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THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK
DALLAS
BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., LIMITED BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF TORONTO

CANADA, LTB

THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY ARTHUR SCHULTZE Nefo gotk THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1928 All rights restrvtd .

Published July. August. 1928.TEE UNITED WAXES OF AMERICA COPYRIGHT. 1916. . May. 1923. 8. 1922. up and electrotyped. 1918. 1912. U. October. April. May. NortoooD $ttf Berwick ft Smith Co. Norwood. 1924. 1926. Man. BY Set THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.A. Gushing Co. September. Reprinted May.. 1914. 1927. 1912. J. June. June.S. February. 1920.

coupled with ill health. Students still learn demonstrations instead of learning how to demonstrate. This book was planned on similar lines. This is partly due to . but often meaningless. that all important and fundamental topics have been treated in such detail as to be of real assistance to the inexperienced teacher. to whom the generalities of abstract pedagogy are not only useless. and not from the informaBut in spite of these theoretical tion that it imparts. but the pressure of professional duties. consisted largely of a concrete discussion of the prob- lems that arise in actual teaching. The author hopes. a great deal of mathematical teaching is still informational. views. however. made it impossible to carry out this concrete treatment of the subject through the entire extent of secondary school work.PREFACE of lectures at SINCE 1906 the author has delivered a yearly course New York University on the Teaching of These lectures Mathematics in Secondary Schools. less informational and Most teachers admit its that mathe- matical instruction derives importance from the men- tal training that it affords. The more chief object of this book is to contribute towards making mathematical teaching disciplinary.

But it is not modern in the sense that it advocates certain recent fashions which aim tions of doubtful value.VI PREFACE external conditions over which the teacher has no control. to the description of movements in other countries. to replace the true study of the author does not believe that the true value of mathematical study lies in its practical utility. mathematics by applicaWhile admitting that a certain amount of applied work is very useful and interesting. This book covers a it much more re- stricted field. etc. This book to is modern in the sense that make mathematical and tries to show how instruction less it attempts informational to train students in attacking mathematical problems instead of merely making them learn mathematical facts. but partly also to the fact that a number of teach- opportunity to become acquainted with the details of modern methods of teaching matheers have had little and hence largely employ the methods by which they themselves were taught. but does in greater detail All refer- ences to elementary school work.. to mathematical clubs. the one by David Eugene Smith. There can be no doubt that the two excellent American books on the teaching matics. A. to history. and the discussion of general methods is restricted to their fundamental and most useful phases. W. the are of great assistance to other by J. are excluded. Young teacher. to the material equipment. and hence cannot admit that the mensuration of parquet . but these books cannot answer many conevery crete questions on account of the wide range of subjects of mathematics that they treat of.

to the division of the circle (Chapter XVI). and to a These chapters may be omitted few other subjects. 1912. should be familiar to every teacher. But to write for the latter only would mean to make this book useless for the prospective teacher to whom the study of mathematical pedagogy is most important. this volume contains certain topics in pure mathematics which. Schlauch for the careful reading of the proofs and for many valuable suggestions. author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness Joseph Kahn and Mr. June. Like any other pedagogic book. but also to the foundations of mathematics (Chapter V). when a rapid survey of the purely pedagogic matters this is desired. W. S.PREFACE floors or the construction of Vll window designs forms the true end of mathematical study. In addition to the purely pedagogical discussions. on account of their bearing upon teaching. The to Dr. . volume must necessarily contain a great deal that is obvious and commonplace to the experienced teacher. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. These topics relate principally to the modes of attack (Chapter XV).

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Shortcomings of our schools Causes of the inefficiency of our schools The overrating of spectacular results Examinations Congested courses of study Two ways of studying Schools encourage memorizing Star students Effects of the general conditions ... . .. . .. upon Value to the individual . ....15 15 Importance Influence in science life ..... . . 9 lo 12 .18 . . ... . .. . ..15 17 .18 19 ix .17 .. .. . upon mathematical teach13 ing CHAPTER II THE VALUE AND THE AIMS OF MATHEMATICAL TEACHING The practical value of mathematics Classification of advantages .. 15-29 . I I 4 6 6 7 7 ... .... . ....CONTENTS > CHAPTER I PAGES CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY OF MATHEMATICAL TEACHING Small efficiency of secondary schools Present conditions Remedies proposed 1-14 I .. . ..... The disciplinary value of mathematics General remarks Simplicity . .. . ...... . .

. . 28 29 CHAPTER Classification of METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS methods 30-49 30 The and the analytic methods Description of methods synthetic .. 30 30 31 Examples The inductive aad the deductive methods 37 37 Description Facts discovered by induction Deductive and inductive sequence . .... 20 20 21 21 Bulk of work Denial of all reasoning mental discipline . in 23 Minor functions of mathematical study Concentration Constructive imagination 24 26 26 27 27 Mental self-reliance Development of character Ability to use the mother-tongue . ... . III .... * ..43 and the heuristic The lecture methods . 43 43 The The lecture method method heuristic 44 .X CONTENTS PACKS Accuracy Certainty of results Originality Similarity to the reasoning of daily life . . 27 28 28 General culture Summary Fundamental principle . 37 Value of the two methods 39 40 41 41 The dogmatic and the psychological methods The dogmatic method The psychologic method Rigor 42 . . .... .

50-65 50 . .. .. 54 56 57 58 The fundamental laws The laws The realistic view The formal view Conclusion of algebra 59 59 61 .... Weak features 48 Summary 49 CHAPTER IV THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS The axioms of geometry The bases of geometry Philosophic aspects .. . .. 62 63 63 Comparison of the two views Pedagogic conclusions . 64 CHAPTER V DEFINITIONS Logical aspects of definitions 66-7 66 a definition? errors What is 66 67 68 Common Line Difficulties 69 .. .. 47 47 Good features 48 .CONTENTS PACKS The laboratory method Description . 50 51 Non-Euclidean geometry and the axioms Euclid's postulate 52 52 Lobatschewsky's geometry Riemann's geometry 53 Modern views of geometric axioms Summary of consequences Other geometries .

..CONTENTS PAGES Angle Plane Surface 70 71 71 Pedagogic aspect of definitions Pedagogic value 72 A The an explanation Familiarity with technical terms definition not ......76 77 77 Angle Familiarizing the student with terms Numerical exercises 77 82 Drawing exercises Laboratory exercises Further illustrations of teaching definitions 83 85 85 Angles formed by parallels Projections . Theorems Exercises 94 95 ...... 86 THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY Peculiarities of these propositions 88-97 88 88 The Effect preliminary propositions Usual mode of presentation .. .... 89 92 upon the student start Wrong Effect 92 93 93 Loss of interest upon mode of study Importance of proper initiation . 72 73 74 75 75 teaching of the introductory definition General remarks Surfaces and lines ... 94 Rational methods of presentation 94 . CHAPTER VI ... ...

. Conventional methods of stating proofs . . 113 . Symbols of uncertain significance Statement of the hypothesis Statement a proof . .114 114 ^115 exercises . ..129 129 Symbols or words ? .. .. . Importance of the exercise Original thinking Exercises form best introduction Interest 100 101 Grading Conclusion . . 98-112 98 .. 130 132 133 .. . THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY Book proposition or original exercise ? . .. The Originals study of superposition .CONTENTS CHAPTER General remarks VII PAGES . General remarks Method I Method of constructing List of exercises . . Can superposition be avoided ?. 113 -113 . Iio CHAPTER EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES The first VIII "3-139 . 115 117 Method II 127 Importance of these exercises ..104 104 105 Mode of procedure Construction of exercises Graphic methods for presenting facts .98 99 99 . 101 103 The teaching of original exercises Prerequisite on part of the teacher 104 .129 . two propositions .

. . .. . 151 CHAPTER X MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS OF THE FIRST BOOK OF GEOMETRY Isosceles triangle . . . 147 .. . . . .. * 152-172 152 Hypothetical constructions . . . Converses of theorems on parallels 143 .. 140-151 . .. CHAPTER IX 133 135 135 Method III Method IV 138 PARALLEL LINES Propositions .. Unequal lines and angles . 147 148 Exercises Sum of the angles of a triangle .. * . 159 . . .152 . . 156 .156 . Pedagogic value of laws .140 140 Definition of parallel lines Demonstration of the fundamental theorem Exercises . . ... .158 .. Straight-edge and compasses Pedagogic remarks .XIV CONTENTS PACKS The last three propositions 133 ..140 142 143 143 Method Converses V General laws . . 153 155 Method VI Simple constructions . 156 . . . . Hypothetical construction Applications . Remarks Exercises .. .

.178 CHAPTER THE CIRCLE Regular propositions Circle or circumference? First propositions . XII 180-187 180 180 . . 195 .189 . 159 162 . METHODS OF ATTACKING THEOREMS . Difficult originals 163 Polygons Positive 167 and negative quantities . . . .181 .189 lof .167 170 171 < Remarks on two theorems Exercises 5 CHAPTER Typical methods Method VII XI . case * * . . . 174 . .CONTENTS XV VAGES Proofs Applications . Analysis of some theorems Generalizations . .182 ?H84 186 Exercises CHAPTER LIMITS Dogmatic treatment Rational treatment XIII 188-196 188 The incommensurable Length of a curve General suggestions . . . 173-179 173 173 Method VIII Attacking a theorem as a problem .

. . .. .. 206 207 208 Use of formulae .. . 217-256 217 217 . .198 200 Simple exercises Construction of exercises Difficult exercises .... . . .. .. .. . > . . . ... . Ratio and proportion Remarks on certain theorems . 197-216 . . 228 229 229 233 Geometric analysis of difficult problems ....Xvi CONTENTS CHAPTER XIV PAGES THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY Theorems relating to proportions .. 209 211 Unnecessary Projections corollaries 212 .. .. .. Pedagogic aspect General remarks Putting given parts together . .. 206 The Pythagorean theorem Analyses Use of disected lines .... . ... . 200 202 Metrical relations 204 206 Propositions . .. . . ..... 197 Exercises .. 197 * .214 CHAPTER XV METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS Loci Scientific aspect . . * . 226 228 .213 . A concrete illustration Discussion of details . ..221 225 225 Fundamental constructions of triangles Geometric analysis of simple problems General description . . Angle and projection Construction of exercises .. .. .. .. .

. . ... CHAPTER XVI REGULAR 245 247 251 254 IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS POLYGONS 257-265 257 Impossible constructions General principles Three famous problems Regular polygons .. 266-278 266 .. . 266 267 268 Models Function of models . .. .. ... geometry .... SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY Peculiarities of solid Difficulties .. .... .. . ? 268 Kind of model needed Drawings Photos or drawings 269 269 269 ..CONTENTS XV11 PAGES Determining the known parts 233 The drawing Translation of additional lines 239 239 Rotation about a point Rotation about a line Special devices ...241 243 245 Method of similarity Multiplication of curves Multiplication and rotation Algebraic analysis . XVII .. 257 Approximate constructions of v Division of a circumference 258 260 261 261 Concrete examples Constructive angles 263 265 CHAPTER Purpose and difficulties .. ....

Reasons against the extreme view Sources of applied problems . .. ... 282 .... .... 388-301 288 288 289 291 General remarks Reduction of formal work Reduction of theory Short cuts Cultivation of the reasoning power Applicable topics General maxims ............ Moderate views 279 280 281 The extreme view Conclusion ... ........ .. 272 275 CHAPTER APPLIED PROBLEMS Practical XVIII 379-287 ... .. .... ...... ? ... 291 292 295 296 299 299 500 CHAPTER XX TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA Introductory subjects The first lessons ........ .xviii CONTENTS PACKS Perspective or projection ? 270 272 Oblique projection Use of cross-section paper rules for Minor drawing . and scientific applications * .. 302 ....... 302-352 302 . 284 284 CHAPTER XIX THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA Introductory remarks When What Algebra and geometry compared should algebra be studied algebra should be studied? ...

.. 314 315 cases should be studied ..CONTENTS XD PAGES Negative numbers Numerical substitution Addition and subtraction Addition Subtraction 302 .......... ...... . . graphs 324 324 326 328 Applied problems 330 332 332 333 Graphs Reasons for teaching Introductory examples Graphs of functions Graphic solution of problems Purely graphic methods Irrational and complex numbers What are irrational numbers Imaginary numbers The teaching of imaginaries . . .. .. ..... 350 . ... 308 Signs of aggregation Multiplication 309 309 309 312 Rule of signs Law of no exception Factoring 314 to study factoring .... ? 334 335 338 344 344 346 348 349 349 Logarithms Theory Logarithmic calculations . . .316 318 4 c Difficult cases 320 Equations and problems Identities and equations Equivalent equations Quadratic equations .. .... 304 307 307 . Factoring Superfluous cases ax -f bx 11 ... ...... When What .. ....... .. * .

.361 ..... .. .. .XX CONTENTS CHAPTER XXI ?AGKS THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY General remarks Peculiarities of the subject Courses in trigonometry Definitions .. .... 353-367 353 353 354 356 Typical parts of trigonometry 356 357 Right triangle Expressing one function in terms of another Identities ... 362 363 365 Functions of angles greater than 90 Inverse trigonometric functions . .

THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS .

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All who have Students fail to had an opportunity to test the true mathematical train- ing of the average student a short time after his graduation agree that this training is exceedingly slight. the spirit of the subject. spite our teachers. these results_are in general unsatisfactory. seems ing to be almost general. in gogic progress. for improving the teaching of mathematics. and only when it comes to a dis- .THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS SECONDARY SCHOOLS CHAPTER I IN CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY OF MATHEMATICAL TEACHING LOW EFFICIENCY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS The present condition of The widespread reform movement mathematical teaching. The conviction that the teachRemedies proposed. and are grasp otten utterly unable to apply their knowledge to advanced work or to practical problems. and the increasing interest of teachers in the pedagogy of this subject. Although the apparent results as measured by examinations are often excellent. seem to be largely due to a general dissatisfaction with the results of mathematical instruction. of mathematics is greatly injrieed[ of reform. of For. in^pite of our pedathe strenuous efforts of they are usually not lasting.

along with the pure . then every graduate would understand mathematics." But aside from these laymen or hobby-riding enthusiasts. such as economics or psychology. nearly all teachers of mathematics try to find remedies for the present unsatisfactory conditions. and the cure tion recommended by most of them is the introduc- and study of the applications." from life to interest the student." is an opinion occa- sionally expressed cipals. " their It is all the fault of the teachers who do not carry out the excellent plans of their superiors. does a great diversity of opinion appear." etc. who possibly never had a full understanding of the nature of the subject.2 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS evil. Such are the arguments proposed by men who dislike mathematics. cussion of the causes of the and the remedies that should be applied. and the slipshod method of assuming things that can be proved were discontinued. " Mathematics has outlived its usefulness as a subject of secondary school instruction. fortunately decreasing " If the " 1 fundamental notions of limits and incommen- surable numbers were taught in ^scientific manner. and who consequently wish to replace it by some of pet subjects. hence mathematical teaching has no value." "There "lJLs_too remote is no such thing as mental discipline. and we would no longer hear that Vtf 2 -f &* equals a -f 6. by school superintendents and prin- School mathematics must be made more rigorous/ argues a group of teachers. and who do not make students work enough.

make the pure mathematics grow out of its applications. means a great advance in matheIt seems doubtful. but with a constitutional. but appears in nearly all other subjects. at work in the teaching of In other words. physics. that efficiency of to the selection of the mathematical teaching cannot be due mainly mathematical subject matter it . disease. and tHat only an analysis of the general causes that are responsible for the failure of our schools to *For further discussion of the movement. matical pedagogy. and that a great deal of the time-honored mathematical subject matter has but small value. must be due to the same general causes that are any subject. whether one principle. 3 teach applications and pure mathematics side by side.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY science. nate. The average student within a short time forgets so much of his history. they tell us. not confined to mathematics.* this conditions any change in the subject matter taught could produce a considerable betterment for the inefficiency . Hence the in- economics. and elimi- Apply mathematics. . those parts_of_a]gebra and geometry that have no immediate practical J^e&li&S* Undoubtedly the general recognition of the fact that the concrete must precede the abstract. as far as possible. even if it could be carried out completely. or of teaching is it is no exaggeration to say that his permanent knowledge falls far short of the amount studied and the grades attained in examinations. however. would be sufficient to improve matters thorIt is even doubtful whether under the present oughly. see Chapter XVIII. it seems to the author that we have to deal here not with a local.

nobody who has come in personal contact with the students and graduates of our schools can deny that these complaints are well founded. press there is an undercurrent of dissatisfaction with the results . in spite of their former high examination marks. . Business men now than ever to and who know the in fundamentals of arithmetic. In spite of the undeniably great progress in educational practice during the past decades. Most^ students forget. College teachers are equally dissatisfied with the average results In most comments by the of high school training. not only the min^r and unessential facts. to ridicule While many educators try such statements and to brand them as gross exaggerations. complain that secure boys it seems to be harder who can spell correctly. complain that Teachers high schools many pupils entering these institutions know very little about grammar school subjects. the most necessary ones. a large and increasing number of facts seem to indicate that the results obtained in our schools Shortcomings of our schools. but the most fundamental. so completely that the returns for time and labor snent seem to be whollv inadeauate.4 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS any light attain their highest efficiency can shed upon the problem. are not in proportion to the time and labor expended by pupils and teachers. While theoretical pedagogues speak with pride of our modern schools.of our schools.. all unprejudiced persons who have had the opportunity to test the lasting and true knowledge of graduates are rather skeptical about the excellence of these schools.

Wherever we quire it equally with the hardest worker. especially in the public educational institutions of our large cities. Not that most students do not clined to use possess the necessary intelligence. the thoughtless repetition The ture only marked gain and refinement.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY $ One may suppose our schools is the knowledge acquired in inadequate. however. not to is the hard study jind cramming. Everybody who has had the opportunity to observe young people in their school work cannot have failed to notice the very small use they make of their reasoning power. It is not at all exceptional for high school girls. For great indeed people those is the strain to which the young all who are conscientious and do the work required are subjected. and not to severe study. but to the general atmosphere of a school for the lazy student will ac. and principally to the natural growth of the individual. the gain in general culThis is due. to spend four or five hours in the preparation . But in this re- spect also the gain is exceedingly small. search we fail to find a result that entirely justifies the exceedingly hard work and the intense strain to which a high school student is subjected for a term of four years. eighteen or nine- teen years old. and they do not seem to be aware of is is the fact that reasoning often a better means for obtaining an answer than of words. possibly the gain in mental that if power makes up due for this shortcoming. but they are disinit. after more than five hours daily work in school.

and not the misof their leading examination results. This unfortunate fact. unnatural * Every teacher knows that there are a great many pupils who do not work hard because they do not do the required amount of study. although it must be admitted that such a student might not be able to attain spectacular examination results. cheating.. seems to be the fact that schools are freTrue quently conducted on the spectacular plan. t This inefficiency of the high schools seems to be fully equaled. sitting up late every school night with practically no out-of-door exercise. There are pupils who. while the In the more elementary classes appears to be more efficient. etc. however. manage to make their way through school. promotion of absolutely unfit students. it that an average secondary school can hardly be maintained is an efficient machine. number of causes for the ineffiParamount among these causes. crowded courses and faulty modes of study. results are not sufficiently appreciated.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS home lessons. if not work surpassed. slight appreciation of good of study. Unquestion- ably there are a large ciency of our schools. by that of the last years of grammar school. . relying upon luck.* Considering the lasting results only. f CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY OF OUR SCHOOLS The overrating of spectacular results. can hardly be used in defense of present conditions. the help of others. it is '^show" and appearance that often are principally aimed at Undue striving j^>r^ex^mma^iQiLXSsu|ts. It is no exaggeration to say that a fairly intelligent student could get as much culture and true education as a high school graduate by working with an efficient in- structor two or three hours daily for a term of four years. however.

fact that examinations are not proper gauges of the all quality of a school has long been recognized in nearly civilized countries. our times that most people consume far more mental food than they can assimilate. but unfortunately those in power fre- quently think otherwise. they are unreliable.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY ^ teaching. It is nothing unusual . While exceedingly low examination results may indicate defects. The the opposite. It is characteristic of Congested courses of study. are all caused by this desire to produce measurable results that impress the outside world. but more often Such high examination percentages frequently indicate the employment of wrong methods of teaching and the abuse of both pupil and teacher. tors of the efficiency of a particular school. to say that we all admit that some examinations are necessary. Even China has followed their lead and reduced the large number of its examinations. but that ill effects will arise as soon as examinations become thg central fact in school_lif eA and especially tive character. that is hardly necessary to discuss this point in Suffice it minute detail. Examinations. and consequently the examination evil has been growing. when they assume of the a competias indica- As gauges work done. In the United States the teachers as a class are also opposed to the abuse of examinations. So much has been written on the ill effects of giving too it muchjraght to examinations. an unusually high average does all not at indicate efficiency of a school. and hence most of them have at- tempted to diminish the importance of examinations.

to many make frequent visits to concerts. time . It is not at all exceptional that a high school student has to master in one evening ten to fifteen pages of human mind can assimilate in pages of geometry. i. year after year. There no time to think. four cess goes on day after day. In their anxiety to secure spectacular results. result. no time to meditate about any of these matters. and nothing leaves a last" " JRorne is done in a day." as Spencer all not the result in 96 per cent of cases chronic mental indigestion. and art exhibitions. to see a play every week. and to devote hours every day to newspaper reading. they compel their pupils to do an enormous amount of work in a given . and are proud of this feat. Can any human mind properly assimilate all this material ? And do students really accumulate " mental claims.. Everything in is done ing impression. One would expect the schools to exert a wholesome influence in opposition to this ever growing shallowness. But far from it they are the worst offenders.8 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS for an educated person to read four novels and magazines a month..e. that haste and superficiality must There are schools that finish the whole of plane geometry^Jn jsixjiionths. and equally long lessons in two or three other subjects. a hurry. and general superficiality and mental flabbiness are the result. so much. and this cramming prohistory. indeed. utter inability to assimilate anv mental food properly ? For frequently this . There is more taught in many high schools during four years than the average eight. or is fat. the Louvre in is two hours. lectures.

but will meditate upon the subject. physics. Two ways of studying. all problems involved. mastered to by mechanical memorizing. or philosophical same manner.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY 9 work is done quite mechanically without bringing into ^Students play any of the higher powers of the mind. childish They never go through memorizing ity to the transition from to judicious study. of words can but of a foreign language. until the mind and he can readily Another person repeat any part of the subject involved. will words cling to his attempt to solve. He will try to associate the unknown with the known.. The multiplication table. geometry. by their abil- repeat words. they often deceive others and themselves into the belief that they have mastered their . absurd subjects in study the _M_ost students are familiar only with the first method. However. is a perfectly ject proper method for the most elementary things. Such a judicious mode of studying is a far slower process than memorizing. fully is spelling words. etc. a new topic will read over the text again and again. as far as possible unaided. and hence he will look at the subject from all sides. There are two ways of One person who wishes to study studying new facts. simply memorize and usually do not even there are other ways know that than memorizing for acquiring knowledge. memorizing. but leads full and to absolutely no results in the more advanced be it subjects. but it leads to lasting understanding and true knowledge of the subThe first method. will read little.

