World War II was the largest and most violent armed conflict in the history of mankind.

However, the half century that now separates us from that conflict has exacted its toll on our collective knowledge. While World War II continues to absorb the interest of military scholars and historians, as well as its veterans, a generation of Americans has grown to maturity largely unaware of the political, social, and military implications of a war that, more than any other, united us as a people with a common purpose. When the Germans invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 the world went to war for the second time in 27 years. One country, albeit overtly expansionist in its aims, had simply invaded another, but the omens were not good. Unbelievably, so soon after 'the war that will end war', nations and their leaders had allowed another conflict to threaten the planet. The scope of this new war was not yet apparent, the truth dawning gradually; this one would last six years, involve more than two hundred countries which caused millions of people to suffer, costing 55 million lives and material damage of some 3 billion dollars, it affected the lives of three quarters of the worlds population and influence the lives of the majority of the world's inhabitants to some degree This war was fought on the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the Pacific, and in four major land campaigns, in the Soviet Union, North Africa and the Mediterranean, Western Europe and the Far East. No less than 56 countries were involved in these violent conflicts, most of which were fought out to the bitter end between equally well-trained and wellequipped armies, battling day and night for dear life. It was a war that was more cruel, bitter and extensive than any other war in history. The war against Japan was fought over two-thirds of the world's surface, with America and her allies taking part in vast air, land and sea battles. It turned WW II into global conflict and ended it with the drawning of nuclear era.
Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it resulted in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities. These deaths make the war the deadliest conflict in human history. Time goes by and

because we now live in harmony together, yesterday’s enemy has become today’s friendly neighbour. . Within months of the German move into Poland much of Europe had been occupied by the rampaging Blitzkrieg techniques of the Third Reich's military forces and everyone, even residents of far distant nations, was 'at war', their resources in men and material committed to the cause, on one side or the other. The Battle of Britain was at its height, Hitler's plans to invade England were close to being given the 'green light', and an awful dread filled many a heart.

The main causes of World War II were nationalistic tensions, unresolved issues, and resentments resulting from theWorld War I and the interwar period in Europe, plus the effects of the Great Depression in the 1930s. The culmination of events that led to the outbreak of war are generally understood to be the 1939 invasion of Poland byGermany and Soviet Russia and the 1937 invasion of the Republic of China by the Empire of Japan. These military aggressions were the result of decisions made by the authoritarian ruling Nazi elite in Germany and by the leadership of the Kwantung Army in Japan. World War II started after these aggressive actions were met with an official declaration of war and/or armed resistance.

Aftermath of WW1 leading to the great depression

After four years at war, the worlds' economy had been drained. Britain, whose economy had relied on trading, faced serious economic problems. 40% of its merchant fleets had been destroyed by German submarines in the war, making it difficult to export goods. Other countries imposed high tariffs on imports to protect their own industries, but this hurt Britain's economy. Britain's old and outdated factories, machines, and mines also hurt its industries. Germany was also hit hard by the aftermath of the war. In an attempt to find money to pay its $33 billion debt in reparations, Germany printed an abundance of paper money. However, this merely led to severe inflation. In 1923, the value of German money dropped so significantly that one had to fill a wheelbarrow with cash simply to buy a loaf of bread (p 649, Beers). In 1921, Warren Harding became the new president of the United States. Under Harding, America's unemployment rate plummeted from 11.7% to 2.1% between 1921 and 1923. Technology was booming: electrical appliances and packaged food maid daily life easier, while radios, movies, air travel, international airmail,and automobiles all became more common. American farmers, however, were not faring well as crops were being cheaply imported from Europe again. There was no longer a high demand for American crops as there had been during the war.
America's economy took a turn for the worse in October 1929 when the stock market crashed. This caused The Great Depression: a time of slow business, high unemployment, low prices, and low wages (p 656, Beers). As 85,000 businesses failed, unemployment shot up from 3.2% in 1929 to 23.6% in 1932 (p 656, Beers). Banks were forced to close as they

had loaned money to European and American businesses and didn't have enough money to honor the deposits.
The Treaty of Versailles was neither lenient enough to appease Germany, nor harsh enough to prevent it from becoming the dominant continental power again. The treaty placed the blame, or "war guilt" on Germany and Austria-Hungary, and punished them for their "responsibility" rather than working out an agreement that would assure long-term peace. The treaty resulted in harsh monetary reparations, separated millions of ethnic Germans into neighboring countries, territorial dismemberment, caused mass ethnic resettlement and caused hyperinflation of the German currency (see Inflation in the Weimar Republic). The Weimar Republic printed trillions of marks and borrowed heavily from the United States (to later default) to pay war reparations to Britain and France, who still carried war debt from World War I.
Failure of the Treaty of Versailles: The treaty signed after World War I treated Germany very harshly and was greatly resented by the German people. • The size of Germany's military was severely restricted. • Germany lost territory in Europe and was forced to give up territories from its overseas colonies. • Germany was ordered to pay $33 billion in reparations (war damages).

Germany's reaction to Treaty of Versailles
“No postwar German government believed it could accept such a burden on future generations and survive…”.[7] Paying reparations is a classic punishment of war but in this instance it was the “extreme immoderation” (History) that caused German resentment. Germany made its last WWI reparation payment on 3 October 2010,[10] ninety-two years after the end of WWI. Germany also fell behind in their coal payments. They fell behind because of a passive resistance movement against the French.[11] In response, the French invaded the Ruhr, the region filled with German coal, and occupied it. At this point the majority of Germans were enraged with the French and placed the blame for their humiliation on the Weimar Republic. Adolf Hitler, a leader of the Nazi Party, attempted a coup d’état against the republic to establish a Greater German Reich[12] known as the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. Although this failed, Hitler gained recognition as a national hero amongst the German population. The demilitarized Rhineland and additional cutbacks on military infuriated the Germans. Although it is logical that France would want the Rhineland to be a neutral zone, the fact that France had the power to make that desire happen merely added on to the resentment of the Germans against the French. In addition, the Treaty of Versailles dissolved the German general staff and possession of navy ships, aircraft,poison gas, tanks, and heavy artillery was made illegal. [9] The humiliation of being bossed around by the victor countries, especially France, and being stripped of their prized military made the Germans resent the Weimar Republic and idolize anyone who stood up to it. [edit]Adolf Hitler's Rise to Power

Adolf Hitler stood up to the Weimar Republic and that gave hope to the emotionally defeated people of Germany. The birth of the Weimar Republic is associated with the humiliation of accepting the Versailles Treaty so it automatically had several enemies and Germans were extremely dissatisfied with it. With the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923[13] and Hitler’s continual rise to fame and popularity, Hitler was appointed as chancellor in 1933. [14] Because of the extravagant demands of the French on the Germans for a war the Germans did not believe they lost, Germans looked towards Adolf Hitler to save them.

