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Advanced Combustion Technology

Fluidized beds
Quang Anh, Tran 3164811

Cottbus, May 15, 2012

Table of Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................. 1 1 2 Historical Perspective ................................................................................................................... 1 The FBC Technology .................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 2.2 3 General Description of FBC ................................................................................................... 2 Characteristics of FBC ............................................................................................................ 3

Different types of FBC Systems ................................................................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Bubbling fluidized bed ............................................................................................................ 5 Circulating fluidized bed ......................................................................................................... 6 BFB versus CFB ..................................................................................................................... 7 Pressurized FBC System ......................................................................................................... 8 Supercritical CFB.................................................................................................................. 10 Hybird CFB ........................................................................................................................... 11

Advantages and disadvantages of FBC ..................................................................................... 12 4.1 4.2 Advantages of FBC ............................................................................................................... 12 Disadvantages of FBC .......................................................................................................... 14

5 6 7

Chemical Processes in FBC Boilers ........................................................................................... 15 Heat Transfer in FBC Boilers .................................................................................................... 17 Efficiency of FBC Boilers ........................................................................................................... 18

Summary .............................................................................................................................................. 19 Refrences.............................................................................................................................................. 20

Fluidized Bed Combustion

Abstract
Fluidizied bed Combustion (FBC) is a method of burning fuel in which the fuel is continually fed into a bed of reactive or inert material while a flow of air passed up through the bed, causing it to act like a turbulent fluid. Fluidized beds have long been used for the combustion of low-quality, difficult fuels and have become a rapidly developing technology for the clean burning of coal because this type of combustion can burn nearly any fuel efficiently at a temperature low enough to avoid many of the problems encountered when using other technologies The three broad areas of application of fluidized-bed combustion are incineration, gasification, and steam generation. This report focus only on the application of FBC technology on fluidized bed steam generators and its features.

Historical Perspective

Fluidization and observations of phenomena related to fluidization have been referenced in the literature since the late 1800s. The person most often cited as initiating fluidized bed technology is Fritz Winkler, who in the 1920s developed the Winkler coal gasifier (Figure 11), which employed fluid bed concepts (12 m2 in cross section- very large even by todays standards [1]). He received a patent for his work in 1928. With a knowledge of Winklers work and a war time demand for petroleum products, a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process was developed during the early 1940s. This process greatly increased both the quantity and quality of the refined product. Over the years, many improvements were made to the original FCC process, and today, various types of fluid bed processes are used in the refining of petroleum and the production of other chemical feedstocks. Various fluidized bed processes for roasting of ores and other materials also were developed.

Figure 1-1: An atmospheric pressure, low-temperature Winkler Gasifier, one of the first application of bubbling fluidized beds (BFB). [1]
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During the early 1960s, much of the work in applying fluidized bed technology to steam generation was carried out in England. The overall emphasis was to develop FBC for industrial steam production from coal while meeting low SO2/NOx emissions requirements without additional equipment. The technology developed in England found its way to the United States in the late 1960s. Pilot plant research work was conducted and later used to develop concepts for the construction of a fluidized bed boiler demonstration plant (30 MWe) at Rivesville, West Virginia, in 1975. This plant was about 15 fold larger than any other fluidized bed boiler facility then operating. In the 1970s, FBC technology was considered to be a potential solution. Many studies and several demonstration projects were funded in the United States by government agencies, some based on the Rivesville technology (called bubbling fluidized bed [BFB]) and others based on a newer technology adapted from a fluidized bed process developed by Lurgi initially used for aluminum calcination(called circulating fluidized bed [CFB]). In 1984, two key demonstration projects were initiated. One was the 160 MWe demonstration boiler at the Tennessee Valley Authoritys Shawnee Steam Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. This project utilized BFB technology for coal firing and began operation in 1988. The other was the 110 MWe demonstration boiler at Colorado-Utes Nucla Station in Nucla, Colorado. This project utilized CFB technology for coal firing and also began operation in 1988. Both demonstration plants can be considered successful, but the BFB technology (despite subsequent operation of a 350 MWe, coal-fired demonstration unit in Japan in 1995) has not been applied commercially in sizes above approximately 100 MWe. BFB technology is used mainly for smaller, biomass-fired, industrial applications. On the other hand, CFB technology has been applied commercially in sizes over 300 MWe, firing a range of fuels, and has become the dominant FBC technology for industrial and utility applications worldwide.