topics of this kind. more effective in In more advanced work makes mere memorizing is far schools.10 studies. tial and On the other *iand. which are of frequent application. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The is deceptive character of knowledge thus acquired is lost. the person who studies judiciously receives such a strong impression of the essentials. there no time for * Such subjects. In many schools. the very nature of the subjects ineffective. Schools encourage memorizing and neglect reasoning.be made so familiar to students by frequent repetition that forgetting becomes almost impossible. hence memorizing even in its legitimate place is rendered ineffective. are treated just as hastily as everything else. . however. and even if he does. however. His previous thinking has given him a strong framework of facts. demonstrated by the rapidity with which it In a very short time everything studied. The to daily rations of mental food that the student has is swallow give him no choice. upon which all minor data are readily assembled. essenunessential. that he rarely forgets. but sometimes almost force the student to adopt this as the only mode of study. In the preceding paragraph it was pointed out that mechanical memorizing is a perfectly proper method of studying the most elementary. the most fundamental facts. not only encourage memprizing. for only by memorizing Our high can he hope to satisfy the immediate demands of the school. must. he can frequently reconstruct the missing data. utterly fades away. however.* This is possi- bly the reason why the teaching the lower grades than later on.

power that is For the informational method produces much quicker and more spectacular results than the slow judicious mode of study. II he must thought. that he cannot discuss intelligently the simplest new problem that may arise Can we wonder that under such ! conditions the student never breaks away from his mechanical way of studying that he acquired in the elementary school? And can we wonder. What does it cares who As matter. for meditation. for in spite of the vigorous of denials our pedagogues. too. we are satisfied. Moreover. and especially so in the high school ? This excessive use of memorizing^ and the neglect of the cultivation of the reasoning power. the character of the studies leads him to mechanical work.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY . . the after effects are sad. the greater part of the curriculum is informational. and even subjects which by their very nature should be mastered by thinking are often made informational. but long as the boy can talk glibly about complex economic problems in terms which he does not understand. What if a fine display of learning students can scientiously ! make How ? they have been cramming conhigh the percentage they can ! secure in examinations True. It is knowledge and not emphasized in most of the studies. are possibly the worst effects of the spectacular idea upon which our schools are largely built. that a year later he has not the remotest inkling of the subject. for judicious study memorize. that the results of our teach- ing become inferior in the higher grades of the grammar school.

pride of their teachers and parents. that it is used almost exclusively. but only re-produce. students of great ability have sometimes poor memories for words and are therefore regarded as hopeles^jdujnces_by^ their teachers. J??ls ess that parrot quality ^which is so highly appreciated in school . In school. produce. Notwithstand" " ing the mental fat that such students accumulate. they ought to be pitied. they do not thinkers. for they rarely cultivate their higher mental powers. they mind atrophy.12 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Star students. however. Frequently. usually do all in their power to intensify the cramming conditions of our schools. or become fulfill able scholars. . however. Perhaps this is the reason why star students so seldom the expectations of their friends. There is no lack of examples of great men wjip were considered X<pry dull boys by their teachers. especially if thoy reach the higher positions. their apparent success in studying leads them into the teaching profession. simply because they 4?^ Jl?t. Such men. while the other faculties of the come Such people rarely beare without originality. On the other hand. It must be admitted that there is a small group of students who possess memories of extraor- dinary retentive power. They hardly ever excel in the ordinary pursuits of life. To them memory is such a convenient tool. ideas. and they then expect every individual to possess the same freakish memory which they have. the pupils . who can memorize and retain anything from geometry to metaphysics. of this class excel they are the star students.

the preparation for difficult examinations. when treated by mechanical . it is many primary and second- not surprising that mathematical teach- ing produces poor results. and their mental inertia due to years of be surprised that teachers mechanical work. and we cannot against their better knowlInstead of real is use faulty methods of teaching. or the ability to think for himself ? EFFECTS OF THE GENERAL CONDITIONS UPON MATHEMATICAL TEACHING In view of the conditions in ary schools. the knowledge of a great many facts. The entire atmosphere of some schools is so opposed to the true mathematical spirit that true teaching and true studying of the subject In many schools good matheare almost impossible. Take. not wanted by the authorities . in addition. the poor preparation of the students. matical teaching is not understood. not appreciated. the lack of time. while the fictitious but showy results of the drillmaster are highly commended. or mental power ? the ability to repeat other people's thoughts. No other subject suffers so much and becomes so valueless as mathematics.CAUSES OF THE INEFFICIENCY 13 chief stand- The absurdity of making the memory the ard for measuring a student's ability cannot be over- emphasized. not only useless. but positively harmful to the students for mathematics taught as an informational subject is exceedingly tiresome and injurious to the mind. a cramming process is employed that . Which is more useful to a person in life. their firmly rooted habits of memorizing. edge mathematical work.

and. modes on the other hand. no other second* ary school subject is so admirably adapted to a judicious mode of study as mathematics. and must be constantly considered to determine the aims and methods of mathematical teaching. this characteristic constitutes one of the chief values of this study. when we wish . In fact.14 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS of study.

teaching mathematics are usually classified under two heads. It indeed no exaggeration to assert that our whole modern civilization owes its peculiar stamp indirectly to life mathematics. when it advances from the formation A of mere qualitative relations to quantitative laws. or (2) the. Modern thought and modern owe their character to the great progress of the exact sciejxges.culture it imparts. and based upon. This inquiry is particularly important in mathematics. The practical value of mathematics is is very great. becomes exact. The many reasons that may be given foi. mathematics. science Importance of mathematics in science. and pedagogical advantages of this study from those of most other subjects.CHAPTER TEACHING II THE VALUE AND THE AIMS OF MATHEMATICAL THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF MATHEMATICS Classification of the ing. These two in turn are closely connected with. it is necessary to arrive at a clear understanding of the reasons for teaching it. advantages of mathematical teachIn order to determine with precision the meth- ods of teaching any subject.: those based upon (i) the practical value of mathesince the aims differ widely matics. and to the wonderful development of the technical arts. 15 and . viz.

the Weber. if physiology. thereby becomes accessible to mathematical investigaHence fent s&id. cannot dispense with accepts the help of mathematics. owing to the exactness of mathematics. the absolute consequence of the state a relation that necessarily leads to a differenof differential equations is equation. and. Astronomy and physics are the most exact sciences. and hence are the best illustrations of the usefulness of mathematics. this branch of astronomy in a short time reached an amazing degree of perfection. "A science is exact only in so far as it employs mathematics." The knowledge of the deflection of medium into another of different density a ray of light entering from one was of small value until the quantitative law of refraction was discovered. economics and Even psychology. and the entire art of making optical instruments was put upon an exact scientific basis.16 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS tions. Thereby all problems of dioptrics became mathematical problems. since all mathematical devices are Differential equa- almost any branch of physical science leads to these. it Mathematical knowledge derstanding of the indispensable for the unphenomena of nature. and no one i$ without mathematical scholarship can hope to advance far as an investigator in most of the exact sciences. Similarly the discovery of the laws of motion and the law of gravitation transformed all problems of celestial mechanics into problems of mathematics. But chemistry and geology. all use mathematics.Fechner law. is The state of a physical system immediately preceding tial it.* * The most useful of tions. The symbolism better adapted is to represent the fundamental phenomena of nature than any other .

railroad building. Mechanical explanations of the phenomena change. an equal practi- Value It These symbols not only enable us to state laws which otherwise all. of mathematical knowledge to. would be an error to infer." . but they often make it possible to express relations between physical quantities whose true inward nature is enFresnel's theory of light. to the exclusion of scientific methbds. This is The production and distribution of every necessity or luxury partly depend upon the technical sciences which owe their perfection to their exact mathe- matical basis. Differential equations are such powerful instruments for exact physical investigations. and surveying are more or less based upon mathematical foundations. from the great usefulness of mathematics to our civilization. changed our notions of the physical nature of light. but the differential equations remain has left unaltered. Engineer- architecture. this influence of the exact sciences. which attributes light to tirely unknown. " " Our and entire present it civilization. could not be stated at movements satisfactory of the ether. navigation.VALUE AND AIM Influence of mathematics upon of machines* life. the individual. that we can understand Riemann's saying : " Exact science exists since the discovery of differential equations. would be hopelessly handicapped. tual penetration as far as depends upon the has utilization of nature. leads to differential equations which give a explanation of most optical phenomena. and left behind in the struggle for commercial and industrial supremacy." ing." says intellecits Professor Voss. it FresnePs differential equation unaltered. means. and hence of mathematics. Moreover. physicists accept Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of this theory has To-day most But while light. is increasing so rapidly that a nation which would base its industries upon purely empirical rules. real foundation in the mathematical sciences.

and claims from the memory less. rather than in the acquisition of facts. mathematical skill and knowledge indispensable. THE DISCIPLINARY VALUE OF MATHEMATICS General remarks. students who The majority of business or professional callings require no algebra. calculations in an almost mechanical manner. The study of mathematics should result in the development of power. Only for those few men who beis come original designers and investigators true Still. matics. but he who can apply these facts intelligently. without having perfectly clear notions of the underlying mathesmaller extent than is matical principles. The percentage ot are likely to have practical use for matheafter leaving school or college. than any other secondary school subject. and even to an extent greater than many other high school subjects. . its teaching in the secondary schools could hardly be justified solely on grounds of its bread-and- butter value. If mathematics.18 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS cal usefulness^ to every individual. or trigonometry. mathematics has some practical value for all students. is certainly small. geometry. surveyors. had no value as a mental discipline. however. Not he who knows a great many mathematical facts is a good mathematician. There are and engineers who make their navigators. and even the professions which use these subjects do so to a much generally supposed. ical The principal value of mathematfact that it study arises from the exercises the rea- soning power more.

4. Mathematics allows an almost perfect grading. Similarly. 5. 2. and leading the student . Certainty of results. and not Of course similar claims are made for nearly all other subjects. Similarity to the reasoning of life.VALUE AND AIM 19 who can It is discover facts that are new to him. are the following 1. 3. but often harmful to the beginners. simple mental exercises are much better adapted to the training of the mind of the young. : Some Simplicity. Originality. well-known principle of physical training that too severe exercises are not only useless. an imparting of information. It is a Simplicity. but a closer inquiry will show that for math- The reasoning in ematics they are really justified. and power and not knowledge that furnishes the if the power is acwill the knowledge foland only then quired. tion in a secondary school is principally a systematic training in reasoning. then Mathematical instrucor rather should be low as a natural consequence. Accuracy. commencing with exceedingly simple work. true test of mathematical ability. possessing characteristics that make it especially fitted for training of these characteristics the minds of the students. Amount of reasoning. mathematical work is of a peculiar kind. 6. and who can reconstruct those which he has forgotten. than very hard ones.

an axiom. uncertainty of results. the equality of two triangles. And how simple these reasons are The hypothesis. How perfectly definite the given facts. how many are unable. work Certainty of results. for instance. Any piece of mathematical is either right or wrong. indefinite character of the given data and methods to be used. and it is usually a very simple matter to find out whether or not it is right Certainly there can be no difference of opinion between . Every teacher knows how many students lack precision of thought and expression. mathematics. six pairs of homologous r parts. It is diffi< cult. to imagine anything easier than the To prove.2O TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS to harder by degrees and harder problems. Accuracy. While seems that students can get along fairly well in other subjects with such methods. and to try to find reasons for the equality of three of them. and the required result! How few given data the student has to keep in mind. let us say. they cannot do so in. Iji this subject. the student has to examine simplest exercises in geometry. how many speak it before even attempting to think. to understand the precise meaning of a question. the mere repetition of words or phrases will not hide the ignorance of the pupil The student must think accuratelyTlie has to speak accurately. or one of of the 4 or 5 preceding theorems. or do not try. multiplicity of known facts. the method. and how few the reasons ! facts he has to know in order to discover Contrast with this the reasoning necessary for writing an argument in English. to master mathematics.

and verified his answer. may be a Similarity to the reasoning of daily life. knows that he is right. a pleasure which increases with the conquered difficulty. books. While no- body questions the value of mathematical training for scientific work and rigid logical deductions. it is often . Mathematical reasoning done by stuOriginality. perhaps even a disagreement of the accepted authorities. 21 A student who has discovered a geometric original. while actually the bulk of is his answer taken memory. magazines. This sensation of having definitely overcome a difficulty is to the normal pupil a source of pleasure. consciously or Topics of such his unconsciously general character are dis- from cussed so frequently in daily papers. or eco- nomic subject. or has solved an algebraic problem. that he who has most opportunities in this direction. political. and not the reproThis cannot duction of ideas previously heard or read. and therefore is conscious of having accomplished something. After the expenditure of much time and labor. is often considered a good thinker. student may apparently reason ably in working out an economic problem. there follows uncertainty of result. or he who has the best memory. and in the family circle. be said of other school subjects that claim to appeal Thus. although he dull-witted person. possible differ- ence of opinion between teacher and pupil. Compare with this the reasoning a student has to do in a philosophical. dents is entirely original thinking. a mainly to the student's reasoning power.VALUE AND AIM student and teacher as to the final result.

must have a firm grasp on the situation just as a student . It is tivated undoubtedly true that the mental qualities culby mathematical study alone are not sufficient to . insure ability for solving practical problems but on the other hand. of end to be reached. of the means to be adopted. has to consider the various he has to examine each. The person who undertakes an industrial or commercial venture must possess a clear idea of the existin other words.22 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS is asserted that mathematical thinking ferent order from the kind used in of an entirely difaffairs.* More than one business testified that man has he owes his success in life to the habits of exact thinking which he formed when study- ing mathematics. Clear- ness and exactness of thinking are just as necessary in daily as in mathematical study. to disposal eliminate those that are unfit. . * For an elaborate presentation of this poinj| see Young's Teaching of Mathematics. and to weigh and to means compare the the others. Then his precisely as the student of geom- etry the business at man . human and that consequently mathematical training has no practical value. it is evident that without these qualities one can hardly hope for success life in the affairs of life. Confusing the data and random guessing sults will produce in business no better rethan in mathematics. in mathematics has to recognize the hypothesis and the conclusion. he ing conditions and of his aims. In all steps he must have a clear notion of the situation.

soon beAfter proper training in exercise work. but to be discovered. namely. very few facts have to be remembered in algebra. are facts that can be remembered without cramming. the regular propositions soon become natural consequences of general methods not reasoning. the mechanical application of a known rule. and to be re- constructed when forgotten. Even more complex propositions. manipulative features are not extended farther than necessary for future work. by constant application. require angles. a thing a language or other informagenerally impossible in cally and can be reconstructed tional subject. incomparably fewer than in Latin. etc. must be admitted that some of the thinking of elementary algebra is of the same inferior order as While it that used in the study of Latin or Greek.VALUE AND AIM Bulk the Is 23 of mathematical work is reasoning. is properly taught The few facts to be nearly everything is no special known are so palpable as to memorizing. This particularly true of geometry. Here if the subject reasoning. this is not true There is a large field for good original of all the work.. these facts are connected logiif forgotten. and less to memory than any other higlTfcch'ool subject. or should be be memorized. history. Algebra does not make quite so good a showing as geometry. to come familiar The rest is to the student. . Mathe- matics appeals more to the reasoning power. or French. But if its purely formal. The equality of vertical the equality of equidistant chords. Moreover.

fair conditions every normal pupil can easily comprehend the simple reasoning of mathematics. and that consequently mathematical study increases the reason- ing power for mathematics only. discipline.24 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS in thinking in the work on reading problems and formal work of more advanced character. It cannot be denied that there first is a little truth in the part of this assertion. Under Every normal youth can study mathematics. and cannot concentrate his mind upon anything. jumps at conclusions without plan or reason. Denial of mental is Some psychologists dis- claim that there no such thing as general mental cipline. as far as elementary work is concerned. provided the subject is presented properly. and it is not likely that such students studies. and that this theory has produced some reaction against the practice of defending " any pedagogical absurdity on grounds of mental dis- . that the disciplinary value pertains only to the subject studied. and the story of the special brains needed for mathematics. How demonstrates his hypothesis. however simple ? Elementary mathematics requires nothing but the plainest common sense. all is a myth. or to one of similar content. ics as is sometimes asserted excel in other who can a pupil excel in English or economfrequently uses his conclusion for his proof. The small minority that really cannot understand mathematics under any condition does not consist of able pupils. and provided his mind has not been thoroughly dulled by an excess of mechanical study.

question is are sciences. and towards study in general." 25 is But on the other hand there too * a tendency among to the sensational pedagogues to exaggerate and sweepingly. must be admitted. only in mathematics but it in other (These studies. not languages. and must be modified validate the entire results. than he who has never exercised at all . Their results are only and cannot be applied in the same If rigorous fashion as those of mathematics or physics. when we apply it mathematical teacher of experience Every It is widely advertised to mathematical has seen cases which disprove this theory. body by ball playing would be in a better position to take up such a task. teaching. not studies. Still a man who has strengthened his this parallel suit of no longer the fashion to use some physical labor. Qhology are not exact sciences. generalize Pedagogy and psy- approximately true.VALUE AND AIM cipline. the limits of error are likely to become so large as to in- Conclusions reached by such methods need constant verification.) The similar it is to that of the value of physical training although for the purBaseball playing may not be a direct preparation for a particular physical labor such as hod-carrying. thereby change Pupils who were indifferent and apparently without suddenly wake up meaning his attitude ability become active and intelligent students. we attempt to apply them to complex problems. in this happens discipline theory. interested and capable. a common experience to see a pupil in the upper grades to the of mathematics. however. if found to be contradictory Precisely this thing to experience.

of the however. any subject. If this doctrine Then we have were true. The dullness acquired in some of our schools is absolutely general it relates to .) . * This theory of mental discipline is closely related to the physiologiThe latter theory cal theory of the localization of mental functions. These 1 views form the basis of phrenology. If may disqualify the student for the study of all we should accept of mental caliber study. 259-263. pp. Very few young people seem to be able to concentrate their minds for even a few minutes upon one idea. the harm done by unpedagogic training would not extend beyond the subject or subjects that caused it. old or new.* not worth the MINOR FUNCTIONS OF MATHEMATICAL STUDY Some of the minor advantages of mathematical study be briefly stated as follows : may i. Physiology of the Brain. In other words. one or several subjects subjects. which can be acquired. This is a Development faculty. (See Loeb. it the theory that the general students is not improved by would undoubtedly be best to close all schools the after the fourth or fifth year of the grammar is school. But every day we see that the results caused by bad training are general. " assumes that the mind consists of a number of independent faculties/ each of which has a definite localization in a region of the brain. since the knowledge gained afterwards trouble. power of concentration.26 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS the negative evidence. but they have been generally abandoned by physiologists. and matheis matical study admirably adapted to develop it.

suc- impossible without the use of the creative powers of the mind. is bound to increase respect for truthfulness and honesty. habits. Their former training has led them to believe utterly in authority. people retain through life the habit of placing authority above common sense and reason. Growth of mental self-reliance. difficult is To the student. in finding someinventive faculty* thing that cess is is unknown to the worker. Young students. Solving a geometric problem and making an invention are very similar processes. a trait which shows that they have no confidence in their own mental powers. .VALUE AND AIM 2. Especially in educational circles is this affliction very 4. a discovery and consistent training problem in such work develops those faculties that lead to dis- covery and invention. and too little upon their own faculties. and in this. rely too much upon facts taken from books or some other authority. Mathematical study trains the students v^j^maJ^g^^Qrderly^ f and the pleasure connected with the successful conquering It has also of a difficulty stimulates thejze^ jJ0^r. as a rule. been claimed that dealing with a subject that is absolutely true. to think that all and especially knowledge depends upon authority. the chief point of difference being usually the greater simplicity of the geometric problem. the solving of a . 27 Development of the constructive imagination or the -r Far from being a dry science requiring pedantic accuracy and little imagination. that rejects and shows up any error. Some common. 3. true mathematical work consists in inventing. Development of character.

simthe terminology. viz. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS difficulties The Increased ability to use English correctly. and comparative ease with which precision of expression can be reached. and pursues his If the student studies with interest. person unfamiliar with the elements of mathe- A matics cannot fully comprehend the simplest facts of astronoitiy. that is found in all civilizations. and will recognize . which many students have in attempting to own ideas in their mother tongue are quite apparent in geometry. some : of the principal results may be briefly stated as follows He will be led to an intelli- gent use of his reasoning faculties. Summary. into the spirit becomes properly initiated of mathematical work. cannot be ignored by the man of culture. texts.^ An seems that is to be necessary for general culture. that represents the most finished types of exact thinking. The plicity of ability to difficult is understand English. Increase in culture. A science closely interwoven with most mental achieve- ments of the race. originality of the idea. t general acquaintance with the fundamental facts and methods of mathematics 6. especially of the rather scientific or philosophical discussion. express their Geometric work possesses three qualities which are necessary for such work. he is not able to read and to grasp the accounts of the wonderful discoveries and inventions of our time. kind used in also greatly improved by the study of mathematical . and on the other hand few subjects are so well suited as geometry for curing this evil.28 5.

one is of such great importance. viz. however. is say that in most cases these results As pointed out before. It is needless to his studies than ever before. general.VALUE AND AIM that thinking is 2Q is more effective in study than memoriz- be led to a judicious mode of study in ing. and acquire mental self-reliance andjndependHe will take more interest in. and who frequently have no understanding of principle of mathematical teaching. it . the peculiarities of mathematics. Mathematics is primarily taught on account of the mental training it affords. this version not due to the nature of the subject. The fundamental The acceptance of the foregoing views on the pur- pose of mathematical teaching must more or less influence all principles of mathematical pedagogy* Among the numerous consequences. power and not knowledge. and only secondarily on : account of the knowledge of facts end of mathematical teaching is The tme imparts. that it is no exaggeration to call it the funda- mental principle of mathematical teaching. and thereby derive Qnce. but to the perof its true spirit by those who control our schools. are not obtained. will He more pleasure from.

4. The Lecture and the Heuristic Methods. are the following : The Synthetic and the Analytic Methods. is referred to Young's Teaching of 30 . The Laboratory Method. 2. will be discussed rather fully. the work of the teacher. those which have a substantial bearing upon however. The Inductive and the Deductive Methods. Synthetic methods lead from the known to the unknown. THE SYNTHETIC AND THE ANALYTIC METHODS Description of the two methods. They 1.* The essential methods. while an analysis leads from the conclusion to the hypothesis. while analytic methods proceed from the unknown to the known. and consequently they do not exclude one another. 3. In geometry a synthetic proof starts from the hypothesis and ends with the conclusion. 5. In a synthesis * For greater detail the reader Mathematics. Each of these methods refers to a different phase of presentation of the subject. The Dogmatic and the Psychological Methods.CHAPTER CLASSIFICATION OF III METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS METHODS No haustive discussion of attempt will be made to give in this book an exall methods that have any bearing upon mathematical teaching.

ac*d = be*. in most textbooks. . C* + * For additional examples see Chapter XI. + 2 2 : be - (Hyp. If then Synthetic Proof. Analytic Proof. Examples. Simplifying. . The true character of the terms analytic and synthetic. true. ac QED . A is true. will possibly be best explained by a number of concrete examples. as used in elementary mathematics. while analytic proofs. a:b = c:d.* Ex. i. ac ad - be. be dc would be true if (ac -f 2 b*)dc = (c* + This would be true if ac*d -f 2 Pcd -be* or if if +2 Fed. therefore B is : true. and B is A is true. hence C The demonstrations given in the textbooks of geometry are nearly all synthetic.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 31 we say is true. The identity -f ac 2 b* __ c 2 ~~ + 2 bd 2 bd)bc. are entirely omitted. : A is true. be. or ad But Therefore. 2** DC = JL. and therefore true if C In an analysis true if we reason But C is B is is true.) 2 bd\ dc. a _c ~b~d Adding to each member.

