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A

study

On

MEDIA AS A SOURCE OF INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS IN Bilaspur (C.G.)

A study On MEDIA AS A SOURCE OF INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS IN Bilaspur (C.G.)

M.PHIL DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO

Dr. C.V. Raman University, Kota, Bilaspur (C.G.)

PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) In Management

Guided By,

Dr. D.P.Dewangan

Asst. Professor

Session 2011-2012

Co-Guide

Prof.(Dr.) Prabhakar Pandey

H.O.D. (Dept. Of Commerce)

Submitted By,

Rahul Sharma

M.Phil (Management)

Govt. Girls P/G College Bilaspur (C.G)

Dr. C. V. Raman University Bilaspur (C.G)

Dr. C. V. Raman University Bilaspur (C.G)

DECLARATION

I

Mr.

RAHUL

SHARMA

a

regular student in M.Phil, subject

Management declare that the submitted dissertation on “A study on Media As A source Of influence On Consumer Decision Process In Bilaspur (C.G)”has been prepared by me under the guidance of the supervisor.

Place : Bilaspur (C.G.) Date: ____________

Submitted by Mr. Rahul Sharma

GUIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Rahul Sharma is a regular student in M.Phil subject Management of Dr. C.V. Raman University, has completed this dissertation entitled “A study on Media As A source Of influence On Consumer Decision Process In Bilaspur (C.G) under my supervision in this session 2011-2012 .

Mr. Vivek Bajpai

H.O.D. Dept. Of Commerce & Management Dr. C.V. Raman University Bilaspur (C.G)

Dr. D.P. Dewangan

Asst. Professor Govt. Girls P/G College Bilaspur (C.G)

CO-GUIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Rahul Sharma is a regular student in M.Phil subject Management of Dr. C.V. Raman University, has completed this dissertation entitled “A study on Media As A source Of influence On Consumer Decision Process In Bilaspur (C.G)” under my supervision in this session 2011-2012 .

Mr. Vivek Bajpai

H.O.D. Dept. Of Commerce & Management Dr. C.V. Raman University Bilaspur(C.G)

Prof.(Dr.) Prabhakar Pandey

H.O.D. Dept. Of Commerce Dr. C.V. Raman University Bilaspur(C.G)

FORWARDING LETTER

This

is

to

certify

that Mr.

Rahul Sharma S/o,

Shri.

K.

N. Sharma Roll

No

._______________

,

Enrolment

No

,

._______________

Session

2011-2012

Topic “A study on Media As A source Of influence On Consumer Decision Process In Bilaspur (C.G)” under the guidance of (guide name)

Dr.D.P.Dewangan

is a regular student of Master of Philosophy in (subject

name) Management.

This dissertation is forwarded to Controller of Examination for evaluation.

Thanking you,

Jai Shankar Yadav

Co-ordinator

Master of Philosphy

Dr. C.V. Raman University

Kargi Road, Kota, Bilaspur

(C.G.)

5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks to Dr.A.S. Zadgaokar, Vice Chancellor of Dr. C.V. Raman

University, Kargi Road, Kota, Bilaspur (C.G.) for his blessings and inspiration.

  • I am also obliged to the Registrar of University, Shri Shailesh Pandeyji.

I

take

opportunity

to

express

my

sincere

gratitude

and

deep

sense

of

indebtedness towards my respected guide, Dr.D.P.Dewangan, and Co-Guide,

Prof.(Dr.)Prabhakar Pandeyji commerce Department, Dr. C. V. Raman

University, Bilaspur (C.G.) who has always inspired me and extended his full

co-operation in every stage in my thesis. This valuable guidance and scientific

suggestions enabled me to complete this assignment successfully. I would like

no express thanks to Mr. Jai Shankar Yadav, Co-ordinator, M.Phil. , Dr.

C.V. Raman University, Kargi Road, Kota, Bilaspur (C.G.) who during the

development of this dissertation help us for any type of clarification.

  • I am also thankful towards Mr. Vivek Bajpai, H.O.D., Department Of Commerce

& Management, for his support provided by him throughout the project carried

under my dissertation.

Finally, the blessings of my parents for their endless motivation, the co-

operations and passion made me to stand to present this work.

Mr. Rahul Sharma

TABLE OF CONTENTS

6

S.NO

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

11

1.1.CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

12

  • 1.2. MEDIA

13

  • 1.2.1. HISTORY OF MARKETING CHANNELS

14

2.0

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

26

  • 2.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

26

2.2.RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

26

2.3.OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS

26

  • 2.4. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

26

  • 2.4.1. SAMPLE UNIT

26

  • 2.4.2. SAMPLE SIZE

27

  • 2.4.3. SAMPLING PLAN

27

  • 2.4.4. SAMPLING TOOL

27

  • 2.4.5. SAMPLING METHOD

27

  • 2.5. SOURCES OF DATA

27

  • 2.5.1. PRIMARY DATA

27

  • 2.5.2. SECONDARY DATA

27

2.6.HYPOTHESIS

27

  • 2.6.1. HYPOTHESIS 1

27

  • 2.6.2. HYPOTHESIS 2

28

2.7.LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

28

3.0

REVIEW OF LITRATURE

30

3.1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

30

  • 3.1.1. CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS

31

  • 3.1.2. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

37

  • 3.1.3. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

41

  • 3.2. MEDIA

43

  • 3.2.1. PRINT MEDIA

44

  • 3.2.2. ELECTRONIC MEDIA

46

  • 3.2.3. OTHER MEDIA

47

4.0

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

50

  • 4.1. RESPONDENT PROFILE

50

  • 4.2. ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE

53

  • 4.3. ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS

81

  • 4.4. CHI SQUARE

88

5.0

FINDINGS OF STUDY

93

6.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

96

7.0

CONCLUSION

98

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

100

APPENDIX

103

LIST OF TABLES & GRAPHS

7

TABLE 4.1.1. INDICATING THE AGE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS

50

8

TABLE 4.1.2. INDICATING THE INCOME PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS

51

TABLE 4.1.3. INDICATING THE OCCUPATION PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS

52

TABLE 4.2.1. INDICATING THE FREQUENCY OF SHOPPING

53

TABLE 4.2.2. INDICATING NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS WHO NOTICE ADS BEFORE PURCHASING

54

TABLE 4.2.3. INDICATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS WHO NOTICED ADS IN EACH FORM OF MEDIA.