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2.1

The FBC Technology


General Description of FBC

Fluidization refers to the condition in which solid materials are given free-flowing, fluidlike behavior. As a gas is passed upward through a bed of solid particles, the flow of gas produces forces that tend to separate the particles from one another. At low gas flows, the solid particles remain in contact with each other and tend to resist movement. This condition is referred to as a fixed bed. The pressure drops per unit height of fixed bed, P/L of uniformly sized particles, dp is correlated as equation 2-1 [1]:

= 150
where:

) ( )

+ 1.75

(2-1)

: the void fraction in the bed. : the sphericity of bed solids, describes the departure of the particle from a spherical shape. : dynamic viscosity, N.s/m2.
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g : density of the gas, kg/m3. dp : mean diameter of particles, m. V : gas velocity, m/s. L : cross-sectional height of the bed, m.

Figure 2-1: Plot of gas pressure drop through a fluidized bed versus gas velocity [2] For a fixed bed, the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity. As the gas flow is increased, a point is reached at which the forces on the particles are just sufficient to cause separation, the bed becomes fluidized. This condition is referred to as a fluidized bed. The gas cushion between the solids allows the particles to move freely, giving the bed a liquid-like, or fluid, characteristic. The transition from fixed bed to fluid bed is illustrated in Figure 2-1, which plots the drop in gas pressure through the bed versus the gas velocity. The velocity at which this transition occurs is called the minimum fluidization velocity (Vmf). The Vmf depends on many factors, including particle diameter, gas and particle density, particle shape, gas viscosity, and bed void fraction. Further increases in velocity bring about changes in the state of fluidization. At velocities above Vmf, the pressure drop through the bed remains nearly constant and is equal to the weight of solids per unit area, because the drag forces on the particles just overcome the gravitational forces and it can be calculated as equation 2-2 [1]:

= (1 )(

(2-2)

2.2

Characteristics of FBC

FBC offers the power engineer the ability to efficiently utilize a wide variety of fuels, including fuels with high ash (A), high moisture (M), high sulfur (S), low volatiles (V), and low heating value that are unsuitable for other firing systems. Furthermore, FBC can utilize such fuels while meeting strict emission limits. This unique combination of fuel flexibility and low emissions is responsible for the development and growth of FBC technology.
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Fluidized Bed Combustion

Figure 2-2: Generalized fluidized bed combustor [2] Figure 2-2 shows a generalized fluidized bed combustor, in which fuel is burned in a bed of hot, non-combustible particles suspended by an upward flow of fluidizing gas. Typically, the fuel is a solid such as coal, although liquid and gaseous fuels can be readily used. Table 1 lists different types of fuels a fluidized bed boiler can fire.
TABLE 1: Some fuels a Fluidized Bed Boiler can Fire [1]
Coal Coal Residue Wood Residue Sludge Municipal Waste Petroleum Product Gas Agricultural Waste

Anthracite Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite

Bituminous gob Anthracite culm Coal Slurry Mill rejects Washery waste

Bark Wood chips Saw dust Forest residue Demolition waste

Paper mill De-inking Municipal Gasifier fines

Refuse derived fuel Garbage Waste paper Shredded tires

Oil Delayed coke Fluid coke Oil Shale

Off gas

Straw

Natural Olive waste gas Other Husk gases

The fluidizing gas typically is the combustion air and the gaseous products of combustion. Where sulfur capture is not required, the ash may be supplemented by an inert material, such as sand. For applications that require sulfur capture, limestone is used as the sulfur sorbent and forms a portion of the bed. Bed temperature is maintained in the range of 850 to 900C (1,550 1,650F) by the use of a heat-absorbing surface within or enclosing the bed. This temperature range is optimal for the chemical processes needed to capture sulfur and minimize NOx emissions, and also avoids ash softening in nearly all fuels. Efficient combustion can be achieved at this relatively low temperature range because of the long fuel residence time and high gassolid mixing rates in the bed.

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Fluidized Bed Combustion

Figure 2-3: Relationships between stoker, fluidized bed, and pulverized firing of solid fuels (BFB: bubbling fluidized bed; CFB: circulating fluidized bed) [2] The characteristics of fluidized bed firing also can be illustrated by comparison to the other key combustion technologies (stoker and pulverized firing, as shown in Figure 2-3): Stoker firing: fuel feed size is relatively large and gas velocity low, with fuel burned in the resulting fixed bed. Furnace temperatures and fuel residence times are high to provide efficient combustion with the given fuel feed size and low bed mixing rates. Pulverized firing: fuel feed size is very small and gas velocity high, with the fuel burned in the resulting entrained bed (also called suspension firing). Furnace temperatures are very high to provide efficient combustion with the low solids residence time, which is equal to the gas residence time (a few seconds). Fluidized bed firing: fuel sizing and gas velocity are nominally between those for stoker and pulverized firing, but furnace temperatures are much lower. In addition, fluidized bed firing systems typically use solids recycle to maintain bed inventory and increase solids residence time (calculated as bed solids inventory/throughput) to values on the order of hours. The high solids residence time and high mixing rates in the bed allow efficient combustion at the relatively low furnace temperatures with FBC.

