TECHNICAL NOTE

Tellabs® 8600 Managed Edge System SIAE Microelettronica Microwave Radio Systems - Interoperability Test Report -

Introduction
The evolution of service traffic over a full-IP network, together with the access bandwidth explosion, requires increased investments for input and backhauling capacity. This growth must be carefully handled in such a way capital and operational costs are contained while new revenues come from advanced IP services, so that margins are preserved. As far as the backhauling network is concerned, this translates into strong requirements from multiplexing efficiency. While even legacy services are gradually migrated to IP and new value-added IP-based services experience a huge growth, it becomes mandatory to adopt a transport technology that is better suited to host packet-based tributaries, with a higher multiplexing efficiency than TDMbased framing (e.g. E1 or SDH). At the same time much higher transmission speeds are required. The combined effects of better multiplexing and higher bandwidths per port bring a reduction of capital and operational costs. Thus, migrating the backhauling network towards a packetbased paradigm has great business significance. In this scenario, the SIAE-Tellabs solution proposes itself as a flexible tool for Mobile Operators in managing their migration path towards a full packet network. SIAE Microelettronica S.P.A, in its continuous effort to be at the leading edge of the telecommunication market, has developed the ALS and ALFO radio equipment families with the aim to meet the different needs of Mobile Operators, by providing cost effective transport solutions with high spectral efficiency, Adaptive Modulation, mixed native TDM/Ethernet transport, Ethernet switching and QoS support. The Tellabs® 8600 Managed Edge System is the latest IP/MPLS based platform for mobile networks with full support of fixed services for network convergence. The platform is optimized for mobile transport with 3G and 2G transport applications. The main benefits provided by the Tellabs equipment in the Microwave Radio Mobile backhaul scenario are: IP Routing, MPLS and ATM switching support; Ethernet, ATM and TDM pseudo wires; Diffserv and ATM based QoS support; cost effective cell site solutions. The main driver for the Backhauling Network migration towards IP is the dramatic increase in the peak capacities for 3G data services, with particular reference to HSPA traffic. In today’s networks, the capacity generated by the
Figure 2: Full IP solution for 3G Network Backhauling

NodeB is carried to the RNC by using ATM over TDM (NxE1 IMA) as transport technology.

Figure 1: Full TDM solution for 3G Network Backhauling

The NodeB traffic is going to increase, by following the growing trend of HSPA from 3.6 Mbps to 14.4 Mbps and the further enhancements foreseen with HSPA+ and LTE technology. This increase in capacity can require additional capacity on the Tail Links, but the main impact is on the Feeder Links, where network evolution cannot be affordable with the present TDM network. Taking as an example the Feeder Link of Figure 1 that carries the traffic of 5 NodeBs, one E1 of peak capacity increase for each NodeB is reflected into an additional 5xE1 capacity required on the Feeder Link. Considering that traditional PDH Feeder Links are mainly dimensioned to carry 16x2 Mbps or 32x2 Mbps capacities, it is clear that soon there will not be room to host additional capacity. To counteract these problems, mobile operators are planning to move their networks towards full IP transport, as shown in Figure 2. In this case the impact on the traffic growth can be mitigated thanks to the Ethernet aggregation in the POC site by applying a proper overbooking factor to the data traffic on the Feeder Link.

However, the migration of the backhauling network from TDM to Ethernet presents several issues that must be taken into account. In particular, two main factors today are limiting the deployment: • Lack of a full-IP version from most NodeB suppliers • Need to contain CAPEX and maximize the ROI

