices and routines. the capacity to innovate be managed so that it brings about the innovations is a function of the behavior of systems for producing. knowledge. .
and so on). Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Agricultural knowledge and information systems (AKISs) highlight the linkages among research. which feeds back into product design and development (that is. life-long learning. which largely come through some action and learning (Figure 1). development. knowledge needed to develop the nascent floriculture sector in Ethiopia is obtained globally. Knowledge has to be managed if it is to be useful. Conducive learning platforms should be created so that the stock of knowledge can be expanded National Agricultural Research Systems National agricultural research systems (NARSs) comprise agricultural research institutes and higher education institutions. and in-country capacity is being built to expand the industry. economic. (c) learning as a result of a formal discovery process. Knowledge can be obtained globally and used locally. typically organized around a direct research and development (R&D) program or acquired through different means including formal education and training arrangements (that is. The system assumes that agricultural knowledge originates from a known source (the scientific researcher) and flows to an end user (the farmer) in a process that is largely exogenous and unchanging. which carry out agricultural research within a given country and effect technological change through a linear model of research. The system focuses on the dynamics of knowledge dissemination through extension and therefore recognizes a link between researchers and end users. and using knowledge. and political knowledge. diagrammatic representation of Knowledge Management information + Meaning Knowledge + content Action + learning competence absorbing. social. through reading books. visiting websites. (b) learning as a result of using a product. leArning for innovAtion through continuous. listening to the radio. education. “learning through formal means”). The AKIS perspective . “learning by doing”). and (d) learning through self-education (that is. and extension. and extension in generating knowledge and fostering technological change.4 understAnding Knowledge And innovAtion figure 1. The actions toward sustainable development require a mix of scientific. innovAtion ApproAches Learning to accumulate knowledge is central to an innovation system. “learning by using”). For instance. The driving force behind knowledge management is improved competence (efficiency) and competitiveness. Four types of learning to accumulate knowledge can be distinguished: (a) learning as a joint product with other activities and production and use of technologies (that is.
historically determined. and poverty reduction. together with the institutions and Instead of considering the innovation systems policies that affect the behavior and performance approach as yet another “must-use” paradigm. and the tends to be less linear than the NARS approach. economic use. and utilizing knowledge for agricultural affect the innovation processes. The innovation systems approach debating its merit as the definitive means of thinking broadens the NARS and AKIS perspectives by focusing about agricultural development. technology in terms of knowledge and information. . agents. the nature of iterative and interactive innovation systems. successes. In particular. development. and evaluation of diverse ways of creating. to a limited extent. the conditions of analyzing knowledge and innovation for agricultural agriculture in developing countries are so diverse and growth and poverty reduction. coexistence. to agricultural research. Because of its evolutionary character. The intellectual challenge is to stop the debate on interactions. and continuous and polarization of ideas about innovation and. and of the network. innovation systems in developing countries are scarce. and dissemination has produced has to be strengthened in farmers and other operators numerous success stories. and utilizing knowledge. knowledge-sharing. interactions among actors recognizing that innovations can emerge from many are limited (with the exception of social networking). new processes. The innovation system Closely associated with the innovation approach has emerged systems approach is the Integrated as a holistic tool for Agricultural Research for Development understanding and. AKIS is limited in its consideration of the heterogeneity among agents. Capacity. the institutional contexts that condition agents’ behavior. The conventional pipeline approach and failures among stakeholders. approach. learning. In these countries. (c) the nature and character of their interactions. and new forms of organization into and the culture of knowledge sharing is limited. (b) as just one approach to creating the policy and the organizational and individual competencies of such institutional conditions that will allow the emergence. this synopsis calls on (a) the processes by which diverse agents engage in for innovation systems thinking to be considered generating. complex interactions. and knowledge flows. to a limited extent. sources. such as the capacity engage in institutional learning to communicate of individuals and organizations to learn. which puts farmers and analyzing knowledge users at the center of innovative practices. empirical findings on agricultural and individuals focused on bringing new products. but it has serious limitations in the agricultural value chain to enable them to operate for broad-based sustained agricultural growth and efficiently in the knowledge economy. (IAR4D) paradigm. change. the innovation The innovation system approach has emerged as a systems approach and processes are context-specific and holistic tool for understanding and. and (d) the market and nonmarket institutions that accumulating. concepts. and learn through practice and learning processes among innovation agents. It addresses novel issues. instead. poverty reduction. undertake effective diagnosis. disseminating.understAnding Knowledge And innovAtion 5 types of interventions that enhance such capacities and processes. The approach focuses growth. An innovation system complex that they may hamper implementation of the approach considers innovation as a systemic process. design pro-poor and innovate. and innovation for The IAR4D approach encourages learning agricultural growth Innovation System Approach through the interchange of ideas. many of the institutions relevant to the innovation system This approach involves a network of organizations are weak or nonexistent. However. and the learning processes that determine agents’ capacity to change and innovate.