To angle. 2. supplementary adjacent ones (ChapMethod IV). Method I). The though this synthetic proof is a special device. The and almost awkward. we select first . therefore we must prove : (3) kBDA^kCDA. We prove first the equality of the triangles ABE the and ACE. it would be much easier for him to reconstruct the analysis than the synthesis. but one does not see 2 why operation is was added is justified to each member. equality of The two angles is usually proved by means of two equal triangles (Chapter VIII. Ex. If the student should forget. The line that joins the vertices of two isosceles triangles having a common base is perpendicular to the common The base. therefore we have : to prove (2) BDA^CDA.32 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The synthetic proof is shorter. then the equality of triangles and resulting equality of angles ABD and ACD. al- by the result. more elegant. synthesis of the proposition is the proof commonly given in the textbooks. its prove that an angle is a right equal to we usually prove that it is ter VIII. but there analytic proof lengthy is no doubt why this sequence of steps was taken. to prove the equality of another pair of triangles Since we cannot find enough equal parts the two triangles directly. Analysis. (i) Prove From BDA CDA follows the conclusion. the analytic is based upon a general method.

The line joining the mid-points of two sides of a triangle half of it. viz. i. an equality which is is easily established. (4) 33 Method III). " The lines are perpendicular if the two triangles are equal/' but ask for the means for we do proving the perpendicularity of two lines. (i) The usual method for proving that one line (ED) one half of another (BC) is to double the smaller. Method VII. (2) Prove EF = BC. but since nothing whatever is known in regard to and CE exclusively.* Hence we produce ED by its own A length to F. Ex.e. the gram. Chapter XI. several There methods the are for proving and equality of lines. arid parallelism simultaneously. 3. The reduction of the conclusion to a simpler or more easily proved statement into the various accomplished by an inquiry conclusion. Analysis.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS whose homologous parts VIII. means of proving the Hence not simply say. is parallel to the third side and equal to one The is synthesis is the proof commonly given in textbooks. will supply the missing equalities (Chapter Therefore prove : &ABE= l\ACE. and we have to use the sides EF BF we have (4) To prove (a) BF\\ * CEand (J) BF= CE. proves equality one based upon a parallelo7. . however. several others for ^ Only one. Hence we attempt to (3) Prove that BCEF is a is BC There are again various methods of demonstrating that a figure a parallelogram. proving parallelism of lines.

reason whatsoever. (i) Analysis. To prove the equality of to remember that CE = AE. The synthesis. (AVB and BVC) with When we compare the sum of two angles a third angle CVA. and hence the parallelism of BF these two lines we have and CE follows. consists of a correctness we see. of A E and BF follows easily This may appear difficult and artificial to a person not familiar with analyzing in general. To prove /. Ex. and not accustomed to consider the various "means" for demonstrat- But it is on the other hand ing certain geometric facts. whose whose sequence we have no length.AVB + BVC>CVA. The sum of any two face angles of a triedral angle is greater than a third face angle. lines rests Hence we have (5) A = DBF. In the synthesis its ED is produced by own we do not see why why we demonstrate the equality of triangles FED and BAD.34 (a) TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The fundamental method upon the to prove for demonstrating parallelism oi equality of a pair of alternate interior angles. obvious that this analysis gives a reason for taking each step. & triangles is easily es- tablished. however. The equality from the triangles considered in (6). but for number of steps. " methods and that a student acquainted with the various " will in most cases find this solution. usual The method for demonstrating the equality of two angles makes use of the equality of triangles. 4. we either construct . or we have to prove (6) S ___________ __ The equality of these . etc.

and to obtain the other pair of equal we make VD = VA in B'. CVA and is or difference of AVB. and quite Hence only (a) draw be analyzed.DVB=. . VB and pass a plane through A. the theorem B'A = B'D. In plane generally given in textbooks. AVB. Unequal Lines and Angles. this is easily established But by means of equal triangles. D. and C then CVA and DVC are two triangles that have two sides of one equal prove that (3) to two of the other. B VC VD so that Z. and it remains to CA<DC. = CB' But CA < CB' + B'A y and since CD would be proved if we could show that (4) + B'D. but the There are three fundamental methods third sides unequal. then we have to prove that (2) DVC</LAVC. for proving the inequality of angles. Obviously sides intersecting VC is common. we must use the proposition of two triangles that have two sides equal. 35 The sum The of A VB and BVC.* but since the angles lie in different triangles. * See Chapter X. will Method (b) leads to the is demonstration that analogous to (a).METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS (a) (b) .

but it is the only method that accounts fully It is the only method for each step of demonstration. and Proofs are not discovered by the synthetic methods.* Some authors. but even there bad results will frequently follow. or to rediscover them after they are forgotten. but after this has been accomplished.g. does not tell sequence of arguments was selected. on the other hand. if forgotten. Analysis is the method of discovery synthesis the method of concise and . An analysis. with no indications of the analytic steps by which the author arrived at his conclusions. who are able to analyze for themselves.36 Value TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS of the is two methods. the proof may be represented Exclusive synthetic teaching may be exsynthetically. because their demonstrations are frequently very concise syntheses. students in secondary schools should be made to discover demonstrations by analysis. A him the him why to this real plan of the demonstration. * elegant presentation. but does not reveal every step true. are exceedingly difficult to read. but does not explain was taken. by which students can hope to discover proofs. is lengthy and not elegant. cusable when jised with university students. and are in place when no pedagogical conditions need to be considered. synthetic demonstrations are most diffi- But synthetic proofs are usually cult to reconstruct. A synthesis shows that why this step convinces the reader that synthetic proof the fact to be demonstrated is true. * . e. Hence. short and elegant. Gauss.

The inductive method leads from the particular to the general. e. body all of gas compressed. Any ing. e. and let us compare divide) these sums with n. " e. Whenever a rises. Z A = Z B. it only establishes a certain degree of probability. any conclusion drawn fronLSSBS: rience. Such is best illustrated first I to find the sum of the sum from n = : by concrete examples.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 37 THE INDUCTIVE AND THE DEDUCTIVE METHODS Description of the two methods. concrete facts from abstract syllogism : facts. n natural numbers. the other hand.g. its temperature hence gases will become hotter if compressed.* Eiit if can be employed for finding mathematical facts. let us n to = 5. is a good example of deductive reason- Vertical angles are equal. ZA On and ZB are vertical angles. Mathematical facts discovered by induction. We obtain then the following table * On the inductive elements in mathematics see Chapter IV. while the deductive method derives particular truths from general truths." Inductive reasoning is not absolutely conclusive. . from the concrete to the abstract. discovery find this (i. obtained by induction.g. Hence.e. frorn^ a number of^ex- anj^^nerallaw^denved is is periments. Hence it cannot be used for exact mathematical demonstrations. which increases with the number of facts observed.g.

additional methods are necessary. or the sum of the first is probably is deductive method of obtaining this formula substitution of/(^)=^ in the general formula A the Similarly the next table shows us how to find the sum of the squares of the natural numbers by induction. or the + i)(2n ^ + i) * * To demonstrate fully facts obtained in this manner. but the comparison with the sum of the 3. such a method would be the so-called "mathematical induction. is very likely natural numbers for # terms. . $ for 2. 542.. \ for | for 4. V* for Hence we reason . that . the comparison with n does not easily lead to an answer. required sum . In the above example. Here. t See the author's Advanced Algebra. . | for 3.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Since the quotient it is \ f or i . first n natural numbers gives 5. is probably n(n ^ -be 3 2 ^ for n. p. . etc.'* which. for i. it will . however. however. does not signify induction in the ordinary philosophical sense. | for 2. f for 4.

METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 39 Deductive and inductive sequence. simplify expressions of the type by the deductive method. attack the problem . example before the general formula. ^5+2^/6.. while the deductive Thus site it would be deductive sequence first to derive the formula for the square of a side of a triangle oppo- an acute angle (a 1 = b* + <? 2 cp) and to solve every numerical example by substitution in this formula. Pedagogically the that sequence abstract. It would be inductive sequence first to give a number of numerical examples before the general theorem is attacked. we would first solve a number of numerical examples as etc. we would first derive the general To formula 2 2 and solve every numerical example of this type by substitution. "^9 and only afterwards. possibly. the special term " inductive " relates principally to which places the concrete before the uses the opposite succession. Using induction.

is utterly helpless. it is On very difficult for students really understand the derivation and the meaning of the formula for the number of permutations of n things. if Can not preceded by a number of concrete instances. 495. a beginner to understand an abstract piece of mathematical work. taking r at a time. by a number what a permutation the problem is not preceded of concrete cases ? Can they even know if is without concrete illustrations ? Abstract ideas are the result of concrete experiences. The solution of mathe- matical problems. Hence teachers as well as textbooks frequently give deductive methods a prominent place. sometimes almost to the exclusion of all inductive work. . Moreover. much crete shorter to memorize a formula for the median of a'triangle than to find the numerical value in every con- example by starting from the general median prop- osition. It is general a very concise and practical method. by previously demonstrated formulae. Cardan's formula? Pupils trained to attack problems inductively need not upon this formula they can apply Cardan's method without knowing the formula " by heart.40 Value is in TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS of the two methods. and only after a number of concrete cases are understood can abstract generalizations be successfully attacked. the other hand. Who remembers ." * rely * See the author's Advanced Algebra. and the extensive use of such methods demands the memorizing of a After forgetting these formulae great many and the forgetting takes places very rapidly the student formulae. purely deductive methods require a formula for every type of mathematical problems. p.

a term which is. while ** Lately there has been a tendency to teach general theorems at a very early stage of the work. For instance. The reasons advanced above make it undesirable to study For. deduction most important. should be thoroughly memorized and applied. and we may summarize as follows Apply inductive methods whenever there : is an opportunity.. the formulae for progressions. do abandoning of although it not involve the the contrary.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 4! The preceding arguments. 1. Deduction. the 4 formulae for the roots of a quadratic equation. 3. etc. . should be restricted to the most important cases. students do not understand. fre- quently used in a different sense. as a rule. before we let him use highly refined instruments. is On for certain types of work. but only after attacking the subject inductively. however. A typical instance of this kind is the factor theorem. formulae should important problems of fundamental charbe memorized. the general theorems at too early a stage of the work. Thus.* THE DOGMATIC AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL! METHODS The dogmatic method. the binomial theorem. for all acter. Let the student first become familiar with the use of simple tools. t Sometimes called the genetic method. Use deductive methods also. such theorems. all deductive methods. and before he is aware of the difficulty of the special cases. Hence we cannot use one of these methods to the exclusion of the other. and the consequent memorizing. however. and hardly ever appreciate. should always be preceded by induction. The dogmatic method makes rigor the chief desideratum of mathematical study. 2. No general theorem should be taught before the student recognizes the necessity for such a proposition.

can be made only by people who either are not capable of analyzing their own ideas. a great many said to acquire.42 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS the psychological method advocates rigor only so far as the average capacity of young students justifies it. By learning models the student mathematical work. The followers of the psychological method assert that in any subject it is a mistake to consider only the scientific aspect of the subject. and to ignore absolutely the degree of mental develop- ment of the student. It is claimed that the inability of students to underif stand the utmost refinements of mathematical thinking may be overcome by making them study memorize perfect models. Indeed. and will necessarily lead to slipshod thinking. For otherwise they would notice the inefficiency of an occasional bit of study based upon reading alone. Over-rigorous teaching will not lead to * The assertion that mathematics can be studied by reading and rereading perfect models. understanding of and ability to do The psychological method. An exactness which is not under- stood by the student is not exactness so far as he is concerned. without any original thinking on the part of the student. there are teachers who lay the inefficiency of mathematical teaching mainly to insufficient rigor. or who cannot do any mathematical thinking of their own. that any deviation from the absolute standard of rigor will defeat the very purpose of the entire work. .* is necessary. The dogmatists claim that the value of mathematical teaching rests mainly upon its extreme exactness. in some unex- plained manner. and hence the knowledge acquired in this manner is superficial and short-lived. Such study does not lead the reader to observe the characteristic difficulties and the nature of the critical points of the subject.

sometimes even disgust with a subject. do any exact thinking. exactness must never be carried to such an extreme as to make the subject unintelligible to the student. There are. By studying exact models which he cannot understand. Preliminary Propositions. the student will not for he does not improve his reasoning power. and often does. He only repeats exactly 4. memorizing. however.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS rigorous thinking. While exactness speaking are among in thinking and accuracy in the chief aims of mathematical teaching. Scarcely any teacher in a school would present geometry or algebra in secondary the form of lectures. There no absolute rigor possible insisted in a school. else's ideas. are mathematicians. 2. Rigor. contain flaws. The rigor upon in many classrooms frequently only an exact adherence to a textbook. Students without mathematical and to ability. which may. but with go'od memories. Students are frequently led to mechanical methods of study 6. of mathematics in general. made to consider themselves good THE LECTURE METHOD AND THE HEURISTIC METHOD method. teachers who lecture * The Compare Chapter VI. 3. . 43 In most cases the result will be lack of interest. somebody Students lose interest in mathematics and acquire wrong notions 5. The is objections to extreme rigor : may be sumsecondary is marized as follows * 1.

is ideas follow one another so rapidly that little 3. even to a small extent. In general. although the latter is only a special form of the former. presentation of a large amount of subject matter within a given time. may be justified. is out of place in a secondary school. It can be used for large audiences. The It is logical sequence of ideas i. teachers who are inclined to state demonstrations or other pieces of work without questioning the students in other words. ad absurdum by questions. In mathematics. 2. backs of the lecture method Merits. sent considerable portions of the work in the lecture Hence a brief discussion of the merits and drawform. Receiving information is is matical study. Drawbacks. the leading . is not interrupted. It allows the 3. 5. not mathe- 4. comprehended during the lecture. and is unable to determine whether or not the majority of the students are able to follow. the inability to understand one essential point may make the rest of the lecture unintelligible.* The heuristic method at- * The heuristic method is sometimes called the Socratic method.44 lecture too TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS much. viz. The attention of the students likely to wander. and a great deal is The left to home study. teachers who pre. but is somewhat justified for advanced university work. lecturing. The teacter is not in contact with his class. comparatively easy for the teacher. i. 4. 2. The heuristic method.

few days later to construct such proof. Mathematical study for one deeply interested * a When the questions are addressed to the entire class the members of which are expected to cooperate. and to reduce direct information to a minimum. on the other hand. is. Students acquire a real understanding of the sub* Advantages. I.* only the teaching in the classroom but also the arrangement of textbooks may be based upon the heuristic plan. is A student who and interested has no difficulty in paying is attention. as a rule. interest of ^The the students and the resulting willingness to heuristically. and the by questions. ful Mathematical instruction cannot be successto stimulate the interest is if it fails and. 2. A not grasp person listening to a lecture quite often does all the peculiarities of a demonstration on . Pupils think for themselves and are not merely listening for information. heuristic method does the leading make Not they must be led. the method has been called the "genetic. problem himself has a full understanding of and can easily reconstruct it. ject.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 45 tempts to make students find and discover as much as possible. work are greater when they are taught than when taught by informational . interest the most powerful stimulus for work. successful in his work. of nearly aU heuristic teaching the distinction somewhat . methods. however. A student. Since students of high school age are unable to absolutely original discoveries." But as this is is the mode of procedure artificial. certain difficulties that were not noticed at the lecture his attempt a interfere. when requested. who discovers tjie solu- tion of a its difficulties 3.

Home when study informational methods are used. 3." Compare is " " What common to A ABD and ACD " ? Compare A ABD and ACD. The heuristic method is slow. . 4. The method is difficult for the teacher. so easy that students have to answer simply "yes" This is the fault of some textbooks that or "no." " ? "What The conclusion can you draw with reference to Z B and Z C ability to ask truly heuristic questions is most essential for the mathematical teacher. Disadvantages." Z BAD and Z DAC. making the questions thing. and for different classes. Some teachers expect in the hands of too much from the pupils." claim to be heuristic. for he can- not simply follow a textbook. and lead the students by questions like the following : "Com pare AB " and A C. but must constantly seek devices for leading students. is not nearly so heavy or tedious as i. especially 2. It is sometimes difficult to make students discover certain facts.46 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS In general no truer cri pleasure." Teachers are in complete touch with their classes. The method does not work well every teacher. terion for the success of mathematical instruction exists than the interest of the students. and consequently accomplish hardly anyOthers expect too little. 5. and not a drudgery. devices that must be modified for different pupils 4. in the beginning.

but experiments performed by the pupil. weights. areas. is indicated by the great variety of materials that have been used in such work. the area of a circle and of cardboard a Thus. would lead too far to give extended lists of all the schemes and devices proposed by the advocates of the laboratory method. The laboratory method proposes also to lead students to the discovery of mathematical facts. The means of discovery. cut out of the same material. as drawing instruments. and let him determine the areas by experiment. calipers. different however. By actual weighing and measuring. The general dissatisfac- tion with the results of the prevailing dogmatic-informational methods has recently placed in the center of interest a method that has some similarity to the heuristic method. volumes. be found by comparing the weights of the cardboard disks with the weight of the unit of area. . cross-section paper. have him cut out number of circles.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 47 THE LABORATORY METHOD Description of the method. for instance. measuring rods. lines. the studerit By making a list of diameters and may find the relation : area It = 2 3^ (radius) . however. and angles are determined and each particular mathematical relation is found as a consequence of a number of such experiments. These areas^may. is not the questions of the teacher. to make a student discover the relation between its diameter. The wide scope of the work. .

steel ther- mometers. It emphasizes the doing. It degenerates sometimes into a kind of manual training. Laboratory work and induction from experience are not typical mathematical work. 3. planimeters. Finally it gives the student a clear notion of student who has measured many the space concepts. is enjoyable to young students. i. es. and do not enjoy. transit instruments. It is based upon the wrong assumption that pupils cannot comprehend. A 5. while students taught otherwise are notoriously weak in applying their mathematics. It is an exceedingly slow method. The natural making discoveries. balances. 4. sextants. the way the human race has from the concrete to the abstract. it requires the student to accomplish something that is within his capacity. levers. pulleys. Weak not at facts 2. will naturally know what an angle is. etc. and hence such methods used exclusively do not give the student any It makes the training in true mathematical thinking. all easy to make students discover mathematical by experiment. The laboratory method brings the applications of mathematics into prominence.48 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS taj. . a thing not angles A at all certain in the case of students whose instruction It is was purely theoretic. features of the laboratory method. demon strational mathematics. Good features of the laboratory method. Laboratory work is exceedingly concrete and hence interesting and way of taken.

Laboratory methods form an exceed- ingly valuable supplement to the teaching of mathematics. pushed to in. Students doing some work of this character will have more interest mathematics. pure But the laboratory method must riot be the point of complete abandonment of pure mathematics. and understanding of. . Summary.METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS student acquainted with 49 mathematical reasoning.

every deductive science. Here only a few fundamental phases of the subject. rests upon a number of non- provable propositions. an axiom is but in a preliminary sense we may say that a proposition. as quently called postulates. ( i ) assumed as self-evident. however. considered self-evident and called axioms.CHAPTER IV THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS* THE AXIOMS OF GEOMETRY The bases of geometry. . As this reference to more fundamental premises cannot be continued ad infinitum. axioms relating to purely geometric " Two points determine a straight line. or Every conclusion rests upon which require demonstrations.! * The entire subject of geom- It is impossible to give even an outline of this important subject within the available space. f The term " postulate " is used in elementary geometry in a some- what different sense. lead to other premises. It will evidence . and geometry in particular. which seem to have philosophic or pedagogic importance." are frefacts.e. as a self-evident truth would involve the assumption of an immutable appear from the following section that axioms are sometimes merely conventions without much reference to their common-sense standard of self-evidence. i. Following Euclid. premises which either are self-evident. To define an axiom. (2) not capable of being deduced from other axioms. are discussed.

that without them experience is impossible. most empiricists Hume and Mill attempted to prove the second Mill. Geometry. The empirical school. pendent of experience. they claimed. This argument can be met either by contending that geometry does not give us any knowledge of the real world. there is knowledge a priori. The philosophic aspect chief philosophic of the geometric axioms. and definitions. and hence these are frequently called the bases of geometry. postulates. the first assertion very probable.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS etry rests $1 upon axioms. and that there can be no knowledge a priori. or ? of is the mathematical it axioms precede experience the result of The rational doctrine in general asserts that certain elements of reason must underlie all experience. or by claiming that geometric axioms are ex- made like While modern mathematics has perimental facts. gives us some knowledge of the real world. The question in regard to mathematical axioms is : Does the knowledge experience. and is indeence. The rationalists always pointed to geometry as an obvious example of knowledge independent of experi- knowledge a priori. According to John Stuart . the knowledge of certain facts must precede all experience. the postulates point. on the other hand. claims that all knowledge is finally derived from experience. In other words. The mathematical axioms derive a special philosophic interest from the fact that they played a very important role in the controversy between these schools.

Euclid's geometry contains two geometric axioms. the possibility of is their meeting apparent certainty only the result of induction.52 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS are neither exact nor necessary. Not considering statements viz. we cannot conceive again. is the reason why spatial impressions. We of whose angles cannot conceive the existence of a triangle the is more than 180. and this experience. sum Purely philosophical speculations have not advanced the solution of this problem as much as have the mathematical investigations which we shall briefly discuss in the next sections.e. not a rationalist in the strict sense of the word. and their apparent certainty is produced by the continuous presence of Two diverging lines are always seen to diverge farther and farther. and does not prove that the opposite is this But impossible. possess a universal and necessary certainty which no experience can give. I. : that obviously can be proved. Kant's rationalism is therefore idealistic. * Kant He asserts : There is knowledge a priori. relating to the knowledge of the real world. considers the axioms as He claims that they (synthetic) judgments a priori. . often repeated and uncontradicted. but this knowledge is only about things as they appear. Two is points determine a straight line. i. while before him it was realistic. Kant. and that the opposite is unthinkable. NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES AND THE AXIOMS Euclid's postulates.* on the other hand. not about things as they really are.

Bolyai and suggested by Gauss. * These axioms frequently appear in different forms (1) (a) (b) e. results in 1832. the same side of (b) Gauss communicated and Bolyai published his t his results to Bolyai's father. the place to place with- so-called axiom of free mobility 3. Two lines are parallel if two interior angles on a transversal are supplementary.* Tacitly assumed.g.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 2. for all proofs of equality and all measurements depend upon it. Two straight lines cannot inclose a space. The sum of the angles of a triangle equals 180. which may be called the indirect proof . were made to deduce it from the other axioms. and carried out by Lobatschewsky. but up to comparatively recent times its tacit assumption was not recognized. is : a third postulate. but with- As seemed out success. The geometry a method first of Lobatschewsky. A figure can be moved from is out change of form. however. there absolutely no doubt. The axiom of mobility of great importance. is About the originality of Lobatschewsky's work. frequently called Euclid's postuto be capable of proof. 1795 to 1799. After centuries of continued failure this lack of proof was considered such a flaw in the apparently perfect structure of geometry that some mathe- maticians referred to it as the defect or disgrace of mathematics. 53 Two intersecting lines cannot both be parallel to a third line. innumerable attempts late. : (2) (a) Two diverging lines cannot meet again. . the second axiom. Finally. This method. f showed absolutely that Euclid's postulate cannot be proved. however. however.

and. that the entire system does not lead to any contradictions. : 1. draws a great many is consequences. About twenty-five years later.e. e. * The theorems of Euclid. There are no similar figures.* This shows conclusively that Euclid's postulate not a consequence of the other axioms. 3. Ueber die Hypothesen die der Geometric zu Grunde- liegen. The area of a triangle is proportional to the difference between the sum of its angles and 180. The geometry of Riemann. Riemann constructed a geometry which is based upon a much deeper analysis of the axioms and the nature of only the axiom of mobility. The sum of the angles of a triangle is always less than 180. 4.54 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS scale. on a large parallels to a line assumes that through a point several can be drawn. the necessary consequence then sooner or later contradictions is must appear. The surprising result. if Euclid's postulate of the other axioms. Lobatschewsky obtained an entirely new geometry. Riespace. but rejecting the two other postulates. Riemann. etc. 2. retaining the other axioms. but soon others were to appear. If this assumption is wrong. intersecting lines may be Lobatschewsky's geometry was the first non-Euclidean geometry. but unbounded. forming a perfect non-contradictory system that is as coherent and as logical as Euclid's.g. i. and that there is no logical reason is against assuming that two parallel to a line. however. 5. Two perpendiculars erected at two points of a line diverge. .f By retaining this geometry differ in many cases from those of and some appear at first rather singular. in fact builds up an entire geometry. t Space is finite.