The aim of this document is to describe the SIAE-Tellabs solution and to provide overall performance data to verify the applicability of this solution in the backhauling of the mobile operator networks. 3. with radio capacity from 4 up to 622 Mbps. The ALS series is available in all frequency bands from 4 to 38 GHz in single or duplicated configuration. It is the ideal solution for a wide range of applications in access networks and backbone areas. This requires finding a way to front the traffic increases during this period. Regarding the second point. the migration could require a strong upgrading intervention on the existing network: 1. In this way. allows operators to enable traffic growth in a gradual way. XPIC functionality is available for high capacity cross-polar implementations. E3. As a result. with added ATM aggregation capabilities that enable them to smooth migration and optimize costs. it is reasonable to expect a smooth migration (at least in a first phase) of operator networks. but it seems reasonable to foresee that most operators will not be able to start an extensive deployment of full-IP NodeBs before 2010. the ROI can be optimised by spreading the total investment over a longer period. The use of ATM pseudo wire. Gigabit/Fast Ethernet and STM-1) and a high degree of versatility allow very easy network planning and management. SDH and Native IP connections. complex protection schemes and excellent reliability are mandatory. the appropriate modulation scheme (4/16/32 QAM) is selected. A complete set of user interfaces (E1. The ALS series includes nodal configuration for crowded stations where many different hops are converging. Figure 3 : Pseudo Wire solution during the network transition In conclusion. the SIAE-Tellabs solution provides the Mobile Operators with a backhauling solution over MW. combined with a mixed TDM/Ethernet transport on the MW links. The NodeB must be migrated from ATM to IP Microwave links must be migrated from a TDM to an Ethernet transport Microwave link capacity must also be upgraded in several cases The ALS Series provides PDH. 2. It allows for a drastic reduction of equipment complexity both in terms of unit counts and physical connections. The ALFO series is a full-outdoor Native IP digital radio system for point-to-point applications.TECHNICAL NOTE SIAE ALS and ALFO Radio Equipments The NodeB vendors present different roadmaps. ALFO (Access Link Full Outdoor Series) ALS (PDH / SDH / ETHERNET Series) . initially focusing the upgrade on the more critical links and then extending it to the rest of the network. It has been designed to target LAN extensions with high data throughput or/and low capacity PDH traffic requirements. The ALFO series transports up to full 100 Mbps of Ethernet traffic as well as up to 4xE1 TDM traffic. covering any market segment ranging from cost-sensitive applications to advanced network implementations in which high capacities. with the aim to optimize investments. Depending on transmission capacity and on available signal quality.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). It has all the features needed for both 2G and 3G and supports mobile evolution towards LTE and the requirements of Fixed/Mobile Convergence (FMC). It is designed to meet the ever-growing requirements of mobile service users worldwide. which provides end-to-end management. many network solution topologies are described. In the following. The Tellabs 8660 switch can cover all locations of the mobile network between the core network and local exchange sites. to provide an efficient end-to-end solution for the Mobile Network Backhauling. Frame Relay (FR). which is needed in the carrier networks today. Tellabs® 8607 Access Switch is a compact and highly modular access element with multi-protocol support. The system provides a seamless migration from circuit to packet. through the Tellabs 8605 access switch. it has a low initial cost of deployment and excellent scalability. 3G and WiMAX cell sites and network evolution. . is a scalable and versatile solution for evolving access networks. Figure 4: Cell site solution with hybrid TDM/Eth transport over the Air The 3G ATM IMA traffic is encapsulated into PW packets using PWE3/MPLS protocol. Following the same cost-efficient architecture with the Tellabs 8660 switch. Tellabs 8660 edge switch supports various interfaces from channelized TDM and POS to Ethernet and offers the full redundancy needed in carrier networks. providing a single. The system scales from a single small managed network element up to tens of thousands of network elements. paired with the intelligent Tellabs® 8000 Network Manager. Cell Site: For the cell site deployment. Ethernet. The Tellabs® 8660 Edge Switch is an IP/MPLS-based switch designed to fulfil the most demanding requirements of carriers. Figure 4 shows the cell site layout. The Tellabs 8630 access switch supports various interfaces from channelized TDM and POS to Ethernet with full redundancy. Thanks to its distributed switching and modular architecture. Integration of Ethernet. Tellabs 8605 switch supports services with guaranteed quality to the base station. small hub site and customer premises.TECHNICAL NOTE Tellabs 8600 Series The Tellabs 8600 managed edge system. enabling the network to evolve and grow to keep endcustomers satisfied with their ever increasing communication demands and requirements. The Tellabs® 8630 Access Switch is an IP/MPLS-based switch with thorough implementation of carrier-class functions. Internet Protocol (IP) and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). the Tellabs 8630 has been specifically designed to offer the functionality needed in mobile networks and its optimized size makes it ideal for use in operator sites with limited space. Tellabs 8605 is environmentally hardened to support installations in cabinets without climate control and has a protected DC power input. Tellabs has developed the 8605 model that can be used to encapsulate up to 16xE1 ATM or TDM traffic into PW packets. Coupled with Tellabs 8000 network manager. The SIAE-Tellabs Solution The SIAE-Tellabs solution combines the TDM/Ethernet transport over MW links provided by SIAE equipments with the ATM/TDM/Ethernet pseudo wire capability of the Tellabs 8600 systems. truly future-proof platform supporting all technologies: Time Division Multiplexing TDM. the Tellabs 8600 managed edge system is highly cost-efficient and scalable. DSL and pseudowire technology makes it attractive for 2G. The Tellabs 8600 system makes it possible for service providers to benefit from previous network investments. Tellabs® 8605 Access Switch is a 1RU high compact cell site optimized IP/MPLS-based switch that delivers a variety of connectivity options from E-1/T-1s to FEs and GEs. which are needed to evolve the network from 2G and 3G to 4G and beyond.

