CAD Software’s

Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Waqas Ali Tunio Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Karachi – Pakistan (waqasalitunio@gmail.com) (www.waqasalitunio.tk)

www.scribd.com/waqasalitunio

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

Table of Contents
Computer Integrated Manufacturing ..........................................................................................................................1 Introduction to CAD System ......................................................................................................................................3 What is computer aided design...................................................................................................................................3 What is CAD software? ..............................................................................................................................................4 Types of cad software .................................................................................................................................................6 2D CAD ..................................................................................................................................................................6 2.5 D CAD ..............................................................................................................................................................6 3D CAD ..................................................................................................................................................................6 3D Wireframe and Surface Modeling ....................................................................................................................6 Solid Modeling .......................................................................................................................................................6 AutoCAD....................................................................................................................................................................7 CATIA ........................................................................................................................................................................7 SolidWorks .................................................................................................................................................................7 Design validation tools ...........................................................................................................................................7 Product data management tools ..............................................................................................................................7 Design communication and collaboration tools .....................................................................................................8 CAD productivity tools ..........................................................................................................................................8 Specialty design tools .............................................................................................................................................8 Autodesk Maya...........................................................................................................................................................9 Advance Design..........................................................................................................................................................9 Advance Steel .............................................................................................................................................................9 Advance Concrete ......................................................................................................................................................9 ArchiCAD ..................................................................................................................................................................9 Autodesk Inventor ......................................................................................................................................................9 Bricscad and CRL-CAD .............................................................................................................................................9 CityEngine ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 Solid Edge ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 solidThinking........................................................................................................................................................... 10 Swift 3D .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

2

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

CAD Software’s
Introduction to CAD System
Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or environments, provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. The development of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize; industry-based software (construction, manufacturing, etc.) typically uses vector-based (linear) environments whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based (pixilated) i environments. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the annual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in twodimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.ii CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic

importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry The CAD packages are the tools used to automate the drafting/designing/engineering processes in almost all industries & technical operations. The CAD program was 1 of the first tools to be used to automate the technical offices of any organization. Such CAD packages have been in use(commercially) for over 20 years in consulting firms, industrial plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, utilities and other sectors of the industry. They produce drawings of every type: electrical, chemical, civil, architecture, process, instrumentation etc. Depending on the user field of interest, the CADsystem can tie in with other automating/analysis/production packages, for example CAM (computeraided manufacturing) & GIS (Geographic information systems). Over the recent few years a lot of development took place with respect to CAD systems. The interface between the user and software isbecoming easier & similar to other general software packages. The drawings can bechecked against specified standards. The drawings can be sent over the internet for viewing or marking& checking. The attributes (fields) of the drawn objects (entities) can be accessed via other non-CADsoftware packages. The drawing can be fed into another program for analysis or displaying detailed information.

What is computer aided design
The letters CAD stand for computer-aided design. Architects, drafters, engineers, and artists use CAD software to create plans and construction drawings. Before the age of computers, drawings and blueprints were drafted by hand. CAD is more efficient because the software records lines as vectors based on mathematical equations. Portions of a drawing can be twisted, stretched, or moved. The picture as a whole will automatically adjust.

3

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

What is CAD software?
Computer - aided design, or CAD, software is a modeling tool used by architects and engineers to design three-dimensional objects. This software is used to create new products or deepen the understanding of existing products. Although best known for working with shapes, this type of software has all the standard symbols required for technical drawings and schematics. There are four key features to CAD software: functionality, impact on the industry, training, and price. There are three functions to CAD software that revolutionized the design industry: multidimensional images, computer animation, and computational geometry. Multi-dimensional images need curves, surfaces and solids, all of which are very difficult to create on a computer screen. The physical drawing of these shapes requires art training and the use of shading to indicate other dimensions. CAD software allows the images to be rotated 360 degrees, providing designers with the opportunity to model the entire object much faster and without the need to physically render the item first. The computer animation aspect has impacted both the entertainment and engineering industry. In entertainment, it has allowed the development of higher quality cartoons and commercials. In engineering, both the form and function can be modeled and any designer flaws can be seen and corrected, before the creation of a physical prototype. Computational geometry and industrial art have also capitalized on the functions available in this tool to create a new type of sophisticated product that better suits their unique needs. The adoption of CAD software resulted in the elimination of a large number of drafting and designer jobs. Entire departments could be replaced with one software package. Engineers and architects were required to learn the software and incorporate different tasks into their jobs. Over time, a new role of CAD designer has developed.