Thus. there is a need to end “innovationbranding” battles and recognize both the diversity of innovation experiences (thus avoiding the idea of “one size fits all”) and the importance of knowledge-sharing practices and the adaptation of knowledge to specific contexts to bring about development. by Howard Elliot • Enabling Agriculture: From Institutional to Conceptual Systems for Knowledge and Innovation. conference pApers on AgriculturAl Knowledge And innovAtion concepts • Evolution of Systems Thinking toward Agricultural Innovation Systems.6 understAnding Knowledge And innovAtion networking. by Enrica Porcari . by Joachim Hofer • Up-scaling Knowledge and Innovation for Development. by Monty Jones • Success Factors for Knowledge Management in Development Organizations. by Regina Birner • Knowledge and Innovation for Agricultural Development. by Andrew Barnett • Knowledge Sharing and Innovation in the CGIAR: ICT-KM Program Interventions. by Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere • Knowledge and Innovation for Poverty Reduction. by Joachim von Braun • Using Knowledge and Innovation in Pro-poor Agricultural Research.
community-based organizations. short-term priorities can marketing. broader rural is used to guide an organization in positioning itself to 7 E . and threats) components of technology transfer. R&D management. and weaknesses and agricultural organizations necessitate organizations to threats minimized to improve the cominnovation (Box 1). management staff require a variety of skills as capacity strengthening. success. and diligently pursued. data manoperations. monitoring. Planning is an effecextension. A major area of organizational innovation is evaluation. principles of based organizations. are determined. weaknesses. These organizations pursue their specified petitive posture of the organization. It thus includes (of strengths. Once include those that cover research. Next. Organizational innovations may involve issues such Similarly. have built-in capacity-strengthening activities also be part of the organization’s agenda and must be for staff. SWOT analysis rural sector to improve farmers’ lives. Strengths and opportuoperation and management of Innovations enable nities are exploited. and this includes designing appropriate governance structures that reward hard work and indicators for use in evaluating impact. Such organizations efficiently manage Capacity strengthening to upgrade staff skills must resources. regularly monitor and evaluate activities. and advocacy. and collective action (farmerbe set based on available resources. report writing. agement and analysis. input supplies. Extension—also known as agricultural tive tool for organizational management. staff must develop skills in research management. goals efficiently. the long-term goals of the organization extension. their mandate to demonstrate the relevance of their proposal development. education. opportunities. in a research organizaoccasionally conduct impact assessments in relation to tion. Innovations enable scarce resources are used efficiently. setting. financing. managing for impact should be applied to ensure that and civil society organizations). transparent strategic plans. and collective action. strategic planning. priority including negotiation and advocacy. Organizations organizations to pursue their specified goals efficiently. institute appropriate. field data collection. Strategic advisory services—was originally conceived as a planning and scenario planning are useful in setting service to “extend” research-based knowledge to the long-term goals for an organization. must also monitor and evaluate their operations to Results-oriented organizations. For instance.3 orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion take advantage of the environment within fficiency and effectiveness in the which it operates. whether in the public ensure that their impacts align with their mandates and or private sectors.
Provision of market and trade information to farmers is important. Therefore. The traditional view of extension in SubSaharan Africa was very much focused on increasing production. which involves costrecovery schemes. who often fail to forge collaborations with stakeholders and networks. promote accountability of providers. efficiency. they aim to address the failure of earlier models and incorporate new thinking and approaches in rural development to increase the equity. or to incorporate knowledge-sharing components into their thinking. and procuring financing from farmers 3. In addition. extension can be defined as the system that supports people engaged in agricultural production in solving problems and in obtaining knowledge. Outsourcing schemes. Actors need to forge partnerships together and share knowledge instead of competing for funding. The Bolivian experience generated an interesting hypothesis worth investigating further: centering farmers within learning networks makes it possible to accelerate the rate of application and effectiveness of new technologies. and quality of extension. Demand-driven models. It includes assisting with the formation of farmer and communitybased organizations. skills.This case also demonstrates the need for effective knowledge management by creating learning spaces among multiple agents. Farmers require a wide range of knowledge from different sources. rural Knowledge networks and Agricultural innovation: the case of Bolivia The Bolivian Agricultural Technology System (SIBTA) is an interesting case of organizational innovation. which involve funding by one agent and provision of services by another— in terms of both contracting in and contracting out—and pluralism in the delivery of extension services 4. including smallholder farmers. development goals. dealing with marketing issues. charging a fee for service. including transferring ownership to private entities. Broad organizational reforms in extension are ongoing. and beyond training to learning. and nonformal education. and empowerment of poor farmers . improving yields. and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being. training farmers. SIBTA has attempted to investigate whether being embedded in and connected to social networks has an effect on the rate of application of agricultural technologies in Bolivia. Today’s understanding of extension reaches beyond technology transfer to facilitation. and partnering with a broad range of service providers and agencies (see Boxes 3 and 5). Privatization of services. management skills. which involve a participatory approach. This hypothesis has far-reaching implications for rural development actors. sharing costs. SIBTA has experimented with the idea of tapping local or indigenous farmer knowledge systems in an attempt to harmonize tacit knowledge with the explicit knowledge of researchers and extension workers.8 orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion Box 1. and transferring technology. and improve efficiency 2. The main reforms include the following: 1. bottom-up planning. Decentralization to improve client participation. they also need support in integrating the knowledge. The Bolivian experience suggests that the role of government in agricultural innovation can be enhanced if public support to agricultural research and extension is partly delegated to regional semi-autonomous foundations. as they often do.