all cell traffic can be encapsulated into PW packets using PWE3/MPLS CESoPSN for the 2G traffic (Figure 5). R.1Q VLAN tag to each PW packet. in order to preserve them on the radio connection in case of congestions. At the same time. during fading conditions.99 traffic portion of the NodeB traffic from the HSPA component. POC Site: The POC (Point Of Concentration) site is characterized by both local and transit traffics to be sent over a Feeder Link. while carrying this Ethernet traffic. In such case. When the NodeB is equipped with a 16xE1 card and where the legacy Tail Link was originally designed to carry a lower capacity. On the other side. As a final result. without any external cabling. Figure 6: Cell site solution with NodeB traffic separation  Figure 8: HUB site solution  . In this case a possible solution is to use packet based synchronization protocols like Adaptive Timing or IEEE 1588v2. reducing the total number of required devices and radio links upgrading. In this way. the ATM QoS is reflected onto the VLAN tags. a single Tellabs 8605 unit is used to collect the traffic of more than one NodeB. sending the first on a new ATM IMA over NxE1 group and the other over Ethernet. The ATM aggregation is achieved on the feeder link thanks to the Ethernet aggregation capabilities of the SIAE packet radio. the high priority traffic (e. In this case a full Ethernet transport over the radio link is required. the problem of synchronization will arise. with the aim to reduce the frequency channel bandwidth.1p).1Q TAG (IEEE 802. • In the other cases. the 2G TDM traffic can be used to distribute the primary reference clock into the network. as shown in the cell site deployment. can manage QoS based on the priority bits of the IEEE 802. The advantage of this solution is that all the TDM cabling disappears from the network nodes and some capacity gain can be achieved if the 2G E1s are only partially filled. ATM traffic overbooking can be applied on the Feeder Link. In fact the SIAE radio. In most of the cases.TECHNICAL NOTE This switch adds an IEEE 802. In these cases.g. In this case the traffic can be carried over the SIAE packet radio as native TDM traffic. Figure 7: POC site solution The incoming Ethernet and TDM traffic is directly switched by the SIAE Nodal IDU (ALS). In this case the radio link must be upgraded. allowing SIAE packet radio to give precedence to high priority and delay sensitive traffic when congestions occur. The radio equipment collects all traffic coming from the converging radio links. The configuration of Figure 6 could be used where the Tellabs 8605 equipment splits R. including the 3G NodeBs. The PW solution deployed at the cell site applies mainly in two cases: • When Adaptive Modulation is used on the tail link. In this way. As an alternative deployment. Figure 5 : Cell site solution with Full Eth transport over the MW link The Ethernet packets carrying the 2G TDM traffic are marked as high priority by Tellabs equipment. the 2G voice traffic can be transferred on traditional TDM lines preserving its quality from any conflict with the packet data transmission. but the use of Adaptive Modulation can prevent a change in the antenna diameters. as shown in the following picture. The local traffic can be added to the Feeder Link. HUB Site: The HUB site is the point of contact between the MW Radio Backhauling section and the Backbone Network.99 voice and 2G TDM) is preserved when the radio works at reduced speed. the PW is usually applied closer to the core network to reduce the impact on CAPEX of the migration. before sending it to the SIAE equipment on an Ethernet connection. the 3G NodeB is co-located with a 2G BTS.