. 2. . i. certain investigations of Gauss. Riemann's two-dimensional geomis etry identical with Euclid's spherical geometry. There are no similar figures. . Space is finite. f any The sum of the angles of a triangle is always greater than 180. This whole explanation is. 80. Two perpendiculars erected at two different points on a line con- verge. lines cannot exist Similarly our notions of three-dimensional space may be due to limited experience. a comparatively large portion of this sphere. If they should. apparent planes would be spherical surfaces. 4. being in some cases identical. and an acquaintance with larger portions of the world so it is argued may show that space is curved. so full of difficulties and impossibilities that it has no scientific value. etc. 5. however. As long as such beings are acquainted only with a small portion of the sphere. but unbounded. that true straight that their world is finite and unbounded. f It is : and whose physical constitution does not allow them to perceive anything outside this spherical surface. and that their former geometry was not exactly They would construct a spherical geometry and recognize that what they considered straight lines arc really circles. it will be the plane Euclidean geometry. etc.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 55 mann obtains results that show a striking analogy to in others opposite. such a space would be finite and unbounded. true straight lines and planes could not exist. they would recognize that their world is a sphere. lines would be circles. frequently attempted to make the notion of curved space somewhat more plausible by the following considerations Imagine (if you can) two-dimensional beings who live on the surface of a huge sphere. however. a notion based to upon While Lobatschewsky's geometry did not lead * E. true. The area of a triangle 1 is proportional to the sum of its angles di- minished by 3. but whose consequences we can draw. a notion which we cannot imagine. they will consider their world a plane and if they construct any geometry.* those of Lobatschewsky. In such a space. become acquainted with . while his solid geometry involves curved space.g.

and removed thereby the above-mentioned objection. a surface of constant positive curvature its deformations. surface of constant negative curvature is either a pseudosphere or a surface that may be deformed so as to be applied to a pseudosphere. all three equally convenient for practical Modern view of geometric axioms.).50 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS contradictions. is is a sphere or any of a plane or any develop- able surface (as cone. however.* Thus we have three geometries. cannot possibly As the same conclusion can lead to any contradiction. be generally proved for his solid although not purposes. Beltrami showed that Lobatschewsky's two-dimensional geometry is identical with the geometry of figures that can be drawn on the so-called surfaces of constant negative curvature. all three equally true as far as logic can decide. there was the possibility that by further development hidden contradictions might be revealed. geometry. . The different two-dimensional geometries : may be represented in the following surface The mathematical expression for measurement of curvature radii of is RiRa where Ri and R2 are the principal normal curvature. A Similarly. and a surface of zero curvature etc. Riemann's work was not open to the only objection that could be made to Lobatschewsky's. Riemann's two-dimensional geometry. cylinder. The fact that different parallel axioms produce perfect logical systems * Soon afterward. being identical with the Euclidean spherical geometry.

we may say that Euclidean geometry is based upon experience or induction. partly Summary of the consequences of non Euclidean geometry. and the In opposite of which is unthinkable.* general acceptance of the Euclidean axiom in preference to non-Euclidean axioms is due to experience. Most mathematicians therefore consider geometric axioms as conven- tions. . but the study of these subadvantages.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS proves that 57 we have no logical reason for adopting Reasoning. is hardly tenable. It positively demonstrates that Euclid's postulates * This does not of course relate to the general axioms which have no geometric character. the knowledge of which precedes all experience. The view is not unfrequently expressed that non-Euclidean geometry or Metageometry as it is is a logical curiosity opposed to all sometimes called value. The Hence. the rationalists that the postulates are a priori facts. and without any mathematical As far as any knowledge of the real concerned this or other world is may be true. viz. tween the three parallel axioms and hence the view of . regard to the true nature of the axioms that pure geometry selects that it its axioms in we may say the same way chooses its definitions. unsupported by experiwould be absolutely unable to make a choice beence. . by accepting conven- tions that do not lead to contradictions. common sense. Euclid's postulate. without regarding in the least our physical experiences. jects has nevertheless distinct which are the following : some of i.

but by proving thatflure geometry cannot give us any knowledge of the real world. The best-known investigator in this field is possibly The Foundations of Geometry. Things which we per-' ceive to be obviously true by inspection of the diagram cannot be admitted without argument. and especially the true nature of the axioms. Other geometries.58 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS axioms. the foundations of geometry. It has either to be * Hilbert. The knowledge of of the rationalists that geometry gives us an a priori knowledge of the world has been met. Hilbert. and B be- The main tendency of tween A and C. Although some geometers were the three geometries as the only inclined to consider possible ones. however. Thus. while at present the problem belongs in the same class as the squaring of the circle.B. has been put on a much more scientific basis than before. for seeing is not demonstrating. 2. are so located that C lies between A and D. it was soon recognized that other axioms had been tems. Chicago. tacitly assumed whose denial this led to other sys- development* has been to put Euclidean as well as non-Euclidean geometries upon a stricter logical basis by freeing it from all elements of sense-perception. A. 1902. however. Such an argument. if four collinear points. or perpetual motion. The argument This has been accomplished. 3. Sec .C. not by following Mill's line of argument. could not be admitted in the rigorous geometry. then we can see that B lies between A and D. cannot be derived from the other Before Lobatschewsky mathematicians wasted a great deal of effort in the vain attempt to prove the impossible. D.

Paris. Band I. The mental laws must be identical with those of arithmetic. Grundlagen der Arithmetik. these systems. however. are not applicable at least not if we wish to retain our high standard of rigor. referred to Encyklopadie der : . almost speak of systems of logical symbols meaning and that do not lead to any THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ALGEBRA used in elementary algebra always represent numbers. however. non-numerical algebras. We may that have no applications. hence only a few illustrations are given above.* and hence this science may be considered an extension of arithmetic. The figures to which they refer. however. Schubert. not easy to recognize that certain laws are* tacitly assumed in all arithmetical operations. and free from empirical elements. other. or to the French edition of the same work Encyclopedic des sciences mathe'matiques pures et applique'es.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS demonstrated. In other words. have little in Thus we with the figures with which our senses have made and there is no rigorous proof that the results of such geometries agree with the results us familiar . may be admitted as an axiom. complete outline of this matter cannot of course be given in a few pages. and men added and * There t subtracted for many centuries without exist. while highly perfect from the point of view of logic. built upon numerous axioms. The reader is A Mathematischen Wissenschaften.! It is. or if 59 consistent with the other axioms. and its fundaletters The laws. Leipzig. Gauthier Villar. common of the geometry that refers to real spatial objects. obtain highly logical geometries.

g. (Distributive first: Law) we multiply units 8xio + 8x3 = 8x3 + 8x = 24 + 80 10 (Commutative Law) = (4 + 20) + 80 = 4 + (20 + 80) = 4 + 100 = 100 + 4. is 17 +8= 20 -f 5. 3 and 5. a . 5 . a+ (6 + c) = (a + 6)+ c. two parts. and add 3 we have: 17 + 8= + (3 + 5) = (i7 + 3)+ 5 = : 20 + 5. To obtain the 20 obviously divide 8 into Or.6O TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS recognizing these laws. (Associative Law) (Commutative Law) : of the most important laws for addition are The associative law. we must hence our ex ample to 17. to multiply 8 by 13 we have: 8x(io+3)=8x or. + b = b + a. Some The commutative law. until in the first half of the nineteenth century the investigations of English and French mathematicians revealed their existence.e. we have assumed the associative law Similarly. To show the assumption of some of these laws let us e. The number 25 is a symbol for 20-}- 17 + 8 = 25. 17 i. since 10 -1-8 x 3. consider a simple example of addition.

sollen die Zahlen. (ab)c a(b + c) = ab + ac. the results of addition and multiplication are onevalued multiplication and addition are always possible. real marily numbers of damental laws of According to the realistic view and is capable of giving us inMathematics is partly things. distributive law. theory of assemblages. and numbers represent priOur knowledge of the funthings. . Was sind und was E. for the explanation of which two theories have been elaborated. The mathematics refers formation about. but there are other laws. Torino. = ba. based upon experience. 1889. e.g. The formal view.g. is due to sense-perception. f t Peano.}: But all such investigations leave a remainder. to. : 61 The The associative law. Arithmetices principia nova methodo exposita. Braunschweig. and ultimately been made to all mathematics. realistic view. various attempts have account for them. 1. See Dedekind. 1888. Some mathematito cians have attempted derive some of these laws ones. viz.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS For multiplication The commutative law.f from the remaining ones or from other still simpler Others tried to derive them from more general concepts.* ab All arithmetical calculations consist of applications of these laws and of the multiplication and addition Since these laws underlie all algebra tables for units. The realistic view. algebra * The above illustrations are sufficient for our purpose. . = a(bc). : 2.

an inductive science. Any _ is particular arithmetic problem as ^ to + 6677 -I- c - or 5. in fact. what we would obtain if we added and f of a thing). d y are simply symbols which obey these laws. The formal view. for some numbers. its have roots partly if we can establish them Thus algebra is considered to in experience it is to some extent . a. that is independent of . and their meaning is not in the least determined or restricted etc. but solely by the fundamental laws. and not in consequence of any of its applications. like rigorous geometry. the letters jr. they do not mean Thus algebra. but mathematical induction enables us to prove that these laws are generally true. These laws are definitions. arithmetic and algebra. not solved by reference any real things (i.62 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS can see that : We 24-3 = = 3-7-2. and algebra is what it is in consequence of these definitions. . $ After the acceptance of the laws.e. the next diagram shows that 2x3 = 3x2: Of course we cannot see that 245 x 727= 727 x 245. b. by any possible application anything. if we observe the annexed diagram Similarly. c. This assumes the fundamental laws as the basis of.. becomes an abstract system of symbols that depends solely upon the arbitrarily assumed laws.

of Thus the tendency split modern investi- mathematics geometry as theory does not need such a demonstration. Comparison basis. The formal view more plied. and that has no connection with the real This system would be perfect if the consistency world. . Without applications it would never have been invented. without applications it would soon be forgotten.* But this proof has not been given. it produces on the other hand an algebra that is applicable. it would lose its value. and is not likely to be given. absolutely exact logical not applicable. clear that a But applications are the life of mathematics. but results cannot be directly apto demonstrate that this would be necessary is formal algebra a proof that in is identical with the applicable algebra. that Nobody mean nothing. It of algebra places the subject its upon a logical basis.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 63 experience. of the two views. The realistic view is not able to put every element of algebra upon a logical It must admit that mathematics contains a few elements of empirical character. all probability cannot be given. While this means the giving up of logical perfection. which Conclusion. of the fundamental laws could be proved. and which lead gations has been to * The realistic are connected by laws that mean to results that mean nothing. would care to study a system of symbols which is make algebra an nothing. since inconsistent principles will lead to contradictions. Hence if we could structure. since oper- ations with real things cannot lead to contradiction. For it symbolism based upon arbitrarily assumed laws cannot give any information about real things.

PEDAGOGIC CONCLUSIONS None of the facts relating to the foundations of mathematics has a place in secondary schools. Errors and assumptions hav . Everything in this formal science trary assumptions that are logical. The latter ence. upon arbi but that have no is built relation to real things.64 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS into well as algebra two parts. viz. but at the expense of its applicability. student must become acquainted with quite a number of mathematical facts and theories before he can understand nature. in Hilbert's planes have very little with real planes. A and appreciate investigations of so difficult a the attempts of some writers to present these matters to high school students cannot be Hence recommended. it would have little interest if there were no applicable mathematics. formal numbers are not common numbers of real things. But these facts do influence the teaching of mathematics indirectly. While the rigorous formal part has undoubtedly done a great deal to clear up many philosophical questions relating to mathematics. The modern investigations of the foundations of mathematics prove clearly that the sys- tem of geometry as found in school textbooks is not the absolutely rigorous system that a few decades ago it was believed to be. the applicable mathematics rigorous fprmal has been made exceedingly rigid and logical and has been freed from almost all elements of experi- and the mathematics.

for beginners. Thus we do not need to strive for absolute completeness when comschools. but have no great value are mentioned at all.THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 65 been shown to enter into many elements of that supstudy of the posedly flawless system of logic. . an excess of rigor is piling lists of axioms. of algebra if The fundamental laws out of place. A statement may be considered . that the perfect rigor exists only in his imagination. they they should be explained by means of concrete arithmetical In regard to the teaching of axioms in high examples. an axiom even if it can be deduced from other axioms and a common sense reason may sometimes be given when technically an axiom should be quoted. foundations of mathematics will convince the teacher A who insists upon a repetition of every word of his geo- metric gospel.

Die Axiome t The view that der Mathematik) may not be generally true. facilitates the rilaterals. although little used by modern writers on logic. the nearest class to which i. thing.* For treatises on logic the purposes of elementary mathematics.e. which are more easily " A concise account of the essential and understood " (De Morgan) " characteristic properties of a thing . and the the particularities that distinguish specific difference. definition is the designation of tJie proximate genus and the specific difference. Complete classification of a set of terms frequently ." and the base is a parallelo: is definition Among the more widely known may be mentioned the explaining of a term by means of others. is exceedingly useful. it is advisable to represent 66 . the old scholastic definition. A To define a term we must state the proximate it belongs. viz. i. but it is certainly useful in mathematics. description or an explana" tion of a word.e. Thus in defining quada complete scheme of classification on the blackboard in which each kind of figure finds its proper place. allelopiped the proximate genus specific difference is the fact that * is its "prism. however.CHAPTER V DEFINITIONS LOGICAL ASPECTS OF DEFINITIONS What is a definition ? The number of ways of de- " " is as large as the number of definition fining the term and the number of dictionaries. "A "A (Standard Dictionary) etc. " all definition is classification" (Erdman. f Thus for a par- genus. it from all others of the same genus. or symbol that distinguishes it from all others . understanding of their meaning.

Common genus i. Errors in genus. nor a triangle as a portion of a plane. however. the nearest one. nor a parallelepiped as a polyedron. Hence a parallelepiped is a parallelogram. Similarly. vertices "An lie inscribed polygon whose in a circumference. while the statement.e. polygon and whose sides is a is redundant. Hence it is wrong to define a pentagon as a plane figure bounded by five straight lines. it Such a definition either involves a theorem or parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are equal and parallel" involves a theorem. Redundancy. If the vertices lie in the circumference. The statement. " A a spherical quadrilateral whose sides are equal and whose angles are right angles/' gives differences that are incompatible. the sides must are chords. Redundancy. a parallelogram must not be classified as a polygon. dancies. is particularly objectionable if the differences which are given are not obviously compatible. and vice versa. for the nearest genus is the polygon." necessarily be chords. nor an octaedron as a solid. and hence refers to a Certain time-honored redunfigure that cannot exist. Errors in the differentia.DEFINITIONS 67 a prism whose base is gram. i. since two differences are each of which is the consequence of the other. "A spherical square is defines an impossible thing. in a definition. etc. errors. such as the usual definitions of rhom- . given. however. The given in a definition must be the proximate. 2. Neither more nor fewer differences must be given than are necessary to determine precisely the meaning of the term.

. can be justified. . etc." a polyedron whose faces are equal polygons. "A rectangle is a parallelogram whose definition. when clearer mental definition. so all must ultimately be based upon a few exHence there exist a number ceedingly simple ones. algebra. It is angles are right angles. for secondary schools latter is consequently very small. perpendicularity of line and plane. A regular polyedron is nearly al- ways defined regular equal. gen- names. prism. Two all classes of eral class terms are most difficult to define. geometry. The former can be formulated and appreciated only by advanced students who really know what these terms mean and their importance . and the slight error made may be easily corrected The the corresponding theorem is studied. as mathematics. theorems rest finally upon a number supposedly self-evident definitions propositions or axioms. rectangle. since they convey at once to the student a clear notion of the true shape of the figure. functions. but it gives a image of the figure than does the correct doubtful whether the redundancies that are chapters of the sometimes used in more advanced geometry for the purpose of avoiding difficult proofs. direction. inherent in certain definitions. The of we shall consider at all Just as somewhat greater length.'' is redundant. as line. etc. and very fundamental terms. viz.68 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS bus. and whose polyedral angles are The equality of the polyedral angles follows as " from the fact that Difficulties faces are equal regular polygons. plane. are justifiable on pedagogic grounds.

are defined in A textbooks and are taught in most schools. It : . If a figure moves (rotates) is based upon the following consideration while two points in a line remain fixed.* " A line that has the same direcmonly given definition. and makes use of distance.g. tion throughout its length. often claimed that the well-known definition given by Gauss But aside irom the fact that scientific objections have been made. all of which upon Thus the comanalysis prove to be faulty. definitions all . " A straight line is a line determined by two points. it is one that has no value for secondary school work. which is also two points. a term based upon straight line. may think of other lines. for it is utterly unintelligible to the beginner. in the widely which line." involves the term direction. direction. which are either not capable " diffiof definition or which are hard to define from the culty of finding ideas more simple and intelligible than Most of these are accepted the ones to be defined.DEFINITIONS 69 of terms. plane. but a theorem. such as space. the minimum circle. etc. if the phrase should have for him any meaning at all." is not a definition. typical example of this kind is represented definitions by the various appear closer of a straight line which used textbooks.." and who. a few. " " determined by e. who does not know the technical meaning of the phrase "determined by. boundary. is * It absolutely exact. however." without nearly Line. is Similarly all other definitions contain flaws. position." is possibly the most absurd of all of them. The definition. the line is a straight one if all its points are motionless while all the rest of the figure moves. straight line. is The not simpler or rpore self-evident than straight " statement. straight line is the shortest dis- A tance between two points.

. the statement that space between two is one infinity is twice or thrice difficulties another infinity. but only the (partial) boundary of such a space. rotation. direction. or angles greater than 360. an angle is not a space (it is not grasp. " advertised definition. Usually the word " " angle is defined by using terms like inclination. etc. Angle. or are vague and almost meaningless statements.70 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS relate to They motion and involve the notion of time. An infinite space. however. whose meaning is either not clearer than the meaning of angle. certainly will lead to that are beyond the student's Moreover. and undoubtedly the best policy would be to accept this term without definition. reflex or faultiness of applied straight angles. Often an angle is defined as the lines. The incompleteness of angles usually to many definitions becomes apparent when they are angles.f is the simplest liae possible.* There exists no flawless definition of straight line which is fit for school use. Undoubtedly the idea of rotation furnishes a splendid explanation of what an angle is. measured in square units). Similar difficulties are encountered in the formulation of a definition of angle. etc. but not a formal definition. or which imply mechanical notions. it is most unpedagogical for the reason discussed on page 74. Moreover.g.g. a most peculiar idea for a beginner. and the comparison of several infinite spaces. diver- gence. * t E. a straight line The widely . An angle is the figure formed by two straight lines diverging from a point. e. This test shows the limitations of the definitions that are bas^d upon inclination. direction." has the same drawback.

in turn. I passing through a on another straight line. " plane is the locus of a point equidistant from two fixed points" involves "locus. and the only way to justify its acceptance would be to consider it as a geometric axiom or postulate. needs plane for its explanation. etc. 71 the term Similarly no definition of plane from objections. " A surface that in fts entire extent has only two dimensions" is vague an. __ obtained would be impossible to make by joining AB and CD. The commonly used definition of a plane is a theorem. No be usually defined as the bounddoubt certain surfaces are boundaries of solids. Surface. as for instance the surface represented in the annexed dia- gram * (Mobius is leaf). the opposite sides It of a rectangle. " The sum total of all perpendiculars that " can be drawn to a given line at a given point (Fourier) makes use of the term perpendicular. it generates a plane" uses mechanical ideas and leads to difficulties when the moving and the fixed line meet at infinity. A surface ary of a solid." a term that is studied A much later. fixed point slides uses dimension. " If a straight line There exists no exact definition of the is term plane. so that the lower end of each line touches the upper end B C . * This surface of the other. but there are others which cannot considered such. which. and the endeavors of some of the greatest mathematicians to formulate such exists that is free a definition have proved to be futile..DEFINITIONS Plane.

espe- cially those of philosophic character. between a binomial and a trinomial. we cannot base the definition of surface it upon the boundary notion.72 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS boundary of a which solid. is this surface the solid. as becomes ap< parent if we attempt to color that side of the surface in contact with the side while leaving the other white. but mq the limit of a solid of vanishing thickness a notion that cannot be considered for school work. PEDAGOGIC ASPECT OF THE DEFINITION Pedagogic value of formal definitions. can be fully comprehended by persons who are not tions of these terms. but on grounds of the " logical train- . the terms used are so definite that misunderstandings about their meaning will scarcely ever arise on account of lack of good formal definitions. not on account of the importance of knowing these definitions. to be rigorous. between a trapezoid and a parallelogram. The difference between a straight line and a curved line. errors Indefinite and variable use of technical terms has been a source of and misunderstandings in many down sciences. In elementary mathematics. however. and consequently exact definitions the absolute necessity of laying has frequently been pointed out. familiar with the formal defini- The great emphasis put upon the teaching of formal definitions in secondary schools is therefore usually de- fended. The surface has Hence consider if we attempt only one side.

DEFINITIONS " 73 ing it is said to give. the giving of definition is simply the verbatim repetition of a a number of words. They would be studied. A definition is not necessarily an explanation. but which they afford. While it must be admitted that this study could be made such a training in logic. and not the starting point of the study of a term. A logical definition is a description that distinguishes a thing from all others. Formal definitions would then form the end. but we should not forget that not all definitions are fit merely for the practice in formal logic for such exercises. it seems that the value of formal definitions is greatly overrated. Such work would undoubtedly have a certain value. and that the matter is really some- what foreign elementary to and not necessary for the study of Hence the study of formal geometry. not for the purpose of conveying to the students the meaning of a word or thing. it is unfortunately very seldom developed in such a way in our schools. but it is obvious that such an identification does not necessarily explain the true nature and the real character of the thing. In a large number of cases. To judge from the definitions prominence given to set this topic by most examination papers by examination boards and colleges. should not be overdone. it is were able to evident that he could do so only after he had acquired a clear notion of the thing be defined. Even assuming do this. It enables us to recognize and to identify a certain thing as such. We . sary to To be make the to a logical exercise. it would be neces- students themselves formulate these that the average student definitions.

of the term "angle" are to say the Such an able mathematician as Professor . and a number of students who can reason logically fail because they are slow in acquiring a full and clear understanding of the space-concepts. On the contrary it is most essential for further study. Formal definitions are often Taking this fact in connection with the firmly ac- quired habit of students of accepting and repeating words without understanding their meaning. the value of formal definitions is. Hence. and every new term should be fully explained and essential its meaning illustrated Familiarity with technical terms one prerequisites for by concrete examples. but it would not give us the slightest notion of what to really constitutes an angle." This definition may enable us to recognize an angle as such. it must not be inferred therefrom that the study of terms in general may be neglected. but not to an understanding of its true character. leading to identification of a thing. explanations of terms are really more important than definitions. of the most Small as effective study. It would not enable us work. apply this concept to further purely external. Others again have difficulties in retaining such notions even mon least they originally understood them. It is a comexperience to find in the upper classes students if whose notions hazy. without having a clear notion of its meaning. it is not surprising that students may know a formal definition of a word.74 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS accept the following statement as a definition of an " An angle is a figure formed by two rays divergangle may : ing from a point.

not yet biased against the Do not kill off the natural interest by emphasizing words. of such A few illustrations methods will be given in the following sections. and that the names call up automatically the proper mental images. He brings with him a considerable amount of curiosity that produces interest. rarely produce that with terms that is absolutely necescomplete familiarity sary for placing a student in the most favorable position for attacking demonstration work." A single explanation of a term will terms must be made so familiar to the student that he can recognize the nature of a diagram in any position without any mental effort.DEFINITIONS 75 six Minchin narrates that he studied books of Euclid without knowing the real meaning of the word "angle. and yet. The attitude of the student to- ward any new subject is usually one that ought to make the introductory work in geometry comparatively easy. a few weeks after. To have only " one difficulty at a time. The methods for obtaining such familiarity with technical terms consist principally in the solution of simple exercises referring to these terms." It is a very easy matter to make every student in a class understand the meaning of the term "similar " polygon in the . THE TEACHING OF THE INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS General remarks. and making the student repeat phrases which he does not under- . He is subject by previous bad experiences. some students same class will believe that mutually equiangular polygons are similar.