Traditional extension services have been criticized for excluding poor people and being supply-driven. there are numerous impediments to the spread of ICT infrastructure and services to rural areas. pluralistic funding. However. Other forms of communication and knowledge flows have been found to be effective in agricultural innovation systems in developing countries. flexible in the choice of funding sources. Such interactions have enabled information spillover across locations. and weak government commitment in support of the innovation.” which arises from the possibility of spillover effects from knowledge acquired through pluralistic channels. it is possible to draw the following lessons: • Flexibility in service delivery is important in making innovations workable. under the National Agricultural Advisory Service (NAADS). Box 2. nongovernmental organizations [NGOs]. though it has faced challenges. Extension continues to be evaluated based on technology adoption—that is. DDAS has contributed to the increased capacity of participating farmers. and other operators in the food and agricultural value chain. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have provided another avenue for sharing information in agriculture. farmer organizations. pluralistic in the choice of delivery channels. More research is needed to determine how farmers can be empowered to demand the type of services they need. and lack of access to electricity. in part. on access to assets and human capital. Social networks have been used to disseminate information and reach consensus among farmers in formal and informal associations (see Box 6). Demand-driven advisory services (DDASs) have been implemented in Uganda and Nigeria as pilot projects with donor support. widely dispersed populations. are thought to be bottom-up. governments and development partners in Africa started reforming traditional extension services to address their major weaknesses: a supply-driven and top-down approach. In Uganda.orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion 9 Reforms have generally failed to bring about institutional change in extension. demand for Advisory services in Africa: the cases of nigeria and uganda In the 1990s and early 2000s. but it has not affected the dominance of the linear paradigm (research–extension– farmer). on the other hand. and lack of access by women and other vulnerable groups. and private providers). • The effectiveness of DDAS depends. including low effective demand for marketed services. ICT can provide users with good and timely information on production and postharvest technologies. which is a crucial means of advancing agriculture in developing countries. prices. From the experiences of Uganda and Nigeria. Demanddriven advisory services. and targeting of vulnerable groups. One reform includes demanddriven approaches and plurality of service providers (for example. Two case studies on demand-driven innovation are presented below from experiences in Africa (see Box 2) and India (see Box 3). low capacity to provide extension services. • Complementary programs should be in place so as to make assets accessible to poor farmers. and inclusive of vulnerable groups. limited financial and human capacity. . highly centralized. • Private-sector participation in the provision of extension services can be limited by “free-riding. the public. and nonparticipatory (dominated by a single channel of knowledge transfer). a concentration on technology transfer. how suppliers can respond to farmers’ needs. The scope of innovation was enlarged. especially in light of low rural incomes. markets. and how such schemes can be innovatively financed.
Swanson. and marketdriven extension system. Masters • Rural Knowledge Network and Agricultural Innovation: Lessons from Bolivian Smallholder Agriculture. The model promotes a major shift in the focus of and approach to extension in India through: • a shift away from transferring technologies for major food crops toward helping small-scale and female farmers diversify output into higher value crop and livestock enterprises. Given the success of the ATMA model. farmers groups. by Geoffrey Heinrich. K. Singh. Market-driven extension system: the case of india Established in 1998.These efforts. by Frank Hartwich and Mario Monge • A Decentralized. N. Ready . Market-driven Extension System: The ATMA Model of India. by Kristin Davis • Building Capacities for Innovation: Examples from the Field. by Suresh Babu • Accelerating Innovation with Prize Rewards. farmer-led. support local extension programs and activities. • the development of social capital by helping male and female farmers to organize themselves into groups. and Rupert Best • Extension Reforms to Improve Knowledge and Innovation for Development. Zamede Abebe. The major positive impacts of the ATMA model include • crop diversification in favor of high-value enterprises. and M. the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) involved close and effective partnerships among the Government of India. Farmer-led. A decentralized. by Burton E. the World Bank. M.10 orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion Box 3. and partner with NGOs to organize farmers into groups. involving a decentralized. are severely constrained by lack of government resources to train and support extension workers. conference pApers on orgAnizAtionAl innovAtion • Enabling Small Producers to Engage with Markets: The Need for Multiple Skill Sets. such as horticulture. and • more emphasis on sustainable natural resource management practices. • major increases in rural employment. and • increased farm incomes (6 percent per year in project districts compared with 1 percent in nonproject districts). NGOs. by William A. the Government of India has been progressively scaling-up the model to all 588 rural districts in India. Edward Charles. The ATMA model is a striking case of organizational innovation. however. and other stakeholders. farmer-led. • a decentralized extension system to create awareness and then train male and female farmers about how to pursue new enterprises.