1929 and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29. the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. He believed that Italy and Britain would stay to his side until he began the full destruction of the Jews. It was obvious he was preparing for war. Economic Depression and Instability: • The Great World Depression in 1929 became a very important cause of the war. • If there had been no Great Depression. determined. but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. In many countries. In order to achieve these goals he first wanted to conquer France and Russia while he was still on the same side as Italy and Britain. expand German territory. which hit Germany early in 1930.S. profits and prices dropped. built up a massive army. in actuality. areas dependent on primary sector industries such as cash cropping. starting with the fall in stock prices that began around September 4. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. and threatened neighboring states. even though they were the .[4][5][6] Facing plummeting demand with few alternate sources of jobs. especially those dependent on heavy industry. and in some countries rose as high as 33%. to the Germans.[2] The depression originated in the U. But did the people actually know where he was leading them? No.a myth propagated by Field Marshals Hindenburg and Ludendorff. Unemployment in the U. and deepest depression of the 20th century. His real motives were to abolish the Treaty of Versailles. the people believed that Hitler was leading them out of the depression.. From there. He used the Great Depression to connive his way into authority. rose to 25%.[2] In the 21st century. Hitler made it his responsibility to defy all of the charges made on Germany through the Treaty. do you think World War 2 would still have happened? The political climate created by this depression allowed dictators such as Hitler to rise to power. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60%. but. In the book Causes and Consequences of World War Two it is written that.[3] Cities all around the world were hit hard. It sent the German economy into a great disaster.S. The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor. The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. In the Great Depression. and efficient leader who knew exactly where he was going. He re-armed the nation. and dominate Europe and the whole world. tax revenue. re-militarized the Rhineland.[7] Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations. 1929 (known as Black Tuesday).[8] aggressive nationalism • The Treaty of Versailles was seen as particularly unfair by those Germans who accepted the myth that Germany was never defeated on the battlefield in WWI . Hitler's motives were different from what the people thought they were. Hitler was now a strong. Personal income. the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the start of World War II. causing a humongous number of unemployed people. mining and logging suffered the most. while international trade plunged by more than 50%. it quickly spread to almost every country in the world. most widespread.[1] It was the longest. unemployment was at terrible levels.This left Germany with grievances.

Extreme fear of Bolshevism. Italy and Germany were prepared to follow this policy and expand and form empires of their own. as Hitler increased his demands on the Czechs and war seemed imminent. some European countries had weakened their own military forces (Denmark had basically disarmed itself. but these had little practical effect. but. and it became clear to Hitler that he could attain his objectives only by force. he sent his armies across the Polish border on Sept. Germany wanted to unite the dominant German "race. The League voted minor sanctions against Italy. in spite of the people's own desires. charging abuse of German minorities. 1. The Poles remained adamant. the Marxian path to the paradise-to-come was travelled . There followed demands on Poland with regard to Danzig (Gdansk) and the Polish Corridor. He annexed Austria in March 1938. Hitler's asserted last claim. That same year the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini began his long-contemplated invasion of Ethiopia. in the hope of maintaining peace. After surprising the world with the announcement of a nonaggression pact with his sworn foe. for Britain and France could have overwhelmed Germany. but by an enfeebled West which did not comprehend the magnitude of its inaction. When free elections resulted in the Bolsheviks' winning only a small number of seats to the new Parliament Lenin shut it down after only one day of being in session. Hitler intensified his campaign for Lebensraum (living space) for the German people. In November 1917. This hope was short lived. they took no action. and that they had reached a naval agreement with Great Britain that allowed them to build a navy thirty-five percent the size of Great Britain's (roughly the size of France's) -. which he desired as an economic colony. • In September 1938. Hitler saw it as his mission in life to eliminate Bolshevism and what he saw as its "biological root. in a coup. Then. the Bolsheviks took power. and Collectivist Ideology: • • Fascists fully support the military and feel war is acceptable in achieving national goals. the British and French arranged a conference with Hitler and Mussolini. • Leading up to the war. Lenin and the Bolsheviks intended to bring the people to socialism. that they were re-occupying the demilitarized Rhineland. Totalitarianism. it was the unwillingness of Great Powers such as Great Britain and France. like Hitler and Mussolini. Rather.two who told the government to seek an armistice. WWII was started not only by Hitler's aspirations. which made it the almost ideal trampoline for German forces into Norway) or had grown wary of enforcing the Treaty of Versailles despite the fact that a known madman had come to the helm in Germany. for in March 1939 Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and seized the former German port of Memel from Lithuania. It was a dangerous venture. He denounced the provisions of that treaty that limited German armament and in 1935 re-instituted compulsory military service. At the Munich Conference they agreed to German occupation of the Sudetenland. deliberately encouraged by hard line nationalists. When Germany announced that it had an air force. • Hitler re-militarized the Rhineland in 1936. Emboldened by this success. 1939. the Soviet Union. to uphold the treaty provisions.the League of Nations only provided paper protests and the Versailles treaty became as dead as a doornail. Nationalism. Adolf Hitler came to power as dictator of Germany and began to rearm the country in contravention of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. and Ethiopia was completely occupied by the Italians in 1936. threatened Czechoslovakia. British and French efforts to effect a compromise settlement failed. Yet the treaty itself is not what started WWII (though it didn't stop it from happening). • Also in 1933." the Jews. Because of this. resolved to keep the peace." This led to the Czech crisis. that they were re-introducing military conscription. Fascism. and then. along with the the League of Nations.