Different types of FBC Systems

As shown in Figure 2-3, there are two basic types of fluid bed firing systems, each operating in a different state of fluidization. The state of fluidization depends mainly on the bed particle diameter and the fluidizing velocity. 3.1 Bubbling fluidized bed

At relatively low velocities and coarse bed particle size, the fluid bed is dense, with a uniform solids concentration and a well-defined surface. This type of fluidized bed is called a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB), because the air in excess of that required to fluidize the bed
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passes through the bed in the form of bubbles. Little recycle of the entrained material to the bed is needed to maintain bed inventory, but substantial recycle rates may be used to enhance performance.

Figure 3-1: Typical bubbling fluidized bed steam generator. [2] Figure 3-1 illustrates a general form of BFB steam generator. Crushed fuel and sorbent are fed to the top or bottom of the bed. Fluidizing air is supplied to the bottom of the bed through a plenum and air distributor. Combustion and sulfur capture (presuming a sulfur sorbent is used) take place in the bed, with the flue gas and some entrained solids passing into the section of the combustor above the bed surface, called the freeboard. In the freeboard, additional combustion and sulfur capture can take place. From the freeboard, the gas and solids enter the convective pass, where they are cooled before entering a mechanical dust collector. Collected solids are recycled to the bed or sent for disposal, and the flue gas then passes to an air heater, fine particulate collector, and induced draft fan. Bed temperature is maintained at the optimum for sulfur capture and combustion efficiency, usually by means of the water-cooled walls of the furnace and/or a tube bundle immersed in the bed. The bed level is controlled by draining an appropriate amount of material from the bed.

3.2

Circulating fluidized bed

At higher velocities and with finer bed particle sizes, the fluid bed surface becomes diffuse as the solids entrainment increases, so a defined bed surface no longer is present. Recycle of entrained material to the bed at high rates is required to maintain bed inventory. The local density of the bed decreases with increasing height in the furnace. This type of fluidized bed is called a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) because of the high rate of material circulating from the furnace to the particle recycle system and then back to the furnace.

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Fluidized Bed Combustion

Figure 3-2: Typical circulating fluidized bed steam generator (FBHE, fluid bed heat exchanger) [2] Figure 3-2 shows a typical CFB steam generator. Crushed fuel and sorbent are fed mechanically or pneumatically to the lower portion of the furnace. Primary air is supplied to the bottom of the furnace through an air distributor, with secondary air fed through one or more elevations of air ports in the lower furnace. Combustion takes place throughout the furnace, which is filled with bed material. Flue gas and entrained solids leave the furnace and enter one or more cyclones, where the solids are separated and fall to a seal pot. From the seal pot, the solids are recycled to the furnace. Optionally, some solids may be diverted through a plug valve to an external FBHE and back to the furnace. In the FBHE, tube bundles absorb heat from the fluidized solids. Bed temperature in the furnace is essentially uniform and is maintained at an optimum level for sulfur capture and combustion efficiency by heat absorption in the furnace and the FBHE (if used). Flue gas leaving the cyclones enters a convection pass, air heater, baghouse, and ID fan (induced draft fan). Solids inventory in the furnace is controlled by draining hot solids through an ash cooler.

3.3

BFB versus CFB

The question of which system, BFB or CFB, is best for a given application is frequently asked. The answer depends mainly on boiler capacity and fuel. BFB technology does not scale particularly well, because the relatively low bed velocity requires a large furnace cross section. Also, in-bed tube bundles, which are required to maintain bed temperature when firing relatively low-volatile fuels, such as coal, are prone to erosion/corrosion and to problems involving bundle support because of the large forces imposed by the dense bed. These issues were identified in the early coal-fired BFBs,
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including the 160 MWe demonstration unit. Today, BFBs are offered for firing biomass, a fuel that does not typically require in-bed tubing, in sizes up to approximately 100 MWe. CFB technology scales much more readily. CFBs have been built in sizes of 300 MWe and larger, and are commercially available in sizes up to 600 MWe. With the expanded nature of the bed and the high internal mixing rates, tube bundles are not needed in the dense part of the bed. Thus, CFBs can handle most fuels in essentially any size. Furthermore, there is currently more commercial experience with CFB over a wider range of boiler capacities, steam cycles, and fuels, all of which can influence user selection for new projects. The one disadvantage of CFBs compared with BFBs is cost: for the size range and fuels with which a BFB is feasible, the BFB usually is lower in cost.