purchase seed through formal channels. Investment in agricultural R&D constitutes a viable and reducing food prices. access. and knowledge that can it alone is insufficient to catalyze the be disseminated lower consumer prices. and the demand for rural services. And on another front. enhAncing investMent in reseArch The benefits of the Green Revolution included And developMent doubling production. food and agricultural system. The framework to invest in agricultural R&D as a way of unlocking for seed security is availability. thereby improving the is the seed or planting material on which farming livelihoods of farmers. Private research organizations they procure saved seed from other farmers. agricultural the CGIAR’s HarvestPlus Program have developed research played a major role in developing the crop biofortified varieties of a number of staple crops to enhance nutrition security in developing countries. Countries have been urged fundamentally depends (Box 4). raise net farm incomes. raise effective lthough indigenous knowledge plays Science and research yields.4 technologicAl innovAtion do better? The Gene Revolution aims to lower net production costs. or they are emerging in certain developing countries like India. Can the “gene revolution” means of increasing productivity for growth and technicAl Knowledge A 11 . Most transgenic developments required in the complex along the food R&D involves either maize or soybeans. to support innovation processes to tons per hectare. the use of pesticides and herbicides. Science and agricultural Biotechnology has led to increased maize value chain to and research produce new knowledge yields of 8–10 tons per hectare compared support innovation that can be disseminated along the with single cross yields of 5–7 tons per processes to increase food and agricultural value chain hectare and open pollinated yields of 1–1. During the Green conventional breeding researchers under Revolution of the 1950s and 1960s. reduce produce new an important role in innovation. varieties that spearheaded dramatic increases in Asian One of the most important agricultural inputs wheat and maize production. wages. reducing rural poverty. preserving virgin land. raising farm incomes. hidden agricultural and socioeconomic potential and Farmers use their own seed saved from prior seasons. but opportunities also exist for the public and private sectors to work together in some form of partnership.5 productivity. and quality. increase productivity.
while agricultural R&D investments are both longIAASTD supports the view that S&T needs to be term and risky. agricultural R&D is new technologies used in agriculture in found to be high in grossly underfunded. on the one hand. public spending on agricultural R&D (which (IAASTD) was initiated by the World Bank in funds 94 percent of the agricultural R&D in the collaboration with a range of multistakeholder developing world) has experienced sluggish growth. In addition. has generated over half of the in R&D have been payoffs. crop protection. Despite the high example. and others. science and technology (S&T). Monsanto has established strategic platforms in high-value. investment in agriculture. . in developing-country R&D is very BenchMArKing innovAtions limited. the strong spillover effects of benefits from agricultural Box 4. The CGIAR. in poor countries. however. because of Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative. improve remained low can be explained by several factors. Monsanto Agricultural technology Technological innovations in agriculture are diverse and require the assistance of government institutions. such as small packs of seed and herbicides at affordable prices. One of their projects in India resulted in a 54-percent yield increase and 60-percent profit increase for farmers. developing countries invested only 0. cotton. and to support the growth of distribution channels through training and by supplying small stockists of agricultural inputs. for Returns to investment developing countries. science. developing countries. and corn. trade distortions competitiveness. Monsanto also engages in partnerships in order to meet the needs of farmers through training and distribution of improved seed and chemicals. The ultimate goal of The reason why investment in agricultural R&D has IAASTD is to reduce hunger and poverty. agricultural experts. As a group. and sustainable livelihoods.and small-scale crops (that is.56 civil society. and national policies that reduce incentives to farmers Attempts have been made to benchmark R&D in in developing countries can act as a disincentive to both developing countries through IFPRI’s Agricultural public and private investment in R&D. large. Partnerships are used to develop appropriate products. First. Monsanto is an agricultural technology company focusing on seed. rural livelihoods. Returns to investment R&D. private companies. organizations and representatives of governments. and private sectors around the world with percent of their agricultural GDP in research in 2000 the purpose of assessing regional needs for agricultural (including donor contributions). biotechnology. and technology. soybeans. The company has also developed R&D platforms in biotechnology and molecular and conventional breeding. Monsanto provides farmers in Africa (and the rest of the world) with seed technology and herbicides to make them more productive and competitive. and vegetables on the other). and facilitate equitable and sustainable the political economy of public expenditure decisions development by generating and ensuring access to and tends to emphasize short-term payoffs and subsidies. use of agricultural knowledge. and animal agriculture. Private investment the developing world. Third. many nations have been free-riding in R&D have been found to be high in on the efforts of others. Second. With the exception of a few The International Assessment of developing countries (notably India and Agricultural Science and Technology for Development China). farmers embedded within a broader development agenda in have limited bargaining power to lobby for increased order to continue to fuel advances in productivity. NGOs.12 technologicAl innovAtion poverty reduction.