. Japan resigned from the League. through state education and a vast propaganda machine. All industry and trade were subordinate to the interests of the nation. initiated military operations designed to conquer all of Manchuria. Hitler and the Nazis insisted that Germany had been victimized by the Allied powers. Italy and Japan wanted to conquer new territories and enslave or exterminate the peoples living there. Dutch. The United States." In the 1920s. After receiving the report of its commission of inquiry. Thereupon. they were instituting their version of the collectivist utopia of the future: corporativism. Meanwhile. The "march an Rome" in 1922 brought the fascists to power. mass purges of all "enemies of the people. And Germany was now burdened by oppressive reparations payments caused by the "betrayal" of the German people by the social democrats. the League adopted a resolution in 1933 calling on the Japanese to withdraw. • Germany. the victorious nations formed the League of Nations for the purpose of airing international disputes. Moreover. In Italy. the Japanese. imbued with isolationism. Japanese imperialism At the end of World War I. Within a few years. They promised to bring economic recovery. . Manchuria had been overrun and transformed into a Japanese puppet state under the name of Manchukuo. the Nazis came to power in 1933. the Nazis had put into place their own version of the corporativist planned-economy. Expansionism: • The war was caused by the expansionist desires of Hitler. the League took no further action. and of mobilizing its members for a collective effort to keep the peace in the event of aggression by any nation against another or of a breach of the peace treaties. democratic government in Germany served as the background for the emergence of radical political movements. British. The Soviet Union was not admitted till 1935 . and Australian colonies and gain their resources. By 1936. Mussolini and the Japanese imperialists. In 1931. Japan has almost no natural resources itself. central planning. To express this concept.even further under Stalin with forced collectivization of land." and the Gulag. Mussolini coined the term "totalitarianism. It attacked the US to "clear the way" for its conquest of American. With rising unemployment and economic dislocation following the start of the Great Depression in 1929. communist agitation and disillusionment with the war created the conditions for the emergence of Mussolini and his fascist movement. a weak. to purge Germany of the "alien Jewish element. • Japan was trying to gain natural resources to feed its industry. who had labeled Germany as the sole aggressor in World War 1. Beset by friction and dissension among its members.." and to reestablish Germany's rightful place in the world. did not become a member. The state was supreme — and the individual was the means to its end. social unrest. using as an excuse the explosion of a small bomb under a section of track of the South Manchuria Railroad (over which they had virtual control). they had instituted their ideology of racism and territorial aggrandizement. The League failed in its first test.

Danzig. This provoked little response from the League of Nations and the former Allied powers. and Russia/the Soviet Union) had long held large amounts of territory under imperial or colonial rule. The key cause of the war in Europe was Hitler's agenda of conquest and Japan's expansionism. Many of these veterans became early components of the Nazis' SA. and later invaded Greece. The economically valuable regions of the Saarland and the Rhineland were placed under the authority (but not jurisdiction) of France. the French province of Alsace-Lorraine. A further factor in Germany was the success of Freikorps (voluntary paramilitary groups of discharged soldiers) in crushing the Bolshevik Bavarian Soviet Republic in Munich in 1919. which would be the party's troops in the street warfare with the Communist armed militia in the decade before 1933. By the Treaty of London. Germany and Italy had not been as successful as the other Great Powers in gaining and holding territory. the German state had lost land to Lithuania. Germany came to Mussolini's aid on several occasions. Notable losses included the Polish Corridor. In Europe. Italy had also invaded Ethiopia as early as 1935. At the time of World War II. a reaction to empire-building that was common throughout the war-weary and depressed economy of the 1930s. This caused many central and western Europeans (and Americans) to fear that a violent Communist revolution would overwhelm their own countries. radical Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November 1917 and subsequently supported attempts to set up similar regimes elsewhere. Beginning in 1919 the victorious Entente Powers established a cordon sanitaire of border states on Russia's western frontier in the hope of quarantining Communism in Russia. Italy’s expansionist desires can be tied to bitterness over minimal gains after helping the Allies achieve victory in World War I. the Memel Territory (to Lithuania). at the start of the war. various European powers (such as France. Italy had been promised large chunks of Austrian territory but received only Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. the Province of Posen.The war in Europe was caused by the German invasion of Poland and the war in Asia was triggered by the Japanese invasion of China. and Denmark. and the most economically valuable eastern portion of Upper Silesia. The street violence would help shift moderate opinion towards the need for Germany to find an anti-Communist strongman to restore stability to German life. [edit]Expansionism (imperialism) Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country. with brief success in Hungary and Bavaria. . usually by means of military aggression. in conjunction with nationalist fears of the Slavic empire. Italy’s Benito Mussolini sought to create a New Roman Empire based around the Mediterranean and invaded Albania in early 1939. After World War I. the United Kingdom. France. difference in German and Russian ideology Anti-communism Main article: Anti-communism The internationalist minded. Both Italian and German fascism were in part a reaction to international communist socialist uprisings. Poland. and promises believed to have been made about Albania and Asia Minor were ignored by the more powerful nations' leaders.

Such a plan of unification. Also during the Russo-Japanese war some territories had been lost to Japan. disregarding the fact of them being minority in this territory. The Soviet Union had lost large parts of former Russian Empire territories to Poland. leading to a perhaps inevitable war with Poland.The result of this loss of land was population relocation. the roots of the expansionism leading to World War II can be found in perceived national . As result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Bessarabia and NorthernBukovina were ceded to the Soviet Union. and Russia without provoking a general war or. also an ally of Germany during World War I. Hungary. Despite having taken a German colony in China and a few other Pacific islands. as well as swaths of Siberia and the Russian port of Vladivostok. Finland lost territory to the Soviet Union during the early stages of World War II in the lopsided Winter War. Germany's pre–World War II ambitions in both Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia mirror this goal. Japan was forced to give up all but the few islands it had gained during World War I. Under the Nazi regime. After the Treaty of Versailles. Japan harbored expansionist desires. and Yugoslavia in World War I and the Second Balkan War. had lost territories to Greece. while on the winning side in World War I. supporters hoped to unite the German people under one nation. in the end of 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century. Hitler estimated that he could invade Poland. or union. In Asia. an ally of Germany during World War I. had been discarded because of the Austro-Hungarian Empire's multiethnic composition as well as competition between Prussia and Austria for hegemony. Finland. the United Kingdom and in Germany. Bulgaria. an Anschluss. at the worst. Germany began its own program of expansion. and wanted to regain those areas. At the end of World War I. and the Treaty of Craiova resulted in the return ofSouthern Dobruja to Bulgaria. the Second Vienna Award resulted in the loss of Northern Transylvania to Hungary. Also. When Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941. which included all territories where Germans lived. only spark weak Allied intervention after the result was already decided. Thailand had lost territories to France. had also been stripped of enormous territories after the partition of the Austria-Hungary empire and hoped to regain those lands by allying with Germany. and also difficult relations with those in these neighboring countries. predating the creation of the German State of 1871. found itself on the losing side in early stages of World War II. because of Allied appeasement and prior inaction. Greater Romania was a concept that caused Romania to side more and more with Germany. Greater Hungary was a popular topic of discussion. Finland was drawn into what was called the Continuation War to regain what it had lost. of importance was the idea of a Greater Germany. between Germany and a newly reformed Austria was prohibited by the Allies. resulting in the reoccupation of the Rhineland and action in the Polish Corridor. bitterness among Germans. seeking to restore the "rightful" boundaries of pre–World War I Germany. contributing to feelings ofrevanchism which inspired irredentism. However. the majority of Austria's population supported such a union. Estonia. Romania. fuelled at least partially by the minimal gains the Japanese saw after World War I. In many of these cases. Lithuania and Romania in World War I and the Russian Civil War and was interested in regaining lost territories. Latvia. Romania.