55

TABLE 4.2.4. INDICATING THE PERCEPTION OF ADS

56

TABLE 4.2.5. INDICATING WHERE RESPONDENTS LOOKS FOR INFORMATION BEFORE PURCHASE

57

TABLE 4.2.6. INDICATING CONSUMER’S PERCEPTION ON THE INFLUENCE OF ADS ON BRAND SELECTION

58

TABLE 4.2.7. INDICATING THE FORM OF MEDIA WHICH HELPS CONSUMERS MOIST IN SHOPPING

59

TABLE 4.2.8. INDICATING THE RANKING OF VARIOUS MEDIA IN TERMS OF CREDIBILITY

60

TABLE 4.2.9. INDICATING THE DURATION OF TV VIEWING

61

TABLE 4.2.10. INDICATING THE BEHAVIOUR OF RESPONDENTS DURING THE TIME OF ADS

62

TABLE 4.2.11. INDICATING THE TYPE OF CHANNELS VIEWED MOST OFFEN BY RESPONDENTS

63

TABLE 4.2.12. INDICATING THE TIME OF TV VIEWING AMONG RESPONDENTS

64

TABLE 4.2.13. INDICATING THE PERCEPTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE MOST FREQUENTLY ADVERTISED PRODUCTS

65

TABLE 4.2.14. INDICATING THE NUMBER OF NEWSPAPERS READ BY RESPONDENTS

66

TABLE 4.2.15. INDICATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF AD RECALL FROM NEWSPAPERS

67

TABLE 4.2.16. INDICATING THE NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS WHO READ CLASSIFIEDS

68

TABLE 4.2.17. INDICATING THE NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS WHO RECEIVE DIRECT MAIL ADS

69

TABLE 4.2.18. INDICATING WHAT RESPONDENTS DO WITH DIRECT MAIL ADS

70

TABLE 4.2.19. INDICATING THE PERCEPTION OF RESPONDENTS ABOUT DIRECT MAIL ADS

71

TABLE 4.2.20. INDICATING WHAT CATCHES THE ATTENTION OF RESPONDENTS IN PRINT MEDIA

72

TABLE 4.2.21. INDICATING WHICH PARTS OF ADS CATCHES THE EYE OF RESPONDENTS THE MOST IN A MAGAZINE

73

TABLE 4.2.22. INDICATING THE PERCEPTION OF RESPONDENTS ABOUT INTERNET ADS

74

TABLE 4.2.23. INDICATING WHETHER RESPONDENTS EVER FELT LIKE BUYING A PRODUCT BASED ON ADVERTISEMENTS

75

TABLE 4.2.24. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF ADS MADE RESPONDENTS FEEL LIKE BUYING A PRODUCT

75

TABLE 4.2.25. INDICATING WHETHER THE RESPONDENTS EVENTUALLY BOUGHT THE PRODUCT

76

9

TABLE 4.2.26. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF ADS HELPS THE RESPONDENT IN BUYING A HIGH PRICED ITEMS (> 10,000)

77

TABLE 4.2.27. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF ADS HELPS THE RESPONDENT IN BUYING A MEDIUM PRICED ITEMS(1,000 - 10,000)

78

TABLE 4.2.28. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF ADS HELPS THE RESPONDENT IN BUYING A LOW PRICED ITEMS (1,000)

79

TABLE 4.3.1.1 INDICATING THE NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS WHO NOTICE ADVERTISEMENT BEFORE PURCHASING THE PRODUCT AND ALSO THE FORM OF AD MEDIA

80

TABLE 4.3.1.2. INDICATING THE NUMBER OF NEWSPAPERS READ REGULARLY BY THE RESPONDENTS AND THE ABILITY TO RECALL ANY ADVERTISEMENT IN THE PAPER

81

TABLE 4.3.1.3. INDICATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE RESPONDENTS

82

TABLE 4.3.2.1. INDICATING THE MOST INFLUENTIAL FORM OF MEDIA FOR HELPING RESPONDENTS FOR PURCHASE DECISIONS

83

TABLE 4.3.2.2. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF MEDIA HELPS MOST IN SHOPPING

84

TABLE 4.3.2.3. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF MEDIA IS PREFERRED FOR INFORMATION BEFORE PURCHASE

84

TABLE 4.3.2.4. INDICATING WHICH FORM OF MEDIA COMPELS RESPONDENTS

85

TABLE 4.3.2.5. INDICATING THE FORM OF ADS THAT HELPS RESPONDENTS IN BUYING LOW PRICED ITEMS (<1,000)

85

TABLE 4.3.2.6. INDICATING THE FORM OF ADS THAT HELPS RESPONDENTS IN BUYING MEDIUM PRICES ITEMS (1,000 – 10,000)

85

TABLE 4.3.2.7. INDICATING THE FORM OF ADS THAT HELPS RESPONDENTS IN BUYING HIGH PRICED ITEMS (>10,000)

86

TABLE 4.4.1. INDICATING THE RELATION BETWEEN INCOME PER MONTH AND FORM OF MEDIA PREFERRED FOR LOW PRICED ITEMS

86

TABLE 4.4.2. INDICATING THE RELATION BETWEEN INCOME PER MONTH AND FORM OF MEDIA PREFERRED FOR MEDIUM PRICED ITEMS

88

TABLE 4.4.3. INDICATING THE RELATION BETWEEN INCOME PER MONTH AND FORM OF MEDIA PREFERRED FOR HIGH PRICED ITEMS

88

TABLE 4.4.4. INDICATING THE RELATION BETWEEN AGE OF RESPONDENTS AND WHAT CATCHES THEIR ATTENTION MOST IN PRINT ADVERTISEMENT

89

TABLE 4.4.5. INDICATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE OF RESPONDENTS AND WHERE THEY LOOK FOR INFORMATION

90

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

India is a big country with 28 states, over one billion people and 120 dialects/languages. From the market perspective, people of India comprise different segments of consumers, based on

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class, status, and income. India is a lucrative market even though the per capita income in India is low and it remains a huge market, even for costly products. The Indian consumers are noted for the high degree of value orientation. Such orientation to value has labeled Indians as one of the most discerning consumers in the world. Even, luxury brands have to design a unique pricing strategy in order to get a foothold in the Indian market.

Indian consumers have a high degree of family orientation. This orientation in fact, extends to the extended family and friends as well. Brands with identities that support family values tend to be popular and accepted easily in the Indian market. Indian consumers are also associated with values of nurturing, care and affection. These values are far more dominant that values of ambition and achievement. Product which communicate feelings and emotions gel with the Indian consumers. Apart from psychology and economics, the role of history and tradition in shaping the Indian consumer behavior is quite unique.

Perhaps, only in India, one sees traditional products along side modern products. For example, hair oils and tooth powder existing with shampoos and toothpaste.

class, status, and income. India is a lucrative market even though the per capita income in
  • 1.1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Consumer behaviour is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups.

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It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general.

Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Research has shown that consumer behavior is difficult to predict, even for experts in the field. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management, personalization, customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.

Black Box Model

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

BUYER'S BLACK BOX

 
       

BUYER'S

       

RESPONSE

Marketing

Environmental

Buyer

Decision Process

Stimuli

Stimuli

Characteristics

 

Economic

Attitudes

Problem recognition

 

Product

Price

Place

Promotion

Technological

Political

Cultural

Demographic

Natural

Motivation

Perceptions

Personality

Lifestyle

Knowledge

Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post-purchase behaviour

Product choice

Brand choice

Dealer choice

Purchase timing

Purchase amount

The black box model shows the interaction of stimuli, consumer characteristics, decision process and consumer responses. It can be distinguished between interpersonal stimuli (between people) or intrapersonal stimuli (within people). The black box model is related to the black box theory of behaviourism, where the focus is not set on the processes inside a consumer, but the relation between the stimuli and the response of the consumer. The marketing stimuli are planned and processed by the companies, whereas the environmental stimuli are given by social factors, based on the economical, political and cultural circumstances of a society. The buyer’s black box contains the buyer characteristics and the decision process, which determines the buyer’s response.

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The black box model considers the buyers response as a result of a conscious, rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized the problem. However, in reality many decisions are not made in awareness of a determined problem by the consumer.