by Tom Remington • Agriculture for Development: WDR 2008 and IAASTD. and Indicators: Improving the Analysis of Technology and Innovation in Developing-Country Agriculture. Tewodaj Mogues. It is important that the indicators are strongly linked to economic performance or demonstrate the interconnectedness of the economy in order to guide resource-scarce countries in making decisions about investments in agricultural R&D in the face of competing demands. by José Falck Zepeda . by Rasheed Sulaiman • Indicators for Assessing the Status of Extension Systems and Quality of the Service. but the diagnostic and predictive power of the methods needs to be strengthened. Dayo Phillip. and Edward Kato • Globalization of Private Agricultural Research and Innovation: Opportunities for Developing Countries?. Spielman • Measuring Public Agricultural Research Investments: A Revised Global Picture. Biosafety. Samuel Benin. and Innovation. but they need to be expanded to incorporate key insights from the innovation systems perspective. Knowledge. by Ruth Meinzen-Dick • Private-Sector Development: The Monsanto Company. The framework for benchmarking R&D and innovation should take advantage of the power of qualitative methods in explaining some of the quantitative outcomes. by Terri Raney • Innovative Seed Responses after Disaster. conference pApers on technologicAl innovAtion • Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation for Poverty Reduction. John Pender. the data must be relevant and up to date if it is to be useful. Social network analysis or influence mapping has been used to investigate the direction of influence in the innovation process. Nevertheless. so work in this area is much needed. by Eija Pehu • How Does the Private Sector Contribute to Knowledge and Innovation to Advance Agricultural Development?. and input indicators—areas in which policymakers have expressed interest. by Nienke Beintema and Gert-Jan Stads • Will the Gene Revolution Reach the Poor?. Plans are under way to establish a similar initiative for agricultural extension. by Kiyoshi Shiratori • Determinants of Demand for Advisory Services in Africa. Incentives. by Ephraim Nkonya. It is also important to benchmark innovations in general. by Lemlem Sissay • Building Blocks toward a Structured Trading System in Eastern Africa. Many R&D and innovation indicators are based on quantitative measures. by Carl E. Such initiatives should cover outcome. by Anne Mbaabu • Extension from an Innovation System Perspective. Renewed focus on evidence-based research has led to a resurgence of donor interest in supporting the development of databases. It is obvious that more research is needed to explore different approaches to benchmarking agricultural innovations.technologicAl innovAtion 13 Such benchmark results allow countries to assess their agricultural R&D systems in the context of other countries and regions in terms of human and financial capacity and institutional developments in agricultural R&D. by Kerry McNamara • Innovation. process. Pray • Biotechnology. by Magdalena Blum • Participatory Research through Farmer Research Groups. by Kinuya Mbijjiwe • ICT and Agriculture Innovation: Trends and Opportunities. by David J.
social interactions. broad-based perspective on markets are constrained by information asymmetries. interactions. A new. networks. and linkages in the to lack of ameliorating options. input markets are inefficient. agricultural innovation emphasizes the role of diverse smallholders may be incapable of managing risk due actors. and what roles do they of economic and other societal nuances that prohibit. and stability within the Institutional innovation is an ongoing process with a complex and uncertain world of economic and social number of inherent constraints. given that building the trust necessary to is. financial interactions. including The institutional setting plays a central role in those related to agricultural policy and the dynamics shaping critical processes for innovation systems—that of power. and stability • How do innovations come about? environment within which innovation within the complex occurs) include laws. • Which actors are involved in the and uncertain world traditions. such as insurance production. knowledge-sharing. order. play? permit. beliefs. Broader institutions are also relevant. and producer and knowledge along the food and agricultural value organizations are weak. customs. New institutions should be established to promote I Institutional analysis with respect to innovations deals with several questions including the following: 14 . chain.5 institutionAl innovAtion the nAture of institutions nstitutions (once again defined as the Institutions provide behavioral indicators. when large power differentials exists among actors. and use of information schemes. norms. regulations. partnerships. dissemination. • What are the “rules” that guide the Whether formal or informal. Institutions provide the process of institutional learning? behavioral indicators. system of rules that constitute the order. and continuous support collaborative innovation is more problematic learning to bring about changes in a desired direction. For example. such behavior and practices of actors? institutions are recognized and generally followed • How are smallholders engaged in and affected by by members of the community. and innovation system. or require certain actions.