generally speaking. a strong. had been widespread for centuries. Such migratory patterns created enclaves and blurred ethnic frontiers. including Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism. with a clear aim of rebuilding its army (and defying the Treaty of Versailles). . By the 19th and 20th centuries. Japan and Italy.[1] Fascists believed that war was generally a positive force for improvement and were therefore eager at the prospect of a new European war. [edit]Racism Main articles: Racial policy of Nazi Germany and Drang nach Osten Further information: Xenophobia in Showa Japan and Eugenics in Showa Japan Twentieth-century events marked the culmination of a millennium-long process of intermingling between Germans and Slavs.slights resulting from previous involvement in World War I. believe in the possibility or utility of perpetual peace". [edit]Militarism Main article: Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan A highly militaristic and aggressive attitude prevailed among the leaders of Germany. in the sense of duty and honor. Social-Darwinist theories framed the coexistence as a "Teuton vs. In general. In Italy. Furthermore. Germany introduced permanent conscription in 1935. Integrating these ideas into their own world-view. Compounding this fact was the traditional militant attitude of the three had a similar track record that is often underestimated. Benito Mussolini declared that "fascism does not. Slav" struggle for domination. fascism viewed the army as a model that a whole society should emulate. cultural and ethnic links. In his book The Doctrine of Fascism. In Japan. and often has a policy of belligerent nationalism that gained power in many countries across Europe in the years leading up to World War II. Fascism ultimately proved to be one of the beliefs that was universal with many invading Axis countries. [edit]Nationalism Nationalism is the belief that groups of people are bound together by territorial. many Germans had settled to the east (the Volga Germans). it believes that the government should control industry and people for the good of the country. In many ways. especially to the emperor. the Nazis believed that the Germans. Hitler used racism against "Non-Aryan" peoples. the idea of restoring the Roman Empire was attractive to many Italians. Fascist countries were highly militaristic. these migrations had acquired considerable political implications. and the need for individual heroism was an important part of fascist ideology. For example. [edit]Fascism Main article: Fascism Fascism is a philosophy of government that is marked by stringent social and economic control. During World War II. land and limited resources. the "Aryan race". were the master race and that the Slavs were inferior. Over the years. centralized government usually headed by a dictator. nationalism. nationalistic goals of re-unification of former territories or dreams of an expanded empire. already a nation where fervent nationalism was prevalent. The rise of the nation-state had given way to the politics of identity. Nationalism was used by their leaders to generate public support in Germany.

was an invasion of Poland by Germany. south. Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. As the Germans advanced. Britain and France then declared war on Germany. in 1933. and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. while explaining during a high level meeting of German military officials in May 1933 that his real goal is obtaining Lebensraum for Germany. the Soviet Union. The Invasion of Poland. though Poland never formally surrendered.immediate cause German invasion of Poland Hitler invaded Poland. The Soviet Red Army's invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September. Germany directly annexed western Poland and the formerFree City of Danzig and placed the remaining block of territory under the administration of the newly established General Government. This included staged elections. the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. one week after the signing of the Molotov– Ribbentrop Pact. The invasion began on 1 September 1939. On 8 October. thus avoiding the repeat of Czech situation[32][33][34][35][36] Shortly after the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had been signed. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17. The morning after the Gleiwitz incident. the results of which were used to legitimize the Soviet Union's annexation of eastern Poland. and ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland. isolating Poles from their Allies in the West and afterwards attacking Poland. rendered the Polish plan of defence obsolete. and there is some debate over a claim that Poland had. a . Hitler used the issue of the status city as pretext for attacking Poland. after an initial period of military administration. 1939. in accordance with a secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics. tensions rose again. German forces invaded Poland from the north. Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish-German border to more established lines of defence to the east. Britain and France had previously warned that they would honor their alliances to Poland and issued an ultimatum to Germany: withdraw or war would be declared. Tensions had existed between Poland and Germany for some time in regards to the Free City of Danzig and the Polish Corridor.[14] The two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September. the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania.[15] Facing a second front. following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock. also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku) in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) in Germany. In the aftermath of the invasion. The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic.[16] On 6 October. without entering the war effectively. After the midSeptember Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura. Germany declined. German and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland. and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. and what became World War II was declared by the British and French. though in the end their aid to Poland in the September campaign was very limited. and west. Germany invaded Poland on September 1. tried to get France to join it in preventive attack after Nazis won in Germany.[31] This had been settled in 1934 by a non-aggression pact but in spring of 1939.

who declared that World War I had been a mistake. Halifax himself had met with Hitler in 1937. Meanwhile. which was arranged with the support ofLord Halifax. despite its efforts to prevent the war. the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). Readers would do well to revisit a forgotten treaty. If they had instead decided to not fulfill their obligations under the treaty the war in Europe might very well have ended up with just a war between Germany and Russia. and was unable to prevent the start of The Second World War.collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Japan invaded China to bolster its meager stock of natural resources. and that this is the cause of World War II. to see what peace conditions imperial Germany imposed on Russia (the Soviet Union) as the price of peace after the Russians were defeated and forced out of the war in 1917. Japan in the 1930s was ruled by a militarist clique devoted to becoming a world power. is an American high school history teacher's myth. Fascist movements emerged in Italy and Germany during the global economic instability of the 1920s. greatly exceeded the reparations taken from Germany under provisions of the Versailles Treaty. Alliances: • Britain and France's treaty with Poland expanded what might otherwise have been a 'local' war into something much bigger. • The view that the Versailles Treaty was too onerous. an armed force loyal to the Polish government in exile. was to meet with German ambassador Ulrich von Hassell. Closely related is the failure of the British and French policy of appeasement. the belief in the Dolchstosslegende. More Input: • • Commonly held underlying causes for WWII are the rise of nationalism. a trip to Italy was made by British amateur diplomat James Lonsdale-Bryans. the rise of militarism. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland.[37][38] World War Two began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland. and the presence of unresolved territorial issues. Many of the military exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West. which sought to avoid war but actually encouraged Hitler to become bolder and gave Germany time to re-arm. It is unclear to what extent this proposal enjoyed the official backing of the British Foreign Office. led by Adolf Hitler. and the onset of the Great Depression fueled the rise to power of the militarist National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi party). It is a view that can be traced to the isolationists of the 1920s. the causes of the war are more complex. Although the Versailles Treaty imposed monetary reparations on the Germany. and consolidated power during the Great Depression of the 1930s. resentment of the Treaty of Versailles. The United States . Allied assistance to the Weimar Republic. In Germany. and the USSR's signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact which freed Germany of fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union when Germany invaded Poland. and resisted American preparations for and involvement in World War II right up until Pearl Harbor. The trip. while the British Empire would control the rest of the world. relied on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions. [edit]Final diplomatic strategy In 1940. the Treaty's provisions were laxly enforced from fear of another war. Lonsdale-Bryans proposed a deal whereby Germany would be given a free hand in Europe. both through the Dawes Plan and through investment in Germany during the 1920s. The League of Nations.