1.2.

MEDIA

In communications, media (singular medium) are the storage and transmission channels or tools used to store and deliver information or data. It is often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media, but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose.

Media

influence

or

media

effects

are

used

media studies,

psychology,

communication

theory

theory and sociology to refer to the theories about the ways in which their audiences think

and

sociology

to refer to the theories about the ways in which

their

audiences

think and behave.

mass media

affect how

Connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society, critiques in the early-to-mid 20th century suggested that media would destroy the individual's capacity to act

autonomously — sometimes being ascribed an influence reminiscent of the telescreens

of the

dystopian novel

1984.

"Mid

20th-century

The black box model considers the buyers response as a result of a conscious, rational decision

empirical

studies, however, Current theories,

Mass media

content created for

Cultural and personal beliefs, as per the

propaganda model.

newsworthy events and those stories that are not told all have Television broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the times in which it is viewed.

This is a distinguishing feature of traditional media which

New media

have challenged by

altering the participation habits of the public. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions, social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. There have been suggestions that allowing consumers to produce information through the internet will lead to an overload of information.

  • 1.2.1. History of Marketing Channels

In ancient times, there were three types of market places were found. The first one were the shops were peoples tends to purchase the products of their day to day use like cereals or food items, vegetables and other household items. Second one are the “Haats”, which were the weekly market were peoples of other villages would also comes for purchasing. Items like clothes, shoes, food items, vegetables and meat were sold at such places. The third type of market are the “Melas”, which is a big event and people from far places would also come to

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visit melas. These are the places for purchasing as well as for entertainment. Games, rides, dramas were shown to entertain people. People also enjoy certain fast foods like Chaat, Pakode, Lassi, Sharbat, etc. The marketing of such markets were very simple. Publicity was the major tool which should

be done in each village by sending peoples for announcements about the events. Later on with the emergence of various marketing channels marketing of products & services also changes with the development of markets.

The Marketing Saga of Such Markets:

There is a finite time period which is available for sales; and hence marketing is vital

to attract the customer. There is so much variety, diversity and competition; and hence marketing is the key to

make a sale. Every customer is valuable – Because he / she have the potential to directly contribute

to the top line. And once a customer is lost, he / she will never really come back. Simply because from the customer point of view, it’s really easy to find something else of personal choice, an alternate venue and avenue to lighten the purse string. There are limited resources for marketing – Essentially Budgets, Real estate space and

Human resources. So one needs to be creative to adopt the right marketing strategy with these frugal resources The skills exhibited by most of these individuals responsible for their business were

impressive – And these are neither trained nor professional marketing nor sales individuals, but normal individuals who acquired these skills by necessity and by experience. And what did they do? Effective utilization of real estate space to showcase their best products to catch the

customer’s attention – usually at the entry Customer Segmentation – A quick look at the customer and the key information is

processed – “Essentially how much can he / she potentially spend?”. And how they were right in their assessment almost all the time is really impressive. Guess there is something about experience in understanding human nature and behaviors – which is so important and exclusive to the marketing and sales functions!!! Differential Marketing Strategies based on the Customer Segmentation – And the range of creativity that was at display was awesome. These differences were visible in

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The tone

The pitch

The style

The words

The language

The assurances

The features highlighted

The time and efforts invested

The additional products that followed

And then of course, the price quoted.

During a marketing pitch, the following stood out

 

Greetings

 

Polite Conversations (Always)

Clear Objective on what needs to be achieved

Well thought out dialogue

Rehearsed communications

Precise articulation (And in very few instances, random twaddle) - Both

obviously aligned to cater to the customer sensibilities A sense of importance to the customer – Almost as if to convey “You are important to us. We value your time. But we value your money even more

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1.2.1.1. Posters
1.2.1.1.
Posters

A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.

Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works, and are generally low-cost compared to original artwork.

According to French historian Max Gallo, "for over two hundred years, posters have been displayed in public places all over the world. Visually striking, they have been designed to attract the attention of passers-by, making us aware of a political viewpoint, enticing us to attend specific events, or encouraging us to purchase a particular product or service." The

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modern poster, as we know it, however, dates back to 1870 when the printing industry perfected colour lithography and made mass Production possible. Different types of posters used today are Propaganda and political posters, Movie posters, Travel posters, Railway posters, Event posters, Boxing posters, Concert posters, Band/music posters, Black light poster, Pin-up posters, Affirmation posters, Fan poster, Book posters, Educational posters etc.

1.2.1.2.

Telegraph

Telegraphy (from Greek: tele τηλε "far", and graphein γραφειν "writing") is the long-distance transmission of messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Such methods are designed according to the limits of a signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 1800s, the harnessing of electricity brought about the means to transmit signals via electrical telegraph. The advent of radio in the early 1900s brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging.

1.2.1.3.

Billboard

Billboard is an international newsweekly magazine devoted to the music industry, and is one of the oldest trade magazines in the world. It maintains several internationally recognized music charts that track the most popular songs and albums in various categories on a weekly basis. The two most notable charts are the Billboard Hot 100, which ranks the top 100 songs regardless of genre and is based on physical sales, digital sales and radio airplay; and the Billboard 200, the corresponding chart for album sales.

Billboard was founded in Cincinnati on November 1, 1894, by William h. Donaldson and James Hennegan. Originally titled Billboard Advertising it was a trade papers for the bill posting industry, hence the magazine's name. Within a few years of its founding, it began to carry news of outdoor amusements, a major consumer of billboard space. Eventually Billboard became the paper of record for circuses, carnivals, amusement parks, fairs,

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vaudeville, minstrels, whale shows and other live entertainment. The magazine began coverage of motion pictures in 1909 and of radio in the 1920s.

  • 1.2.1.4. Trademarks

A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a distinctive sign or indicator, used by an individual,

business organization, or other legal entity, to identify that the products or services with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.

A trademark may be designated by the following symbols:

™ (for an unregistered trade mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods) (for an unregistered service mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand services) ® (for a registered trademark or service mark)

  • 1.2.1.5. Radio

Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequencies significantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.

  • 1.2.1.6. Electronic Computers

A computer is a programmable machine designed to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is the accepting of input from human operators and the output of results formatted for human consumption. The interface between the computer and the human operator is known as the user interface.

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The first electronic digital computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

  • 1.2.1.7. Television

Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving
images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying
sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming,

or Television came to India by accident in 1959 when the multinational Phillips gifted some television equipment to India. But there was no place for this medium in the ‘Nehruvian State’ that emphasized on running the commanding heights of economy wherein it was considered irrelevant to the government’s development agenda. Thus attempts to develop it as mass medium remained absent till Indira Gandhi came to power. This is when television was transformed into not only a, what Mehta calls, “Trojan horse” into the citizens’ living rooms but also a gigantic propaganda tool for the ruling party, a vast patronage network with little space for creativity and initiative. Later on Rajiv Gandhi did attempt to bring about glasnost but failed. However, the idea became a reality years later with the arrival of satellite television.

television transmission.

  • 1.2.1.8. Telemarketing

Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales, or telesales in the UK and Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web

conferencing appointment scheduled during the call. Telemarketing can also include recorded sales pitches programmed to be played over the phone via automatic dialing.

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Telemarketing has come under fire in recent years, being viewed as an annoyance by many. Many believe that in the 1950s, DialAmerica Marketing, Inc became the first company completely dedicated to inbound and outbound telephone sales and services. The company, spun off and sold by Time, Inc. magazine in 1976, became the largest provider of telephone sales and services to magazine publishing companies. The term telemarketing was first used extensively in the late 1970s to describe Bell System communications which related to new uses for the outbound WATS and inbound Toll-free services.

1.2.1.9.

E-Commerce

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, refers to the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e- mail, mobile devices and telephones as well. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions.

  • 1.2.1.10. Database Marketing

Database marketing is a form of direct marketing using databases of customers or potential customer’s to generate personalized communications in order to promote a product or service for marketing purposes. The method of communication can be any addressable medium, as in direct marketing. The distinction between direct and database marketing stems primarily from the attention paid to the analysis of data. Database marketing emphasizes the use of statistical techniques to develop models of customer behavior, which are then used to select customers for communications. As a consequence, database marketers also tend to be heavy users of data warehouses, because having a greater amount of data about customers increases the likelihood that a more accurate model can be built. There are two main types of marketing databases, 1) Consumer databases, and 2) business databases.

  • 1.2.1.11. Relationship Marketing

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Relationship marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns which emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction, rather than a dominant focus on sales transactions. As a practice, relationship marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages.

  • 1.2.1.12. Guerrilla Marketing

Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy, in which low-cost unconventional means (graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs) are utilized, often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea. The term guerrilla marketing is easily traced to guerrilla warfare which utilizes atypical tactics to achieve a goal in a competitive and unforgiving environment.

The concept of guerrilla marketing was invented as an unconventional system of promotions that relies on time, energy and imagination rather than a big marketing budget. Typically, guerrilla marketing campaigns are unexpected and unconventional, potentially interactive, and consumers are targeted in unexpected places. The objective of guerrilla marketing is to create a unique, engaging and thought-provoking concept to generate buzz, and consequently turn viral. The term was coined and defined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his book Guerrilla Marketing. The term has since entered the popular vocabulary and marketing textbooks.

  • 1.2.1.13. Desktop Publishing

Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of printed materials using page layout software on a personal computer. When used skillfully, desktop publishing can produce printed literature with attractive layouts and typographic quality comparable to traditional typography and printing. This technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter—from menus and local newsletters to books, magazines, and newspapers—without the sometimes prohibitive expense of commercial printing. Desktop publishing methods provide more control over design, layout, and typography than word processing does. However, word processing software has evolved to include some, though by no means all, capabilities previously available only with professional printing or desktop publishing.

22

1.2.1.14.

Integrated Marketing Communications

Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is a process for managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts. Such efforts often include cross-functional processes that create and nourish profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven, purposeful dialog with them. IMC includes the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless program in order to maximize the impact on end users at a minimal cost. This integration affects all firms’ business-to-business, marketing channel, customer-focused, and internally directed communications. Integrated Marketing Communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together.

  • 1.2.1.15. Customer Relationship Management

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments. Measuring and valuing customer relationships is critical to implementing this strategy.

  • 1.2.1.16. Web Search Engines

A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results often referred to as search

engine results pages (SERPs). The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.

  • 1.2.1.17. Photo Bucket

23

Photo bucket is an image hosting, video hosting, slideshow creation and photo sharing website. It was founded in 2003 by Alex Welch and Darren Crystal and received funding from Trinity Ventures. Photo bucket is usually used for personal photographic albums, remote storage of avatars displayed on internet forums, and storage of videos. Photo bucket's image hosting is often used for eBay, MySpace (from 2007–2009, a corporate cousin), Bebo, Neopets, and Facebook accounts, Live Journals, Open Diaries, or other blogs, and message boards. Users may keep their albums private, allow password-protected guest access, or open them to the public. Photo bucket advertises 99.9% uptime. It offers free users unlimited total photo storage for non-commercial use, with a limit of 1MB per photo. However, the unlimited offer does not apply if Photo bucket considers the use "excessive".

  • 1.2.1.18. Social Networking Services

A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and

reflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or activities and people with similar or somewhat similar interests, backgrounds and/or activities make their own communities. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.

The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with Facebook, Google+ and Twitter widely used worldwide.

Another form of Social Network has been introduced by airlines that allow passengers to meet others who share their interests before their flight so that seating may be pre-arranged. There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests (see the FOAF standard and the Open Source Initiative).

24

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
  • 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    • 2.1. Problem Statement

A study on media as a source of influence on consumer decision process in Bilaspur.

  • 2.2. Rationale of the Study

Bilaspur is a growing cosmopolitan city. As the awareness about the varieties of products is

26

growing through the different forms of media I found the necessity to study media as a source of influence on consumer buying decision process. With the help of this study it cut be known how consumers decision of purchasing a particular product or service alters when it came in contact of messages given by other companies through various communication channels. This study would also help companies to formulate their advertising strategies for their product so that once a consumer get convinces about the product, its decision of purchase cannot be altered by other products advertisement.

  • 2.3. Objective Statements

i.

To study the impact of different advertisement media on consumer buying decision.

ii.

To study the relationship between recall of advertisements and buying behaviour.

iii.

To study which source of media the consumers find most credible.

  • 2.4. Sampling Techniques

    • 2.4.1. Sample Unit

The sample universe or population for our study is the general public/customers in

Bilaspur city.

  • 2.4.2. Sample Size

The sample of 100 respondents was chosen from different area of the city specially

who are found outside the stores or shops and have purchased something.

  • 2.4.3. Sampling Plan

For collection of samples from different areas of the city, convenient sampling plan

was used to choose respondents.

  • 2.4.4. Sampling Tool

27

A structured questionnaire was prepared for collection of data from the chosen respondents. This questionnaire contains both closed and open ended questions providing a degree of flexibility for respondents to answer and it covers all the objectives of the study.

  • 2.4.5. Sampling Method

Survey method was used with the help of structured questionnaire to collect the data from respondents from different areas of the city covering almost all the potential area of the city.

  • 2.5. Sources of Data

    • 2.5.1. Primary Data

Primary data was collected by general public from different areas of the city through structured questionnaire by conducting a survey.

  • 2.5.2. Secondary Data

Secondary data was collected from internet, By taking reference and data of past research already done in the same field, various research paper published in journals & magazines etc.

2.6.Hypothesis

  • 2.6.1. Hypothesis 1

H0: Consumers notice advertisements before purchasing the product and also the form of advertisement media

H1: Consumers did not notice advertisements before purchasing the product and also the form of advertisement media

  • 2.6.2. Hypothesis 2

28

H0: Recall of advertisements has a positive relationship with consumer buying behaviour. H1: Recall of advertisements has no positive relationship with consumer buying behavior.

2.7.Limitations of Study

i.

The sample size was limited to 100 respondents.

ii.

The study was limited to the city of Bilaspur.

iii.

As convenient sampling was used the results drawn after analysis of data could

iv.

be biased. Some of the respondents did not admit that their buying decision was

influenced by advertisements.

29

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
CHAPTER 3
REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE
  • 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

30

In our information-saturated society, information have the greatest influence on consumer decision making. The most important thing for communicators to remember is that no single medium can reach all potential customers. A recent survey by Wirthlin Worldwide shows that there is no substitute for a thorough knowledge of your target audience and an understanding of their media habits as they relate to your specific product or service category, so you can provide persuasive information through those sources where they are most likely to be looking for it.

For a long time, one of the Holy Grails of marketing communications has been the search for a formula by which the persuasive value of earned media can be directly compared with that of paid media: Which is more effective, a front page article in the Economic Times or a full page ad in Business World? What is the value of being mentioned on KBC versus a paid endorsement by Sachin Tendulkar? Does a positive mention on 20/20 have more influence than a 60 second commercial on the same broadcast? These kinds of questions are difficult to answer. Research can provide good measures of the impact of communications efforts. A number of approaches have been identified to find out what it is that drives people in attitudes and preferences. But it is not a simple procedure, and the findings are relevant only for a specific product category among a specific audience.

When talking about sources of influence, credibility is always one of the central issues. People are more strongly influenced by sources they consider to be credible, so believability is an important indicator of communications effectiveness.

  • 3.1. Consumer behavior

The actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental

and social processes that precede and follow some course of actions. In other words Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products.

The behavioral sciences help answer questions such as :

Why people choose one product or brand over another,

How they make these choices, and

31

How companies use this knowledge to provide value to consumers.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:

Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firm’s success.

The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy.

Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.

3.1.1. CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS

There are Five Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions).

Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead

to a

purchase. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages, determined by the degree

of complexity

...

discussed

next.

32

The 5 stages are: Problem Recognition (awareness of need)- difference between the desired state and the

The 5 stages are:

Problem Recognition (awareness of need)- difference between the desired state and the actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger--Food. Hunger stimulates your need to eat. Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you were deficient? I.E., see a commercial for a new pair of shoes, stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes.

3.1.1.1.Information search-

Internal search, Memory.

External search if you need more information. Friends and relatives (word of mouth). Marketer dominated sources; comparison shopping; public sources etc.

3.1.1.1.1.

Internal search

Experiences with products or brands.

33

Often sufficient for frequently purchased products.

3.1.1.1.2.

External search

When past experience or knowledge is insufficient

The risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high

The cost of gathering information is low.

The primary sources of external information are:

o

1. Personal sources, such as friends and family.

o 2. Public sources, including various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports. o 3. Marketer-dominated sources, such as advertising, company websites, and salespeople.

 Often sufficient for frequently purchased products. 3.1.1.1.2. External search  When past experience or knowledge

3.1.1.2.Evaluation of Alternatives- need to establish criteria for evaluation, features the buyer wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. May decide that you want to eat something spicy, Indian gets highest rank etc.

34

If not satisfied with your choice then returns to the search phase. Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Information from different sources may be treated differently. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives.

3.1.1.3.Purchase decision- Choose buying alternative, includes product, package, store,

method of purchase etc. Actual purchase of product or services happens at this stage, time lapse between 4 & 5, product availability.

3.1.1.3.1.

Purchase decisions depend on such considerations:

Terms of sale

Past experience buying from the seller

Return policy.

3.1.1.3.2.

Decision of when to buy can be influenced by:

Store atmosphere

Time pressure

A sale

Pleasantness of the shopping experience.

3.1.1.3.3.

Do not buy

3.1.1.4.Post-Purchase Evaluation- After buying a product, the consumer compares it with expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction affects

Consumer value perceptions

Consumer communications

Repeat-purchase behavior.

Many firms work to produce positive post purchase communications among consumers and contribute to relationship building between sellers and buyers.

Cognitive Dissonance. The feelings of post purchase psychological tension or anxiety a consumer often experiences.

35

Firms often use ads or follow-up calls from salespeople in this post purchase stage to try to convince buyers that they made the right decision.

  • 3.1.1.5. Involvement & Problem Solving Behaviour

 Firms often use ads or follow-up calls from salespeople in this post purchase stage to

Consumers may skip or minimize one or more steps in the purchase decision process depending on the level of involvement the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase Three characteristics of high-involvement purchase

  • 1. is expensive,

  • 2. Can have serious personal consequences, or

  • 3. Could reflect on one’s social image.

Three general problem-solving variations exist in the consumer purchase decision process:

Routine Problem Solving

Virtually a habit

Involves little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives.

Typically used for low-priced, frequently purchased products.

Limited Problem Solving

Involves the use of moderate information-seeking efforts.

36

Often used when the buyer has little time or effort to spend.

Extended Problem Solving

Each stage of the consumer purchase decision process is used

Considerable time and effort on

External information search and in identifying

Evaluating alternatives.

Used in high-involvement purchase situations.

Involvement and Marketing Strategy

Low and high consumer involvement has important implications for marketing strategy, which differs for products that are market leaders from their challengers.

  • 3.1.1.6. Situational Influences

There are five situations which influences consumer’s decisions:

The purchase task- The reason for engaging in the decision.

Social surroundings- Including others present when a purchase decision is made.

Physical surroundings- Such as decor, music, and crowding in retail

stores.

Temporal effects- Such as time of day or the amount of time available.

Antecedent states- Which include the consumer’s mood or amount of cash on hand.

37

  • 3.1.2. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Concepts such as motivation and personality; perception; learning; values, beliefs and

attitudes; and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts.

  • 3.1.2.1. Motivation and Personality

 

3.1.2.1.1.

Motivation

Is the energizing force that causes behavior that satisfies a need.

Needs are hierarchical

Once basic physiological needs are met, people seek to satisfy learned needs.

Putting all in the form of hierarchy from lowest to highest:

Physiological needs- Basic to survival.

Safety needs- Self-preservation physical wellbeing.

Social needs- Love, friendship, achievement, status, prestige, self-respect.

Self-actualization needs- Personal fulfillment.

3.1.2.1.2.

Personality

A person's consistent behavior or responses to recurring situations.

Research suggests that key traits affect brand and product-type preferences.

Cross-cultural analysis also suggests that residents of different countries have a

national character, or a distinct set of personality characteristics common among people of a country or society. Personality characteristics are often revealed in a person’s self-concept, which is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

  • 3.1.2.2. Perception

38

The process by which an individual uses information to create a meaningful picture of the world by:

Selecting,

Organizing

Interpreting

Perception is important because people selectively perceive what they want and it affects how people see risks in a purchase.

  • 3.1.2.2.1. Selective Perception

3.1.2.2.1.1.Selective perception- Filtering

Exposure,

Comprehension, and

Retention

In the human brain’s attempt to organize and interpret information.

3.1.2.2.1.2.Selective exposure-

Consumers can pay attention to messages that are consistent with their own

attitudes and beliefs Consumers can ignore messages that are inconsistent.

3.1.2.2.1.3.Selective comprehension-

Involves interpreting (distorting?) information so that it is consistent with a person's attitudes and beliefs.

3.1.2.2.1.4.Selective retention-

Consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear.

3.1.2.2.1.5.Subliminal perception-

Consumers see or hear messages without being aware of them.

39

This is a hotly debated issue with more popular appeal than scientific support.

Research suggests that such messages have limited effects on behavior

  • 3.1.2.2.2. Perceived Risk

Anxieties felt

Consumes cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase

Believe that there may be negative consequences.

Marketers try to reduce a consumer's perceived risk and encourage purchases by strategies such as providing

Free trial of a product

Securing endorsements from influential people

Providing warranties and guarantees.

3.1.2.3.

Learning

Those behaviors that result from

Repeated experience

Thinking.

  • 3.1.2.3.1. Behavioral Learning

The process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated

exposure to it.

There are four variables central to how consumers learn from repeated experience are:

Drive: A need that moves an individual to action.

Cue: A stimulus or symbol perceived by consumers.

Response: The action taken by a consumer to satisfy the drive.

Reinforcement: The reward.

Marketers use two concepts from behavioral learning theory:

3.1.2.3.1.1.Stimulus generalization

40

Occurs when a response elicited

by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to

another. Using the same brand name for different products is an application of this concept

3.1.2.3.1.2.Stimulus discrimination

 

Refers to a person's ability to perceive differences in stimuli.

The advertising for Bud Light beer is an example of this concept.

3.1.2.3.2.

Cognitive learning

Involves making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting one's accordingly.

3.1.2.3.3.

Brand loyalty

Is a favorable attitude and consistent purchase of a single brand over time?

Brand loyalty differs across countries.

  • 3.1.2.4. Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes

    • 3.1.2.4.1. Attitude Formation

3.1.2.4.1.1.Attitude

A learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

Shaped by our values and beliefs, which are learned.

3.1.2.4.1.2.Values

Personally or socially preferable modes of conduct or states of existence that are enduring.

3.1.2.4.1.3.Beliefs

Consumer's subjective perception of how well a product or brand performs on different attributes.

  • 3.1.2.4.2. Attitude Change

41

Approaches to try to change consumer attitudes

Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes.

Changing the perceived importance of attributes.

Adding new attributes to the product.

3.1.2.5.

Lifestyle

Lifestyle is a mode of living that is identified by

 

Activities: How a person spends time and resources

Interests: What a person considers important in the environment

Opinions: what a person thinks of self and the world

3.1.3.

SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER

 

BEHAVIOR

 

Socio-cultural influences evolve from a formal and informal relationship with

 

other people.

 

Influences Include

 

Personal influence

Reference groups

The family

Social class

Culture

Subculture.

3.1.3.1.

Personal Influence

Aspects of personal influence important to marketing

Opinion leaders:

 
 

Individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others.

Word of mouth:

 

People influencing each other during face-to-face conversations.

Power of word of mouth has been magnified by the Internet and e-mail

3.1.3.2.

Reference Groups

42

Reference groups are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessities:

Three groups have clear marketing implications

Membership group: one to which a person actually belongs

Aspiration group: one with which a person wishes to be identified.

Dissociative group: one from which a person wants to maintain a distance because of differences in values or behaviors.

  • 3.1.3.3. Family Influence

Family influences on consumer behavior result from three sources:

Consumer socialization

Passage through the family life cycle

Decision making within the family.

3.1.3.3.1.

Consumer Socialization

Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge,

and attitudes necessary to function as consumers

 

3.1.3.3.2.

Family Life Cycle

The distinct phases that a family progresses

through from formation to

retirement

Each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

Young singles Young married without children Young married with children The older married Older unmarried

3.1.3.3.3.

Family Decision Making

43

Two decision-making styles exist:

Spouse-dominant (either wife or husband is responsible)

Joint decision making (most decisions are made by both husband and

wife).

Increasingly, preteens and teenagers are assuming these roles for the family, given the prevalence of working parents and single-parent households.

Five roles of individual family members in the purchase process exist

Information gatherer

Influencer

Decision maker

Purchaser

User

  • 3.1.3.4. Social Class

The relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior are grouped.

Determinants of social class include:

Occupation,

Source of income (not level of income)

Education.

Social class is a basis for identifying and reaching particularly good prospects for products and services. Upper classes are targeted by companies for items such as financial investments, expensive cars, and evening wear. Middle classes represent a target market for home improvement centers and automobile parts stores.

Lower classes are targeted for products such as sports and scandal

magazines.

  • 3.1.3.5. Culture and Subculture

44

Culture refers to the set of values, ideas and attitudes that are accepted by a

homogeneous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. Subcultures - groups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes.

3.2.

MEDIA

In communications,

tools used to

with

store
store

or

mass media

media

(singular

medium)

are

the

storage

and

transmission

channels or

data for any purpose.

and deliver information

or

data. It is often referred to as synonymous

news media, but may refer to a single

medium

used to communicate any

  • 3.2.1. Forms of Media

Media can be categorized basically in three forms:

Print Media

Electronic Media

Other Media

  • 3.2.1.1. PRINT MEDIA

Print media is one of the oldest and basic forms of mass communication. It includes newspapers, weeklies, magazines, monthlies and other forms of printed journals.

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.

The development of printing was preceded by the use of cylinder seals in Mesopotamia developed in 3500 B.C., and other related stamp seals. The earliest form of printing was woodblock printing, with existing examples from China dating to before 220 A.D. and Egypt to the fourth century. Later developments in printing include the movable type, first developed by Bi-Sheng in China, and the printing press, a more efficient printing process for western languages with their more limited alphabets, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the fifteenth century.

3.2.1.1.1.

Newspaper

45

A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low- grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a day. The worldwide recession of 2008, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers closed or sharply retrenched operations. The newspaper is typically funded by paid subscriptions and advertising.

A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, food and other columns; reviews of radio, movies, television, plays and restaurants; classified ads; display ads, radio and television listings, inserts from local merchants, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons and comic strips.

3.2.1.2.Magazines

Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications that are printed with ink on paper, generally published

Magazines,

Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications that are printed with ink on paper, generally published

periodicals,

glossies

or

serials

are

publications

that are printed with ink on paper,

generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally

financed by

advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine

subscriptions, or all three.

 

Magazines can be distributed through the

mail; through sales by

newsstands,

newsstands,

bookstores

or

other vendors; or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. Sales models for distribution fall into three main categories.

The magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers.

3.2.1.3.Journals

A journal has several related meanings:

A daily record of events or business; a private journal is usually referred to as a diary.

A newspaper or other periodical, in the literal sense of one published each day.

46

Many publications issued at stated intervals, such as magazines, or scholarly journals, academic journals, or the record of the transactions of a society, are often called journals. Although journal is sometimes used as a synonym for "magazine", in academic use, a journal refers to a serious, scholarly publication, most often peer- reviewed. A non-scholarly magazine written for an educated audience about an industry or an area of professional activity is usually called a professional magazine.

3.2.1.4.Yellow Pages

Yellow Pages refers to a telephone directory of

businesses, organized by category, rather than

alphabetically by business name and in which advertising

is sold. As the name suggests, such

directories were originally printed on yellow paper, as opposed to

white pages

to
to

for non-

commercial listings. The traditional term

Yellow

Pages

is

now

also

applied

online

directories

of businesses.

 

3.2.2.

ELECTRONIC MEDIA

 

Electronic media

are

media

that use

electronics

or

electromechanical

energy for the

end-user

(audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly

print media), which

today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end-user
today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the
end-user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general
public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide
presentations, CD-ROM and online content. Most new media are in the form of digital media.
However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format.
Any
equipment
used
in
the electronic communication process
(e.g. television, radio, telephone, desktop computer, game console, handheld device) may also

be considered electronic media.

3.2.2.1.Television

Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving
images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying
sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming,
or television transmission.

47

A film television advertisement or television commercial, often just commercial, advert, ad, or ad- (India) –

A

film

television advertisement

or
or

television commercial, often just

A film television advertisement or television commercial, often just commercial, advert, ad, or ad- (India) –

commercial,

advert,

ad, or

ad-

(India) – is a span of

television programming

produced and paid for by an organization,

which conveys a message, typically to market a product or service. Advertising revenue

provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned

television networks.

The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging

in length from a few seconds to several minutes (as well as program-length

infomercials).

Advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods, services and ideas since the dawn of television.

3.2.2.2.

Radio

Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequencies significantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space.

Commercial radio stations

make most of their revenue selling “airtime” to advertisers. Of total

media expenditures, radio accounts for 6.9%.

Radio advertisements or “spots” are available

when a business or service provides valuable consideration, usually cash, in exchange for the

station airing their spot or mentioning them on air. Before the advent of

television, commercial

radio broadcasts included not only news and music, but dramas, comedies, variety shows, and many other forms of entertainment & advertisement of various products and services.

3.2.2.3.Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet
3.2.2.3.Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the
standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all protocols use TCP) to
serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of

private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The

Internet carries an extensive range of

linked

Internet carries an extensive range of linked hypertext support email. documents of the information Wide World

hypertext

Internet carries an extensive range of linked hypertext support email. documents of the information Wide World

support

email.

documents

of

the

Internet carries an extensive range of linked hypertext support email. documents of the information Wide World

information

Wide

World

resources and services, such as the inter-

Web

(WWW)

and

the

infrastructure

to

48

Online advertising

is

a

form of

promotion

that uses

the

Internet

and

World Wide Web

to

deliver

marketing

messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include

contextual ads on

network advertising,

search engine results pages,

search engine results pages, interstitial ads, banner ads, blogs, Rich Media Ads, online classified advertising, advertising

interstitial ads,

search engine results pages, interstitial ads, banner ads, blogs, Rich Media Ads, online classified advertising, advertising

banner ads,

blogs,
blogs,

Rich Media

Ads,

online classified advertising,

advertising networks

Social

and

e-

mail marketing, including

e-mail spam. Many of these types of ads are delivered by an

Ad

server.

 
  • 3.2.3. OTHER MEDIA

Apart from these mass media tools, certain other tools are also used frequently by marketers

these days. These mediums consist of Billboards, Posters, Fliers, Transit or Vehicular media etc.

3.2.3.1.

Posters

A

poster

is any piece of printed

Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web to
and
and

designed to be attached to a

graphic

or vertical surface.

paper

textual

wall

Typically posters include both

elements, although a poster may be either

wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative.

Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of

advertisers (particularly of

events, musicians and films),

Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web to

propagandists,

protestors

and other groups trying to

communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of famous works, and are generally low-cost compared to original artwork.

artwork, particularly

3.2.3.2.Billboards

A large

A

large

billboard

(also called a "hoarding" in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a

structure (abilling board), typically found in high traffic areas such

outdoor advertising

as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large

drivers. Typically showing large, ostensibly witty

advertisements

to passing pedestrians and

slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards

are highly visible in the top

designated market areas. Bulletins are the largest, most impactful

standard-size billboards. Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal

arterials, they command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic).

49

Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative "customizing" through extensions and embellishments.

  • 3.2.3.3. Transit Media

Transit media is a form of out-of-home advertising that displays advertisements in or outside of vehicles. A typical installation will display advertisements on the side of, on, or above the seats of a bus or passenger train car.

Typically, transit media campaigns are employed in denser urban environments to advertise to both pedestrian and on-road traffic. The medium has traditionally been limited to featured advertisements on buses and trams, but in recent years has extended to various sub-categories, such as dedicated car, van or truck advertising.

Recently LED display based advertising panels have been introduced. This allows the site owner to rotate ads and also schedule ads by GPS Location, allowing advertisers to target specific audiences.

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4
 

DATA ANALYSIS

 

AND

 

INTERPRETATION

 

50

  • 4. DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

    • 4.1. Respondent Profile

      • 4.1.1. Age Profile

Age

<20

20-35

36-50

>50

TOTAL

No. of

         

respondents

14

57

18

11

100

Percentage

14%

57%

18%

11%

100%

51

Interpretation: 14% of the respondents belong to <20 age group,57% of the respondents belong to the

Interpretation:

14% of the respondents belong to <20 age group,57% of the respondents belong to the 20-35

age group,18% belong to the 36-50 age group and 11% belong to >50 age group.

4.1.2.

Income Profile

 
 

Income

<20000

20000-40000

40001-60000

>60000

Total

 

No. of

         

respondents

40

37

12

11

100

Percentage

40%

37%

12%

11%

100%

52

Interpretation: 40% of the respondents belonged to the <20000 income level (Monthly family income in Rs.),37%

Interpretation:

40% of the respondents belonged to the <20000 income level (Monthly family income in

Rs.),37% of them belong to the 20000-40000 income level,12% belong to the 40001-60000 income level and 12% to the >60000 income level.

  • 4.1.3. Occupation Profile

Occupation

Own Business

Service

Student

Technical

Unemployed

Others

Total

No.of

             

respondents

13

21

39

12

2

13

100

Percentage

13%

21%

39%

12%

2%

13%

100%

 

53

Interpretation: 39% of the respondents belonged to the student community,21% to the service industry, 13% have

Interpretation:

39% of the respondents belonged to the student community,21% to the service industry, 13%

have their own business,12% to technical industry,2% are unemployed and 13% belong to other categories.

  • 4.2. Analysis of Questionnaire

    • 4.2.1. Frequency of shopping

 

Once a

Once a

Daily

Whenever the

Total

week

month

need arises

54

No. of 27 15 9 49 100 respondents Percentage 27% 15% 9% 49% 100%
No. of
27
15 9
49
100
respondents
Percentage
27%
15%
9%
49%
100%

Interpretation:

49% of the respondents shop whenever the need arises,27 shop once a week,15 shop once a month and 9 daily.

  • 4.2.2. Number of respondents who notice ads before purchase

 

Ye s

N o

D o n ’ t r e m e m b e r

T o t a l

N o .

o f

4 5

4 9

6

1 0 0

respondents

Pe r c e n t a g e

4 5 %

4 9 %

6 %

1 0 0 %

55

Interpretation: 49% of the respondents did not notice any ads of the product they last purchased.

Interpretation:

49% of the respondents did not notice any ads of the product they last purchased.

  • 4.2.3. Distribution of respondents who noticed ads in each form of media

Form of

Newspapers

Magazines

Tv

Hoardings/

Radio

Table

media

billboards

No. of

22

14

22

7

4

100

Respondents

Percentage

22%

14%

22%

7%

4%

100%

56

Interpretation: Out of the 45 respondents who noticed ads 22 noticed ads in Newspapers and 22

Interpretation:

Out of the 45 respondents who noticed ads 22 noticed ads in Newspapers and 22 in TV.

  • 4.2.4. Perception of advertisements

 

Influencing

Providing

Increasing

Introducing

Total

the

information

the sales

new

customers

products

No. of

         

respondents

44

27

23

6

100

57

Percentage 44% 27% 23% 6% 100%
Percentage
44%
27%
23%
6%
100%

Interpretation:

44% of the respondents think that advertisements are for influencing the customers.