• The need exists to adapt innovations to the needs of resource-poor farmers and to their innovative capacities. social networks.and private-sector partners need to learn from existing partnership experiences and account for the costs and risks associated with partnering. and utilization of agricultural technologies. promoting innovation and creativity. partnership should involve all actors and stakeholders directly involved in the generation. farmer-to-farmer transfer). but also realization of economies of scale in resource use. there have been limited partnerships between institutes of higher education and extension systems. dissemination. and participatory research are important (Box 5). the roles of public–private partnerships. social networks in Knowledge sharing Rural social networks provide informal channels for the transfer of information and technologies (for example. accumulation. To achieve these goals. exploitation of complementarities of objectives and expertise. pArtnerships fAcilitAte innovAtion Partnerships are an important component of institutional innovation for agricultural growth and poverty reduction. Lessons from Bolivian smallholder agriculture (Box 1) underline the need to promote rural knowledge networks and agricultural innovations. public. between the private sector and producer organizations. • Development-oriented NGOs have the potential to contribute to productivity increases. and so on. This implies the need to target groups and individuals embedded in social networks. and coordination (realization synergies) advantages. In discussing institutional innovation. Such partnerships offer important opportunities for reducing the cost of research. • Social interactions and networks can contribute to the adoption of innovations. Social networks and the noncommercial exchanges have collective value in facilitating knowledge sharing and the adoption of innovations and thus constitute important social capital that should be exploited. The benefits of partnerships include not only knowledge and risk-sharing advantages.institutionAl innovAtion 15 innovation. and enhancing the impact of research on the poor. and policy channels need to be strengthened through capacity building. It is equally important to look at policy issues with regard to how innovation systems can bring different actors together and how innovations can be brought within food and agricultural-commodity value chains. Lack of incentives is an important contributing factor to weak partnerships among stakeholders. between NGOs and the public sector. Ideally. between extension workers and community-based organizations. Co-funding and cooperation of public institutions. foundations. So far. and private enterprises with a view to expanding knowledge and innovation systems should Box 5. Public–private partnerships in agriculture can be strengthened in the higher education system through technical apprenticeships and internships. with recommendations that research endeavors and policies pay attention to the following hypotheses: • Research and extension alone are insufficient to bring about pro-poor growth in rural areas. . between vocational/technical schools and extension systems.
Another interesting outcome of the Morocco model was that partners not only shared knowledge. institutions of higher education. the private sector. and private enterprises with a view to expanding knowledge and innovation systems should also play an important role in advancing agriculture in developing countries. In addition to partially funding research. processors. the wholesalers entered into contractual agreements with farmer organizations or individual farmers to ensure timely delivery of quality tomatoes in the right quantities. Aicha AgroIndustry forged viable partnerships with researchers at the Faculty of Agronomy at Meknes University to engage in adaptive research. The institutional arrangement benefited all agents involved in the value chain. and effective value addition through a knowledge sharing process and innovation system that generated benefits to tomato farmers. The case demonstrates Co-funding and cooperation of public institutions. that improved tomato yields and quality resulted from effective partnerships between farmer organization. In addition to the Morocco case. foundations. Aicha Agro-Industry forged a partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture to train staff. . Adding value to tomato production in Morocco: A Model of partnership in Knowledge and risk sharing Morocco offers the case of a successful experience in public–private partnership. and made research results available for use in the public sector. the f loriculture industry in Ethiopia demonstrates the importance of partnership and knowledge sharing in the production and marketing of a high-value crop (cut flowers).16 institutionAl innovAtion also play an important role in advancing agriculture in developing countries. train and provide technical advice to farmers. Farmers sold their produce to the contracting wholesaler and received premium prices based on improved quality and preferred timing of delivery. the private sector. and analyze the soil nutrient content of new farm plots. Aicha AgroIndustry provided farmers with technical advice and cash advances to partially cover the cost of drip irrigation and enable farmers to purchase timely inputs. For example. but also risks: farmers were able to sell their products at a guaranteed price. interaction. run demonstration plots. Box 6. and exporters contracted with wholesalers to ensure timely delivery of quality tomatoes. In turn. farmer and business sector collaboration. while wholesalers were assured timely delivery of high-quality tomatoes in the right quantities. Tomato yields doubled. and consumers. and quality improvements were substantial. and knowledge sharing to improve efficiency in the process of creating value. The case of tomato value chains in Morocco amply demonstrates the importance of partnership. In addition. A case study from Morocco provides an interesting model of institutional innovation and partnership (see Box 6). In Morocco supermarkets. and government ministries.
by John Ulimwengu and Prabuddha Sanyal • How Can Technological and Socio-institutional Innovation Processes Have More Impact at the Local Level?. by Lemlem Sissay • Spatial Knowledge Spillover and Agricultural Growth.institutionAl innovAtion 17 conference pApers on institutionAl innovAtion • Extension from an Innovation-System Perspective by Rashid Sulaiman • Agricultural Innovations within a Supply Chain: The Case of Agropole in Morocco. by Maria Fernandez . by Marie-Hélèn Collion and Noureddine Ouazzani • How Does the Private Sector Contribute to Knowledge and Innovation to Advance Agricultural Development?. by Ann Waters-Bayer • What Is the Effect of Gender on Knowledge and Innovation?.