This PW has been marked with Expedite Forwarding priority (QoS=7). ATM traffic: these packets have been encapsulated by PWE3/MPLS ATM PW. and identified by two different VPIs. QoS mechanisms can reduce the problem. as shown in the following Figure. latency and jitter. the following traffic types have been processed by the Tellabs 8600 system: 1. depending on the number of connections to be terminated. The same Network Element can be also used to terminate the CESoPSN pseudo wire (if used). all the traffic belonging to this PW has been marked with Best Effort priority (QoS=0). In this way an End-to-End solution can be provided. TDM traffic: One E1 has been sent across a radio link by PWE3/MPLS CESoPSN encapsulation. The priority of the outgoing Ethernet packets is properly set through the QoS bits of the VLAN tag (IEEE 802. In the test the following features have been verified: • Ability of the Tellabs 8600 equipment to get different kinds of traffic and transmit them on a common Ethernet infrastructure. In such a scenario. Typical models used are the 8630 or 8660. With the advent of technologies such as Voice over IP and Video over IP. giving higher priority to critical packets (real time) and discarding best effort data when the traffic exceeds the available bandwidth. A different PW has been defined for each VPI and two different Assured Forwarding priorities (QoS=4 and 2) have been marked on the relevant Ethernet packets.TECHNICAL NOTE In this application the SIAE Nodal IDU provides GE and STM-1 interfaces to forward all Ethernet and TDM backhauling traffic to the backbone. The Tellabs 8600 family is provided with Edge Switch of different size that can be used for this application. 3. the local Ethernet and TDM traffic can be added on the GE and STM-1 connections. Throughput and resiliency As shown above. QoS management. Ethernet traffic: the PWE3 Ethernet over MPLS PW protocol has been used to encapsulate the traffic from the Ethernet tester. The main issue related to these technologies is . in order to carry the 2G BTS traffic to the BSC. Ability of the SIAE equipments to preserve the high priority traffic on the radio connection when the total Ethernet traffic from payload interfaces is greater than the available bandwidth. Impact of Adaptive Modulation on ATM service continuity Delay and jitter measurements Adaptive Timing Clock Recovery. So. 2. 3. RNC Site: At the RNC site all the PW connections must be terminated in order to provide the NodeB ATM IMA traffic to the RNC with the proper physical interfaces. 4. each one with a 4 Mbps throughput. 2. network throughput can be insufficient to guarantee required performances. In this case. that they have strict requirements in terms of bandwidth. before sending it over the radio connection. 5. During the test two different ATM traffic streams have been generated. QoS management Quality of service (QoS) is an essential feature when the Ethernet network must carry interactive and real time applications other than internet browsing data.1p). • Figure 9: RNC site solution Figure 10: Test bench with BE traffic sent on the Tellabs 8600 Test Results The SIAE-Tellabs solution has been bench-tested focusing on the following factors: 1. this requirement is increasingly emerging in modern networks. during the busiest hours of the day. Even in this case. by means of PW techniques.

However. during anomalous propagation conditions (deeper fading) the system can switch to lower and stronger modulation levels that enable reducing the total unavailability for the high priority traffic to values less than 99. in order to guarantee service continuity and to reduce high priority traffic losses. the radio link can work with its highest modulation level in order to maximize the radio capacity. Traffic interruption during modulation upshift and downshift. without any traffic interruption. SIAE implements Adaptive Modulation algorithms predict weakening RF signals and can switch modulation levels.1p Qos and the Strict Priority rule has been chosen to empty the output queues. The SIAE-Tellabs solution has been tested by verifying the impact of the modulation switching on the ATM traffic and using the test bench shown in the following Figure. Two main factors must be taken into account with Adaptive Modulation: 1. as shown in the following Figure. the ALS added a second VLAN tag (through QinQ tagging) to the packets received from the Tellabs devices (TDM and ATM PW). During the tests. The best effort traffic (QoS=0) was sent through the low priority queue on the radio link. High priority traffic preservation. while only part of the packets from the Ethernet tester were discarded onto the radio link. the traffic from the Ethernet Tester was sent directly onto the radio link without encapsulating it into a PW circuit.9% of the time). no losses on the TDM and ATM traffic were registered. In addition. as a consequence. In this case. in order to keep it independent from the Ethernet tester traffic. Additionally.1p priority value of the incoming packets into the second VLAN tag before sending it onto the radio link. the ALS radio copied the IEEE 802. in order to maintain the correct QoS management. The ALS radio marked this traffic with a VLAN label and QoS bits set to 0. When the modulation is switched down the link capacity is reduced and is no longer able to carry the total throughput. This is a condition that persists for the most part of the time (usually more than 99. the SIAE ALS equipment has been configured to provide a 42 Mbps capacity on the radio connection (28MHz frequency channel with 4QAM modulation) while the Ethernet Tester was sending traffic greater than 50 Mbps. During normal propagation conditions. During these tests it has also been verified the ability of SIAE radios to carry PWE3/MPLS traffics with particular reference to Ethernet packets which length is greater than the standard 1518 bytes. best-effort packets were discarded onto the radio link without any loss on the TDM and ATM traffic.99% of the time. In a second phase. Impact of Adaptive Modulation on ATM service continuity Adaptive Modulation is a very important feature that allows the more efficient use of the spectral resource. while the TDM and ATM traffics (QoS≥2) were sent by means of the other upper queues. When the system switches to lower modulation levels the frequency channel width remains unchanged and. 2. Also in this second phase. A traffic interruption can occur between the error detection and the modulation switch and this interval should be as low as possible. In such cases the radio equipment must preserve the high priority traffic through the proper QoS management. When the radio system detects errors on the radio link it changes the modulation level. The SIAE radio equipment has been configured in order to manage IEEE802.TECHNICAL NOTE In order to simulate congestion on the radio link. the radio capacity is reduced. Fig 11: Test bench with BE Eth traffic directly sent on the SIAE radio equipments Figure 12: Test bench for ATM service continuity verification .