This person has an advanced skill level with the software and may act as an adviser to other designers and engineers. Training on CAD software is now incorporated into every engineering, architect, and designer education program. Specialized courses in specific software and advance functions are available on a part-time basis at a wide range of community and career colleges. It is very important to keep these skills updated, as the software is constantly upgraded and changes over time.

CAD software review
This article reviews some of the best CAD software applications that are available on the market. The purpose of this article is to review cad software. But the final choice about which particular product to buy depends on several different factors, such as - budget, goals, skill level, learning curve, functions, and features. AutoCAD 2008 is the leading CAD software making day-to-day drafting a breeze. It will increase your productivity and save you time. The new features will allow you to create all your drawing data one time, minimizing redundancy and greatly reducing errors. AutoCAD 2008 software introduces the concept of annotation scale as an object property. AutoCAD 2008 supports Windows Vista Home Basic, Home Premium, Ultimate, Business, and Enterprise. In addition, AutoCAD 2008 takes advantage of some new Vista capabilities, specifically Windows Vista thumbnail previews for DWG and DWF files in Windows Explorer. Solid Works Office Professional includes Solid Works 3D CAD software, a full range of 3D MCAD, communication and CAD productivity tools, plus PDMWorks, an easy-to-set-up-and-use product data management (PDM) solution that is uniquely adapted to managing SolidWorks product data for the individual or workgroup. The Solid Works interface has been improved to decrease mouse travel and increase the screen real estate

4

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

available for design. A new Command Manager layout, embedded view display menus, and customizable pop-up toolbars increase efficiency and workflow. Getting to commonly used commands and customizing the layout will be easier than ever and will benefit new and existing users alike. The new Motion Manager has a key frame-based timeline and controls motors, gravity, and springs based on time Turbo CAD Pro 14 Platinum Edition features unparalleled design power and productivity combined with advanced tools for mechanical and architectural design. Has integrated 2D drafting, 3D surface and ACIS® solid modeling, and LightWorks® photorealistic rendering offer dramatic visual results while geometric and dimensional constraint management tools, and superior file format compatibility, offer added power and precision. TurboCAD also has an extensive collection of architectural parametric object types and shapes for doors, windows, stairs, and railings. Solid Edge is powerful 3D CAD software that allows manufacturing companies to transform their process of innovation and achieve competitive advantage. Solid Edge delivers the benefits of a fully integrated and managed design discipline that eases the growing complexity of product design. Solid Edge is the only mainstream mechanical system that merges design management capabilities with the CAD tools that designers use every day. On the Internet, you will find a lot of 3d cad software reviews as well as architectural cad software review. CAD software reviews must point out the advantages and disadvantages of the given product .To make an educated buying decision, read as many cad software reviews as you can. Reading reviews of cad software can really help you out in your search for the right product.

Cad software for Mac is specifically designed for users of the Macintosh operating system. Although the CAD software applications for Windows are more and easier to find, there are more than enough cad software for Mac, so you have good options in front of you. To start with, CAD stands for Computer Aided Design. CAD software is a program that allows you to draw objects with perfect precision using a mouse or an electronic drawing pad. The biggest advantage of any Cad software for Mac is the ability to use special drawing tools. In the lines bellow, we will review several of the best cad software for Mac. MacDraft Pro is CAD software for Mac. It comes in two editions - Professional and Personal. This CAD software is for home design, which enables you to create designs for architectural and graphic use. PCDraft and PCDraft Personal Edition are also available for the Windows platform. Designed for CAD users of all levels, Microspot MacDraft offers a full complement of drawing tools. Its multilayered, scaled drawing environment supports both feet/inches and metric dimensions. It's perfect for producing simple sketches or complex sketches; Microspot MacDraft is excellent for all forms of mechanical, architectural and engineering design, as well as for technical illustration. Punch! Home Design Studio is 3d cad software for Mac OS. It's professional, yet easy to use. Features an intuitive interface and simple tools for quick learning curve. The embedded cutting-edge technology creates breathtaking 3D views with controllable sun angle and shadows. Requires Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger or higher. Has predawn deck templates to get you started fast. The PhotoView feature allows you to add any scanned or photographed object to your design. TurboCAD Mac Pro v2 is a 3d cad design software for Mac delivers the highest quality drafting available for creating complex, precision drawings. TurboCAD Mac Pro v2 features 2D drafting and 3D modeling in one easy to use program with powerful tools that bring your ideas to life. Easily turn your Adobe Illustrator designs into CAD