and away from domestic politics. Japan embarked on its Oriental conquest. therefore Britain and France declared war on Germany on Sept. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland. this view should not be taken literally. These embargoes would have eventually forced Japan to give up its newly conquered possession in China because the Japanese would not have enough fuel to run their war machine. the DP. World War Two began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland. and instituting increasingly broad embargoes of raw materials against Japan. At the end of the first world war it had been possible to contemplate going back to business as usual.3 million. bridges . Now. another new word appeared. The majority of ports in Europe and many in Asia had been destroyed or badly damaged. in the case of the Soviet Union. Everywhere there were lost or orphaned children. Hitler invaded Poland. Germany invaded Poland . However. Thousands of unwanted babies added to the misery. such as Arno Mayer. The allies did what they could to feed and house the refugees and to reunite families that had been forcibly torn apart. millions more had fled their homes or been forcibly moved to work in Germany or Japan or. During the war. because Stalin feared that they might be traitors. Under the guise of The Co-Prosperity Sphere (8Lands Under One Umbrella). Japan was faced with the choice of withdrawing from China or going to war with the United States in order to conquer the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies.• • • • • and Great Britain reacted by making loans to China.7. As for the Pacific War. entered the language to deal with the murder of 6 million of Europe's Jews by the Nazis. One of Arno Mayer's key points is that throughout the period from about 19001945 the traditional elites (especially the aristocracy) were having immense difficulty preserving their position in industrialized societies and were keen to divert conflict abroad. providing covert military assistance. The rise of Communism from 1917 onwards was seen as a particularly powerful threat. the causes of the war are more complex. A new word. The US opposed this movement and placed embargoes on Japan. However. and went ahead with plans for the Greater East Asia War in the Pacific. Yamamoto led the attack on Pearl Harbor. Adm. Searching for supplies and rebelling against US intervention. Britain and France then declared war on Germany.000 alone in Yugoslavia. There were millions of them. so different that it has been called Year Zero. Hoping to keep the US Air Force out of Japan's way. The USA entered the war on Dec. 1939. some voluntary refugees moving westward in the face of the advancing Red Army. Japan plotted an imperial takeover of Asia and the Pacific a la Western Imperialism less than a century earlier. It is impossible to know how many women in Europe were raped by the Red Army soldiers. in 1945. 1945 was different. but the scale of the task and the obstacles were enormous. who saw them as part of the spoils of war. Some historians. 25 million of them Soviet. see the two World Wars (at least in Europe) as essentially one war with a twenty-year truce. 300. Japan had long been coveting Mainland resources. The capacity for destruction had been so much greater than in the earlier war that much of Europe and Asia lay in ruins. It chose the latter. 1941 when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. invading China and (en route) Korea for centuries. but in Germany alone some 2 million women had abortions every year between 1945 and 1948. and Poland a further 1. or "displaced person". The figures are hard to grasp: as many as 60 million dead. The newly independent Czech state expelled nearly 3 million ethnic Germans in the years after 1945. This was a key factor in the enthusiasm for nationalism. others deported as undesirable minorities. And this time civilians had been the target as much as the military. genocide.

We should not view the war as being responsible for all of this. They were struggling to look after their own peoples and deal with reincorporating their military into civilian society. if ever. war. In Germany and Japan. New 'superpowers' Politically. Apart from the United States and allies such as Canada and Australia. Without the war. were recognised. famine and death – so familiar during the middle ages. so great that the new term "superpower" had to be coined for them. from Africa to Asia. The rights of women also took a huge step forward as their contribution to the war effort. The four horsemen of the apocalypse – pestilence. the moral authority and prestige of the ruling classes had been severely undermined by their failure to prevent the war or the crimes that they had condoned before and during it.000 calories per day. 1. others hoped that. were on their last legs and soon to disappear in the face of their own weakness and rising nationalist movements. Tokyo and Berlin were piles of rubble and ash. The great European empires. the European powers such as Britain and France had precious little to spare.) Two powers. The war acted as an accelerator. the Labour government in Britain moved rapidly to establish the welfare state. who were largely unscathed by the war's destruction. In retrospect. railway locomotives and rolling stock had vanished. and their share in the suffering. conservative. Great cities such as Warsaw. the impact of the war was also great. Kiev. fields. women finally got the vote. at last. The United States was both a military power and an economic one. the . Established political orders – fascist. Britain had largely bankrupted itself fighting the war and France had been stripped bare by the Germans. it would have taken us much longer. social change also speeded up. It also accelerated change in other ways: in science and technology. If class divisions in Europe and Asia did not disappear. The world got atomic weapons but it also got atomic power. to enjoy the benefits of penicillin. however. While many Europeans. the rise of the US and the Soviet Union and the weakening of the European empires had been happening long before 1939. in the Soviet Union. wearied by years of war and privation. The shared suffering and sacrifice of the war years strengthened the belief in most democracies that governments had an obligation to provide basic care for all citizens. In France and Italy. In China. In Germany. highly educated and skilled. In many countries. Factories and workshops were in ruins. it has been estimated. appeared again in the modern world. of course. 70% of housing had gone and. Under the stimulus of war. democracy slowly took root. it is easy to see that their peoples. (And it may have been easier to build strong economies from scratch than the partially damaged ones of the victors. microwaves. dominated the world in 1945. forests and vineyards ripped to pieces. Millions of acres in north China were flooded after the Japanese destroyed the dykes. computers – the list goes on. which had controlled so much of the world. people turned increasingly from the corrupt and incompetent nationalists to the communists. governments poured resources into developing new medicines and technologies. The once great powers of Japan and Germany looked as though they would never rise again. gave up on politics altogether and faced the future with glum pessimism. Many Europeans were surviving on less than 1. possessed the capacity to rebuild their shattered societies. for example. When it was elected in the summer of 1945.700 towns and 70. even democratic – came under challenge as peoples looked for new ideas and leaders. in the Netherlands they were eating tulip bulbs. for example.had been blown up. the Soviet Union had only brute force and the intangible attraction of Marxist ideology to keep its own people down and manage its newly acquired empire in the heart of Europe.000 villages.