such as one that allows the intended farmcan be used to rectify programs whose implemeners to participate in the market but at the same time tation is faltering. them. and farmers in developing counThrough monitoring problems that can be resolved and issues tries. the vouchers can be used in the market an innovative policy can be enacted. care must be is faltering. and timeliness (see Box This implies the need for an innovative 7). In this way. Through monitoring and evaluation. policies policy. Although subsidizing ferto rectify programs design specific programs to deal with whose implementation tilizer may be desirable. thereby avoiding market distortions sidization is an issue that has occupied the attention or disincentives to private-sector participation. Fertilizer subalongside cash. An example of such a policy in relation to eliminated. that can be facilitated or promoted with ing occurring and the need to increase policies can be used policies alone. pragmatic policies require taken that such action does not distort innovations to ensure their appropriatethe market and lead to excess demand. There are many ners. subsidies is the use of redeemable vouchers targeting The fertilizer sector offers a good example of how poor people. relevance. P 18 . removing the need to productivity. Sound.6 policy innovAtion olicies play a major role in promotof policymakers. ness. development practitioing agriculture. given the extent of nutrient minand evaluation. the need to redesign promotes investment in systems that shift the supprojects—which would take time and be costly—is ply curve.
• S&T must play a key role for productivity growth. conference pApers on policy innovAtion • Policy Innovations for Fertilizer Subsidy Management in Developing Countries. • Linking formal and informal knowledge is an important factor in agricultural development. competitiveness. • Technology development needs to be embedded in a broader development and innovation systems context through the right policies. by Papa Nouhine Dieye .policy innovAtion 19 Box 7. which require innovative approaches involving diverse actors. and sustainable livelihoods. this can be achieved through an appropriate R&D investment policy. by Balu Bumb • Responding to the Agricultural Crisis Using Farmers’ Innovation: Lesson for Senegal’s Agricultural Research and Policies. iAAstd science and technology policy The IAASTD initiative has a number of strategies for S&T policy relevant to agricultural knowledge and innovation processes: • Policies to support more and better investments in developing-country agriculture are indispensable.
various intracountry levels. In addition. and others working at the local level through farmer accommodate. and the ability to access. Such skills involve quantitative. Group dynamics and leadership are and scientific skills needed to design and implement important skills for individuals at the local level. process-related analyses of the innovation system. are needed at all levels to address Capacities at the systems level include Individual capacities. would strengthen the tem. little action has At the farmer level. The development of no-till packages for smallOrganizational capacities that go beyond technical scale farmers in Argentina has illustrated the need for skills are also needed to develop innovation processes greater understanding of the structure and dynamics I 20 .7 strengthening cApAcities for Knowledge And innovAtion t is clear that adequate capacities and connect them at the national level. and institutional innovation mechanism. also needed. Organizational and managerial skills are skills are also important for extension agents. and other motivate the development of policies and practices for collaborations between private. and policy problems that practices. such research. the technological. system-level Capacity is also required to enable actors to forge capacities need to be identified to encourage and partnerships. the need group management. adapt. qualitative. a wide variety been taken to address these needs. and facilitate innovation processes at organizations.and public-sector developing and enabling an environment for pro-poor researchers. as is the institutional capacity to identify. basic business skills. capacity is recognized. are documenting institutional memory for effective use needed to strengthen key actors in the innovation systhrough learning processes. While the need to strengthen function effectively. and processes that will enable key actors in the face smallholder farmers in developing the various actors and institutions to innovation system. Thus. profit-sharing arrangements. NGOs. The capacity to learn from successes innovation. and failures of actors in the innovation system. internal savings and lending. are needed to strengthen institutional. organizational. including including identifying specific gaps. and this poses several challenges. of skill sets are needed. exists to first identify capacity gaps at the country level. countries. Capacity gaps at the and apply new technologies and to manage natural country level should go beyond the basic technical resources. including thematic skills. the capacity to develop S&T policies. and Individual capacities. including thematic skills.
This will enrich curricula and make them more relevant to the needs of society. appreciate local problems. Students must also be given practical learning experience through direct engagement—a particularly critical factor in the rapidly changing fields of technology. so such institutions need to innovate to be more efficient. This makes community linkages even more critical to the effective functioning of universities. An important component of capacity development takes place within universities or institutions of higher learning. Experiential learning can be promoted more readily in universities that have direct linkages with the production sector. Box 8. If students are to be able to participate in curricula development. developing capacity for no-till packages for small-scale farmers in Argentina Experience from Argentina shows that capacity building and complementary assets were needed to effectively promote no-till packages among small-scale farmers. and curricula should be revised based on feedback from students and actors in the agricultural value chain. Graduates of agricultural sciences fill a variety of positions in research. and systems levels. policy analysis. serving as a bridge between the researchers and the farmers. No-till technology allows small-scale farmers to preserve and utilize nutrient-rich topsoil when cultivating crops. An example from South India using watermanagement challenges shows that farmer-led innovations need to be encouraged by public research to improve the effectiveness of innovation systems for natural resource management (see Box 10). identify problems. Continuous education allows them to remain abreast of knowledge developments in the sector. including farmers. The importance of continuous investment and a long-term perspective toward capacity strengthening cannot be underestimated. Curricula should also be developed in a participatory manner. The use of participatory methods of teaching tends to increase retention of student knowledge. and capacity in the no-till technique was built in both groups through learning routines or platforms.strengthening cApAcities for Knowledge And innovAtion 21 of innovation systems at local levels (see Box 8). To this end. In developing the technology in Argentina. universities can mount short and specialized courses to build the capacity of mid-level researchers.and private-sector agents to negotiate. extension personnel acted as network and innovation agents. and effectively establish partnerships in support of successful innovation (see Box 9). understand each other’s perspective. Developing a well-functioning innovation system will require strengthening the capacity of actors and institutions at the individual. Tilling soil with plows and harrows often turns the topsoil and moves it downwards. organization. . and offer solutions. extension. a participatory research approach was used. This process of “building the capacity to build capacity” ensures effective pedagogy for agriculture. The public–private partnership developed in Latin American countries to identify markets and new products for export also underscores the importance of strengthening the capacity of public. and other areas in the public and private sectors. they need the opportunity to interact with farmers and other actors in the food and agricultural value chain. The necessary networks and linkages were established between the researchers and farmers in Argentina. To facilitate these arrangements.
University of Malawi. Kanyama-Phiri • Building Capacities for Innovation: Examples from the Field. by Suresh Babu • Exploring Innovation Capacity in the Ethiopian Dairy Systems. Building the capacity to forge public–private partnerships in latin America Capacity strengthening must be specific to a partnership. conference pApers on Building cApAcities for Knowledge And innovAtion • Capacity Building for Innovation in Natural Resource System Management: The Case of Banda College. and Dirk Hoekstra • Building Capacity for Innovation in Food Technology and Nutrition Security. researchers. one of the major activities of an FBO included frequent dialog among members to promote their interests. the capacity of the partners to link formal research outcomes and innovations from farmers was built through a participatory approach that included farmers. Another aspect of strengthening capacity was resource mobilization for the implementation and dissemination of innovative water-management ideas. and policymakers. Box 10. extension officers. In an initiative involving community water management.22 strengthening cApAcities for Knowledge And innovAtion Box 9. developing farmer-Based organizations in south india In resource-scarce situations. The process brought about increased cohesion and allowed specific capacity needs of common interest to the partners to be identified. An example in Latin America aiming to enhance market access began with a needs assessment for capacity strengthening for the partnership. If partnerships are to work effectively. by George Y. Ranjitha Puskur. by Kumbe Martin and Ruth Oniang’o . farmer-based organizations (FBOs) provide an opportunity to bringing about innovations in agriculture. In South India. the capacity to partner must be developed among the individual partners in public–private partnership (PPP) arrangements. Both partners participated in a diagnostic study through which a horizontal learning platform was established. by Tesfaye Lemma.
and to platforms. as well as the need to develop indicators and In addition to the publication of this synopsis. topics on knowledge and innovation in agriculture. These included capacity to conduct research using a on issues concerning innovation the need (a) to focus on the interplay of systems approach. cesses. without advocating The need to evaluate the processes through which a particular paradigm. charting numerous means in the absence of an obvious counterfactual. and (h) to be organizations. sue regional cooperation. (b) to ensure openness to and to develop the major focus of the conference was the the adoption of technology. conference papers will be edited and published as a Moving from “best practice” to “best fit” approaches book. policies. dynamics in innovation processes. to conduct research using a systems approach. (g) to purexplored the interplay of technologies. and system biased in favor of urgent action. (c) to form tools with which to recognition of the critical importance of and take advantage of partnerships. and the ensuing discussions produced of carrying out an evaluation through conventional innovative ideas and practices. institutions. and linkages through which to develop the tools with which to empirically assess the share knowledge and innovation. Such research was raised to understand and evaluate innovation prowill contribute tremendously to knowledge. next steps. One of the next steps is thus to develop the capacity Participants noted the importance of partnerships. (e) to maintain a way innovation occurs of agricultural development for growth market orientation. for agricultural development. The institutions. coalitions. (d) empirically assess the knowledge and innovation in the pursuit to empower farmers. The papers edge creators and innovators. and three policy briefs will be issued on various was a common theme. (f) to reward knowlin agriculture.8 conclusion And the wAy forwArd he conference on “Advancing Several actions were suggested to Agriculture in Developing Countries operationalize the innovation systems One of the next steps through Knowledge and Innovation” approach and enhance its usefulness is to develop the provided a forum to shed more light for poverty reduction. The presenters made valuable innovation occurs was recognized. and poverty reduction. In addition. the benchmarks with which to evaluate these processes. as was the difficulty contributions. T 23 . the need way innovation occurs in agriculture.
and Dejene Aredo is an international consultant and associate professor in the Department of Economics at Addis Ababa University. based in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. . Kristin Davis is a research fellow within IFPRI’s ISNAR Division.About the Authors Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere is the director of the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
: +251-11-6172500 Fax: +251-11-6462927 Email: email@example.com.O. DC 20006-1002 USA Tel. NW Washington.: +1-202-862-5600 Fax: +1-202-467-4439 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org IFPRI ADDIs ABABA P.org . Box 5689 Addis Ababa. Ethiopia Tel.org www.H e A D q uA R t e R s 2033 K Street.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.