because of the time needed to collect payload information. . Several tests have been done in different traffic conditions: • • With or without concurrent High Priority ATM traffic (max throughput 8 Mbps). as shown in the following graph. Figure 14 . TDM PseudoWire In its CESoPSN implementation. for example. errors were detected by the TDM Tester on the E1 line during tests lasting over 24 hours. and 42 Mbps/4QAM when the received RF signal power goes below a proper threshold. obtaining values up to about 350 ms. because the relative weight of the additional PWE header decreases as the payload size increases. The jitter buffer was set to 3 ms. configured to work with a 100 Mbps capacity and 32QAM modulation as nominal bitrate. The jitter compensation capacity is directly proportional to the buffer length. in order to reach the capacity limit. In this case two different VPs have been generated by the ATM tester (see following Figure): • • VP1 (4 Mbps). The same results have been then achieved when the test was repeated injecting best effort Ethernet traffic on the radio link. where the E1 delay has been measured as function of the jitter buffer value. using the test benches shown in Figure 10 and Figure 11. The end-to-end delay has been measured through the TDM Tester. Frame size: this parameter depends on the number of E1 frames encapsulated into a single PW packet. its value has a direct impact on packet delay. A second test has been done. VP2 (4 Mbps). Jitter is the main factor that influences voice quality. . Lower values have been tested. On the contrary. However. using a 100 Mbps throughput in order to congest the radio channel. obtaining values up to about 70 ms. Capacity efficiency is inversely proportional to packet length. This was encapsulated by the Tellabs 8600 in a PWE3/MPLS ATM PW and sent through the radio link. This parameter is useful to set a trade-off between capacity efficiency and packet delay reduction. 2. Delay and jitter measurements have been carried out both for TDM and ATM PW.TECHNICAL NOTE The ATM tester has been used to generate a single VPI traffic with 8 Mbps throughput. delay increases with frame size. because some signalling and control protocols cannot tolerate excessive delay. A change in the propagation conditions has been simulated using RF attenuators. However. by estimating the traffic interruption on the TDM line carried on the radio link. During each switching the traffic interruption was estimated by counting the number of ATM cells lost. but in these cases the PW connection showed some instabilities. through which the system was forced to switch between the two modulation levels. without a radio link between the two Tellabs 8600 equipments (direct cable connection) In this case the traffic interruption was estimated by counting the number of ATM cells lost on the VP2 ATM stream. TDM delay without any MW Radio connections During these tests the payload frame size was set to 240 bytes that means 1 ms of encapsulation time (one PW packet contains 8 frames of the E1 connection). In this case it has been verified that no ATM packets were lost during the modulation switching. With or without Best Effort Ethernet traffic injected either on the Tellabs 8600 equipment or directly into the radio equipment port. The Ethernet traffic Figure 13: Test bench for ATM over TDM service continuity verification Delay and jitter measurements Delay and jitter are often issues of great importance in mobile networks. delay is very important in wireless networks too. The test has been done using SIAE ALS equipments. encapsulated by the Tellabs 8600 in a PWE3/MPLS ATM PW. Jitter Buffer Size: this is a buffer with configurable length to compensate for the different arrival time of the PW packets. the Tellabs 8600 equipment offers two main parameters to control delay and jitter: 1. switched by the Tellabs 8600 on a 2xE1 connection and sent on the radio link. The same tests have been repeated using the SIAE ALFO equipments.