Do method as far as possible. and another one below the black. Unfortunately the English language has no generally accepted term and the terms used by some authors. It would be a mistake to men- tion in a secondary school the difficulties that are inhe- To rent in such definitions as surface. MMK R line AB. and a line is a boundIn particular. make the recitation lively and interesting. line. and a bad start might unfit the student for further work. as CD. definite * not define straight line. but assume it as an ultiPoint out the distinction between a line oi and a line of indefinite length. as the boundary between a window pane and air. Do mate term. Lines of definite -^ length have ends marked by little cross marks. and try to avoid the impression that geometry is a study of words. have serious objections. point out that in the ary of a surface.g. The writer uses a graphic way of pointing A @ ' 123 out this difference.* for a line of definite length. the beginner a surface is a boundary. Surfaces and lines. e. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS not insist upon a verbatim recitation of Do not dwell too long upon difficult every terms that are used very little. as indefinite length have no such marks. The difficulties which were discussed in the preceding chapter are very pronounced in the study of the introductory definitions. Use the heuristic definition. etc.76 stand. AB . but the boundary between white and black is is a geometric line that there a line above the black. segment. of a line (as the annexed one) not the black diagram ^ mmmummm^ wm i^|^ . plane. while lines oi .

. 1. Hence such . by using a a material contrivance that actually shows a rotation of line. 77 Explain an angle as a rotation. better.* " Most exercises of the following list " * The found in this book are given principally to assist originals the teacher in framing for himself questions of this kind. Laboratory Exercises. of different sizes. As the student's familiarity pointed out in the preceding such familiarity cannot be obtained by the study of words. 2. does not depend upon the length of the sides. several pairs A hands of a toy watch. Three classes of exercises are available at this stage of the work. pair of compasses. I. adjacent angle. " Numerical exercises involving the term " angle and related terms. the and hence the angle. section. requesting him to name various figures which are drawn at the board. etc. One is of the most essential prerequisites for further study with technical terms. and that the amount of rotation. and (6) in terms. or even a book may be used effectively to show that an angle is generated by a rotation. Drawing Exercises. etc. viz. as an acute having angle. but by actual work involving these The simplest exercises would consist (a) in the student draw the various figures.: Numerical Exercises. reflex angle. and explain the meaning of straight with the notion angle. Such illustrations will show clearly what an angle really is. Methods of angle of familiarizing the student and related terms. obtuse angle. or.DEFINITIONS Angle. 3. Then should follow exercises of more complex character.

P. 15 min. assigned usually not .. 2 revolutions. etc.? Ex.. should be done quickly and orally the teacher drawing the diagram at the blackboard and assigning numerical values at random. A few of the more difficult problems for written may be home work. if more should be needed. to.78 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS . How large is each angle at the center if a pie is divided 5.? Ex. and S. Ex. Over an angle of how many degrees does a spoke of a wheel sweep when the wheel makes \ of a revolution. teacher who has had no previous A experience should make himself quite familiar with such questions in order to be able to extemporize such problems whenever necessary. into 5. or such as the teacher in the class. 45 min.. i hr. etc.* (Request answers in various units..30. \ of a revolution. What northeast. a.) as. Over what angle does the large hand of a watch sweep in 10 min..M. wards N. and N. straight angles.W. etc. 8. it is a very simple matter to enlarge the list.N. Ex. It is. . necessary to solve every exercise of the following set and on the other hand. are stated with the utmost brevity.. 6..W. 2. degrees. Exercises to familiarize the student with the nature of the angle. towards N. equal parts? exercises only are given as relate to books. 30 min. angle is formed by lines drawn towards north and towards S.. ? Ex. 4 i . many exercises . Find the angles formed by the hands of a clock at I P. 6.M. of course. 4. 3. etc. is work generally neglected in textfrequently called upon to extemporize * In order not to increase the bulk of this work unduly.. and S. right angles.E. etc.E.

to Ex. \ rt Ex. of A OF is a straight of line. 9. Supplementary angles and straight angles. 79 Addition and subtraction of angles . b -f c. Z.COD. Ex. b. 8. a + to b -f c. adjacent angles. 30. In a similar diagram a Find Z^. 12. Which angles are adjacent to Z. Read by three letters : Z#. Find a. r. etc. ii. Ex. Find the supplement of 60. id and = 80. etc. c + d. 6. 10. if the supplement of Za. 10. Ex. ). In a similar diagram AOE = b c 120 and a = b = c d. which angle is In the annexed diagram. ? . 7. ol AOD^ Z (a + ^ (0 + ^ -f c -f O. Ex.BOC. etc.DEFINITIONS b. Ex.

AOC. d. Assign values to Require values of a. e a. and and/" = 20. Ex. etc. In a diagram similar to the preceding : Assign to : numerical the or literal angles in Require the this angles below: value of the column a. All angles formed at a point. c. e d BOD c FOD and require = = d=e.a Ex. a e etc.d AOC. c. Qr\eia = b c. b. C) Reflex Z AOC Z. b y d e AOD. Z. Complementary angles and right angles lead to ques- tions quite similar to the preceding set. if a = b = c = d.AOC. 14.b etc. b 15. In a diagram similar to the preceding one. c. d e a. b. <z.b a.) e. =c =d=e etc. find Find .8o TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS A Ex. b. = (Make Z AOF 90. if a= 40. d Reflex A OE Reflex Z. d. b. values 13. .

d. Ex. c. 1 6.DEFINITIONS 8l To practice the term " vertical angles" and to make some more difficult calculations.f d. (The theorem of vertical angles should not be assumed for these questions. d. e + d. If AD.d AOC. DOF. BOD t + Ex. BOD AOC a. a b. : a. COE (Similarly for 4 or 5 intersecting lines. 17.) b BOD . Assign values Require values a AOE. and CF are straight lines meeting at O f A B find the vertical angles of each of the following angles COE. e. c f. c. c.) f.e b a. BE.f b.

20. 24. 22.g. The following exerstage of the cises are based upon two constructions. 18.ABC and require the value of DBE. A ABC and DBE. Derive (by induction) from the preceding exercise a Ex. 19. Form three exercises corresponding to Exs. at this 2. 24. m) to one of a pair of adjacent complementary angles. 27. Draw two right angles ABD and CBE. 25. general relation between 26. Ex. 21. result Prove the preceding by making Z. in Ex. (a) the bisec- tion of an angle. 18 find (by induction) a general by the bisectors of a pair of comple- mentary adjacent angles. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS To become familiar with 1 the term "bisecting!* the bisectors of a pair of complementary adjacent various numerical values to one of these two angles. Ex. 19. Assign numerical values to Z. 18. . Modify Exs. Form similar exercises for the bisectors of a pair of vertical angles. it is an easy matter to show them. prove that their bisectors always include an angle of 45. 25. 26. 8. and 20 for the bisector of an acute angle and the bisector of the reflex angle formed by its sides. without proof. By assigning a literal value (e. Form three exercises corresponding to Exs. 19. Ex. 20 for a pair of supplementary adjacent angles. Ex. Although students work are not acquainted with any problems of construction. Ex. and () the construction of an angle equal to a given angle.ABC = m. Draw Ex. From truth about the angles formed the result of Ex. angles. each adjacent to an angle ABC. Drawing exercises. Ex.82 g. by drawing one or both perpen- diculars in a direction opposite to the one assumed Ex. some simple constructions upon which drawing exercises may be based. 24. 23. and Ex. assign and require the angle formed by the bisectors.

45 30'. A and Z. Z + (90 2 A. etc. 4 A + B. Z (A -f B). Laboratory exercises. . 29. etc. Construct the supplement of a given Z. 40. d + d*. 2 draw angles : -f- A. Hardly any other work impresses upon a student the true meaning of an angle as well as the actual measurement by means of a protractor its or transit instrument. A + ?. of A . jgo - A. . . 41 . Ex. 3A + 45*. 67 Draw If angles of 90. l + B. (6) 8 equal parts. Ex. etc. 225. 2 : 43. Draw Draw the complement of A 24 . 37. Construct the supplement of the complement of a given acute angle. Ex. Z~.^ + 2. Construct one half the complement of a given acute angle. 3. Divide a given angle into {a) 4. 31. 30. of *B . y 42. B are given angles. 2A$B) Ex. Draw the supplement of 2 A. Ex. Ex. 35 Ex. 34. Construct a perpendicular to a given line at a given point. Ex. (90 + B). 36. A %. of Ex. Ex.etc. the vertical angles of the following angles A. ^). 32. Construct one half the supplement of /. draw (180 39. so small as to make Since the cost of a protractor is use possible in every school. 28. 45. Ex. 4^-90% . Construct a right angle. Construct the complement of a given acute angle.A. an obtuse angle. a reflex angle. Ex. Ex. this . 270. - A). 38. |) Ex. and B are given angles. of A + B * * A -. 83 Bisect an acute angle. 33. Ex. Construct the complement of the supplement of a given If obtuse angle. 22 135.DEFINITIONS Ex. Z (180 30'. a straight angle. 360 - 3 A.A. A + B. of 90 .

75. may be used for two classes of exercises. Z B . 44. 48 Ex. AB = a quadrilateral i inch. inch. It is possible to solve by drawing many problems that are usually given in trigonometry. etc. (c) 2j inches. 49. Ex. 47. having 120. Draw a triangle having one side equal to two adjacent (nearest) angles equal to 40 and 70. 170. 51.70. etc. Otherwise students will not see the necessity of using ruler and compasses for constructing an angle of 135. a protractor gives the result so general. Z. BC = ij inches. AAC C. Ex. 88. Ex. having AB = inches. Construct an angle of 20. (b) i\ inches. and measure Z Ex. such as the finding of heights. Draw a Draw quadrilateral ABCD ZC= Z =B 100. I Ex. inches. 45. the protractor etc. A . 280. 145. (b) Ex. those that require (a) the construction of some angle. inch. 50. BC = 2 48. /. ABCD having A= 100. B = 70. and AB (a) i inch. the measurement of angles.50. but merely drawing. 46. the teacher cannot be too emphatic in pointing out that work done with this instrument is not true geometric work. although such a detailed . BC and measure Z D. Draw Try C= 75.. ZJS = 80. B= 90. 250. 2 inches. tor. widths of rivers. to get some general and 49 (by induction). 50.84 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS In using a protracinstrument only will be discussed. inch and the Draw a quadrilateral ABCD CD = having i AB = 70. Z C = 100. In triangle ABC measure Z C if /. I inch. 2 A= AB = A= I Ex. truths from Exs. viz. however.. when In much more : easily.

etc. a measurable increase of the student's math* cmatical knowledge is sometimes chiefly aimed at. also be able to name or of quickly the other angle. paper folding. graphic methods.* FURTHER ILLUSTRATIONS OF TEACHING DEFINITIONS Angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal.. corresponding. cross-section paper.DEFINITIONS 85 statement would rather belong to a course in concrete geometry than to a course in demonstrative geometry. He in should be able to recognize angles of the same kinds diagrams that are incomplete. of is alternate-interior. if one of a pair of a pair etc. . etc. mentioned. But to stop here would be insufficient. One of the chief functions of such courses should be the thorough familiarization of students with the geometric concepts.. Thus a student should recognize * In some school systems concrete geometry is taught in the grammar schools as a preparation for the demonstrative courses in the high school. should Unfortunately. In studying the annexed diagram. however. with the resulting dislike of the student for the subject. or that are complicated tional lines. use of make the student thoroughly familiar with geometric terms. the student should of course be able to recognize quickly as the relations of such pairs of angles He should I and 5. consist of Such a course should "doing" and not learning facts. special by addiemphasis being placed upon dia- grams that occur later. angles. the making of plane and solid models. counting. and give him a store of ideas to draw from in demonstrative work. Drawing. 3 and 6.

g. as. CD.86 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS diagrams the character of angles and 6. 5 /V 10J L L 7 y r Projections. The student should be M I ^ N X Y to construct projections of various lines. He should construct the Q \ H -M- X \ . etc. e.> AB. The mere reference to the annexed able diagram is not sufficient. I in the following 2. EF 9 GH. 3 anc and 4. upon line XY.

AB BC B AB upon BC. and construct similar figures in an obtuse triangle. upon upon the other sides. . etc.DEFINITIONS various sides of an acute triangle projections of upon AC. as 87 ABC AC..

these propositions state facts which are so self-evident that the beginner does not see the That right angles are equal. To the beginner such 88 proofs fre- quently appear as unintelligible. . or that only one perpendicular to a given line can be drawn at a given point. proofs of exceedingly simple facts are often difficult. such as " or " the complements of equal angles angles are equal are equal." are frequently designated preliminary propo- These preliminary propositions have certain peculiarities which make them less adapted to produce sitions. necessity of proving them. an understanding of geometry than are the theorems that follow. are facts so obvious that their certainty does not appear to strations of become greater by demon- any sort. but rather that many artificial devices. The mental preliminary The most " funda- straight propositions in geometry.CHAPTER PECULIARITIES OF VI THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY THE PRELIMINARY PROPOSITIONS propositions. and hence it is not surprising of the demonstrations given for the preliminary propositions are not the same simple deductions that are usually employed in geometry. In the first place. In the second place. complicated statements.

Whether or not the student can fully comprehend the presentation seems to be a matter of minor importance with some authors.THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY the truth of which is 89 far more doubtful than that of the theorems to be proved. Since ." so these dogmatists " the student will be hopelessly led into the habit claim. and the remainders (CBD and CBD ) must be equal. undoubtedly and the complexity of the preliminary propositions as given in a great many In proving. Usual mode is Although absolute rigor utterly unattainable when presenting this subject in a secondary school. from the of slipshod thinking from which no further training can is redeem him. training in logic first day on. are equal. for instance. " We must have rigor. same straight some textbooks terior pro- duce one of the exsides (AB) through the vertex." This striving for rigor responsible for the highly artificial character textbooks. otherwise. of presentation. absolute exactness. many textbooks sacrifice pedagogic considerations in the attempt to present the preliminary propositions rigorously. and demonstrate that the prolongation (BD ) must coincide with the other exterior side 1 (BD) somewhat as follows : The two angles (ABD and ABD \ l being both straight angles. that the exterior sides (BA and and BD) of CBD) are supplementary adjacent angles in (ABC the line. 1 Subtract from these equal angles the angle ABC.

90
angles

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

and CBD' are equal and have one sidfe (BC) common, their other sides (BD and BD') must
coincide, etc.

CBD

Such a proof

is

intended to introduce a student into
!

the spirit of geometry Hundreds, if not thousands, of students have been obliged to "know" this proof, i.e.
to

know

for

by heart, nobody can comit

prehend

it

fully.

If the equality of

the large angles

(ABD

and

ABD )
1

is

admitted at the very

start,

does

not the coincidence of

BD

from these angles,

in precisely the

and BD' follow directly same way as from

the last pair of angles (CBD and CBD')? What is the object of obtaining the three equations, and subtracting

But even this simplification would equals from equals ? not make the proof free from objections. Why is one of the exterior sides produced at all ? Does not the
definition of a straight angle, without

any further proof,
lie

establish the fact "that the exterior sides

in a straight

line?

In a similar spirit many books extend arguments that could be stated in three lines to a length of a page or

more, but at the same time commit some blunder that
invalidates the entire argument.*
*

An

proof of the theorem
ular can be

instance of this kind, found in a widely used text, is a very long From a point without a line, only one perpendic:

drawn upon the

line.

The proof

rests

upon the

fact that a

certain pair of equal adjacent angles cannot be right angles,

and

this

again

is

demonstrated by reference to the diagram in which accidentally

THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY

Ql

geometry convince everybody that it is almost impossible to avoid minor inaccuracies in this work, and that considslight
*vill

A

knowledge

of the foundations of

erations that

seem

to

be absolutely flawless

fail

when
ex-

scrutinized in the light of

modern knowledge.

An

ample

of this sort is a proof frequently given for the

proposition

upon AB assumed that

perpendicular can always be erected at the point A. To prove this assertion, it is
:

One

AB

can be rotated about
its

A

until

it

forms

a straight line with

original position.
it

natural as this assumption appears,

Simple and cannot be defended

upon purely logical grounds, and a perfectly consistent geometry has been constructed which rejects this possi<
bility.*

Of course many
is

will reply

"
:

But we can see
is

that such a rotation

possible."

This, however,

just

the point.

not exact mathematical argument. " Another weakness of these " rigorous books is the

"

"

Seeing

is

assumption of certain theorems, which are by no means more self-evident than those upon which so
silent

much time and work

are expended.

It is

inexcusable,

the dogmatists tell us, to assume that at a given point but the same only one perpendicular can be drawn
;

do not hesitate to assume that every angle has an assumption which includes as only one bisector a special case the proposition of the perpendicular just
critics

mentioned.
the prolongation of one exterior side of one of the angles does not coin
cide with the exterior side of the other angle equivalent to assuming the entire proof.

an assumption which

i

*

Poincar, Science and Hypothesis, p. 46.

92

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

In the hands of a judicious teacher, the harm done by a dogmatic text will be comparatively small, but
unfortunately some teachers try to outdo the textbook, and often extend this "absolute exactness'* to the mode

Every minor detail must be given exactly, and the conventional arrangement must be absolutely adhered to. As students are usually unable to do this
of reciting.
after

one
"

recitation, those
until

again and again
"

demonstrations are repeated nearly every student gives a

perfect

recitation.

It would of course be absurd to speak against exactness of detail in general, but this is not the place where 'Exactness in form should be the it should be taught.

result of exactness of thinking

;

and

if

this latter

can be

attained, the former will follow as a natural consequence.

EFFECT UPON THE STUDENT*

To appreciate Wrong impressions at the very start. the difficulties which dogmatic teaching puts into the way of the beginner, we have to realize that the student
has to deal here with entirely new ideas, and with methods of reasoning that he never employed before.
It is
is

a

difficult

task for the student, even

if

the subject

to give

compelled presented pedagogically. an absolutely exact account of logical montrosities, it becomes practically impossible for him to understand,

But when he

is

and

his failure here, in the beginning, will often

affect his
his

whole attitude toward the subject and toward The student will receive a wrong im future work.
*

Compare Chapter

III,

The Dogmatic Method.

THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY

93

He will not see pression of what geometry really is. that it is a field for thinking, for invention, for discovery, but he will consider it a system of hair-splitting
invented by pedantic schoolmasters for the annoyance of unfortunate students.
devices,

Loss of interest.

study things that

normal pupil does not care to he cannot understand, and conse-

A

quently he will frequently acquire a dislike for the And it is the more intellisubject at the very start.

gent to

whom

such work becomes most distasteful.

Naturally the interest, which he had during the first hours on account of the novelty of the subject, will soon decrease; and in many cases this interest, this prime
stimulus to further good work, will disappear entirely.
effect of

The most harmful upon mode of study. an extreme dogmatic presentation of the preliminary theorems will be the effect upon the student's
Effect

mode of study. The student, as pointed out above, is unable to see the meaning and the necessity of this socalled rigor. All he can see is that his recitation is never
satisfactory

unless

it

is

absolutely identical with the
;

consequently he studies his demonstrations by heart, and he and his teacher are satisfied. By studying in this way, the student begins

statement in the textbook

to

form a habit which

will

prove to be the most formi-

dable barrier to his further understanding of geometry.

He is led to study by using his memory mechanically, instead of relying upon his reasoning power, and it such a habit is once formed, it often makes a pupil unsuccessful in his entire mathematical work.

94
Importance
etry.
It
is

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
of initiating students properly into

geom

peculiar that in regard to the study of many students are likely to take extreme geometry Either they like the subject very much, and positions.

do good geometric work or they dislike it extremely, and are then usually unable to do the work properly,
;

although a great deal of memorizing and cramming may disguise this fact. But there is very little middle

The start in geometrical study quite often ground. determines these likes and dislikes, and hence every teacher should try his best to initiate the pupils properly.
After a student once wakes up to the true meaning, and the beauty and simplicity of mathematics, his But there further study is more pleasure than work.
are innumerable students

who

pass through the entire

high school without ever becoming really initiated into mathematical work. Their studies are painful labors,
that produce no beneficial and lasting results.

RATIONAL METHODS OF PRESENTING THE PRELIMINARY PROPOSITIONS
Theorems.
If
it

is

impossible to introduce a text-

book that presents the matter simply and briefly, the teacher should depart from the text, and simplify
matters.
ture,
it

If
is

the students are very young and immaadvisable not to give proofs for

some

of

these simple theorems, but to assume them as axiomatic.

assumed that all right angles are equal, there can certainly be no objeo
If

we remember

that even Euclid

THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY
tion to

95

assuming

this or a similar

theorem

in a

second

ary school.

Whenever
and short as

proofs are given, make them as simple possible, and do not wrap the ideas under-

" Right lying these proofs in a mass of technicalities. halves of straight angles, are equal, for angles, being

the halves of equals are equal/' and similar statements may not be absolutely accurate, but are sufficient to the beginner, to
ingless.

whom any

greater accuracy

is

mean-

As

a rule

it is

not necessary to insist upon the con-

ventional form in which these matters are represented.

Teach the conventional form later, possibly after the propositions on equal triangles, and be satisfied if the students grasp and know the ideas involved in the proofs
of the preliminary propositions.

Do

sitions.

not dwell too long upon these preliminary propoThe longer the teacher dwells upon these and
class will

similar simple subjects, the less the

under-

many students will after a while suspect difficulties where they do not exist, and will become utterly
stand, for

confused.
Exercises.

the meaning

of these theorems
It is

Familiarize the student thoroughly with and give them as many

applications as possible.

somewhat

difficult in this

connection to form a great many good exercises, but some can be formed. For instance, to familiarize the
student with the fact that complements of the same angle or equal angles are equal, the following exercises

may be

used.

96
Ex.
I.

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
If

ABC
the

and A'B'C are

right angles,

and Zi

=

Z2>

prove that

Z 3 = Z 4.
In

Ex.

2.
;

same diagram
I

Z3 = Z4
A

prove

Z

= Z 2.

ABBC,

A'B'

B'C, and

C
Exs.
x

B'

(k

C'

B
Exs. 3 and 4

and 2

Ex. Ex.
that

3.

If

ABJLCD

and Zi

= Z2,
if

prove

4.
I

Z

=

In the same diagram Z2.

AB J. CD

Z3 = Z4and Z3 = Z4,

prove

is

EX.S. IfZ ABC a right angle, and
is

B

ZA

the complei,

ment of Z

prove

Ex. 5 Ex. 6. If DEC and ABE are right angles, prove thatZ

i

=Z 2.
and
Ex. 6

Ex. 7. If A$ and 4 are

ABC

is

a

st.