CAD software for Mac

5

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

drawings with dimensions, and import popular CAD files into Illustrator. Perfect for converting technical drawings into desktop publishing formats for use in brochures and other marketing materials. The version for the Macintosh platform costs around $400. It requires Macintosh OS X 10.4 or higher .There is auto cad software for Mac. CAD software for apple Mac is for the users of the Macintosh operating system. On the Internet, you will easily find cad architectural software for Mac and cad design interior software for Mac. Cad home design software for Mac is available at

3D CAD
Three-dimensional (3D) CAD programs come in a wide variety of types, intended for different applications and levels of detail. Overall, 3D CAD programs create a realistic model of what the design object will look like, allowing designers to solve potential problems earlier and with lower production costs. Some 3D CAD programs include Autodesk Inventor, CoCreate Solid Designer, Pro/Engineer SolidEdge, SolidWorks, Unigraphics NX and VX CAD.

Types of cad software
Computer Aided Design (or Drafting), also known as CAD, is a design tool that employs computers to create drawings and models of products while they are in the process of being created. CAD was first created in the early 1960s and today is used to design almost every product on the market in the world. Many types of CAD exist for different applications, and anyone interested in how products are designed may be interested in learning more.

3D Wireframe and Surface Modeling
CAD programs that feature 3D wireframe and surface modeling create a skeleton-like inner structure of the object being modeled. A surface is added on later. These types of CAD models are difficult to translate into other software and are therefore rarely used anymore.

Solid Modeling
Solid modeling in general is useful because the program is often able to calculate the dimensions of the object it is creating. Many sub-types of this exist. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) CAD uses the same basic logic as 2D CAD, that is, it uses prepared solid geometric objects to create an object. However, these types of CAD software often cannot be adjusted once they are created. Boundary Representation (Brep) solid modeling takes CSG images and links them together. Hybrid systems mix CSG and Brep to achieve desired designs.

2D CAD
Two-dimensional, or 2D, CAD is used to create flat drawings of products and structures. Objects created in 2D CAD are made up of lines, circles, ovals, slots and curves. 2D CAD programs usually include a library of geometric images; the ability to create Bezier curves, spines and plotlines; the ability to define hatching patterns; and the ability to provide a bill of materials generation. Among the most popular 2D CAD programs are AutoCAD, CADkey, CADDS 5, CATIA v4 and Medusa.

2.5 D CAD
In between 2D and 3D CAD is 2.5-D CAD. The models created in this type of CAD are prismatic, that is, they represent the depth of the objects. Like 2D CAD, these objects are made up of geometric objects.

6

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

SolidWorks (SolidWorks Corporation) is an application used for the design, detailing and validation of products, systems, machines and AutoCAD toolings. All versions include modeling, AutoCAD is a software application for computer- assemblies, drawing, sheet metal, weldment, and aided design (CAD) and drafting. The software freeform surfacing functionality. It also has supports both 2D and 3D formats. The software is support for scripting in Visual Basic and C. developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc.iii First released in December 1982 by Autodesk in the CAD Solid Edge Special Software’s year following the purchase of the first form of the software by Autodesk founder, John Walker. Design validation tools AutoCAD is Autodesk's flagship product and by March 1986 had become the most  SolidWorks Simulation is a design validation ubiquitous microcomputer design program in the tool that shows engineers how their designs world, utilizing functions such as "plotlines" and will behave as physical objects. "curve fitting".iv Prior to the introduction of AutoCAD, most other CAD programs ran  SolidWorks Motion is a virtual prototyping tool that provides motion simulation on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with capabilities to ensure designs function each user's unit connected to a graphics computer.v properly.

Description of Famous CAD Software’s

companies worldwide. FY2009 revenue SolidWorks was 366 million dollarsvi

for

CATIA
CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) is a multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by the French company Assault Systemes. Written in the C++ programming language, CATIA is the cornerstone of the Assault Systemes product lifecycle management software suite. CATIA competes in the high-end CAD/CAM/CAE market with Siemens NX.