In general. During these tests.3 3.4 0. because the delay introduced by the jitter buffer is dependent not only on the present traffic conditions. So.9 3 Jitter [ms] 0. i. with a maximum delay of 2 ms.7 .4 3. However. (using a direct cable connection). and optionally Best Effort Ethernet traffic has been injected either on the Tellabs 8600 equipment or directly into the radio equipment port. where part of the ATM traffic coming from the ATM Tester was mapped onto a 2xE1 ATM IMA . delay values between 2. The delay values measured are shown in Table 1. The test was done by reducing the radio link capacity to 10 Mbps. a comparison between these values and those measured with a direct wire connection between the Tellabs equipments reveals that the radio link has a negligible impact on the overall delay.3 and 4. In general. and it never exceeded 1.8 Jitter [ms] 0. the measured delay on the TDM pseudo wire is around 3.4 . the TDM pseudo wire has been always maintained active. The following tests have been performed with the Tellabs 8600 equipment configured to encapsulate up to 10 ATM cells in the same packet.2 3.3 ms. The jitter was measured as Peak-to-Peak Delay Variation of the ATM cells. by using the test benches shown in Figure 10 and Figure 11. the delay is mainly determined by the jitter buffer. but it can be also influenced by the past traffic dynamics.5 ms. ATM Pseudo Wire ATM HP Capacity [Mbps] 8 8 8 8 8 Ethernet BE Delay [ms] Frame Size [bytes] --64 (RADIO) 64 (Tellabs) 1518 (RADIO) 1518 (Tellabs) 2. the delay of the TDM pseudo wire increases to about 7 ms.823).TECHNICAL NOTE streams have been generated using IP packets with length of either 64 or 1518 bytes. a slight increase in the delay has been noted.4 0. typical delay values measured are between 3. after 2 ms from the reception of As can be seen from the table.4. A critical working condition has been identified when the radio link is working with an amount of High Priority traffic close to the maximum capacity of the connection.9 and 3.3 Table 1: Measured TDM delay  The end-to-end delay was then measured with the ATM Tester. The end-to-end delay has been first evaluated without a radio link between the two Tellabs 8600 equipment.5 Table 2: Measured ATM delay w/o any MW Radio connections Delay [ms] 3. high volumes of high priority traffic (close to the maximum radio link capacity) can cause significant delay increases. ATM HP Capacity [Mbps] 0–8 0–8 0–8 Ethernet BE Frame Size [Bytes] --64 1518 the first ATM cell. An additional solution has been tested with the test bench shown in Figure 13.4 0. In almost all the measures the jitter was stable to 0. the delay increases when the radio link is congested with Best Effort traffic and it has also been noted a slight dependence on the packet size.8 ms have been measured.5 1. Regarding the jitter.4 0.9 3.5 3.4 0. In general. the main factor that influences the delay on the Tellabs equipment is the frame size. in all the tests only negligible values have been measured thanks to the effect of the jitter buffer (never greater than 0..0.7 .4.7 2.1 Uipp. with or without Best Effort Ethernet traffic injected into the equipment to congest the Fast Ethernet line. In fact. each delay measure is not deterministic. When the channel is congested with Best Effort traffic.3 Table 3: Measured ATM delay In case of the ATM pseudo wire. This depends basically on the number of ATM cells that are encapsulated in the same PW packet. With neither Ethernet Best Effort nor ATM High Priority traffic.3 3.3 ms. in general. However. the packet is sent anyway even if less than 10 ATM cells have been received. in order to congest the radio channel. The Ethernet traffic streams have been generated using IP packets with length of either 64 or 1518 bytes. which is well below the limits specified in recommendation ITU-T G. when 8 Mbps of High Priority ATM traffic and the Ethernet Best Effort are added. The measured delay values are shown in the following Table 2.5 ms. ATM HP Capacity [Mbps] 8 8 8 Ethernet BE Frame Size [bytes] --64 1518 Delay [ms] 2. in order to gain efficiency. The delay values measured are shown in Table 3.e.