3.4

Pressurized FBC System

Combustion in boilers operating at or near atmospheric pressure is referred to as atmospheric FBC (AFBC). Fluidized bed operation at pressures 10 to 20 fold atmospheric pressure, taking place in large cylindrical or spherical pressure vessels, in combination with axial compressors and gas turbines is termed pressurized FBC (PFBC). In addition to the reduced emissions of SOx and NOx that are possible with fluid bed combustion, PFBC offers the potential for a gain in overall thermal efficiency because of the incorporation of a gas turbine in the cycle. Another potential advantage of the PFBC system is that all the equipment operating above atmospheric pressure is smaller in size than it would be at atmospheric pressure, making shop assembly and delivery of components an attractive option. At elevated pressure, the potential reduction in boiler size is considerable due to increased amount of combustion in pressurized mode and high heat flux through in-bed tubes. A comparison of size of a typical 250 MW PFBC boiler versus conventional pulverized fuelfired boiler is shown in the Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3: Comparison of PFBC Boiler versus Pulverized Fuel Boiler. [3] The PFBC system can be used for cogeneration or combined cycle power generation. Figure 3-4 shows a pressurised fluidized bed power plant entered service in Cottbus, Germany in 1999 (Pel net: 74 MW, Pth: 120 MW, boiler: 12 bar, 840 oC) [4]. This plant is based on preQuang Anh, Tran Page 8

Fluidized Bed Combustion

dried brown coal and it can be divided into three sections: a gas turbine cycle, a steam water cycle and a fluidized bed.

Figure 3-4: Diagram of the PFBC power plant in Cottbus. [4] The combustion air is taken in from the ambient air, pre-compressed in a low-pressure compressor, intercooled and then further compressed to reach the required working pressure for combustion. Intercooling is chosen so that low inlet temperatures of around 300 oC can be set in order to cool the pressure vessel. Afterwards, the air is injected into the furnace via the distributor plate. The flue gas produced by combustion is cleaned in a two-stage cyclone separator. It is then directed, in the form of hot gas, to the high-pressure gas turbine via a coaxial duct, inside which the hot gas flows, while the compressed air flows on the outside. In the high-pressure gas turbine, the hot flue gas is pre-expanded, then further expanded in the low-pressure gas turbine, in order to drive the low-pressure compressor. The gas turbine used has been modified and adapted in order to suit the cleaned hot gas from the PFB to limit the impact of erosion, corrosion and fouling and to achieve a longer lifetime. A standard gas turbine was modified for low flow velocities by increasing the number of stages (in order to reduce the deflections) and by reinforcing the blade profiles of the parts at risk. This made it more suitable for operation after the fluidized bed combustion furnace. The waste heat from the gas turbine can only be used for feed water heating at relatively low gas turbine outlet temperatures in the steam water cycle. This heat accounts for 10% of the steam produced. The far greater portion of heat in the steam produced in fluidized bed combustion about 90% is transferred directly to in-bed heating surfaces and furnace walls
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and used for vaporisation and superheating. The gas turbine accounts for only a small share of the total power output. This is because the steam water cooling of the fluidized bed (by means of in-bed heating surfaces, in order to maintain the FBC temperatures) has to stay below 850 oC and because this heat is not used in the gas turbine. The output ratio of the gas turbine to the steam turbine is about 15. By combining the gas and steam turbines in this way, electricity is generated more efficiently than in conventional system. The overall conversion efficiency is higher by 5% to 8%. However, the commercialization of this technology has been difficult, mainly for two reasons: The optimal furnace temperature of the FBC process is lower than todays state-ofthe-art combustion temperature of gas turbines. Thus, the efficiency advantage achievable by combined cycle operation cannot be fully exploited. Difficulties in adequate cleaning of the flue gas entering the gas turbine blades from particles and alkalies, as well as the extended outage time required to repair equipment inside the pressurized vessel, led to lower availability during commercial operation of PFBC units.

3.5

Supercritical CFB

Supercritical steam conditions allow an increase in power plant efficiency in accordance with the selected steam conditions. Combining this increased efficiency with the inherent fuel flexibility and emission control of CFB technology offers obvious advantages. Design of a supercritical CFB involves bringing together two technologies: supercritical boiler design and CFB boiler design. A key issue in the design of any supercritical boiler is that the flow available for cooling the furnace is the feedwater flow only. Because of the relatively high heat flux to the furnace walls in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, various means must be employed to ensure adequate furnace cooling, such as increasing flow per tube via a spiral tube layout or use of internally rifled, vertical tubes to reduce the needed cooling flow. CFB boilers have a much lower furnace heat flux (Figure 3-5).

Figure 3-5: Heat flux profile: Pulverized coal versus circulating fluidized bed. [2]
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Thus, neither of the above is required. The furnace can be constructed of vertical, smoothbore tubing, just as for subcritical steam conditions. As with a pulverized coal-fired boiler, a supercritical CFB boiler requires a recirculation system to supply the extra cooling flow that is needed during start-up and low-load operation. Boiler size for supercritical applications is on the larger side, typically above 300 MWe, to match the size of available steam turbines.