 SolidWorks Flow Simulation is a tool that tests internal and external fluid-flow simulation and thermal analysis so designers can conduct tests on virtual prototypes.  SolidWorks Simulation Premium is a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) design validation tool that can handle some multiphysics simulations as well as nonlinear materials.  SolidWorks Sustainability is a product that measures the environmental impact of designs while they are modeled in SolidWorks. Product data management tools

SolidWorks
SolidWorks is a 3D mechanical CAD (computeraided design) program that runs on Microsoft Windows and is being developed by Assault Systèmes SolidWorks Corp., a subsidiary of Assault Systèmes, S. A. (Vélizy, France). SolidWorks is currently used by over 1.3 million engineers and designers at more than 130,000  SolidWorks Workgroup PDM is a PDM tool that allows SolidWorks users operating in teams of 10 members or less to work on designs concurrently. With SolidWorks PDM Workgroup, designers can search, revise, and vault CAD data while maintaining an accurate design history.

7

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

 SolidWorks Enterprise PDM is a PDM tool that allows SolidWorks users operating in teams at various separate facilities to work on designs concurrently. With SolidWorks Enterprise PDM , designers can search, revise, and vault CAD data while maintaining an accurate design history. Enterprise PDM maintains an audit trail, is compatible with a variety of CAE packages (AutoDesk, Siemens, PTC, Catia, etc.) to maintain interfile relations, and will manage the revisions of any document saved in the vault. Enterprise PDM also uses a workflow diagram to automatically notify team members when a project moves from one stage to the next, as well as tracking comments. Enterprise PDM is capable of interfacing with various MRP/ERP systems and can be used online to interface with customers and the supply chain.  'SolidWorks n!Fuze' is a cloud-based PDM tool that allows users operating in different locations to collaborate while providing many of the features of SolidWorks Enterprise PDM with less IT infrastructure in-house. Design communication and collaboration tools  eDrawings Professional An e-mail-enabled communication tool for reviewing 2D and 3D product design data across the extended product development team. eDrawings generates accurate representations of DWGgateway is a free data translation tool that enables any AutoCAD software user to open and edit any DWG file, regardless of the version of AutoCAD it was made in.  SolidWorks Viewer is a free plug-in for viewing SolidWorks parts, assemblies, and drawings.  '3DVIA Composer' is a technical communications software that allows 3D views of models to be integrated into the document, whether that is manuals, advertisements, or

web applications. The 3D views are updated automatically when the design updates, reducing the workload of the employee creating the technical document, as editing for changes is not as severe. CAD productivity tools  SolidWorks Toolbox is a library of parts that uses "Smart Part" Technology to automatically select fasteners and assemble them in the desired sequence.  SolidWorks Utilities is software that lets designers find differences between two versions of the same part, or locate, modify, and suppress features within a model.  FeatureWorks is feature recognition software that lets designers make changes to static geometric data, increasing the value of translated files. With FeatureWorks, designers can preserve or introduce new design intent when bringing 3D models created in other software into the SolidWorks environment. Specialty design tools  SolidWorks Routing  MoldflowXpress is a mold design validation tool that was built into a solid modeling environment. It enables mold designers to quickly and easily validate whether a plastic injection-molded part can be filled.  SolidWorks MoldBase is a catalog of standard mold base assemblies and components. The package enables designers to generate a completely assembled mold base.  Print3D is a 3D printing feature that allows users to convert their 3D CAD model to a .STL file and then have it sent to specialty manufacturers for quote. The .STL files can be used to generate an instant binding quoted using the Quickquote technology.

8

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

 DriveWorks Xpress DriveWorksXpress is rules-based design automation tool for engineers. Create multiple variations of parts, assemblies and drawings quickly and accurately.

ArchiCAD
ArchiCAD is an architectural BIM CAD software for Macintosh and Windows developed by the Hungarian company Graphisoft. ArchiCAD offers specialized solutions for handling all common aspects of aesthetics and engineering during the whole design process of the built environment — buildings, interiors, urban areas, etc. Development of ArchiCAD started in 1982 for the original Apple Macintosh. ArchiCAD is recognized as the first CAD product on a personal computer able to create both 2D drawings and parametric 3D geometry.viii In its debut in 1987 ArchiCAD also became the first implementation of BIM under Graphisoft's "Virtual Building" concept.ix Today more than 150,000 architects are using it in the building design industry

Autodesk Maya
Autodesk Maya, commonly shortened to Maya, is 3D computer graphics software that runs on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS and Linux, originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual effects. The product is named after the Sanskrit word Maya the Hindu concept of illusion.vii

Advance Design
Advance Design is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) software application developed by GRAITEC and dedicated to structural analysis and design of reinforced concrete / steel structures and automated creation of design reports.