the test bench shown in Figure 15 was used. In TDM networks.7 ms. The reference clock has been taken from a GPS receiver and used as reference for the TDM Tester. Cell sites must use a clock source that is synchronized with the overall network clock. no influence of the Ethernet traffic was noted. in both cases the frequency precision of the regenerated clock was below the 3G Base Stations 50 ppb required accuracy. Adaptive Timing Clock Recovery A very important requirement for reliable mobile backhaul mobile services is synchronization or clocking. the frequency precision is dependent on the channel occupation. but must meet strenuous jitter and wander requirements. The remaining radio capacity was filled with Best Effort Ethernet traffic. The same tests were repeated after a radio link capacity reduction to 10 Mbps. packet based networks usually cannot rely on TDM connections. The second Tellabs equipment was set as slave and used Adaptive Timing to regenerate the clock of the E1 connected to the Wander Tester. so different solutions for the clock distribution must be found. However. Packet Based algorithms can be a solution to overcome this problem. a 4 ms delay was measured .8261-NTM1 cont traffic Fig15: Test bench for Clock Recovery measurements . The results are shown in Figures 16 and Figure 17 below. This instrument was used to measure the TIE (Time Interval Error) between the reference GPS signal and the E1 clock generated by the Tellabs 8600 #2 equipment. The frequency precision has been calculated from the Time Interval Error measured with the Wander Tester. To test the quality of the recovered clock. the synchronization signal is mainly distributed to the network nodes through the TDM connections that carry the payload traffic. Recovered clock must not only be very accurate. These algorithms rely either on dedicated signalling packets or pseudo wire packets that are sent by a PRC (Primary Reference Clock) equipment to the other network elements that use these packets to synchronize frequency and phase of their internal clock. As can be noted. During the tests the radio link was working with a capacity of 100 Mbps. These results have been obtained with an NTM1 capacity equal to 80 Mbps (Figure 16) or 40 Mbps (Figure 17).8261. with a jitter of about 0.8261-NTM1 cont traffic Fig17: Frequency Offset with 40 Mbps of ITU-T G. In this case.TECHNICAL NOTE group transmitted on the radio link as native TDM traffic. The first test was relevant to the frequency precision of the regenerated clock. the same phenomena already discovered for TDM PW was detected: when the High Priority traffic is close to the available radio link throughput. When the ATM traffic was switched onto a second 2xE1 ATM IMA group instead. As expected. the delay suffer a consistent increase. However. Fig16: Frequency Offset with 80 Mbps of ITU-T G. delays between 7 ms and about 8 ms were measured. The Tellabs 8600 equipment support Adaptive Timing. with the TDM transport managed independently from the Ethernet traffic by the radio equipment. The measure was taken by adding Best Effort traffic on the radio link according to the NTM1 (Network Traffic Model 1) as defined in recommendation ITU-T G. which uses this incoming signal as a reference clock. In this case. During these tests. The E1 signal generated by the TDM Tester has been encapsulated into PWE3/MPLS CESoPSN packets by the Tellabs 8600 #1 equipment. the delay still remained around 4 ms.

.TECHNICAL NOTE The Wander tests have been done with different traffic profiles.8261‐Case 1  Figure 22: Frequency Offset for ITU‐T G. In fact. with congestion periods (100 Mbps of capacity) of variable duration (10 sec and 100 sec).8261‐Case 2  Throughput As introduced in the delay/jitter measurements description.8261. Figure 19: Wander measurement for ITU‐T G. the PW implementation allows a trade-off to be reached between delay and traffic efficiency. according to ITU-T G. 30 tributary Time Slots carried on the PW connection). The reference masks for the Wander measurement are those defined in ITU-T G. long congestion periods influence the quality of the regenerated clock. instead. accuracies better than 15 ppb were usually recorded. even if in some some peaks were observed beyond this limit.823. in Case 5. 19 and 20.8261‐Case 5  Figure 18: Wander measurement for ITU‐T G. which meets SDH/SONET requirements. the MTIE measure is very close to the ITU-T G. In addition. as shown in Figure 22 below.704) are encapsulated into a single PWE3/MPLS CESoPSN packet.8261 mask. During the tests the following configurations were set: • TDM Pseudo Wire: 8 frames of a framed E1 connection (G. 2 and 5 test specifications that foresee different traffic conditions: • • Case 1: Constant traffic according to NTM2 with 80 Mbps of throughput. Case 2: Traffic according to NTM1/2. Figure 21: Frequency Offset for ITU‐T G.8261 Case 1.e.8261-Case 5 . • As illustrated in these figures. the Mean Time Interval Error measured met both masks. For the tests relevant to Case 1 and 2. the accuracy still remains meanly below 50 ppb. As can be noted from the following Figures 18. Looking at the frequency precision. as shown in Figure 21. which meet mobile base station requirements. it has been considered also the mask defined in ITU-T G. that change between two values (20 Mbps and 80 Mbps) with a duty-cycle of 1 hour.8261‐Case 2  Figure 23: TDM Pseudowire protocol stack  Figure 20: Wander measurement for ITU-T G. Case 5: Traffic according NTM1/2. Time slots 0 and 16 have not been carried on the PW connection (i.