Z,

Zi=Z2,
Z5 = Z6.

ri.^A, prove that

Ex.

8.

If -<4/?

and CZ? are

straight lines

and

^2

and 6 are right

angles, prove that

Z3 = Zs.

Ex. 7

Ex.8

THE FIRST PROPOSITIONS IN GEOMETRY
In a similar
equal angles,
of the
to

97

way

exercises for the supplements of

etc.,

can be formed.

In particular the

exercise that corresponds to Ex.

same

the supplements angle formed by producing its sides, leads
6, viz.

the theorem of vertical angles.

To-day most some time to but the manner in which this schools devote principles. or at the learning of proofs and the ability to do simple original instruction thinking ? Not so very long ago geometric was con- fined entirely to the former. the learning of textbook demonstrations. is sometimes done can be said to be consistent with sound pedagogic hardly First of all there seems to exist a kind of superstition that the beginner cannot think for himself until he has 98 . ing the details of such work it becomes necessary to decide what subject matter must form the bulk of our instruction if we accept the aims of mathematical Should teaching that are laid down in Chapter II. while exercises requiring original thought were practically excluded. The preced- ing chapters may be considered as preparatory to the Before discussteaching of demonstrative geometry.CHAPTER VII THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY GENERAL REMARKS Book proposition or original exercise. original exercise work. the principal part of the work consist of the study of textbook propositions at or the solution of exercises ? Should we aim chiefly constructions. viz.

work. Some go first an entire course in plane geometry without exercises. and that thinking . a useful but first Thus superfluous appendix that has no close connection with the rest of the work. " In accordance with this view some " standard text- books do not give any exercises on the first forty or fifty pages. or shall.THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY 99 mastered a considerable number of formal propositions. It seems to the author that such a view of originals is To make the exercise an unimporentirely erroneous. Only original thinking represents true geometric If we concede that it is power and not knowl- edge that makes the mathematician. quite commonly originals are considered as a kind of supplement. tant supplement indicates an absolute lack of understandand we may ing of the true function of such work almost say of the entire object of mathematical instruction. regular book demonstrations should follow as by-products of such a course. REASONS FOR MAKING THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE THE PRINCIPAL SUBJECT MATTER OF GEOMETRIC INSTRUCTION i. and some instructors for several months confine even farther and recommend themselves to textbook information solely." Similarly some textbooks state in their prefaces that all exercises may. and then a review with " originals. be omitted on the reading. A in the course in geometry should be principally a course methods of attacking original exercises the .

We learn to do study of geometry than does the study of complex models. any human whether it is skating. . then the importance of exercise work and the harmfulness of studying a great many ready-made It proofs must be admitted. The solution of a large number of simple exercises will en- able the student to understand clearly and to appreciate model demonstrations. baseball by doing. ercise work gives the beginner a much better idea of the true character of geometry and prevents him from using mechanical modes of study. Exercises form a much better introduction to the playing. or flying. some benefit to the player who has acquired a certain of a great skill in play. 2. in the study of geometry are students expected Only to learn to reason. not by practicing reasoning. It is much easier to solve a simple exercise than to understand a long and complicated proof such as is Exfrequently given on the first pages of textbooks. without ever giving him the The study of models would be of opportunity to play. Instead of agreeing with the old claim that only the study of several scores of textbook models enables the student to work originals.100 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS into play the beneficial as- and not memorizing brings pects of mathematical study. the writer believes that the opposite is true. of provided he had the chance to put such The same may be said activity. lessons to practical application. but by repeating other people's ideas. to train a chess player has often been remarked that nobody would expect by letting him study the accounts many games.

THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY
3.

IO1

Exercises arouse the interest of the student and

prevent him from becoming disgusted with the suh
ject.

For any normal youth

likes

to

"do," likes

to

The discovery of a simple accomplish something. mathematical fact is far more interesting, and far more satisfactory, than the studying of pages of information.
4.

Exercises can be
It is

much

better graded than textbook

almost impossible to arrange a textpropositions. book geometry so that the easiest proofs always occur first, and the rest follow in order of difficulty. Logical

sequence must necessarily the views of the author
quence.

more

or less, according to

disturb the pedagogical se-

order of originals, however, may be based upon pedagogic considerations solely. Even the sequence of the regular propositions can be

The

made smoother by
one theorem
abled to

inserting exercises that lead from

and thus students may be endiscover demonstrations which otherwise would
to another,

be absolutely beyond their capacity. How many students would discover the proof for the
equality of triangles that are mutually equilateral,
if

only textbook propositions were studied ? It is a simple matter, however, to connect this proposition by a series of exercises with the one that usually precedes it, viz.
the base angles of an
isosceles

triangle

are

equal.

After practicing the demonstration of equal angles

by

means

of this proposition in general,
:

we may

give the

following questions

IO2
1.

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
If

A&Cand ADC are
quadrilateral

two isosceles triangles on the same base,

AC, then Z.BAD =
2.

BCD.

If in

ABCD, AB = BC

and

AD = DC,

then

A=
3.

C.

If

two triangles
>C,

ABD and DBC have BD common, AB = .#

and

AD =
B

then

A=C.

\/
4.

If in

and
5.

#> =
Two

two triangles B'D, then Z ^
triangles

,4>
and

and CB'D',

AD =

C/?',

= ^ C.

ABD

B

1

CD'

are equal

if

their sides are

equal respectively.

Similarly the concurrence of the three altitudes of a
triangle

may be found from

the concurrence of the three

C

perpendicular

bisectors
:

of a triangle as follows

After proving the concurrence of the perpendicular bisectors FI,

DH, and
of
tri-

EK

of the

sides

angle ABC, draw FD, DE, and EF and ask
9

:

1.

What

kind of lines are Ff,
?

EK, and

DH with reference to

tri-

angle
2.

FDE
What

angle

FDE ?

therefore can you

tell

about the three altitudes of

tri-

THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY
3. If

103

any triangle

FDE

were given, could you construct an-

other triangle so that the altitudes of the original triangle would be the perpendicular bisectors of the required triangle
4.
?

T;

1

JD

What

therefore

do you know about
?

the altitudes of any triangle

Quite often
tion

it is

an easy matter

to discover a proof of a proposi-

placed immediately after another, while logical considerations make such an immediate succesThe second proposition should then sion impossible.
if
it

is

be given as an original immediately after the

first,

not-

withstanding that it occurs again later in the book. Such repetitions are not harmful, but on the contrary
very helpful.
Conclusion.
struction is the fact that the

The most common error of geometric inknowledge of book demonthe chief object of the study.

strations is

made

study of geometry should be primarily a course in the solution of originals and general methods of

The

The regular textbook propositions should be attack. treated as exercises, with this difference, that the facts
stated

by them should be remembered.

Exercises, however, should be studied not in order to be remembered, but in order that the student may familiarize himself with geometric working methods, which
will enable

him

to

The

student's ability

do other and more complex reasoning. and progress in the subject can
his ability to solve exercises that

be measured only by
well-known
facts.

are original to him, and not by his ability to repeat

104

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

THE TEACHING OF ORIGINAL EXERCISES
Prerequisite on part of the teacher.
If
is
it is

granted

that the teaching of original exercises
of geometric instruction, then
it

the main object follows that one of the

chief prerequisites for the successful teacher of the subject is the ability to solve exercises easily

and rapidly,

and

this

again requires a full knowledge of the various
of attack.*

methods
asset
is
if

People whose only mathematical
of mathematics,
so-called higher

the

even

this includes a

knowing of a certain amount good share of the

mathematics, are not fit to be teachers of mathematics. man who is not able to discover such simple matters

A

for himself

is

certainly not qualified to lead others to

such discoveries.

A

exercises in order to

teacher should also be able to construct geometric meet the particular needs of the
in his classroom.

moment, or the particular conditions
questions.
practice,

Especially should he be able to extemporize easy oral

Such ability is acquired by thinking and by and some concrete directions that are given in

later chapters

may prove

helpful to the beginner, f

Mode

of

procedure.

While

it

would be presump-

tuous to offer advice in this matter to the experienced teacher, a few suggestions may be helpful to the beginner.

In
to

many
the

instances

it

will

be advisable to

sequence of procedure: oral exercises, (b} blackboard work, (c) individual (a) work on paper. Oral exercises may be largely extemfollowing
* See Chapters

adhere

XI and XV.

t

See pp. 106, 115, 202.

THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY

105

porized by the teacher, who, chalk in hand, may often draw the necessary diagram at the blackboard, and ask Such oral work is well questions in rapid succession. adapted to easy topics, and if skillfully handled, wilV
stimulate interest and arouse competition in the class.

The

material for blackboard work,

by which

is

meant

here simultaneous work at the blackboard by a considerable number of students may be taken from the text-

books or from sets of previously prepared cards, each of which contains an exercise. Such blackboard work enables the class to cover a considerable
in a

amount

of

ground

does not produce the same interest and the same rivalry as oral work. It is, however, a much more practical way of correcting the
it

comparatively short time, but

work.

most frequently occurring errors than individual written Individual written work will be made easier and

its results

by previous blackboard work. It would be useless Construction of Exercises.
better

to en-

large any further upon the general directions for the Concrete illustrations are far teaching of exercises.

more

serviceable,

clusively devoted to these.

and the next chapters are almost exHere we shall discuss and
first

give exercises illustrating only the tion,* viz. Vertical angles are equal.
It

regular proposi-

was shown on page 97

in

what manner the pre-

to discover the proof liminary propositions may of the equality of vertical angles. In case this should be too difficult for some students, it may be made still
* The sequence of propositions assumed here Sevenoak's Geometry.
is

be used

that of Schultze and

io6
easier

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

by means of numerical examples. Assign a numerical value to one angle of the diagram and let the student find the values of the other, making, of course, no use of the equality of vertical angles. After a few
examples of this kind, assign a literal value, e.g. n, to one angle and proceed as before, thereby establishing
the equality of a pair of vertical angles. To construct exercises which illustrate the equality of vertical angles, take almost any exercise of the preced-

ing pages, and vary

it

by
one

introducing in place of
vertical angles.

or of several angles their

Thus

in the

annexed
of
is

dia-

gram instead " Which angle
troduce
the vertical angle to angle is the sum of Similarly in the same diagram ask for "the difference

asking, the sum
in-

ofAAOand BOCT'
/-EOD,
BOC, and
and

ask,

"Which

AAOB

DOE?"

of

AOC

and

DOE.

In the
-L

next diagram let Instead of asking

AB
i,

BC.
the

for

complement

of

Z

ask for

the complement of Z 3. In the next diagram (three straight lines meeting at 0\ instead of asking for the sum of i, 2, and 3, intro-

A

duce

Z

5,
i,

the vertical angle to
5,

2,

and ask for the sum of

angles

and

3.

THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY
Each of these exercises leads So in the last we may
assign numerical values to

107

to numerical questions.

angles

I

and

3,

and may
__

require the value of 5. It is a very simple matter to construct exercises
of this kind,

and the

fol-

lowing paragraph contains
a

considerable

number

of

originals

obtained in this

manner.

EXERCISES
Let three straight
Ex.
Ex.
lines

AD, BE, and CF meet
b, c, d, e,

in C,

forming the six angles, a,
i.

and/".

2.

- 40, UZ.FOB =
If

Z

and Zc

=

35,
Z<:

find

Z.AOE.
find Z<z.

130, and

=

40,

B

Ex. 3. If and Z/= 3 S,

FOB =
find
d.

130,

Ex.
Z.b

4.

If

Z/=
Ab

60, and

=

25,
5.

find Z.d.
If

Ex.

and

/

are

complementary, find

Z d.

Ex. 6. If ^AOC = 140, and Z COE= 1 20, find Z BOD.

Ex. 7. and Z COE
Ex. 8. and Z /70C

If

=
If

150, 130, find Z^.

^AOC^
find

Z.FOB=
Z

140,
<tf.

Ex.
Ex.

9.

=
If

140,

= 125, =4 andZ^
find Z*.

10.

Z/=

,

and Z^/= 100,

Ex. n.

,and

Z.AOE,

80,

find

Z/.
find

Ex.

12.

and Z*

=

40,

loS
Ex. Ex.
If
13. 14.

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
If
If

a = 2(Zr), and Z.e = 60, find Z AOC = Z C<9A; and Z #O# =
in

Z<r.

100, find //.

to the preceding

problems relating diagram we have two independent unknown quantities, it is obvious that two equations
all

we bear

mind that

in all the

connecting independent angles will determine
angles in the above diagram.
g

other

the

Thus we may increase number of exercises
limit, e.g.

almost without

Ex. 15. li/.a-/.b and / c = Z d find /. c
y
.

=

15,

Ex.

16.

^^

^
d

Q

C

+

e

_

Ex.i;. and d

d- 20, find Z. IfZ0-Z=io,
c

=

20,

find

/

i:.

The number
cises
E

of

exer-

may

be

still

further

increased by noting that in each of the preceding examples not only the one required angle, but every angle of the diagram, may be found. *nay also vary the above examples by

We

expressing the given quantities not in numbers, but in
letters,

as

m

or

n.

Finally, each of these numerical problems may be changed into a theorem, thus producing another set of

more

E.g. Exs. lead to the following theorems
difficult exercises.
:

i,

2, 3, 4, 6,

and 7

Ex.

18.

Prove that

Ex. Ex. Ex.

19.

Prove
Prove

20.

Ab + Z<r = ZAOE. c =Z<*. that /.FOB that /.FOB - /.f= /.d.

21.

Prove that

Z/+ /.b + /.d~

180.

. 4. UZ. If Z/"= Z prove that Z^ = Z<r. prove that Z/= Z*. 2 ) are equal.Z# = i8o 3 . then 35. 23. 25. Z. reflex Ex. A Ex.Z 6^ = Prove that reflex 2 (Z #). unknown * The diagram formed by 4 straight lines contains 3 independent unknown quantities. then Ex. all of them relating meeting at a point O. 9. 7.c. Ex. \iAOC Z6 = Z8.AOD Z ^tf^ -f Z C<9/^ 4. Z = Z*/ Zt. AOE + refax if BOF+ Z CO4 = 720. but the preceding illustrations seem make it superfluous to give many additional examples. 33. COE -f ZDOF -f -f Ex. If ten angles (i. or more meet in a point. 5. 3 Prove that Z. Zi=Z2 = Z3 = Z4. Z9= 180. 6. 8. Similar exercises lines to may be formed four. -f i.Z /}<9 Z W/ = 540.THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY Ex.EOG. Prove that Z COE" Z AOC + Z BOD + Z COE = 360. and 29. : few other theorems may follow Ex. Ex.Z ^<9C. osition for Ex.* five. Form a similar prop- &AOE. 109 Prove that Ex. prove that b Prove that Z ^40(7 -f Z COE" .FOB = If Ztf FOD. 34. .Z. 32. 26. 3. Ex. etc. Ex. 27.28. . hence offers a wide field for practicing the solution of simultaneous equations involving 3 quantities. \iAOC all = Z COE-ADOF. 2. prove that Ex. Hence only a few will be given. Prove that Z i -4- Z3 + Z5 + Z7 + 30. 24. etc. angles Ex. to five lines and forming the ten 10. Prove that ZAOC Z Z BOD + 1 . 22.

no

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

GRAPHIC METHODS FOR PRESENTING GEOMETRIC FACTS

To teach students to think, we should in the early stages
remove
as far as possible all external difficulties. Students

who can
sis,

reason logically sometimes forget the hypothe-

or forget preceding parts of the proof,

and hence

are unable to continue.

To make such

forgetfulness

almost impossible graphic methods may be employed. The hypothesis may be indicated by colors, equal colors representing equal lines or equal angles, arrows denoting parallel
lines,

a small colored square indicating a Thus, in the right angle.

annexed diagram

the

two

blue lines indicate the equaland DE, the two ity of

AB

red arcs indicate the equality of A A and D, the two
colored arrows represent the
parallelism of

AB

and DE, and the two small squares

show that For the

/^and Care right angles.
results obtained in the proof

we

use white

crayon, equality of lines being indicated by equal crossmarks, equality of angles

by equal number of arcs, parallelism by arrows, etc. Thus the marks in the annexed diagram, which
are supposed to be that we have proved

drawn
:

in

white crayon, indicate

AF= CD, F =

CE,

Z A = Z D,

THE ORIGINAL EXERCISE IN GEOMETRY

III

BF\CE.
overlap,

If

lines

we

use

braces.

Thus the

marks

annexed diagram represent the equality of AC and BC and
of the
y

and BD. the equality of If colored crayons are not available, white cross marks, etc., may also be
used to indicate
the
hypothesis,

AE

but

for the beginner a distinction be-

tween

hypothesis

and

proof

is

very helpful.

To

point out certain triangles or

polygons to the students, either shade them or mark their perimeters

by heavy

lines, as

A AEB
figure of the

and
L

KACva
if

the annexed diagram.

D
it is

Thus,

we transform one
mark the perimeter

into another,

advisable to

given area heavy, and to shade the resulting area, as
indicated in the annexed diagrams.

A

b

In other constructions given lines may be drawn thin, lines of construction dotted, and resulting lines heavy,

112

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

In complex constructions various colors
distinguish
It is

may be used

to

among

different lines.

impossible to mention all such cases, and the resourceful teacher will have no difficulty in enlarging

and modifying the above

directions.

CHAPTER

VIII

EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES

THE FIRST TWO PROPOSITIONS OF EQUAL
TRIANGLES
and as they the question is sometimes asked rarely, whether it is possible to devise a system of demonstrations without the use of superposition. If we consider,
tion as a rule
to students,

Can superposition be avoided do not appeal
only

?

Proofs by superposi-

occur

demonstration of equality which refers to any particular figure can be based upon nothing but the definition of equality, and that this
however, that the
first

definition involves superposition,

it

becomes evident that
first

superposition cannot be avoided unless we change the
definition of equality.*

Hence the

proposition of
etc.,

equal triangles, or equal arcs, or

equal ellipses,

must necessarily be based upon superposition. The study of superposition. The method of making
the student familiar with the proofs for the equality of
triangles

by means

be recommended.

of frequent repetition, can hardly Rather impart to him by concrete

* This remark refers to the usual school geometry only. There are systems of geometry that dispense entirely with the axiom of mobility and hence superposition. Such systems, however, require additional axioms, and the first theorem of equal triangles is usually made one of these axioms.

114
illustrations a

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

knowledge of the fundamental mode of the superposition of some parts whose procedure, equality is known, and the successive tracing of the
viz.

remaining parts of the

figure.

This
:

may

be accom-

AB = BC=B'C' CD=CD\ DE = D'E>, Z.B = ^B' A'B\ Z C = Z. C and Z D = Z. D Draw one figure, as ABCDE, in some color, e.g. in yellow, and indicate the
ABCDE
y
t r
f

plished by exercises like the following In pentagons and A'fi'C'D'E', let

,

.

given equalities

by cross marks.

When
to

the

stu-

dent applies

AB
him

A'',
a

let

draw
line
r r

yellow

on top of A B to indicate real physical superposiAfter a few extion, and so forth for all other parts.
ercises of this type, the student will understand superposition,

be able to apply it to the two triangle = s.a.s.). propositions (a.s.a. = a.s.a. and s.a.s.

and

will

It

is,

these proofs and to

however,"not advisable to dwell too long upon make them distasteful to the stu-

dent by frequent repetition and pedantic insistence upon unimportant detail. Rather pass over this topic hastily,

even

if

not every student can give a perfect recitation.

THE TEACHING OF ORIGINALS BASED UPON EQUAL
TRIANGLES
General remarks.

After the class understands the

meaning of the

first

two propositions on equal

triangles,

EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES

11$

easy oral exercises should be attacked. The teacher may draw the diagram on the blackboard, indicating the hypothesis by colored crayons.* Then the fact should

be brought out that equal triangles may be used to demonstrate the equality of lines and angles, and by a great

made familiar to the stuTo cover a large number of such exercises simuldent. The main taneous blackboard work is necessary.

many

originals this should be

result of all exercises should be the

METHOD

I.

The

equality of lines

knowledge of and angles is usually
its

proved by means of equal triangles. The teacher cannot emphasize this principle and
application too much.
Its

knowledge

is

far

more im-

portant than the knowledge of any regular proposition. Whenever the student is required to prove the equalor angles, the analysis should be started first asked by the teacher, later by by the question the student : " What is the usual method of demonity of

lines

strating the equality of lines

and angles

"
?

There are

only a few such principles that deserve the same emphasis, e.g. the methods for demonstrating parallelism of
lines, inequality of lines, proportionality of lines, equiva-

lence of areas, and a few others.

A

full

knowledge of

these principles and their applications forms one of the It would, however, be chief aims of geometric study.

a mistake to base a

"method" upon almost every
It is

theo-

rem

in the textbook.

Method

of constructing exercises.

a comparaoriginals

tively simple matter to construct a great
* See Chapter VII, page no.

many

Il6

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
equal triangles.
Select

illustrating the application of

two triangles in certain relative positions, as ABC and ABDy and determine by which methods we may obtain
the equality of two sides and the included angle, or the equality of two angles and the included side.

Angles may be equal by hypothesis, as complements of equals, as supplements of equals, as vertical angles,

as

sums of

equals, etc.

Lines

may

be equal by hypothesis or by the axioms of the

sums or differences of
equals, etc. obtain an application of the theorem (a.s.a.=a.s.a.) in the preceding diagram, we consider that is common,

To

AB

hence we have

to find various

and
tical

Z CAB = /.DBA.

making A 7 and Introducing
ways

of

Z
8,

i

= Z 2,

the ver-

A

of

i

and

2,

we get

the following hypotheses.

1.

/. i

2.
3. 4.

5.

6.
7.

= Z 2, Z CAB = /.DBA. Zi =Z2, Zj = Z4. CAAB, DB.AB, Zi =/ 2 CAAB, DBJLAB, Z$ = ^4. CAAB, DBAB, Zi =^3, ^2 = ^4. Z i = Z 2, /. 5 = Z 6.
.

8.

9.

10.
11.

12.
13.

Z i = Z8, Z CAB = Zi =Z8, ^3 = ^4. Zy = Z2, -^5 = 6. Z 7 = Z 8, Z C4> = Z CBD. AC1.AB,

EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES
Similarly we may illustrate (s.a.s. lowing exercises
:

= s.a.s.)

by the

fol-

14.
15.

16.
17. 18.

AC - DB, CAB - ZDBA. AC-DB, Z$ =Z6. AD-BC, Zi = ZS.
/.

Z? = Z&. AC=DB, ACA.AB,
list

AD= BC,

DBBA.

could be considerably extended by introducing the vertical angles of 3 and 4, or of CAB and DBA. Still more such exercises may be obtained by varying

This

the conclusion, thus requiring in one exercise the equality and BD, etc. C and in another the equality of of

^

D

y

AC

Hence one diagram
theorems, and as
it is

will furnish us

with a great

many

grams, it

an easy matter to find other such diamust be admitted that there is no lack of material. diagrams are given below; others

A few such
found

may be

in the next paragraph.

List of exercises.
sufficient

As

number

of exercises of this type,
list

hardly any textbook contains a and as the

subject

is

of utmost importance, the

given below has

been made very extensive.

Il8
It is of

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
course not necessary for each individual to
of

solve all the exercises, but for simultaneous blackboard

work a large number

questions

are

needed.

As

stated in the preceding chapter, it is sometimes advisable to prepare cards, each containing a problem, for rapid distribution of the questions.*

Examples on equal
classes
1.
:

triangles

may be

divided into six

2.

Numerical examples. Triangles that do not overlap.
Triangles that overlap. Student has to choose between
several pairs of

3.