leading Japanese generals and politicians. where they frequently rotted away. that were designed to turn Japan into a peaceable democratic nation. Well before the war had ended. Not a few people then and since wondered if the trials were merely victors' justice. their moral authority undercut by the presence. was shielded from blame. A host of other allies. took the lead. formed part of a larger attempt to root out the militaristic and chauvinistic attitudes that had helped to produce the war. some of them represented by governments in exile. national self-determination. of judges and prosecutors from Stalin's murderous regime. by 1945 very much the dominant partner in the alliance. voters turned to social democratic parties such as the Labour party in Britain. Women who had fraternised with German soldiers had their heads shaved or worse. and the economic ones known collectively as the Bretton Woods system. Among the western powers. and to build a new world order that would prevent such a catastrophe from ever happening again. In his Four Freedoms speech of January 1941. In China and eastern Europe the communists used the accusation of collaboration with the Japanese or the Nazis to eliminate their political and class enemies. the head of the occupation. Much of the revenge was to gain advantage in the postwar world. In many parts people took measures into their own hands. lynched or shot. the emperor. and freedom from want and fear. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. which it was replacing. Governments sometimes followed suit. Collaborators were beaten. The key organisation was the United Nations. The trials. and the catalogue of horrors that came increasingly to be known as "crimes against humanity". . In the east. senior Nazis (those that had not committed suicide or escaped). signed on. stood in the dock before allied judges. in whose name the crimes had been committed. In Japan. from a new school curriculum to a democratic constitution. The Soviets also tried to exact reparations from Germany and Japan. In Tokyo. The end of the war inevitably also brought a settling of scores. Roosevelt was determined. This time. Roosevelt intended that the American vision should take solid institutional form. Stalin again gave grudging support. the World Bank. later quietly abandoned as it became clear that German society would be unworkable if all former Nazis were forbidden to work. General Douglas MacArthur. war crimes. designed to be stronger than the League of Nations. the victors set up special tribunals to try those responsible for crimes against peace. the United States. and free trade among nations. although its leader Stalin had no intention of following what were to him alien principles. setting up special courts for those who had worked with the enemy and purging such bodies as the civil service and the police. and by the fact that in Tokyo.time had come to build a new and better society. the new communist regimes that were imposed by the triumphant Soviet Union were at first welcomed by many as the agents of change. in Nuremberg. In western Europe. and at Nuremberg. President Roosevelt talked of a new and more just world. broke up the zaibatsu. whole factories were dismantled down to the window frames and were carted off to the Soviet Union. In the Atlantic charter later that year. inconclusive though they were. the United States should join. the allies had started planning for the peace. German de-Nazification The allies instituted an ambitious programme of de-Nazification in Germany. he and Churchill sketched out a world order based on such liberal principles as collective security. The Soviet Union gave a qualified assent. In both Germany and Japan. and introduced a range of reforms. with freedom of speech and expression and of religion. the big conglomerates that were blamed for supporting the Japanese militarists.

in a more capitalist and democratic one. giving it parity. in the war crimes trials. they now increasingly faced assertive and. two very different German societies were emerging. and that to him meant taking territory. where increasingly the Soviet zone of occupation was moving in a communist direction and the western zones. Yalta (February 1945) and Potsdam (July-August 1945) that there was a gulf in what constituted universal values and goals between the United States and its fellow democracies and the Soviet Union. along with Soviet spy rings and Soviet-inspired sabotage in western countries. In addition. Furthermore. as a cover for extending the grip of capitalism. where the empires had once dealt with divided or acquiescent peoples. where the western powers saw a democratic and liberal world. under Britain. Within two years ofsecond world war's end. with the United States. well-armed nationalist movements. but the strains were evident in their shared occupation of Germany. For their part. the western powers watched with growing consternation and alarm the elimination of non-communist political forces in eastern Europe and the establishment of Peoples' Republics under the thumb of the Soviet Union. no matter how imperfectly. The idea that there were universal standards to be upheld was present. It had already become clear at the top-level conferences of Teheran (1943). Nor did their peoples want to pay the price of empire. Stalin was interested above all in security for his regime and for the Soviet Union. that they were underpinned by notions of a common humanity possessing the same universal rights. and establishing a ring of buffer states around Soviet borders. Soviet pressure on its neighbours. he dreamed of a communist one. In the longer run. it was surely a step forward for international relations that such institutions were created and largely accepted and. Britain. the International Court of Justice in 1946 and Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The cold war overshadowed another momentous international change that came as a result of the second world war. . from Poland and other neighbours. By 1947. at least in that area. whether in money or blood. further deepened western concerns. equally important. and regarded the Marshall plan. (The Soviet Union was not to lose its until the end of the cold war. the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. the cold war was an established fact.) Empires crumble The former imperial powers no longer had the financial and military capacity to hang on to their vast territories. Both sides built military alliances and prepared for the new shooting war that many feared was bound to come. which funnelled American aid into Europe. Furthermore. their own Marxist-Leninist analysis of history told them that sooner or later the capitalist powers would turn on the Soviet Union. Before 1939 much of the non-European world had been divided up among the great empires: the ones based in western Europe but also those of Japan and the Soviet Union. from Norway in the north to Turkey and Iran in the south. Japan and Italy lost their empires as a result of defeat. in some cases. France and the United States. The defeat of European forces all over Asia also contributed to destroying the myth of European power. and the Netherlands all saw their imperial possessions disappear in the years immediately after the war. France. That the cold war did not in the end turn into a hot one was thanks to that fact. and was later reinforced by the establishment of the United Nations itself in 1945.Common humanity While much of what Roosevelt hoped for did not come about. Soviet leaders looked on western talk of such democratic procedures as free elections in eastern Europe as Trojan horses designed to undermine their control of their buffer states. In 1949. The terrifying new power of atomic weapons was to lead to a standoff suitably known as Mad – Mutually Assured Destruction. The grand alliance held together uneasily for the first months of the peace.

many East Germans grew up believing that their country had fought with the Soviet Union against Hitler's regime. which moved some 200 miles to the west. in 1949. after France's defeat by Germany.000 sq metres to the Soviet Union and gaining slightly less from Germany in the west. conveniently ignoring the active support that so many Austrians had given the Nazi regime. In France. was similarly ignored. it is tempting to cling to comforting myths to help bring unity and to paper over deep and painful divisions. there was no comprehensive peace settlement after the second world war as there had been in 1919. Eventually the United States and Japan concluded a formal peace in 1951. Burma. some of it enthusiastically antisemitic and pro-Nazi. Indeed.The British pulled out of India in 1947. many societies chose to forget the war or remember it only in certain ways. under pressure from the allies and from within. the Vichy period. Italians were portrayed in films or books as essentially good-hearted and generally opposed to Mussolini. In Europe most of the borders that had been established at the end of the first world war were restored. Acknowledging such difficult parts of the past is not always easy and has led to history . but it still remains a very powerful set of memories. the former Dutch East Indies. The Europeans' African empires crumbled in the 1950s and early 1960s. leaving behind two new countries of India and Pakistan. West Germany was not able to escape its past so easily. the Soviet Union and its successor Russia have not yet signed a peace treaty ending the war with Japan. Sri Lanka and Malaysia followed the road of independence not long after. In West German schools. children learned about the horrors committed by the regime. instead blaming the Nazis on capitalism. How societies remember and commemorate the past often says something about how they see themselves – and can be highly contentious. France tried to regain its colonies in Indochina but was forced out in 1954 after a humiliating defeat at the hands of Vietnamese forces. The United Nations grew from 51 nations in 1945 to 189 by the end of the century. schools did not teach any history after the first world war. For a long time. Because of the cold war. In the east. French leaders played up the resistance in such a way as to claim its moral authority but also to imply that it was more broadly based and widespread than it actually was. From de Gaulle onwards. losing some 69. Japan has been accused of ignoring its aggression in the 1930s and its own war crimes in China and elsewhere. whose regime was an aberration in an otherwise liberal state. Particularly in divided societies. In Italy. Because of an outstanding dispute over some islands. The Soviet Union seized back some bits of territory such as Bessarabia. but was also obliged to disgorge Korea and Formosa (now Taiwan) and the Pacific islands that it had gained decades earlier. Remembering the war We have long since absorbed and dealt with the physical consequences of the second world war. took no responsibility. The one major exception was Poland. In the years immediately after 1945. The Dutch fought a losing war but finally conceded independence to Indonesia. which it had lost to Romania in 1919. by contrast. but in recent years it has moved to teach more about this dark period in its history. Instead there were a number of separate agreements or ad hoc decisions. Japan of course lost the conquests it had made since 1931. East Germany. In the east. the fascist past was neglected in favour of the earlier periods of Italian history. How should the past be remembered? When should we forget? These are not easy questions. Austria portrayed itself as the first victim of Nazism. as the joke had it "a country on wheels". it dealt much more thoroughly with its Nazi past. when there was widespread French collaboration.

The second world war. they argue. Let us remember the war. especially in the light of what came after. the forcible repatriation of Soviet prisoners of war. It has not necessarily been easier among the nations on the winning side. Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Britain and Canada played a major role in the mass bombing campaign of German cities and towns. or the firebombing of Hamburg. This in turn justified Great Britain and France to declare war. should not apologise for the past when all powers were guilty of aggression. The Nazis and their allies were bad and they did evil things. Today. by Hitler and his subsequent rein as Chancellor and then dictator of Germany. should remind us that bad things can be done in the name of good causes. one ally was the Soviet Union. Blacks. That the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki might have been morally wrong or unnecessary causes equal controversy in the United States. Q: What economic and political problems troubled Europe in the years after World War I? The main economical trouble in Europe was the Great Depression.becoming a political football in a number of countries. there is a reluctance to disturb our generally positive memories of the war by facing such issues. fascist Italy or Japan. the conservatives minimise Japanese responsibility for the war and downplay atrocities on nationalist grounds. whether the mass murder of Polish army officers at Katyn or the forcible deportation of innocent Soviet citizens to Siberia. a willingness among Russians to acknowledge that many crimes were committed in Stalin's regime in the course of the war. Q: What Allied victories brought an end to WWII? . Japan. And Dresden. Today. but they were not prepared to extend it to their empires. or parliament. suggestions that the destruction of Dresden or other targets that may have had little military significance might be war crimes causes impassioned debate in both countries. but let us not remember it simplistically but in all its complexity. When the Soviet Union collapsed. The allies were good and right to fight them. they were attacked from both the right and the left for stirring up memories that were best left undisturbed. Tokyo and Berlin. particularly in the countries that were on the winning side.These included Jews. seems to be the last morally unambiguous war. After all. In Japan. but the picture is not quite as black and white as we might like to think. in its own way as guilty of crimes against humanity as Nazi Germany. Q: What happened during the Holocaust? The Holocaust was the period of time when Germans slaughtered millions of people they found inferior. That is true. there was. Other political troubles were the takeover of the German Reichstag. Q: How did World War II start? Hitler and the Nazis faked a Polish attack on a minor German radio station in order to justify a German invasion of Poland. the conservatives argue that such criticism of the great patriotic war only gives comfort to Russia's foes. Britain and France may have been fighting for liberty. When French and foreign historians first began examining the Vichy period in France critically. This caused political trouble as well. for a time. and homosexuals.

and tens of thousands had died trying to make their escape. The scorched-earth policies of both the Nazis and the Soviets had left much of European Russia. to waste each other's fields. Warsaw had been almost leveled to the ground by the Germans. the energies of all nations. to destroy each other's lives. Eight years of war and Japanese occupation in China had uprooted millions of Chinese who had taken refuge in the wild and hostile regions of western China. most of Europe lay in ruins. The loss of life of millions of people can be attributed to the causes of World War II. Gypsies and other undesirables. This was the big push into German occupied territory that ended WW2. are even more apt in expressing the events of the Second World War: "The interests of peace withered in the storm. German cities like Dresden and Hamburg had practically been cremated from day-and-night Allied fire-bombings. World War II started after these aggressive actions were met with an official declaration of war. in describing Europe at the beginning of the 19th century during the Napoleonic Wars. men toiled to bum each other's cities. the Ukraine and the Baltic States almost totally destroyed. The Nazi death camps had consumed not only the lives of six million Jews. From the utmost North to the shores of the Mediterranean.The allied victories that ended the war were the victories at Normandy. the deadliest war in history?: The causes of World War II was resulting from world war one and the effects of the Great Depression. Q: What problems in Europe lead to World War II. from the confines of Asia to the Atlantic. Consequences Death destruction When World War II ended in 1945. but an equivalent number of Poles. In some lands there was heard the . The words of English historian Robert Mackenzie. Two Japanese cities — Hiroshima and Nagasaki — lay incinerated from atomic blasts. the fruits of all industries were poured forth in the effort to destroy. Fifty million lives were consumed by the war.

grief and fear were in every home." Why? For what cause. with its own fascist-style economic order. did men set loose the forces of destruction in this bonfire of the insanities? The answers are simple: collectivism and nationalism. bread and land. And Japan. Italy and Germany. who was attempting to introduce "modernization" through state economic intervention and fascist-type planning. And in Western Europe. Both the Conservative and Labor Parties in Great Britain were dedicated to the interventionist-welfare state. After 1931. and public-works projects were used to fight unemployment. Great Britain was off the gold standard. large areas of the country were controlled either by local warlords or Mao Tse-tung's communist forces. was attempting to establish its own imperial empire in Manchuria and the rest of China. in some the wail of defeat.shout of victory. for what purpose. Russia was swept by revolution. and the will to power. all of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were controlled by authoritarian regimes — characterized by regulated economics and denial of civil liberties. free trade was replaced by protectionism. center-left governments followed similar policies. In all lands waste of war had produced bitter poverty. the Russian people wanted peace. This gave the Bolsheviks under Lenin the opportunity to play to the masses with the slogan "peace." But the tide of collectivist ideology was not limited to the Soviet Union. At the same time. And in France. Except for Czechoslovakia. In Asia. Tired and hungry. And the demons had been set loose on the world. China was ruled by the Nationalist (Kuomintang) Party under Chiang Kai-Shek. the political course of events was no different. . utopian visions and ideological fanaticism. The Czar abdicated in February 1917. Before the war had even come to a close. But the provisional government of center-left political forces that replaced the monarchy insisted upon pursuing the war on the Allied side against Germany.

established various government-business partnerships in the name of economic "rationalization. What separated them were the ends for which these means were being applied. The result was the Great Depression. The politicizing of economic and social life meant that every dispute — every disagreement in the world arena — were now matters of national interest and ideological victory or defeat. the Hoover administration responded with even greater state intervention and governmental spending. America was subjected to its own brand of economic fascism. In the 1920s. Roosevelt had shown that he. collectivism was triumphant as well. For the fascists. the goal was Marxist revolution and communism. And matching the economic weapons of nationalist rivalry was the growth of a vast armaments race. surrounded with trade barriers and economic weapons of way. And when the fruits of central-bank. as the government imposed comprehensive controls and regulations on practically every aspect of economic life.In the United States. And the conditions were now in place for conflict and war." By the middle of the 1930s. it was maintenance of their colonial empires and economic domination of world trade. too. For the Soviets. collectivism was triumphant. it was racial supremacy and "living room" for the German people. Roosevelt. was a "social fascist. monetary central-planning resulted in the "great crash" of October 1929. For the British and the French. The political means used by all of these nation-states were similar. it was nationalist power and imperialism. the Republican administrations. For Japan. The New Deal experience even led Mussolini to say that he greatly admired Franklin Roosevelt because with these policies. For the Nazis. With the coming of the New Deal in 1933. Hardly a comer of the world was left which was not under the control of governments dedicated to a planned economy — dedicated to expanded state power." Federal Reserve central-banking policy was geared to managing the economy through monetary manipulation. Every nation-state made itself an economic fortress. in spite of free-enterprise rhetoric. following the election of Franklin D. it was an economic empire in China and political .

. The competing collectivisms were inevitably bound to clash in the struggle for ideological supremacy.domination of East Asia. And the clashes of these competing statisms formed the backdrop for the beginning of World War II. the spreading of New Deal ideology to the rest of the world. The events of the 1930s — events that brought the world into total war — were the natural results of the emergence of the total collectivist state. With the demise of classical liberalism — and its philosophy of limited government and individual liberty — the demons of statolatry encompassed the globe. For the United States. by the late 1930s. it was the consolidation of the "achievements" of the New Deal at home and.

This picture shows a German anti-aircraft gun that is being used by the british after it was captured .This map shows the position of various European countries during the period of World War II.

air force losses to be recycled. indicating both Nazi and U. The Mythic Flag rising at Iwo Jima .S. cargo ship unloading scrap materials.This painting shows a U.S.

with piechart of percentage of military and civilian deaths for the Allied and the Axis Powers .Deaths per country by number and percentage of population.

Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers. theater. .Military deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers by alliance. year.

percentage by country.Axis Military personnel killed. .

Germany after Versailles . with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. Unemployment rate in the US 1910–1960. with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted.USA annual real GDP from 1910–60.

Annexed by neighbouring countries Administered by the League of Nations Weimar Germany .

after a bombing raid .An elderly lady in front of the bodies of school children inBraunschweig. Germany.

The stone monument was left alone. The A-bomb Dome is seen in the far distance. 1945. It was estimated that its energy was equivalent to 15 kilotons of TNT. Photo by US Army The ruins of fire in Kako-machi. Aerial photograph from the 80 kilometers away of the Inland Sea. was dropped in Hiroshima City. A Uranium bomb.Photo by US Army The huge atomic cloud 6 August. . the first nuclear weapon in the world. taken about 1 hour after the dropping.

The Atomic Bomb Dome .

at Ohmura Navy Hospital on August 10-11.Photo: Ohmura Navy Hospital A girl with her skin hanging in strips. .

Melted Sake Bottles--Photo by Hiromi Tsuchiya .

part skeleton. Her lunch box was found by school authorities under a fallen mud wall. . was in the First Army Hospital (900 meters from the hypocenter) for an appendectomy. a corpsman found Masami's dead body. He was scheduled to leave the hospital that day. at a place 500 meters from the hypocenter. Its contents of boiled peas and rice. a rare feast at that time.Binoculars--Masami Tsuchiya (25 at the time). were completely carbonized. Lunch Box--Reiko Watanabe (15 at the time) was doing fire prevention work under the Student Mobilization Order. a second lieutenant. He was identified only by the name on the towel in his hand. Her body was not found. On August 7.

Photo: US Army . 1/2 of a mile south-southwest of the hypocenter. It is one of the important clues for establishing the location of the epicenter.The Atomic Shadow--The shadows of the parapets were imprinted on the road surface of the Yorozuyo Bridge.


.Wounded Horse--The bomb not only hurt people but animals (burnt hip skin) * Person suffering burns from thermal radiation after the United States dropped nuclear bombs on Japan in World War II.

Japan. Image courtesy of Yad Vashem. many of them from the Berehov ghetto. To be sent to the right meant slave labor. to the left. 1945. The photographer was Ernst Hofmann or Bernhard Walter of the SS. "Selection" on the Judenrampe.[1] . This image shows the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia.The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. the gas chamber. May/June 1944. rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. Auschwitz.

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