verifying the capacity of the Tellabs equipment to re-route the traffic on the alternative path when the primary one becomes unavailable. The 1:1 type of MPLS protection technique is RSVP-TEbased LSP path protection. IS-IS or RSVP-TE. RSVP-TE etc.31 2. below the BER=10-6 threshold. the estimated throughput on the radio link depends on the frame size used on the Ethernet Tester. the difference between the measurements taken at steps 3 and 2 provides an estimation of the capacity required on the radio link to carry about 2 Mbps of ATM traffic with ATM PW. • • The difference between the Ethernet throughputs measured at steps 2 and 1 gives an estimation of the capacity required on the radio link to carry an E1 with TDM PW. Resiliency The MPLS features currently available on the Tellabs 8600 equipment give opportunities for rapid. Due to the adopted measurements method. with a BFD=100 ms. This protection mechanism uses a combination of L1 defect. It works as a trigger for rerouting or for protection switchover at the MPLS layer. it can provide a fast and scalable solution for detecting faults in the Ethernet network between IP/MPLS. the Figure 11 test bench was used as in the following: • The maximum Ethernet throughput of the radio link was estimated when no PW traffic was injected into the SIAE equipment. Figure 24: ATM Pseudowire protocol stack To evaluate the traffic efficiency of the SIAE-Tellabs solution.TECHNICAL NOTE • ATM Pseudowire: up to 10 ATM cells are encapsulated into a single PWE3/MPLS packet. (Tellabs terminals being disconnected).26 2. the values estimated with 64 and 1518 bytes of frame size have been detailed. Finally. For that reason. RSVP-TE signalling.) BFD provides a fault detection mechanism that enables fast traffic protection. The tests have been done by reducing the received power level on the primary radio link. an E1 of ATM traffic was activated and the relevant High Priority PW traffic was injected into the radio link. The Best Effort Ethernet traffic throughput measurement was repeated after the Tellabs terminals connection and High Priority TDM PW traffic activation. a restoration time of 200 ms has been measured. and L3 routing information as the possible triggers for determining that the primary LSP is down. Resiliency tests have been done using the test bench shown in the following Figure. where traffic is switched from a primary LSP to a pre-signalled secondary LSP in case the primary LSP goes down. The restoration time measured is usually 2÷3 times the BFD.54 2. in the following Table 4. deterministic traffic protection in the network. However.05 Table 4: Measured throughput for TDM and ATM PW Figure 25: Bench for resiliency test . The fastest restoration times are typically achieved if the failure can be detected locally by the system doing the actual switching. For example. Source Traffic 1xE1 TDM 1xE1 ATM IMA PW Protocol PWE3/MPLS CESoPSN PWE3/MPLS Eth Tester packet size [bytes] 64 1518 64 1518 Estimated Throughput [Mbps] 2. When BFD is used in conjunction with OSPF. The ATM traffic at this step was again kept null. it is possible to use a fault detection protocol called Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) to detect any kind of remote fault quickly advising the Routing or MPLS Signalling protocols that run in the system (OSPF. ISIS. The results are shown in the following Table. In the same way.

So from this point of view. These values have been measured with just one single radio hop between the two pieces of Tellabs equipment.1p bits allows an operator to properly use Adaptive Modulation and to achieve ATM traffic aggregation capabilities. with a typical jitter of about 0. In addition. First at all. the potential suitability of Adaptive Timing to distribute the clock into a Mobile Network has been verified. it has been verified that the radio link contribution to this delay is minimal. Regarding the delay. the delay is mainly in the order of about “3÷4” ms. providing a suitable solution for Mobile Network backhauling. with an hybrid TDM/Ethernet transport over the MW radios. it has been shown that both for TDM and ATM traffic.5 ms for ATM traffic. . However. However. it has been shown that the combination of the Ethernet QoS management of SIAE radio links and the Tellabs ability to map ATM over PW with a proper marking of the IEEE802. the tests have shown a quality worsening of the regenerated clock in presence of traffic congestion. Finally. The tests clearly show that the systems interoperate successfully. it seems more suitable to maintain some TDM traffic into the network in order to carry the synchronization. because it is mainly generated by the PW algorithms. So it is reasonable to expect that the delay does not change significantly if a greater number of radio hops are deployed between the Tellabs equipment. some interesting feedback can be drawn from the test results. In particular.TECHNICAL NOTE Conclusions This paper describes the SIAE-Tellabs solution. the use of the Strict Priority traffic policy on SIAE equipment allows the delay on High Priority traffic to be minimized.

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