4.

equal triangles.
5.

The

triangles

must be constructed.

6.

Several pairs of equal triangles are necessary for

the proof, f
I.

Numerical

exercises.

If

the pupils

of a class

are very

immature,

this

with numerical exercises.

subject may Only a few are given here

be commenced
;

but

if

more should be needed, they can be obtained by
any equal
\

substituting equal numerical values for

lines

or angles in

any of the exercises following.

The exercises are grouped according to diagrams, in order to avoid an unnecessary multiplication of figures. In the classroom, exercises referring to one figure should not be studied in immediate succession.
f

*

Only

five of these six classes are

given in the following

list

;

for the

last one, see p. 135.

lines are

In the following list, if the nature of the diagram shows that certain intended to be straight ones, this fact has for the sake of not always been stated. The teacher, in using such exercises, brevity
\

however, had better add this to the hypothesis.

EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES

Ex. i
I
.

^^40

Ex. If AB - 8 inches, BE = 8 inches, Z A = 80, Z E = 80, A ABC A BDE. prove Ex. 2. If /.DAC = 30, Z dS" = 30, ZZ?C" = 130, Zy4C# = 50, prove A ABC = A A CD.

Ex. 2

Ex.
:

3.

If

30, prove
2.

A ABC =

Triangles that do not overlap.

2

4

D
Ex.
4.
5.

E
Exs. 4-8

If If

Ex.
Ex.

AB = BE, and Z = AB = Aff, ACJLAE,
i

Z2, prove and

DEAE,

prove

6.
7.
8.

If
If

Ex.

Ex.

If

^^ = #; AB = BE, ^^ = BE,

and and

and

C^ = ^Z7, prove &ABC = Z3 = Z4, prove ^C= BD. Z 5 = Z 2, prove Z C =

I2O

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

Exs. 9-13

Ex.
Ex.

9.

If
If
If

10.
ii.

Ex.
Ex.

12. 13.

If

Ex.

If

= Z 2, prove AB = BC. = Z 6, prove A = C. ^3 = Z4, and ^ = Z6, prove /4Z) = Z?C /Iff = BC, and 4 = Z 6, prove v4> = DC. = Z8, prove ' A - "* = Z6, and Zs
and
:

AD = DCj AD = DC,

i

and

'.

5

;

f

Exs. 14-18

Ex.
Ex.
Ex.

14.

If

15.

^5 = BD, and ,ffC = .ff^ prove CA - ED. If AB = 5D, CA AB, and ED J. ^Z), prove
1

,

16.

If

Ex.

17.

If
If

Ex.

18.

= BD, AE = /?C, ^4-5 = ^/?,
^f^

and
and

and

^3=^4, prove C4 = ED. = CB, prove Z i = Z2. Z. i = ^5, prove BC

^

EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES

121

Exs. 19-23

Ex.
Ex.

19.

If
If

20.

Zi = Z2, and /5 = Z6, prove AB = CD. Z.DAB-Z.BCD, and Zi=Z2, prove AD = BC.

Ex.
Ex.

21.
22.

If
If If

Ex.

23.

Z6 = Zs, prove B = ZZ>. = Z6, Zy = Z8, prove that /?/> = BC. Z5 Z 6 = Z 5, Z /?^^ = Z. DCB, prove that AB =
^4> = BC, and

Z?C.

C

VA
Ex. Ex.
24.
If

F
Exs. 24-28

B

AB is
= 6 /'.
:

trisected,

Z i = Z 2,

/*

J.

^^, and

GFAB,
prove that

prove that /?"
25.
26.
If
If

AE^FB, Zi=Z2, Z3 = Z4,
/s =
Z6,

prove

fa&AD-BG.

Ex.

Z; =

Z8, and

^4/?

=
=

(S^,

^^ = BF.
"Ex. 27.
If

AD

- BG,

AF = EB,
= BGj

and Zi

Z2, prove that
prove that

DE =
Ex.

/**.

28.

If

^4-^= ,5, ^4/?

and

Z2 = Z9,

Exs. 29-33

122
Ex. /.A
Ex.
29.
If

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS

=ZC
30.
>c.

AD.LDB, BC

BD, and Zi = Z2,
and

prove that

If

ADJLD8, BCJLBD,
Z
i

DA = BC,

prove that

^^ =
Ex.

31.

If

Ex. 32.

If
If

Ex.

33.

= Z2, and ^3 = ^4, = ^4, and /5 = Z6, /3 ^ i = ^7, and 2^5 = Z6,

DA = CB. prove that AB = >C prove that DA = ^(7.
prove that

Exs. 34-38

Ex. Ex.

34.

If

AD = C;
AD = C;
/4Z>

/Y?

= BCy

and

Z

i

= Z 2,

prove that

35.

If

Z

Ex. 36. = Z F. Ex. 37.

If

Z = C",

that

/^ =

If ^Z; = CE, ^C.

Ex. 38.

ItAD^CE, AB = FE,

_
i

= Z 2, Z 3 = Z 4, prove that AB = FE. FD = ^C, and Z 5 = Z 6, prove that
y

FD i. y4; BC AE
and

and Z 3

=

^4, prove

/3=

/4, prove

Z.B=

A

yk
Exs. 39-42

B

Ex.

39.

lfAD=C, AB-FE,
If

Ex. 40.

^Z>= C",

3= ^4, prove that B = ^4^ = FE, Z 5 = Z 6, prove that BC=FD.

prove C". I f ADJLDB. Z then A ABD If AB. and AD = BC. FBI. If B Exs. and Z 3 = ^ 4. and ^5 = Z6. prove that AD = FD = C 9 Z B = Z F.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES Ex. AC. CB J_ AB. 48. 46. tains several equal triangles. Ex. 47.D = Z. and each diagram con3. Ex. CE.42. Z6. contain triangles that overlap.E. ^3=^4. F ^4 = ^5. 43-45 cv ^ is FBLAC. If Z. D C A Exs. Ex.4. The student has to choose that pair of triangles which contains the angles or sides to be proved equal.AE. CE. then i = /2. prove ^ CEJLEB. Z3 = that Z4. AB = If FDAE. and Z I = Z 2."prove 44. that ^4J9 = FAC. and fnen AC = DB. and The following examples Triangles that overlap. prove that If 123 and and AD = FE. Ex. . Ex. VA Ex. BCLAE. If ^5 = AD = CB.4i.AE.AB= BC. 43. FD. If AD L AB. BCI. CB AD JL AB. the mid-point of AC. ^3 = Z. = ^?C ^Z? = ^/f. 46-51 B Ex.45.

and then ED. 57. Ex.ff. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IfZ5 = Z6. and Z AB = ^> = Z AEC. 51. 56. 58.AD. then AC = Z>. and IfZs = ^6. 49. bisects Z Z?/4. 50. Ex. Ex. and ^ bisects C Exs. then A ABD = = Z 2. If and and BC = Z i 54. = Z 2. and Zi = Z2. Ex. and Z 3 = Z 4. BC = ED. ^C bisects /. and I j bisects . Ex. then AC = DB. 56-61 B Ex. Z 5 = Z 6. B is the mid-point of AC. 52. If If Z5=Z6. i Ex.124 Ex. 52-55 D Ex. then Cj = BD. then G = BD. then A ADB = = ^5. MAC. IfZi If = 2. 59. Z> 60. 55. = AE. 53. then A ADB = &AEB. = AE. and Z3 = Z4. j Ex. and Z 3 = Z 4. IfZs =Z6.DAB. then Z = Z 2. and If Z5 = Z6. then Ex. Ex. 4. E the mid-point of AD. C A Exs.

125 the mid-point of AC. F then A AEC = &DBC. Ex. 62. If AD = BE. and Z 3 = Z 4. Z = Z2. 61. then Z 3 = Z 4. 62. and E is the mid- point of C A D E B Exs. Ex. and Z 3 = Z 4. Z3 = Z4. then AC = DF.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES Ex. C A D B E Exs. AC=DF. Zs ^Z6.68. Zi =Z2. If I AD = BE. AB = AC. Z3 = Z4 then BC = /TE. 68 D Ex. Ex. 63 Ex. and CZ> and Z I = Z 2. then Z C = Z^. Ex. and ? A E B C Exs. 63. \iAD-BE. 67. AB = AC. AD = AE. and Z 5 = Z6. andZ3 = Z4. CD = CE. If AC BC.EB y Z I = Z 2. then AD = . D is BC. It BCD is a straight line. is a Straight line. 64. 67. 65. 66. If AD . If AD = EB. then A AEC = &DBC. then #Z? If = CE. 64-66 Ex.

and the student has to determine by trial which pair must be used. the following exercises the two parts whose equality is to be demonstrated may be considered homologous parts of two different pairs of triangles. 72. Ex. then Z C = Z. then ^Z? = #". Z 5 = Z 7. 4. and Z3 = Z4. then Z C = ZZ?. then Z C = Z Z?.126 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS In The proper triangles must be found by trial. Ex. and Z$ = Z4. Exs. Ex.EAB = Z. 77. and Z 3 = Z 4. 74-77 B Ex. i If If Ex. 69. then Z C = Z Z?. Zi=Z3. 76. A Exs. Ex. If AE = BE.D. Z3 = Z4. and CE = /?#. Z7=Z8.EAB = DBA. then ^Z? = BE. 69-73 Ex. If and Z i = Z 2. ^C = BC.DBA. 75. 71. then AD = ^^. ZX4 = O9. and Z i = Z 2. and Z2 = Z4 then ? Ex. If C4 = CB. then Z C = Z Z>. Z = Z 2. Z. . Ex. If Z6 = Zs. If If If Z. 74. and ^Z? and BE are medians. 70. 73.

CB^ED. : This mode of procedure may be stated as METHOD II. 5. Ex. /2# = AEj and Z5 = Z6.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES A I2J Exs. then CE^BD. If ZC=Z>.2. If If Ex. 82. then ^C= Z2. Ex. 79. it is a very simple matter to form such examples. 77^^ triangles constructed. then Z C = ZZ>. then EC = BD. This an important principle that is sively in succeeding chapters. 78-84 Ex. Ex. must be AB = AE. Ex. Zi = Z2. 78. If ^^ = Zi = AE. 84.DJLA. then . then ZC= ZZ>. If Z3 = C = ED. we make them is parts of equal triangles by drawing used extenit is additional lines. and CEAE. and z 3 Z i = = /4. Zs. 83. Z4 = Z6. but after studying parallelism of and the remaining propositions on equal triangles. and Zs = Z6. only one can be done by the student at this stage of the work. . cult to lines At this point diffi- form exercises. If the lines to or angles whose equality we wish have to demonstrate are not parts of equal triangles. 80. then BD = EC.C = ^/?. Of the four exercises following. 81. and Z. and Ex. If^i = If ^2.

128 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS A B Ex. 88 All the preceding exercises give both hypothesis and conclusion explicitly. then If 'C Ex.4. the figure is divided into If. If in quadrilateral AB = DC. i and D Ex. AB = CD. and Z = Z2. BC = DA. two equal triangles. equal distances be laid off on the arms. and from their ends lines be drawn to the opposite vertices. the student must become trained to understand exercises stated in more complex form. 86. C. Ex. Z^ = Z 87. By degrees. these lines are equal. . 88. vertices it If a diagonal of a quadrilateral bisects the angles whose joins. = CZ>. Ex. A A and C are rt. 85 C Ex. however. AB ABCD. Ex. 90. = DA.B = ZC and If in quadrilateral ABCD. then 85. 89. . then Z. Ex. from the ends of the base of an isosceles triangle. If AB = AC. then ^3 = ^4.

The present chapter forms a critical point. Secondly. method is used more than succeeding chapters of plane geometry. It is a fact that many students finish courses in geometry and pass examinations without ever becoming fully initiated into the real meaning of geometric work. but must be written. another topic in the study of geometry that hardly deserves more attention. Symbols or words? symbols general. CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF STATING GEOMETRIC PROOFS Since the majority of the preceding examples cannot be done orally. in the first. there is no other topic that introduces the student so fully and easily into the true spirit of geo- any other metric work. in still Although the extensive use of geometry is at the present day almost there remain a few teachers and a few books that employ hardly any symbols. Here the student should become fully aware what geometry really means and what its sort of mental activity is neces- study.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES I2Q There Importance of the exercises on equal triangles. claiming that . it becomes necessary to study the various conventional ways of stating geo- metric proofs. and not proceed until every student who possesses normal sary for Hence reasoning powers has fully mastered it. and that is more important to is the student than triangles. the applications of this the equality of For. the teacher should dwell upon this topic.

few symbols. and examples being Here not only symbols but even terms equivalence. the most widely known the symbols for equality. or no symbols It does so by virtue of its accuracy and precision. Our first aim must be the teaching of geometry. remarkable feature of mathematical symbolism is the fact that it forms an international language that can be understood by any mathematician. They constantly use words and phrases without ter having any definite ideas to express. while in continental Europe it is called equality and denoted by =. Figures that may be superposed are called in * Moreover. (Compare Chap- H. however. mother tongue For it is by improving in general the student's ability to think.130 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS is the teaching of English one of the chief objects ot geometric instruction.) . and the effect this teaching has upon the student's linguistic abilities is while important the first only of secondary importance. similarity. The use of symbols makes the study of geometry easier. It is. and supposed. is Success in aim the absolute prerequisite of success in the second. an undeniable fact that many pupils cannot speak correctly because they cannot think correctly. hence let us employ them as far as they have been generally accepted. ment in regard to a differ.* A Symbols of uncertain and varying significance. In America the equality of areas is called equivalence and represented by the symbol =c=. no matter what his Unfortunately there is no absolute agreenationality. geometric study does far more for the mastery of the than generally using symbols. entirely unpedagogical to accumulate difficulties.

equals be in added to equals the sums are equal" would be true an algebraic sense only. as used in proportion. . * Leibnitz introduced the symbol ~. for it in geometry it to form and size. . bols whenever the words differ which these symbols represent. but some authors use CO instead in order to connect the symbol with the first letter of the word (similis). mere fact tion of a that it is new read " as" does not justify the introducIf we should use different symsymbol. while in arithmetic or " If algebra has no bearing upon form. = ferent parts of mathematics. The American use is pro- gives a meaning to this word in geometry entirely different from that in the rest of the mathematical subjects. just place of minus ( ) etc. Besides the symbol =0= is a difficult character to write. . in the greater part of Europe con- The symbol Europe is for similarity little (~)* generally employed in used very in America.g. Another provincial symbol that should be discarded : : symbols =. the symbol =. A change to the is and the corresponding terms. Equality. theory of numbers it denotes congruence of numbers. but erroneous when applied to geometric figures. certainly most desirable. and this is the most widely used form. in algebra it is used to represent an identity. Certain other symbols have different meanings in difIn the e. we would have to use at least half a dozen symbols in " " " as many for "equals ( ). The vincial chief trouble arises from the use of the term "equality" in geometry. and ^. ( = ). thus used. ~. is The true meaning of this symand hence it should be replaced by = The bol is equality. refers and illogical.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES 131 America equal gruent (^).

for it frees the student's of pedantic detail of little mind from a mass value. the diagram plus the written statement constiEurope tutes the hypothesis. The American method describes the given part so that a reader can understand it without seeing a diagram. is The German argument the diagram shows that transversal. but pedagogically the European way is preferable. and emphasizes the really essential part of the hypothesis. While a German book would Hyp. : Two parallel lines AB and CD are intersected EF respectively in state : by the transversal G and H. than when in the lengthy form. that is it that EFis y a it meets not necessary to say AB in G and CD in H that AB and CD are straight lines. The statement ferent There are two dif- ways of stating the hypothesis. He could draw On the continent of the diagram from the hypothesis. since two letters always mean a straight line. be much easier for him to form a converse when the hypothesis is stated in the brief form. AB II CD. an American text would say Hyp. Thus the student is led to better understanding. Things that are absolutely obvi- ous from the diagram are not written unless they are the essential conditions of the theorem. . Thus.132 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS of the hypothesis. It will. From the viewpoint of science no objection can be made against the American way. for instance.

(a. Vertical angles. Statement of a proof. The form of the following proof may be useful to those who have had no experience in teaching. Hyp. Thus lines cannot be assumed to be straight or to be perpendicular merely this brevity Of course because they appear so. FG is a st. D. Q. Alt.s.s. THE LAST THREE PROPOSITIONS OF EQUAL TRIANGLES Remarks about the making the students three theorems.a.EG.) FE = EG. parts of equal &.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES 133 must not be carried to such an extreme that doubts may arise. AEG = .a. however. A of parallel lines- Z. To prove FE . E. ABCD\**n. Z CEF. Hyp. angles) is The present topic (equal triwell suited for teaching the conventional very form of writing demonstrations. line. B Proof: ln&AGEandFC. Theorem. AC is bisected at E. Horn. A line drawn through the mid-point of a diagonal of a parallelogram and terminating in two sides of the parallelogram is bisected. = a. AE = EC. This proof. but to a later one.-. int. or A the method proof of of discover to analyze proposition relating two mutually equilateral . and both here and later exactness of form should be insisted upon just as much as accuracy of thinking. does not belong to our present chapter.

s. B * See Chapter VII. to be If.* The theorem of two triangles that have two angles and a non-included side equal (s. we should obtain that any _.a. Similarly in the annexed diagram A ABO would equal A A CO. sionally The theorem of two triangles that have apply this theorem as true. considering easily should be studied. however. we how the chief object of geocannot dispense with this theorem. or that a diagonal divides any isosceles trapezoid into two equal triangles.134 triangles TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS (s.a = s. page 101. if it were generally we ought to be able to show them cases in which such a theorem would obviously lead to wrong results.s.a.s. .a) is omitted in quite a number is of textbooks. line drawn from the vertex of an triangle isosceles into divides the figure two equal triangles.) was discussed in the preceding chapter. it certainly two sides and a non-included angle equal respectively is true As students occaonly under certain restrictions. the solv- ing of exercises metric study. For instance. = s. and it made may be proved.s.

however. however.e. and students should become 6. To make students discover the demonstration of this theorem we had best start with the exercise : The altitude upon the base of an isosceles triangle divides the figure into two equal triangles. specially suited the more ambitious : student. stating that the hypotenuse and an arm of one triangle equal the corresponding parts of another. . Exercises. We shall.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES 135 Triangles having two sides and a non-included angle equal. Most textbooks. however. however. which the following METHOD of III. i. prove first the equality some other pair. are equal if the other two non-in- cluded angles are not supplementary. give only the in special case which the angles are right angles. Exercises requiring the equality of several pairs of triangles. or pairs. we shall not give any simple difficult illustrations of the applica- tions of the present theorems. Since the mode of constructing exercises has been fully explained in the preceding paragraphs. A somewhat simpler condition which. fully familiar with it. give illustrate a number of more to exercises. If it is impossible to prove the equality of the required pair of triangles. does not cover as many cases makes the equal angles lie opposite the greater sides. This principle is very important. whose homologous parts will enable us to demonstrate the equality of the original pair.

and all lines are straight lines. and AC = AE.136 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS F E D A B Ex. CG . BG = GE. = Z C. C Ex. Ex. 92. then If AG = GD. then Z. FA. 93. and AF = ^.GF. If AB = AD. 94- = B. If in polygon ABCDBF. and A\\B DE. BC = EF. 91 C Ex. 93 Ex. AB = DE. then Z BAF = DAF. then AD = . 91. DC = F Ex.

CD = ^ ZX. and A'B'CD'.95 Ex. If diameter. GH\\AB\\IK. CD'. AB = A'B\ and AC = A'C. DA = D'A'. A Ex. and AB is B Ex. BC = B'C. If in quadrilaterals ABCD. then AD = BC. 97 B' Ex. CF. If AB II CD. . 97. DE = GH = IK.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES 137 Ex. 96 Ex. then BD = . 95. then AD = AC. 96.

TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS A few additional diagrams will facilitate the construction of more exercises of this type. For instance. \ B This illustration requires a theorem w hj cn the student at this stage of his the work does not know. to prove that triangle ABC is a right one if the median ~CD equals one half of BA we produce BC by its own length to E and A ABC and prove the equality of AEC. To prove that an angle usually demonstrate that it is of is two lines a right one equal to its supplemen- tary adjacent angle. since it joins the mid-points of AB and EB. but knowledge is sufficient for the following exercises. This is easily done if we \ A consider that CD = ^AE. . L L METHOD we Method for proving the perpendicularity IV.

CD is perpendicular to AB. 139 is The median The to the base of an isosceles triangle per- pendicular to the base. and Z = Z2. is 99. C and /.F are medians. 104. A D Exs. Ex.EQUALITY OF TRIANGLES Ex. if AE = BF. 102. then 100. and AE and #Fare altitudes. 98.A = B. Ex. AB = BC. i 103. if Z I = Z 2. 101-104 B Ex. Ex. perpendicular to AB. . ACJLBD. Ex. CD is perpendicular to AB. then CDAB. If Z. 101. bisector of the vertical angle in an isosceles triangle perpendicular to the base. and ^4-E" and CD is Ex. if Z A = Z /?. and Zi =Z2. /?. If in quadrilateral ABCD.A = ZC.

Various attempts. a new defender of one of these definitions arises. or lines Both definitions. these. lying far produced. however two most widely used dehave the same direction. while they simplify the proofs of the parallel theorems greatly. but the difficulty 140 . the other is proofs greatly. first The tion. The definition that is in the if. are objectionable from the scientific point of of the theorems. claiming that he has discovered a new definition of parallel which will simplify the view. however. Demonstration of the fundamental theorem. the fine parallels as lines that Of employs the objectionable term direcso obviously redundant that it has to be rejected.CHAPTER IX PARALLEL LINES PROPOSITIONS ESTABLISHING PARALLEL LINES Definition of parallel lines. have been made to formulate other definitions which result in simpler proofs : most widely accepted is Two lines are parallel same plane. Many American books consider first propositions relating to a perpendicular transversal and obtain then comparatively simple proofs of the general theorems. they do not meet. that are everywhere equally distant. Stilly occasionally. Any arrangement of propositions that exists and that is exact contains one or several difficult proofs.

true that Euclid presupposes the knowledge of a is theorem that terior not quite easy to prove. with two intersecting whether or not it lines. straight line we ask whether is Z Cor A B F Z CBF greater. . Drawing now the AJBF. it is simply pushed back to the proposiperpendicular transversal.PARALLEL LINES Is 14! not avoided. Z b = 60 Z a = 50 Z b = 150. it one of a series of Considering two lines triangles formed by two AD and CB that bisect each other. If we insist upon a rigorous demonstration. After the preceding proposition is firmly impressed upon the student's mind by numerous applications. an ex- angle of a triangle is greater than either remote interior angle. if we make originals. is and ask possible that . But this theorem is not so difficult. viz. we obtain an More number of it theorems. the fact that equal alternate interior angles make lines can easily be obtained by means of numerical Let a transversal form the alternate interior questions. and finally ABC and AB produced) and require a reconstruction of the entire proof. we find Z EBD = Z C. seems that the Euclidean It is way has not been improved upon. unnecessarily large tions relating to the over. we C. parallel angles a and b. or Z a = 50. ask whether Z draw a new diagram (Z Erasing the lines CBF is still greater than AD Z and BD.

a = 60. Hence. Z 7 = Z Z 7 is Z 3 is the etc. lines . / 6 supplementary. and ask whether / 3 74 the lines parallel. i e.142 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Referring to the next diagram. = 40. the lines are parallel for these particular sets and it is an easy matter to show that this result is generally true. towards the right side longations of AB can meet or or * if a = 60. =50. b = 50. = 50 = 60 b b ? of numbers. the preceding theorem are of course numerical ones. Z 2 = Z 6. request student to prove the parallelism of the two lines if certain angles are equal or are Then / 5 . Assign numerical values to any two independent angles of the complete diagram. a = 50. whether (i. ask whether the proand CD (i. the supplement of Z 4.e. Discover BA and DC the or left) produced meet a towards if w a or if = 60. and the principal result of work of this kind should be the knowledge of . = 50. a P b = 50. In every case the student must try to discover the equality of a pair of alternate interior angles. The simplest exercises which illustrate Exercises. supplement of Z 5. b b Can the 50. Z = Z 8. / Z 3. meet at = = 50.e. Z 7= 3.g. all if = 50.

are employed. A V CONVERSES General laws. interior to make more complex exwe accomplish the same by means of equal amples Below are a few diagrams.PARALLEL LINES 143 usually proved METHOD means V. but the above principle gives the most important method. While alternate in the simpler exercises.. To discuss the converses of the parallel theorems. we use vertical angles. in the demonstration of parallelism. knowledge of this principle is most essential. Parallelism of lines is by of equal alternate interior angles. a few remarks about converses in general may . sums of equals. or angles on the same side of the transversal. be used for quite a number of originals requiring may angles equal. each of which triangles. etc. and the analysis of any theorem stating parallelism of lines should be commenced with the question What is the : A usual means of proving two lines parallel ? Of course sometimes corresponding angles. supplements of equals.