Autodesk Inventor

Autodesk Inventor, developed by U.S.-based software company Autodesk, is 3D mechanical solid modeling design software for creating 3D digital prototypes used in the design, visualization and simulation of products. Autodesk Inventor Advance Steel competes directly with SolidWorks and SolidEdge and less directly with Creo Elements/Pro, CATIA, Advance Steel is a CAD software application for and NX (Unigraphics). Autodesk Inventor uses 3D modeling and detailing of steel structures in ShapeManager, their proprietary geometric AutoCAD and automatic creation of fabrication modeling kernel. drawings, bill of materials and NC files, developed by GRAITEC. Bricscad and CRL-CAD

Advance Concrete

Bricscad is a CAD package developed by Bricsys. Until release 10 it was built using Advance Concrete is a computer-aided design theIntelliCAD engine.x It is designed for Windows (CAD) software application developed by and is among the few commercially supported GRAITEC and used for modeling and detailing CAD packages which run on Linux. reinforced concrete structures in AutoCAD. Advance Concrete is used in the structural / civil Bricscad uses the Open Design engineering and drafting fields. Alliance DWG libraries to read and write the DWG file format made popular by the AutoCAD CAD package. Bricscad implements the AutoLISP scripting language, VBA and BRX.

9

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Computer Aided Design (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

Waqas Ali Tunio

The software is capable of most contemporary AutoCAD release functions. Formerly there was only Windows native version (one time there was an official Wine support), but on 7 September 2010 first native Linux version of Bricscad was releasedxi. There is no indication on the BricsCAD website that they include or have plans to include BIM functionality or IFC export.

Solid Edge

Solid Edge( Siemens PLM Software) is a commercial application for design, drafting, analysis, and simulation of products, systems, machines and tools. All versions include featurebased parametric modeling, assembly modeling, drafting, sheet metal, weldment, freeform surface design, and data management. ApplicationBRL-CAD programming interfaces enable scripting in Basic BRL-CAD is a constructive solid and C programming. geometry (CSG) solid modeling computer-aided design(CAD) system. It includes an solidThinking interactive geometry editor, ray tracing support solidThinking (solidThinking) is a 3D for graphics rendering and geometric solid/surface modeling and rendering suite which analysis, computer network distributed frame features a construction tree method of buffer support, scripting, image-processing and development. The tree is the "history" of the model signal-processing tools. The entire package is construction process and allows real-time updates distributed in source code and binary form. when modifications are made to points, curves, parameters or entire objects.

CityEngine

CityEngine (Procedural Inc) is a 3D modeling application specialized in the generation of three dimensional urban environments. With the procedural modeling approach, CityEngine enables the efficient creation of detailed large-scale 3D city models, it is available for Mac OS X, Windows and Linux.

Swift 3D
Swift 3D (Electric Rain) is a relatively inexpensive 3D design, modeling, and animation application targeted to entry-level 3D users and Adobe Flash designers. Swift 3D supports vector and raster-based 3D animations for Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight XAML.

i

Wikipedia CAD Report iii FundingUniverse (2012). "Autodesk, Inc." (in English) (Web page). fundinguniverse.com. Lendio. Retrieved 29 March 2012. iv Phil LoPiccolo (2011). "25 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE Part 2 CAD/CAM/CAE" (in English) (Web page (plain article option provided)). cgw.com. Computer Graphics World. Retrieved 29 March 2012. v FundingUniverse (2012). "Autodesk, Inc." (in English) (Web page). fundinguniverse.com. Lendio. Retrieved 29 March 2012. vi SolidWorks Fact Sheet vii Sangeetha Johari. "Hindu Goddesses : Maya - Hindu Goddess". sanatansociety.org. Retrieved 2010-12-10. viii Building Information Modeling Two Years Later – Huge Potential, Some Success and Several Limitations (http://www.laiserin.com/features/bim/newforma_bim.pdf) ix http://www.laiserin.com/features/issue19/feature01.php x http://www.bricsys.com/common/releasenotes.jsp?p=Bcad&l=en_US xi http://www.bricsys.com/common/releasenotes.jsp?p=Bcad&l=en_US
ii

10

Institute of Manufacturing Engineering & Management, Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful