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FACT At the start




1. In order for his body to 1. What is responsible for raising Jimmys heart rate was 85 beats per minute and he was breathing 18 breathes per minute. He felt nervous excitement. 2. Since the temperature of 2. Why His mouth dry and took one last sip of water Jimmys body increase, the sweat gland become more active to release sweat. 3. What changes do you think are occurring in the digestive and urinary systems at this time? division is of the the sympathetic autonomic gain enough oxygen and energy, Jimmy Jimmys heart and respiratory rate and stimulating sweating just before the race?

stretching and warm up,

nervous system active just before the race?

3. Jimmy try to adapt to the new environment from relax to stress and thats why at this

moment the autonomic nervous system become active 4. What is happening to Jimmy's blood glucose levels just before the race? 4. The urinary system is not active because the bladder is closed. The digestive system also not active because the peristalsis decrease 5. Why is Jimmy's mouth dry?

5. His blood glucose level starts to drop.

6. The



have started to reduce its excretion of saliva. One minute in 1. The body need more 1. Rowing full speed is putting Jimmy heart rate was 201 beats per minute. He was taking 2 energy to perform. new demands on Jimmy's

Sugar in the form of lactose is secreted by muscle, and once lactose is secreted, blood sugar in blood will lower

body. What are these new demands and how does the body respond to them?

breathes per stroke, fast and forced. The stroke rate was 34 strokes per minute and his Body

2. What




muscles promote unloading of O2 from hemoglobin for use by the muscle cells?

temperature was 37.5C. 2. When oxygen reduces, he was sweating more and jimmy feel burning on muscles the carbon dioxide will increase. Jimmy need

more oxygen for aerobic 3. Why do Jimmy's muscles feel respiration. He breath more rapidly than. 4. What 3. Jimmys muscles are conflict is produced like they are burning?

between Jimmy's need to keep his body cool and his need to remove nitrogenous wastes

experiencing information

sensory from his

nervous and the muscle cell is accumulated with lactic acid.

from his blood? What did he do before the race to help alleviate this conflict?

At the halfway mark 1. Jimmy had decreased the 1. Since the end of the first He still rowing at 34 strokes per minute, now jimmy heart rate was 180 beats per minute and his body demands his muscles minute, Jimmy has decreased the demands his muscles are making. How has he done this? And why has he done this?

were making by the end of the first minute, and this can be explained by the fact that the "fight

temperature was 38C. His respiratory rate

and flight" message from 2. What are the changes in his the brain had slowed down with less conditions as a result?

down slightly.

production of adrenaline, hence demand muscles. 2. Jimmys nervous system changes would include "fight and flight" less from energy the

response which is usually activated in a stressful situation. 3. His heart and lungs have to work over harder so it get with the respiratory and cardiovascular

system with the physical strain that he is enduring,. His brain sends signals to the lungs to breaath faster and deeper and the heart

to beat faster. Increase amounts of blood gets pumped to the muscles, carrying oxygen and

removing carbon dioxide. 4. in order to withstand the demand of Jimmy

pushing his body to the very limits of its capabilities, all bodys systems work together Homeostasis is

maintained by negative feedback which response to reduce Jimmy's body back to its original state. At the finish 1. Jimmy reduces his heavy 1. Jimmy has stopped rowing and His heart rate was 208 beats per minute. He Breathe nearly 80 times per minute. He felt like his arms and legs were on fire and sweats was pouring out of every pore of his body. He felt light-headed

breathing since his body needs to cool down again to pre exercise levels, and like heart rate, its a lag

his muscles are now at rest. Why are his heart and

breathing rates still so high?

time involved, so after he 2. What changes have occurred to stops, his breathing rate gradually or quickly falls but still stays high, (but depending on his his blood chemistry since the start of the race? Think about glucose levels, pH, lactate levels, and temperature.



body temperature was 40 C.

recovery ability which is dependent on his fitness) 3. Why is he sweating more now

than during the race? 2. The pumping of blood to bring oxygen to muscle and pumping of hot blood from muscle to the skin are overcome by

breathing rapidly where the heat can be dissipated more quickly. When he finishes the race the heart beat slow down and

pumps less blood to the skin. The heat

accumulated in muscle causing temperature to blood rise

higher. So, it can sweat more right after finish the race then during the race.

3. Changes occur in glucose when the glucose level in blood increase. It is

because the body need energy to race so the body used the glucose during performed. For the changes in pH, when increases activity, the it muscle leads to

increase the CO2 and

Hydrogen level in blood. These chemical are

produces cell metabolism and they lower blood pH or increase the acidity. Then during perform,

blood level of lactate rises because when

exercise stop the lactate falls much more slowly than during the build up. For the temperature, muscle will


produce heat so the body temperature rise the race started. Back at the dock 1. The changes occur in the 1. What change have occurred in His heart rate back and to last ten minutes that allow his heart and the last 10 minutes to allow Jimmys haeart and respiratory rates to come down.


normal and his body temperature 37.5C. he felt thirsty and take small sips of water and his weighed 76kg.

respiratory rates to come down caused by the positive feedback loop. This loop causes

everything to return to 2. Why is Jimmy four pounds normal causing his heart and respiratory rates to return to normal. 3. What effect has this water loss had on his endocrine system? lighter than at the start of the race?

2. Jimmys mass reduced because of the 4. Why did Jimmy only take sips of water after the race? What could happen if he drank as much as he wanted to?

dehydration by excessive loss of in his body fluids so his mass getting

lighter at the end of the race.

3. Anti-diuretic (ADH) endocrine

hormone his is

from system

increasing to overcome water loss. Its produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary. It will signal the kidneys tubules to absorb more water.

4. Jimmy was dehydrated after the race and he lost a lot of fluid. So if he directly drinks the water, his muscle will contract and give him muscle cramping. The small sips also allowed his body to adjust to his state of dehydration.