  • 4.2.5. Source of information before purchase

Form of

Newspapers

Magazines

Internet

Tv

Radio

None

Total

media

of the

   

above

No.of

           

100

respondents

36

7

9

25

4

19

58

Percentage 36% 7% 9% 25% 4% 19% 100%
Percentage
36%
7%
9%
25%
4%
19%
100%

Interpretation:

36% of the people look for information in newspapers, 25% through the TV, 9%through internet, 7% magazines, 4% radio and 19% through other forms.

  • 4.2.6. Consumer’s perception on the influence of ads on brand selection.

 

Strongly

Moderately

Neither

Moderately

Strongly

Total

agree

agree

agree nor

disagree

disagree

disagree

59

No. of 100 respondents 9 48 22 12 9 Percentage 9% 48% 22% 12% 9% 100
No. of
100
respondents
9
48 22
12
9
Percentage
9%
48%
22%
12%
9%
100
Interpretation
48% of the respondents moderately agree that advertisements help in deciding about the
brand.
4.2.7.
Form of media which helps consumers most in shopping
Newspapers/magazines
Tv
Radio
Internet
Any
Total
other
No. of
100
Respondents
44
33 2
9 14

60

Percentage 44% 33% 2% 9% 14% 100%
Percentage
44%
33%
2%
9%
14%
100%

Interpretation:

44% of the respondents think that newspapers help them most in shopping.

  • 4.2.8. Ranking of various media in terms of credibility

 

Newspapers

Magazines

Tv

Radio

Internet

Mean

2.19

2.67

2.3

3.99

3.87

Rank

Rank

1

3

2

5

4

61

Interpretation: Respondents find newspapers most credible. 4.2.9. Duration of TV viewing. < 1 hour 1 to

Interpretation:

Respondents find newspapers most credible.

  • 4.2.9. Duration of TV viewing.

 

< 1 hour

1 to 3 hours

> 3 hours

Dont watch

Total

TV

62

No. of

 

33

13

15

100

Respondents

39

Percentage

39%

33%

13%

15%

100%

No. of 33 13 15 100 Respondents 39 Percentage 39% 33% 13% 15% 100% Interpretation: 39%

Interpretation:

39% of the respondents watch television for less than an hour.

4.2.10. Behavior of respondents during the time of ads

63

 

Switch

Watch

Depends

Any

Total

channels

them

on the ads

other

No. of

       

100

Respondents

30

14

53

3

Percentage

30%

14%

53%

3%

100%

Switch Watch Depends Any Total channels them on the ads other No. of 100 Respondents 30

Interpretation:

53% of the respondents said that their behavior during the advertisement depends on the advertisement being telecasted.

4.2.11. Type of channels viewed most often by respondents

64

 

Sports

News

Movie

Music

Documentary

Devotional

Total

No. of

           

100

Respondents

20

19

27

21

11

2

Percentage

20%

19%

27%

21%

11%

2%

100%

Sports News Movie Music Documentary Devotional Total No. of 100 Respondents 20 19 27 21 11

Interpretation

27% of the respondents watch movie channels most often.

4.2.12. Time of TV viewing among respondents

65

 

Morning

Evening

Before

Whenever

Total

going to

they feel like

sleep

No. of

       

100

Respondents

4

36

31

29

Percentage

4%

36%

31%

29%

100%

Morning Evening Before Whenever Total going to they feel like sleep No. of 100 Respondents 4

Interpretation

36% of the people watch TV in evening.

4.2.13. Perception of respondents on the most frequently advertised product.

66

 

Colas

Toiletries

Mobile

Electronic

Automobiles

Any

Total

services

goods

other

No. of

           

100

Respondents

29

27

14

12

13

5

Percentage

29%

27%

14%

12%

13%

5%

100%

Colas Toiletries Mobile Electronic Automobiles Any Total services goods other No. of 100 Respondents 29 27

Interpretation

29% of the respondents feel that colas are advertised for most frequently.

4.2.14. Number of news papers read by respondents.

67

 

One

Two

More than

None

Total

two

No. of

       

100

Respondents

50

26

11

13

Percentage

50%

26%

11%

13%

100%

One Two More than None Total two No. of 100 Respondents 50 26 11 13 Percentage

Interpretation

50% of the respondents read one newspaper.

4.2.15. Distribution of ad recall from news papers

68

 

Yes

No

NA

Total

No. of Respondents

51

45

4

100

Percentage

51%

45%

4%

100%

Yes No NA Total No. of Respondents 51 45 4 100 Percentage 51% 45% 4% 100%

Interpretation

51% of the people recall the advertisement they saw in the newspaper.

4.2.16. Number of respondents who read classifieds

69

 

Yes

No

Only when they are planning to buy

Total

No. of

     

100

Respondents

10

47

43

Percentage

10%

47%

43%

100%

Yes No Only when they are planning to buy Total No. of 100 Respondents 10 47

Interpretation

47% of the respondents do not read classifieds.

70

4.2.17. Number of respondents who receive direct mail ads

 

Yes

No

Total

No. of

46

54

100

Respondents

Percentage

46%

54%

100%

4.2.17. Number of respondents who receive direct mail ads Yes No Total No. of 46 54

Interpretation

54% of the respondents did not receive direct mail.

71

4.2.18. What respondents do with direct mail ads

 

Read them

Read only

Throw them

Not

Total

first few

with out even

Applicable

lines

opening

No. of

13

22

20

45

100

Respondents

Percentage

13%

22%

20%

45%

100%

4.2.18. W hat respondents do with direct mail ads Read them Read only Throw them Not

Interpretation

Out of the 46% of respondents who receive direct mail 22 %only read the first two lines while 20% of them throw it even without opening.

72

4.2.19. Perception of respondents about direct mail ads

 

A

A reliable

A helpful

A reliable

NA

Total

disturbance

source of

source of

and

information

information

helpful

source

No. of

54

6

27

10

3

100

Respondents

Percentage

54%

6%

27%

10%

3%

100%

4.2.19. P erception of respondents about direct mail ads A A reliable A helpful A reliable

Interpretation

54% of the respondents perceive direct mail as a disturbance.

73

4.2.20. What catches the attention of respondents in print media.

 

Color

Punch

Product

Pictures

Others

Total

pattern

line

logo

No. of

         

100

Respondents

21

31

7

37

4

Percentage

21%

31%

7%

37%

4%

100%

4.2.20. W hat catches the attention of respondents in print media. Color Punch Product Pictures Others

Interpretation

37% of the respondents feel that the pictures catches their attention in print advertisement.

74

4.2.21. Part of magazine catches the eye of respondents most.

 

Front inner

Back inner

Back outer

Inside

Total

pages

No. of

       

100

Respondents

30

13

30

27

Percentage

30%

13%

30%

27%

100%

4.2.21. Part of magazine catches the eye of respondents most. Front inner Back inner Back outer

Interpretation

30% of the respondents feel that the front and back outer cover advertisements catch their eye while reading a magazine.

75

4.2.22. Perception of respondents about internet ads.

 

A

Innovative

Helpful

Reliable

A reliable

Total

disturbance

form

source of

source of

and helpful

of

information

information

source of

No. of