Figure 3-6: Supercritical circulating fluidized bed design (FBHE, fluid bed heat exchanger) [2] Figure 3-6 illustrates a supercritical CFB boiler design. This 600 MWe version includes a dual-grate furnace with internal surface, six cyclones, six seal pots, and four or six FBHEs (evaporative, superheat, and reheat), depending on the design fuel. The convective pass contains a superheater, reheater, and economizer. A regenerative air heater also is included.

3.6

Hybird CFB

The hybrid CFB, combines a BFB with a recirculation loop of fines to increase performance over that attainable with a BFB alone. The basic hybrid CFB module is shown in Figure 3-7 and includes a bubbling bed furnace, an air plenum, an air distributor with fluidizing nozzles (tuyeres), an in-bed tube bundle, and a cyclone/standpipe. The use of relatively smalldiameter cyclones with direct return of collected material to the bed produces a large amount of fine material circulating through the freeboard. The result is high combustion efficiency, high limestone utilization, and low NOx/CO emissions. Ammonia injection into the freeboard is very effective in further reducing NOx.

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Figure 3-7: Hybrid circulating fluidized bed [2] The boiler design is relatively simple, with a plate/refractory furnace enclosure and cyclones plus removable in-bed evaporator tube bundles bolted to the furnace enclosure. Fuel feed is over the bed via spreader or in-bed via pneumatic injectors from the sidewalls. Hot gases from the cyclones enter a convective pass containing a superheat and economizer surface, tubular air heater, and baghouse/electrostatic precipitators. Boiler height is relatively low, and the boiler typically is bottom supported. Larger boilers are designed using multiple furnace/cyclones modules. Because of this modular approach and the relatively small size of the basic module, maximum hybird CFB boiler size is in the range of 50 to 70 MWe [2].

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4.1

Advantages and disadvantages of FBC


Advantages of FBC

Ability to Burn Low-Grade Fuels The high thermal inertia of the bed mass allows stable ignition and combustion of very-lowgrade fuels, such as those high in ash and/or moisture. Fuels with over 70% ash and over 60% moisture have been successfully burned in a fluid bed. The high thermal inertia of the bed also allows good performance when firing low-volatile fuels, such as anthracite, anthracite culm, and petroleum coke. Fuel Flexibility The special hydrodynamic condition in the FBC furnace allows for excellent gas solid and solid solid mixing. Thus, fuel particles fed to the furnace are quickly dispersed into the
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large mass of bed solids, which rapidly heat the fuel particles above their ignition temperature without any significant drop in the temperature of the bed solids. This feature of a FBC furnace would ideally allow it to burn any fuel without the support of a superior fuel, provided its heating value is sufficient to raise the combustion air and the fuel itself above its ignition temperature. However, the furnace temperatures are still below the ash-softening temperature of most fuels, FBC boilers are not as sensitive to fuel ash characteristics. A wide range of fuels with varying ash content and ash properties can be fired in a given boiler. High Combustion Efficiency The combustion efficiency of a CFB boiler is generally in the range of 97.5 to 99.5%, while that for a BFB boiler is lower, in the range of 90 to 98%. The following features contribute to the high combustion efficiency of circulating fluidized bed combustors: Better gas solid mixing. Higher burning rate (especially for coarser particles)

Fresh coal often contains a large amount of fine carbon particles. In addition, a considerable amount of carbon fines are generated during combustion through attrition. In a BFB combustor, these fines are easily entrained out of the fluidized bed, which is usually from 0.5 to 1.5 m deep. The freeboard above the bubbling bed, where particles are ejected, is not conductive to efficient combustion because of its poor gas solid mixing and relatively low temperature. Thus an appreciable amount of carbon fines escaping into the freeboard of a BFB combustor leaves the boiler unburned. The combustion efficiency of a BFB boiler can be improved to a certain extent by recycling the unburned carbon particles back to the furnace, although carbon particles, once cooled, do not burn as effectively as when hot. In a CFB boiler, the combustion zone extends up to the top of the furnace (as much as 40m in large utility boilers) and beyond into the hot cyclone. Fines collected by the hot cyclone are recycled back to the base of the furnace without cooling. Thus, carbon fines generated in the furnace have a longer time to burn during their travel through the height of the furnace and then through the rest of the circulating loop. The only combustible loss is due to the escape of carbon fines from the CFB loop. In some boilers, reinjection of these fines from downstream sections (economizer hopper, precipitator, for example) of the cyclone is also used to minimize the carbon loss. Unlike bubbling beds, CFB boilers retain their efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, even when firing fuels with a considerable amount of fines. Low NOx Production Emissions of NOx are considered to come from three sources: oxidation of nitrogen in the air (thermal NOx). oxidation of nitrogen and/or nitrogen components in the fuel (fuel NOx). reaction of hydrocarbon radicals with atmospheric nitrogen produces CHN and hence NOx via a complex series of gas phase reactions (prompt NOx).

The combustion temperature in a fluidized bed boiler (850 to 900 oC) is too low for the nitrogen in air to be oxidized, thermal NOx is essentially zero. Design features such as staged combustion can significantly reduce fuel NOx. The formation of prompt NOx is also
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minimized due to longer residence times of fuel. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems can be added, leading to very low NOx emissions. Data collected in commercial CFB boilers suggest NO2 emission in the range of 50 to 150 ppm or 20 to 150 mg/MJ [2]. Low SO2 emissions Emissions of SO2 can be controlled within the combustor by addition of a sorbent material, typically limestone. The sulfur sorbent also can react with other fuel constituents, such as vanadium, reducing the downstream corrosion potential. Reduction in Boiler Size High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area immersed in the bed result in overall size reduction of the boiler. Easier Ash Removal No Clinker Formation Since the temperature of the furnace is in the range of 850 900 oC in FBC boilers, even coal of low ash fusion tem perature can be burnt without clinker formation. Ash removal is easier as the ash flows like liquid from the combustion chamber. Hence less manpower is required for ash handling. Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up High turbulence of the bed facilitates quick start up and shut down. Full automation of start up and operation using reliable equipment is possible. No Slagging in the Furnace-No Soot Blowing In FBC boilers, volatilisation of alkali components in ash does not take place and the ash is non sticky. This means that there is no slagging or soot blowing. High Reliability The absence of moving parts in the combustion zone results in a high degree of reliability and low maintenance costs. Quick Responses to Changing Demand A fluidized bed combustor can respond to change heat demands more easily than stoker fired systems. This makes it very suitable for applications such as thermal fluid heaters, which require rapid responses.

4.2

Disadvantages of FBC Erosion problems on immersed tubes. Higher auxiliary power requirement for the circulation of bed material and for the requirement of fine particles. Low capacity compared to conventional boiler. Flue gas carries a high dust load.

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Bed material is also lost with the ash, making it necessary to periodically add new bed material. The operating experience with fluidized bed combustors is still limited. The evolution of the particle size distribution and of the composition of the bed material cannot be predicted with confidence. Production of N2O, or laughing gas, (50-200 ppm-FBCs), a very strong green house gas (GHG).

Chemical Processes in FBC Boilers

Within the bed, several interrelated chemical processes occur, including combustion, sulfur capture, and nitrogenoxygen conversion. Fuel Combustion Even at the relatively low temperatures associated with FBC, the combustion of fuel in a fluid bed is a rapid process. The combustion rate is a function of the reactivity of the fuel and the available fuel surface area. As we know, the combustible portion of solid fuel consists of volatile matter (V) and fixed carbon (FC) or char. Volatile combustible matter generally burns more rapidly than char and can be viewed as a separate process from char combustion. Char combustion is a much slower process and requires substantial solids residence time and mixing. With sufficient residence time and mixing, the concentration of char within the fluidized bed at any given time is a small percentage of the total bed material. The combustible loss is determined by the amount of char that escapes the system without burning, because the loss from unburned volatiles is insignificant. Both the fly ash and bottom ash streams will contain some char, but the majority of combustible loss is typically in the fly ash stream. In a BFB, the carbon loss by entrainment from the bed (elutriation) can be 10% when firing a fuel such as coal. Recycling the material back to the bed is an effective means for retaining the char within the system long enough for efficient combustion. In a CFB, the high fluidizing velocity produces vigorous mixing, and the recycle rates that are attainable with a high-efficiency particle separator allow a long solids residence time. For CFB, combustion efficiencies of 98% for less reactive fuels such as coal, and of more than 99% for more reactive fuels such as biomass, can be achieved. For BFB with sufficient recycle, combustion efficiencies approaching that of a CFB can be achieved for most solid fuels. Sulfur Capture The use of limestone as a sorbent allows sulfur emissions to be controlled within the fluidized bed during the combustion process. Lime (CaO) is formed by calcining the limestone (CaCO3) to drive off carbon dioxide (CO2): CaCO3 CaO + CO2 (endothermic) (5-1)

Sulfur in the fuel is converted to SO2 during the combustion process. Although nearly all the sulfur is oxidized, some of the inorganically bound sulfur may be retained in the ash. The SO2 combines with the calcined lime in the reaction:
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SO2 + CaO + O2 CaSO4 (exothermic)

(5-2)

Equations 5-1 and 5-2 indicate that a mole of calcium (Ca) is required to capture one mole of sulfur (S). Then, defining the Ca/S molar ratio as moles of calcium in the limestone feed to moles of sulfur in the fuel feed, Ca/S = 1/1 could theoretically provide 100% sulfur capture. In practice, however, this is not possible for two reasons. First, the sulfation process takes place on the surface of the lime particles, and the resulting sulfate shell prevents access to the lime in the particle core. Second, the time available for the sulfation reaction is limited (equal to the furnace gas residence time of ~ 36 seconds), inevitably allowing some SO2 to escape capture. The calcination and sulfation processes begin at around 1,300F (700C), and the reaction rates increase with increasing temperature. The most favorable temperature for simultaneous calcination and sulfation, however, is approximately 1,550F (840C). At high temperatures, the sulfation reaction can reverse. Figure 5-1 indicates the dependence of sulfur capture on temperature.

Figure 5-1: Sulfur removal versus fluidized bed Temperature [2] Sulfur capture in an FBC boiler typically is in the range 85 to 95%, although capture rates of more than 98% [2] have been demonstrated. The amount of limestone needed for sulfur capture depends on several factors: The required sulfur capture: higher fuel sulfur content increases the SO2 concentration in the furnace and the sulfur capture reaction rate, reducing the Ca/S required for a given capture (see also Figure 5-2). Limestone reactivity: is a measure of the ability of a given limestone to capture sulfur. Limestone particle size: determines its residence time. Particles that are too fine will escape as fly ash; particles that are too coarse will escape as bottom ash, with any escaping material increasing the required limestone feed rate. Limestone calcium content: the required limestone is proportional to its calcium content, because calcium carbonate is the only active constituent for sulfur capture. Sorbent utilization generally is better in a CFB than in a BFB, because the smaller sorbent particle size exposes more surface area per unit mass. The BFB units with high recycle rates, however, can closely approach the sorbent utilization of a CFB.

Figure 5-2 shows the dependence of sulfur capture on Ca/S.


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Figure 5-2: Percentage SO2 capture versus S content. [2] As the capture rate increases, limestone utilization decreases such that high sulfur capture can require high Ca/S. NOx Production Emissions of NOx are generated from: conversion of atmospheric nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and/or from conversion of nitrogen in the fuel (fuel NOx). In FBC, the furnace temperatures are low enough to avoid thermal NOx, and the proper staging of combustion in the furnace can significantly reduce fuel NOx. In a CFB, staged combustion is provided by introducing a significant portion of the total air above the fuel feed ports, creating a sub-stoichiometric zone in the lower furnace. This results in some char and carbon monoxide (CO), which strip oxygen from a portion of the fuel NOx to produce elemental nitrogen (N2). A similar condition can be established in a BFB by diverting some of the total air above the bed as overfire air. Evidence also indicates that NOx emissions increase with increasing Ca/S, where the CaO catalyzes the production of fuel nitrogen to NOx. Thus, minimizing Ca/S is important to minimizing NOx emissions as well as limestone cost. Additional NOx reduction can be accomplished by adding an SNCR (selective non-catalytic reduction) system, which injects ammonia into the flue gas at an appropriate point. The ammonia reacts with NOx to form elemental nitrogen and water: 4NO + 4NH3 + O2 4N2 + 6H2O 4NO2 + 8NH3 + 2O2 6N2 + 12H2O (5-3) (5-4)

Ammonia can be injected at the inlet or outlet of the particle separator, where higher gas velocity and the associated smaller gas duct cross section aids in mixing.

Heat Transfer in FBC Boilers

Heat transfer to surfaces immersed in, or bounding, an active fluidized bed occurs by means of three mechanisms acting in parallel: gas convection, particlegas radiation, and particle

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convection. These mechanisms are not strictly additive but it is a common practice to treat them separately. The heat-transfer coefficient to the bed-touched surface is: Ho = Hgc + Hrad + Hpc where Ho Hgc Hrad Hpc = = = = total heat-transfer coefficient coefficient of gas convection coefficient of particlegas radiation coefficient of particle convection

The gas convection term (Hgc) is the smallest and refers to the transfer of heat from the gas to the surface, assuming that no solids are present. The radiation term (Hrad) usually is the second largest term and treats the particle cloud as a gray body of given emissivity radiating to the surface. The particle convection term (Hpc) usually is the largest term, and it describes the heat transferred to the surface by particle contact. In practice, the overall heattransfer coefficient (Ho) is measured, the gas convection and particlegas radiation terms are calculated, and the particle convection term is determined by difference. Then, the particle convective component is correlated to certain physical variables for design purposes. Table 2 indicates the relative magnitude of the various heat-transfer components in, and bounding, the bed in typical BFB and CFB steam boilers. TABLE 2: Relative magnitude of heat tranfer components in Fluidized-bed Steam Boilers [2] CFB BFB Furnace FBHE/FBAC Hgc , W/m2.K 0 11 6 - 17 06 2 45 68 45 68 11 57 Hrad, W/m .K Hpc, W/m2.K 170 - 284 28 114 170 - 511 CFB boilers sometimes use bubbling bed heat exchangers to cool ash, called a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) when used in the main ash recirculation loop and a fluid bed ash cooler (FBAC) when used to cool bottom ash. Although not combustors, these devices are similar in layout and fluidization regime to many BFB combustors; thus, the associated heattransfer rates are similar. Gas velocities in the backpass of a BFB and a CFB are essentially the same as those in stoker and pulverized firing, so the heat-transfer correlations describing convection and radiation that have been developed for those boilers can be applied directly to BFB and CFB boilers.

Efficiency of FBC Boilers

Calculating the boiler efficiency for a fluid bed boiler is different in several respects compared to calculating the boiler efficiency for a stoker or pulverized fuel boiler. For this discussion, the loss method is used. Heat losses are usually expressed as a fraction or percentage of the potential combustion heat. They are expressed in terms of the heat losses associated with the burning of 1 kg coal and its higher heating value (HHV).
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Dry flue gas heat loss When the temperature of the flue gas leaving the stack Tf ; is higher than the ambient temperature Ta; an amount of heat, known as stack heat loss, is lost to the atmosphere. This loss is made up of two components: dry flue gas and moisture in it and they should be accounted separately. Moisture losses The moisture, leaving the boiler above the ambient temperature, carries with it an amount of heat known as moisture loss. The moisture in the flue gas is made up of three components: moisture from air, coal, and hydrogen. Calcination loss and sulfation gain The calcination loss is the heat that is lost in calcining CaCO3 to CaO, an endothermic reaction. The sulfation heat gain is the heat that is gained from combining the SO2 with O2 and CaO to form CaSO4, an exothermic reaction. Typically, at Ca/S ratios of greater than two, the calcination/sulfation term is a net heat loss, whereas at Ca/S ratios of less than two, the term is a net heat gain. Ash sensible heat loss This type of loss can be large, considering the high-ash fuels that frequently are fired and the presence of sorbent products in the ash. For a high-ash fuel, the ash sensible heat loss can exceed 5% of heat input. Therefore, the ash sensible heat loss should be calculated rather than included as other heat losses. For very-high-ash fuels, an FBAC can be used to recover some of the sensible heat in the bottom ash to improve the overall efficiency. Other heat losses For the efficiency calculation, we should notice that the use of refractory lined components, such as cyclones and ash coolers, increases the radiation loss. Fan heat credits also should be determined and included in the heat balance. The relatively high fan discharge pressures used with fluidized bed boilers result in significant addition of thermal energy to the boilers. All other loss terms are the same for fluidized bed boilers as for other types of boilers.

Summary
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is an important and rapidly maturing technology. Because of its specific characteristics, FBC appears to be very suitable for clean energy production from fossil and biomass fuels. For that reason, the use of fluidized beds for energy production as well as waste utilization is increasingly steadily, especially in developing country where a huge amount of agriculture residue is traditionally burned out after each crop season, causing a huge environmental problem and energy waste. However, due to the fact that it is still a complicated technology and the information needed to design, evaluation and analysis the performance of FBC equipments is found scattered in many research papers and textbooks, more research and development efforts is required in order to improve the FBC technology so that it could be contributed to fulfill energy demand along with environmental requirements in the foreseeable future.
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Refrences

[1] P. P. Basu, Combustion and Gasification in Fluidized Beds, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 2006. [2] C. Bozzuto, Clean Combustion Technology 5th edition, ALSTOM Power, Inc, 2009. [3] Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency in Thermal Utilities, India, 2005. [4] H. Spliethoff, Power Generation from Solid Fuels, Springer, 2010. [5] S. N. Oka, Fluidized bed combustion, New York : Dekker, 2004. [6] McGraw-Hill, Encyclopedia of Science & Technology 10th Edition, 2007. [7] F. Johnsson, "Fluidized Bed Combustion for Clean Energy," in The 12th International Conference on Fluidization - New Horizons in Fluidization Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, 2007. [8] Nicklas Simonsson, Timo Eriksson, Minish Sah, "Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Technology," in IEA 1st Oxyfuel Combustion Conference, Cottbus, 2009. [9] P. Almhem, "Cottbus-first PFBC plant to be fired with brown coal," ABB Review, p. 12, 1/1997.

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