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Soc Classification level 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks
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DESCRIBE HOW TO IMPROVE INDOOR COVERAGE EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES OF INDOOR PLANNING DESCRIBE THE BASICS OF TUNNEL PLANNING LIST THE BASICS OF REPEATERS
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Content of Special Cases
INDOOR PLANNING TUNNEL PLANNING REPEATERS
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INDOOR PLANNING TUNNEL PLANNING REPEATERS
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) => possibility to sell mobile services => possibility to offer special tariffing => tie up the company to operator Soc Classification level 5 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . interference come as far as tens of kms => partition indoor frequency plan from outdoor frequency plan Problem: Strong signals coming from outdoors to indoors Buildings • Public (shopping malls.Why Indoor Sites? Normally two reasons to build an indoor site • Improve poor indoor coverage • Free capacity to outdoor cells Indoor cell's interference area vs outdoor cell's interference area is much more limited High buildings.) => improves the network quality and service => operator finance • Private (companies etc. railway stations etc.
: concrete wall. e. windows concrete wall. no windows concrete wall within building brick wall armed glass wood or plaster wall window glass mean value 17 dB 9 dB 30 dB 9 dB 10 dB 9 dB 8 dB 6 dB 2 dB sigma 7 dB 6 dB 6 dB 6 dB 6 dB Soc Classification level 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Building Losses Basics Signal levels in buildings are estimated by a applying a “building penetration loss” margin Big differences between rooms with window and “deep indoor” (10 ..15 dB) Signal losses for building penetration vary greatly with building materials used.g.
Building Losses Incident Angle Penetration loss depends heavily on incident angle of radio wave 30 dB 25 20 15 10 5 0 15 30 45 60 105 120 135 150 165 180 incidence angle of radio wave 90 180 glass pane 0 deg 0 75 Soc Classification level 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks / 90 .
atrium Soc Classification level 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks / losses 0.Building Losses In-Building Path Loss Simple path loss model for in-building environment • Outdoor losses: Okumura´s formula • Wall losses: Lwall = f(material. train station) .5 dB/m 0. angle) • Indoor losses: linear model for picocells: Lin = L0 + ad Lout Lwall Lin building type old house commercial type open room.2 dB/m (museum.7 dB/m application example (urban residential) (modern offices) 0.
field measurements) • Parameter planning and Verification – (indoor based modifications + field measurements) C) Post-planning phase • Monitoring (key performance indicators. especially HOs!!) • Optimisation (field measurements) Soc Classification level 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Indoor System Planning Process A) Pre-planning phase (= nominal planning) • Monitoring macro cell network (at office!!) • Traffic distribution (macro cell blocking) • Timing advance distribution (mobile locations) B) Planning phase • Detailed planning (on site!!!) • Configuration and Coverage planning – (field measurements + input info = #antenna locations!!!!) • Capacity planning (based on monitoring + input info) • Frequency planning (manually.
Indoor Propagation Three main propagation mechanisms • Reflection • Diffraction • Scattering TX R S D D RX Similar to microcellular propagation. except in smaller scale! • Delay spread very small => large coherence bandwidth!! Soc Classification level 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Indoor Coverage Planning Indoor environment very difficult to model (as microcell) • Coverage planning based on measurements Two distinct types of survey • Existing coverage surveys • New cell surveys and Proposal Soc Classification level 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
to show coverage level available Test mobile in dedicated mode while walking in the building Download measurement data to PC for analysis Post measurement tool. SAM are used to analyse measurement data Soc Classification level 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Existing Coverage Survey To determine whether an in-building cell is required Survey of current digital networks.
Measurement showing RxQual & Event Types using NIB and SAM Soc Classification level 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
coverage level against position will be overlaid on the building plan Soc Classification level 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Measurement Methods Test transmitter emitting at a designated test frequency set up Antenna positioned to achieve the required coverage Data collected while walking around the building Test equipment will be • a calibrated GSM900/1800 test transmitter (InSite or any generic signal generator) feeding via a • cable of measured attenuation and • either a omni or directional antenna mounted on a tripod Same data acquisition apparatus for exisitng coverage survey measurement will be used Using SAM.
Indoor Coverage Solutions Small BTS • FlexiTalk • PrimeSite. MetroSite. InSite Repeaters • Active. passive • Optical Antennas • Distributed antennas • Radiating cable Signal distribution • Power splitters • Optical fibre Inconspicuous placing of BTS: hide antennas from public view! Soc Classification level 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Indoor Coverage Solutions BASE STATIONS Direct connection SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION Passive repeater RF repeater for indoors RF repeater with optical interface ANTENNAS Indoor BTS Coaxial antenna Op t T x R i F n Op t R x R out F A-bis / BSC Optical RF Distribution Outdoor BTS Outdoor cell R out F R out F Distributed antenna system (RF signal splitters) Distributed antenna system with amplifier (in line RF amplifiers) Directional antenna (wallmounted) Bi-directional antenna (wall-mounted) Omni-directional antenna (ceiling-mounted) Soc Classification level 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
airports.Indoor Coverage Transmission Media Distributed Antenna System (DAS) • Benefit: low equipment price • Disadvantage: lack of control over antenna signal level. etc Leaky Cable • Benefit: evenly distributed coverage along the length of the cable • Disadvantage: relatively small coverage area • Use: tunnels Fibre Optical Distribution System (FODS) • Benefit: easy installation due to use of thin optical fibre • Disadvantage: higher price and propagation delay within the fibre • Use: when the cable runs are too long for a DAS Soc Classification level 17 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . due to the variation in size of distribution network • Use: shopping malls.
prevent desensitization Soc Classification level 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .e. hard to spot! Install high enough .Indoor Coverage DAS Indoor antennas are connected to base station via coaxial feeder cable Choose antennas that match to the environment .i.
Indoor Coverage Leaky Cable RFX 1/2"-50 Cable Antenna RFF 1/2"-50 SuperFlexible RF 7/8"-50 Feeder Cable RFX 7/8"-50 Cable Antenna 1/2" 7/8" 1-1/4" Symbol in system diagram Leaky feeders Soc Classification level 19 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
) Constant field strengths along cable runs Operate in wide frequency range • Radiating losses become higher with frequency Very large bending radii • Disturbs field distribution Formerly often used for tunnel coverage VERY EXPENSIVE Soc Classification level 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . dist.40 dB per 100m • Coupling loss typ..Indoor Coverage Leaky Cable Coaxial cable with perforated leads ⇒ “energy leak” Radiating losses 10 . 55 dB (at 1m ref.
Conversion from optical signal to RF signal takes place at the antenna end.Indoor Coverage FODS RF signal is converted to optical signal and fed into the optical fibre. Downlink Splitter Optical Converter Optical Converter Uplink Combiner Optical Converter Optical Converter Soc Classification level 21 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
shops • Airport halls (large distances!) • Industrial plants Indoor BTS Indoor Panel Antenna Master Unit Optical Fiber RF Cable Remote Unit Soc Classification level 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Indoor Coverage Optical Repeater Signal from in-building BTS Fibre optic distribution system • Very low cabling losses (2 dB/ 1000m) • >50 remote antennas possible • Signal amplification and distribution at remote end • Easy cabling (very thin fibres) Application examples • Multi-level offices.
RF DAS System Diagram A5 Floor 3 A4 10dB A3 A2 Floor 2 15dB dB A1 Floor 1 1/2" BT S Soc Classification level 23 © Nokia Siemens Networks / Basement .
InSite Capacity is always 1 BTS & 1 TRX (Combined CCCH/SDCCH/4 + 7 TCH) If there is a need for 2 TRX in the same area. 2 InSites can be installed near each other ’Direct Retry’ -parameter needed If many InSites are used in a building. frequencies are reused more tightly Planner can plan frequency manually or use APP (Automatic Picocell Planning) Interference area and coverage area has to be verified so that the same frequency can be reused Soc Classification level 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
InLite One option to provide coverage if cable length from BTS to antenna comes long Fiber optic cables up to 1.5 km without any remarkable attenuation (optical link budget < 3 dB) Flexible & easy integration with MetroSite Soc Classification level 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
main unit MU and remote unit RU MU is a central unit for RF transmission and reception • • • • • Main function is to convert RF-signal to optical mode and vice versa Each LU can support and continuously monitor up to 4 RUs Can expand up to 8 LU → 32 RU → 64 output ports Two optical fibres for each RU one for DL and one for UL In DL. a laser in LU is modulated by the RF electrical signals to generate optical carrier • LU carries out 1:4 optical splitting at DL • In UL. based on use of fiber optics and remote antennas Consists of two main parts. LU optically combines the optical signals from RU and a PIN photo diode converts the optical signals into RF electrical signals • A LNA is used to increase the received power from the RU in the UL path Soc Classification level 26 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .InLite InLite is a system for indoor cellular coverage.
InLite Architecture Nokia InLite Optical Converters e o e o e o e o e o e o e o e o Air Interface Antenna (Panel) Antenna RU Multi-fibre cable (Omni) RU Dual band RF module#1 Dual band RF module#2 Dual band RF module#3 Dual band RF module#4 Multi-fibre cable SWITCH MATRIX 8:4 32 fibre optic Remote Units BTS Interface BTS BTS Soc Classification level 27 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Indoor Coverage Example With repeater • Relay outdoor signal into target building • Needs “donor” cell. adds coverage. no capacity With indoor BTS and distributed antennas • Heavy losses by power splitting and cabling 50m -50 dBm Outdoor Antenna Gain: 18 dBi 1:1 50m 50m 4th floor 3rd floor 2nd floor 1st floor ground floor 7/8'' Cable Loss: 4dB / 50m Cable length : 25m 4th Floor 3rd Floor 2nd Floor 1st Floor Ground Floor Indoor Antenna Gain: 9dBi 1:1 1:1 50m 50m 1:1 1:1 50m 50m 50m 50m 1:1:1 1:1 1:1 50m Target Indoor Coverage Building Soc Classification level 28 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Indoor Cell Frequency Planning Target to find “clear enough” channel • Planning tool cannot predict accurate interference in upper floors in high buildings • Channel can be optimised by indoor measurement • Quality HOs typically problem Frequency re-use can be high if antenna planning good • Minimised leaking outside Soc Classification level 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
• Umbrella HO-parameter? Soc Classification level 30 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Indoor Cell Parameter Planning In general no need to do many changes to the Nokia's default parameter set before implementation Idle mode • C2-per cell basis parameter in idle mode (phase 2 mobiles) • Can be used to guide call setup in indoor cell when moving indoors • Measurements needed for fine tuning Dedicated mode • PBGT HO can be disabled from indoor cell in order to keep traffic indoors. • Important that mobiles are using an indoor cell(s) inside a building and handovers at building entrance work as wanted. Good indoor plan with uniform coverage needed. PBGT HO margin optimization from other cells.
Summary of Indoor Planning Cost efficient solution. repeater/insite/ultrasite Indoor solution should be planned to cover whole building Minimize leaking outdoors in antenna location selection -> reduce interference When planning site minimize # of HOs due to level/quality Use parameters to keep indoor traffic in indoor site Soc Classification level 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Special Cases INDOOR PLANNING TUNNEL PLANNING REPEATERS Soc Classification level 32 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Tunnel Planning Basics Extraordinary propagation environment • Tunnel coverage planning differs greatly from the conventional planning Reliable simulation/prediction is impossible • Test measurements usually difficult to conduct • Planning has to be based on known propagation properties and common sense Signal can be generated by BTS or repeater (optical or RF) • BTS needed if the tunnel is very long or high capacity is needed Soc Classification level 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
not always Location of the antenna – Simulations has been made. but it is very difficult to adapt the results into real world Soc Classification level 34 © Nokia Siemens Networks • • / .Tunnel Planning Propagation Propagation inside tunnels depends on • Tunnel shape • • – Circular tunnel has higher propagation loss than rectangular Wall structure – Newer tunnel ⇒ more steel in concrete ⇒ better propagation Filling factor – How big part of the tunnel's cross-section is blocked? – Depend on cross-section size and number of tubes Tunnel curvature – In most cases the curvature is meaningless.
Coupling loss ~60 dB First km ~30 .Tunnel Planning Propagation Rules of thumb concerning propagation when using regular antenna.50 dB Next km ~20 .30 dB Soc Classification level 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
5 dB L=2 dB X+92. L=3.5dBm X dBm X+13dBm X+98dBm X+96dBm Power splitter 20m 1/2".and loss properties Soc Classification level 36 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . L=2 dB Typical maximum output power for a channel selective repeater is about +31 dBm In order to have this max power.5dBi 50m 7/8".Tunnel Planning Example G=15 dBi X+90.5dBm EIRP = X+100 dBm G=9. Then the EIRP from the tunnel antennas would be +33 dBm Cable thickness need to be selected based on installation. L=2 dB G=85 dB 20m 1/2". we'd need -67 dBm by the pick-up antenna.
Tunnel Planning Solution Summary Following table summarizes the feasibilities of different coverage solution types for highway tunnels of different lengths Highway tunnels < 1000m 1000 – 2000 m 2000 – 3000 m 3000 – 5000 m > 5000 m RF repeater +++ ++ ++ -- BTS ++ +++ ++ ++ + FOD --++ ++ +++ Soc Classification level 37 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Special Cases INDOOR PLANNING TUNNEL PLANNING REPEATERS Soc Classification level 38 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
amplifies it and re-transmits the signal to the BTS Serving BTS handles call initiation. amplifies it and re-radiate it via coverage antenna UL: Receives signal from mobile. so design with the idea of maintaining the same EIRP with new BTS DL: Repeater picks up the signal coming from BTS via donor antenna. HO requests etc. Incoming signal should be at least -70…-75 dBm • To achieve sufficient TX power for the repeater • To achieve good signal quality Soc Classification level 39 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . power control messages.RF-repeater Advantages: • Easy and fast way to expand coverage or capacity • Abis transmission is not needed Disadvantages: • Uses BTS capacity -> congestion • Output power decreases if number of channels increases Future swap over to dedicated BTS when traffic increases.
garages) Active repeater • Amplifies and re-transmits all received signals Wideband or narrowband repeater needs decoupling > amplification Soc Classification level 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Repeaters Basics Passive repeater • Needs strong external signal • Useful only with very short cables • Seldom used Application examples • Places with coverage need and little traffic • Remote valleys • Tunnels • Underground coverage (e.g.
Repeaters Overview Donor Site Donor Antenna Donor Cell MS Repeater Antenna Location Site of a CR Cell Repeater Combined Coverage MS Soc Classification level 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
delay0 • If ∆delay > equaliser window⇒ interferences delayR Repeater Antenna Donor Antenna delay0 Donor Cell Interference Area Location Site of a CR delay2 Cell Repeater Mobile delay1 Donor Site Soc Classification level 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .Repeaters Interference Caused by Delay • Signal to the MS can travel directly from the donor cell (delay0) or through a CR • ∆delay= (delay1 + delayR + delay2) .
Repeaters BTS vs. Repeater BTS Cost Coverage Expansion Capacity Expansion RF Characteristics Limitation • Expensive • New Frequency • Allocation needed • Higher Frequency Reuse Repeater • Cheap • Easy Way to Expand • Coverage • Uses Radio Resources • from Regular BTS • Decoupling • Donor Antenna Required • No use in High Density • Traffic Areas • BSC Features Not • Available • High C/I • Higher O/P Power • E1/T1 Required Soc Classification level 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Exercises / Questions Why to use indoor sites? List different methods to build indoor coverage! What is different betweenthe indoor planning process and the normal planning process? Which factors affect signal propagation in tunnels? When is it feasible to use a repeater ? Soc Classification level 44 © Nokia Siemens Networks / .
Soc Classification level 45 © Nokia Siemens Networks / . 1999.” John Wiley & Sons. Saunders. S.References 1. “Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems.
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