Theorem Opposite *\ ^ ^v> Converse ^^ is Converse of Opposite * This not quite exact. then A is not B.* and conclusion produces the converse of a Or if the theorem be represented by : If its A : is B. and converse of the 4. see p. it becomes hotter. Relation between converse. opposite. If two parallelograms have equal bases and alti- tudes. and the converse of the opposite If a is not b. then A is B. If the If its A theorem be represented by is B. The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to each other. then a is b . then a : is not b . 3. These four theorems are connected in such a way that the validity of one of them always establishes the validity of another one. . they are equivalent.144 be helpful. converse would be If a is b. pothesis TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Usually it is said that the exchange of hy- theorem. a fact illustrated by the converses of the following propositions 1. then a is b. 146. If a body of gas is compressed. a circle can be circum- scribed about 2. If a polygon : is regular. The converse of a valid theorem is not necessarily true. it. opposite. : : opposite would be If A is not B.

I. the opposite is true. If the converse of the opposite is true. ItAB Then IV. . or III and IV. If true. the theorem is the converse is true. or Z and is To establish all four theorems. CD. OPPOSITE If Za Then Z . and a THEOREM II. easily proved by the indirect clearer These general matters crete illustration.* These connections are method. CD.e. CONVERSE II If Za = Z b. : If the theorem is true. the converse is true. t The symbol L = means "is not equal to. i. CONVERSE OF OPPOSITE is III. Then AB II CD. If the opposite is true. AB and CD. the opposite alone establishes the converse. or one of the following pairs: II and IV. I to I prove only III. and Obviously a knowledge of these relations a great * Some textbooks state that both the theorem and its opposite must be proved to establish the converse.PARALLEL LINES 145 In the preceding arrangement the theorems are connected diagonally.f AB is not = If II AB not = II CD. Then Z # we have II." . This is erroneous . then the converse of the opposite is true. Z a = Z b. will become by a contrans- Let a and b be two alternate interior angles formed by two lines versal.

Law of converses. and the following propositions are true If If A A A Ai. then a = b. then the converses are also true. of which the first two are true. A n and . thus producing three converses.146 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS help in geometric work. then a < b* truth of this assertion can easily be shown by applying the indirect method. Of course the same * Or more generally includes : The If A may is is be A\ or is A2 . . If the hypothesis of a theorem consists of several statements. Each condition of the hypothesis may be exchanged with the conclusion. If A > B. A = B. thus giving rise A to be.g. then a a\ is a . Case of several converses. If is An . : this all possibilities. if we find the converse ot a theorem too difficult. that may For may : not be. or A z . then a > b. etc. true. If the following three theorems are true. several or converses. e. A < B. then a Az. . then a is On . If If 2. . their converses must be true : 1. each of them may be exchanged with the conclusion. while the third is not. 3. we may attack the opposite instead. instance If in triangle ABC = DF.

ciate these general facts. after we prove that equal chords are equidistant from the center. Logically * It should be tulate (Chapter IV). notions discussed in the preceding parageneral logical graphs furnish undoubtedly very useful tools for geometric work and are very valuable to the teacher. if The and the students are immature. * of this kind is first proof always rather difficult. . while the direct theorems noted that these converses depend upon Euclid's posdo not require it. the converses of these propositions can be accepted as true without further proof. nor will he as a rule under- stand the meaning of such abstract theorems until he is well acquainted with a large number of concrete illustrations. While the Pedagogic value of the preceding laws. Thus. that a chord becomes smaller if its distance from the center increases. angles are unequal.PARALLEL LINES fact holds true of the propositions 147 which we obtain by exchanging the first and last conclusion. Converses of the theorems on parallels establish the equality of angles. and that if it be- comes larger its distance from the center decreases. but even then more as supplementary matter than as an integral part of the regular worjt. They may be given in a review course. viz. it would be a fatal error to teach general logical propositions before The student does not apprethe concrete theorems. : it is advisable to teach If two alternate interior the opposite theorem first. if parallel lines are given. Hence such matters should never come in the beginning of geometric instruction. the lines are not parallel.

the converse would then require no proof at all for the beginner. in this case. Every exercise on pp. They may 1. that one angle equals the sum of some other two. may be used as the basis of a corresponding exercise relating to the above diagram. etc. line Such an arrangement reeven though it increases the of Exercises illustrating the converses the parallel propositions can easily be classified as follows : be formed.~ etc. and assign values to any two independent angles and let the stu- common \ dents find all other angles. a proof should be given.148 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS . In other words. is very simple. to a transversal. moves some difficulties. 107 and 108. establish in a general form the facts which were represented numerically by the exercises of the preceding section. * .* two parallel bisectors of certain angles. Introduce 2. assign a numerical or literal value to any angle of the diagram and require the value of all others. number of propositions. Simple general examples. Construct % * ~- two transversals intersecting one of the parallels in a point. others supplementary or complementary. Chapter VI. however. preceding In diagrams similar students prove that to those of the class. two parallels intersected by a transversal are given. let certain angles are equal. which. perpendiculars transversals. If Numerical examples are adapted for oral work.

we may If say || : AB then EF. obtain the equality of and triangles. that assume certain pairs of parallel A lines and require the equality of certain other lines or angles. to opposite angles of a parallelogram. etc. and may be used lead him directly to the theorem of the sum of the angles of a triangle. Combination of the direct parallel propositions and We may use the equality of certain their converses. Equality of triangles. angles to prove the parallelism of lines and therefrom again deduce the equality of other lines or angles. Thus. to the angles of a quadrilateral. etc. BC = DF. used for the construction of a great many originals. in the annexed diagram. b. and finally demonstrate exercises illustrate the parallelism of other lines. as we have a new means of obtaining equal The diagrams on pages 117 and 122 maybe angles. or we may start certain angles from parallelism. and EC = DA. 149 topics. sum of the The number of originals requiring equality of triangles can now be greatly increased. 4. 5. Exercises preparing students for later it The to preceding diagram makes find the possible for the student to sum of angles a. The two methods : following these two . AB = EF.. etc. Similarly he may find the propo- sitions relating to the exterior angle of a triangle. and c.PARALLEL LINES 3.

AC = DF. the parallelogram propositions. etc. . the theorem of the exterior angle of a triangle. and AD = #. then CB FE. a triangle. The originals based upon this proposition. Since in the annexed diagram if all A. Hence students will experience no difficulty when analyzing the theorem of the angle-sum of a triangle.150 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Ex. \\ Sum of the angles of Among the various by-products of the preceding methods of solving exercises are the theorem of the angle-sum of a triangle.. A D B E Ex. it follows angles are known that the twelve angles of the diagram can be determined if two equations connecting independent angles are given. and C are given. 1 80. 2. B. B. construct exercises relating to the angles A. A -f consequently two other B (independent) equations will determine the values of the angles. If AC || DF. and that -f.C viz. and C of triangle ABC. we have to consider that the three quantities are always connected by one equation. however. may To deserve a short discussion.

or we may make = Z Fand Z ^4 = 90 may I/A \p/ Z +Z <T = 140.B= > - 30. as / \ or A + G .PARALLEL LINES 15! assign numerdia- Thus to find all twelve angles. For more difficult examples we C\ use more complex equations. or Z C= and we may make Z A 22.A + C= Of course a great $= 240. / = 100. but would lead us too far to discuss them. we may ical values to any two independent angles of the gram. . 130. 2 C. etc. many originals of entirely different it character may be based upon this proposition.

not the kind of proof that appeals to young students. it is always preferable to let students other. As the student. 152 . i. in order that he may discover for himself why the bisector alone can be used. the only method that leads to two triangles the equality of which can be proved by the student at this stage. of equal triangles. the method In the prevailing arrangement of propositions. While this is a very ingenious and short method. Moreover. however. it would be advisable to let him try to obtain two equal triangles by means of the median or the altitude. The tion which the student has only point relating to the proof of this proposito remember is the fact that the bisector of the vertical angle does lead to the two equal triangles. cannot foresee this result. is it apply the usual fundamental method.CHAPTER X MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS OF THE FIRST BOOK OF GEOMETRY HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCTION AND THE ISOSCELES TRIANGLE Euclid proved the equality of the base angles of an isosceles triangle by applying the figure to itself so that each leg coincided with the Isosceles triangle. is based upon the bisection of the vertical angle.e.

Is the use Logical aspect of hypothetical constructions. of hypothetical constructions justified from the logical Is it logical to introduce the bisector of point of view ? an angle. . however. we can give an absolutely exact proof. who do not appear to realize that there are other cases just as glaring in nearly all textbooks. can be constructed. critics more or less. angle. many who attack the use of hypothetical constructions. duction of a line or other figure. Especially does the use of the bisector in the isosceles triangle seem to invite the criticism of certain writers. and this is done before the method of constructing such a bisection has been established. 153 What is a hypothetical In the proof discussed in the preceding use has been made of the bisector of an paragraph. it struction. before This introit is shown how tions. and the validity of such a proof does not at all depend upon our ability to draw this line upon the accuracy of exactly. There are. is called a hypothetical conEuclid never used hypothetical construcall while practically modern books use them.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS Hypothetical construction ? construction. before we possess an exact method of conOr are the numerous critics justified in structing it? denouncing such a practice as The answer to these critics in the least illogical is ? that is it does not matter whether the line drawn the exact bisector or not. The proof of a demonstration does not its depend As soon as we diagram. admit that there is a bisector.

But there tion that is an enormous difference between the asserto we have show that a bisector is possible. form relations between the roots of an equation. the center of gravity of a the location of this center. For. it is a very easy matter to show that such it stance. quantity before we excluded any of determining method we had a we would have no higher in a mathematics.154 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Such a use of quantities that we cannot accurately determine is absolutely general in mathematical science. it would be perfectly logical to use the seven points. however. and the logic of the the kind that most of critics claim. the contention that we have to find the entire and method for constructing such a line. We We etc. that we assume something hypothetical construction. but even in cases when it is absolutely impossible to determine them. and this is the existence of the line or other figure. while impossible to obtain seven such points by an exact construction. e. refer coordinates to system. and flaw in nearly all cases elementary geometry this can be entirely . but simply the fact that somewhere there is a bisector.g. for in- demonstration should require seven points dividing a circumference into seven equal parts. It is true. the existence of the bisector of an angle. Not even the possibility of the above construction has to be proved. a is proof does not our ability to get an exact diagram. If. not only before we have determined them. before If we know it. depend upon Hence the flaw in hypothetical constructions is not of points do exist.

is taken Among viz. Hence. Since the three angles of an isosceles triangle are connected by two equations. and hence its use It is true. and may ask how these lines can be obtained. by assign- . in elementary teaching must be recommended.. the many applications of the isosceles triangle proposition that are possible. any other independent equation will determine all angles. A ing exercises before demonstrative geometry up will remove all such difficulties. the introduction of hypo- diagrams undoubtedly simplifies elementary ge- ometry. nor a bisector may be somewhat confused by the introduction of such lines. that students who have never drawn a perpendicular. The logical objections against hypothetical figures are therefore not of such a kind that we should exclude this method. Applications of the preceding theorem. Pedagogic aspect of hypothetical constructions. The discussions of the preceding paragraph would in such confuse them a case be of no help to the students. it 155 would is be a very simple matter to demonstrate that there always a bisector. The greater simplicity of our modern way of presenting this science as compared to Euclid's is largely due to the use of this method. thetical On the other hand. the calculation of certain angles lines and the finding of equal and angles. nor a parallel. but would rather little time devoted to drawstill more. although very few teachers would think it worth while to introduce such a demonstration. two classes may be mentioned.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS removed. for instance. In the above theorem. however.

Similarly any equation as etc. The equality of angles is occasionally proved by the isosceles triangle proposition. we may determine the others. Of name of any more an instrument than a piece of board that has been given the form of an ellipse or a parabola. produces an approximately . SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIONS Straightedge and compasses. viz. straightedge. will A C= 20. used on his steam engines. as the straightedge is the simply a model of a straight line that enables us to copy a line which was constructed by some one else.. board. and that may be used to draw such curves at the blackIt is not Since the perfect rectilinear motion has a certain value in mechanics. the compasses and the these. this was sought for a long time. and there are effectively attacked in this cases which are much more manner than by equal is is triangles. The direct proposition and may be used to prove the equality of lines and angles.. While logically this only a special case of equal triangles. an instrument accomplishing Watt's parallelogram. enable us to find all angles. 2 its A + $B converse C= 1 20. only the compasses deserve an instrument. Hence the student had better befamiliar with come METHOD VI.X$6 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ing a value to any of the twelve angles of the complete diagram. practically it a new method. All constructions in elementary plane geometry have to be carried out by means of two instruments.

proof depends upon the following facts i. 2. or by means of the straightedge alone. then C moves in a straight line. only a limited number of problems f can be * Peaucellier's linkage consists of 7 rigid links. By the last method. a constant. and A moves in a circle. C. When the iny which only two.e. If OA X OC unknown a constant.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS rectilinear motion. and straight line. D) 0. A. OA X OC =~OD2 . t If the quantity. should be borne in mind that the restriction to is rules and compasses great simplicity of these instruments. the ruler alone will effect a construction.DA*. however. Attempts have been made of geometry by means of the compasses alone. . DO tions. expressed algebraically. B. can be proved that : C describes a The i. intrinsic qualities of purely conventional. connected by the joints jP. and P of PO = PA. O and have fixed posi- strument swings about it O and P. = BO. but Peaucellier's first 1 5) linkage* was the It instrument to accomplish this exactly. is rational. due to the and not to any to effect the constructions geometric figures. the point A obviously moves in a circle.AB = BC = CD = DA.

It i. demonstrated that the same problems can also be solved by the use of one fixed circle. as some authors have done. One feature that deserves special attention upon of is the language and drawing.) t they It is. sue* ceeded in showing that all constructions that can be effected by ruler and compasses can also be accom- Later on.s.s. in 1797. Students will talk glibly about an arc drawn from as a center. Accurate drawing makes such matters impossible. accuracy While the diagram of a theorem has nothing to do with insistence the validity of the proposition. and will at the same time draw an arc whose prolongation passes through O. to place them at the end of Book I. Pedagogic remarks. for this will do away with further hypothetical constructions/' and besides. these constructions are of great simplicity and interest to the beginner. is very desirable that the drawing of bisector.158 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS solved. a mistake have to later than this proposition. and . etc.s. the diagram of a problem is the essential part of the work. continual free-hand construction will sometimes lead to loose thinking. Mascheroni. be placed however. Since several of these constructions depend upon the third proposition of equal triangles (s.s. simple constructions dicular. especially we give a large number of applications. perpenshould occur as early as possible " in the course. =s. On the other hand. or even of II. parallel. Moreover.e. Poncelet plished by the compasses alone. and the use of the straight- edge only. little The theory of these constructions offers if difficulty.

Accuracy of expression most essential for brief and concise descriptions of the constructions. line. Or if a con- we may transformation of a rectangle into a square." "Through O draw AB CD" etc. II Insist also upon designating a new all. to be designated at as soon as intro- Do not say " : Through A by MN. and Do designate it AB" draw a perpendicular " but. " From A " as a center with a radius equal to CD draw an arc. etc. Through A draw AB JL MNr instance." " From A dra..." although in the beginning to draw all require the student details of this construction. etc." On AB lay off A C= MN. not give details of preceding constructions.wABMN.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS hence in the 159 constructions beginning at least is all should be effected with ruler and compasses. and this problem has been studied "Transform into a square. lines of construction. It may be obtained by making students know exactly the easily few typical phrases that occur in such work. UNEQUAL LINES AND ANGLES Proofs of the propositions. The first of the proposi- tions establishing the inequality of lines compares the . the other dotted. by using different colors or and resulting by drawing one kind of line thin. it if it is is going to duced. For if construction makes use of the bisecting any it is of an angle A. sufficient to state " bisect angle A." before. state only struction requires the ABCD : ABCD In complex examples make a graphic distinction be- tween given lines lines. and the third heavy.

viz. etc. on both sides of the paper. tC B Students see now the truth of the C A D it A D B proposition. the angles whose relative size we wish : to dis- cover. of a proof. Cut out a piece of paper and mark. that in a triangle the angle the greater side is the greater one is difficult opposite so simple that The second. Mark also differ- ently. on both sides of the paper. to analyze.l6o TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS of two is sum and sides of a triangle with the third one. however. and soon some will find the answer that is indicated in the Let all annexed diagram. The writer employs paper folding for this which usually leads students to the discovery purpose. the sides whose lengths we assume to be different. while A becomes a remote interior ? students cut out pieces of paper and try.. Who can fold this paper so that B becomes the exterior angle of a triangle. find that . and ask the follow- ing questions Which is the only theorem which tells that one angle than another? Ans. We unfold the paper. The exterior angle of greater is a triangle. and remains to translate this idea into geometric terminology. it hardly requires any comment.

it has to be modified considerably A B for different figures. usually given in textbooks has not this disadvantage. which compares two triangles that have two sides respectively equal but the included angles unequal. however. all of which proof. has a drawback which is peculiar to many demonstrations of rC this proposition. is The proof which It may. One which in is not so c very the difficult to discover.g. and let BC and lines DB be the . however. the proof is easily completed. Cut out a piece of paper as indi- cated in diagram I. etc. although its analysis is rather difficult. triangles places the position If indicated in the diagram. has a great for A BDC many proofs. This proof. e. and B' DC. instance.. we would naturally inquire into the relative sizes of angles ' ABD and ADB. for the an- nexed diagram. we wish to prove that AB > AD. also be discovered by paper folding. But as the base angles of isosceles triangle CDB are equal. require the superposition of two equal sides. viz.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS l6l the CD is the bisector of Z C. find the position of '. equality of The third proposition.

Fold the paper ovei as in diagram II. all this fact. converses of these cases require. uhile EC forms the other two sides. This will lead to figure III it so that BD and the entire proof. an original requiring the inequality of lines should be of started by the question: "What means do we have to " the inequality of lines ? The only means which prove we have so far are the three theorems. no demonstrations. (i) has to be used when no relation of angles is Number (2) may be used if the given or can be found.1 62 TEACHING OP MATHEMATICS whose inequality has to be proven. (2). to which we shall and (3) respectively. refer in the following as (i). it is well to such cases the indirect method The analysis Simple application of the propositions. if Num- ber (3) has to be used the two lines whose inequality . lines which we wish to compare are sides of one triangle Number and some facts relating to angles can be found. according to the law discussed on page 146. and require now the students to fold II forms one side of the triangle. The While we would not make use of bear in mind that in will effect a proof.

Of course geometry. one of the peculiarities or shall we say charms? of The work cannot be done without some originality. while in general they are not adapted for . 3. A point without the perpendicular bisector of a line unequally distant from the ends of the line. on the part of the student. is The applications of the converses are analogous to those of the direct propositions and hence hardly require a discussion.g. The methods of the present paragraph may be helpful to the teacher. If two sides of a parallelogram are unequal. the angles formed by the diagonals are unequal. "Ex. few exerto such a choosing of the proper means adapted : A are the following Ex. although it must be borne in mind that sometimes two or even three methods may be used effectively. AB -f CZ>< AD + Ex.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 163 we have to prove lie in different triangles and some but this is facts relating to angles may be found. Before actually demonstrating such originals. prove Ex. 4. e. thinking. 2. that CB. Difficult originals relating to unequal lines. it is let some advisable to students decide in a large is number of cases which of the above methods most likely to lead to a result. DO DA. another color the cises smaller side or angle. one color always representing the larger. I. The given data may be indicated graphically. liAB and CD are two intersecting lines. this is not absolutely definite. as the case may be. In triangle ABC MAS = BC and D lies in AB.

it will take 2. . In such i.g. Thus AB may be translated into the position A'ff. If we apply AB to BA so that occupies the position formerly held by * See Chapter XV. do not form one triangle or two triangles. A figure is tion if all its subjected to a translapoints describe equal and parallel lines. e. AB A y coincides with BA. Of course A'ff would also be equal and parallel to AB. is symmetric to A'B'C with respect to the axis xy.1 64 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS These methods d& classroom work in a high school. ABC A special case of the preceding method is the turning over a A' figure so A(B') B(A') that one of its lines.* examples the difficulty is usually due to the circumstance that the lines to be compared do not lie together. and the most important ones are modes 1. parts so as to bring certain lines angles In geometry such moving figures are frequently used. rive a particular value from the fact that similar ones In hard are frequently used for attacking problems. ABC the position A'flC. If A is turned Turning over about the axis xy.e. cases it is necessary to or move some together. of : Translation. about an axis.

Hence . is Rotation about a point. CDB'. thus taking the position To have to compare Obviously the greater one.e. prove DB' > AD. the following out: If in trapezoid A BCD.-* A . or (since B~B')AB and B'AD. - DA > CB. BO AC.-. we may apply an is angle ABC to CUA. being an exterior angle of A ABC. Similarly. draw CE\\DA). then the . To prove DB > AD. ABC The use of these methods is explained by lines of four propositions i. CE . and B'AD. we 4 B' latter. and . then 2.A. then Z B > /. ZB _ *'' 7 _ > Z CEB. InAAJSC. U (i. In the diagram A rotated about A as center through an angle of 60.B CD bisects Z C. . C resulting triangle B A f ! C f . 3. Turn A CDB that over about CD. and 165 B AAJ3C The the position formerly held will assume the position A 1 FC by A. is the the proof follows easily.-ED = Translate ZX4 into the position CE > CB.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS B.

If in quadrilateral = ^C. i.ACD (Rotate A Z^C about /? through ABCD. DB'C. Z. is isosceles. If in triangle drawn. and BC > DA. . If in quadrilateral ABCD. and EA > ^C. 4. Drawing now B'D. together. and > Z -#C>. EXERCISES Ex. then Z > DC. 1 ABC the median CD BC > CAE.i66 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS If in quadrilateral ABCD. B' or Z obtained herefrom. D be taken in equitriangle such that Z ADB > then DC > DB. Adding the unequal angles B. AB > CD and Z B = Z /?. or translate CA. Since no two of the unequal sides lie we turn over so that &ABC \ AC 'Vg/ (not drawn in diagram) coincides with CA. then /. we obtain two triangles AB'Dznd. 2. Z. " 5. and AD C> A and Ex.) Ex. then ZA is > Z B. 3. If AB CD II and DB > CA. > EB. Z D > Z B. AB prove that > CD. &ADB about 1 c Rotate the position AD'C. then Z C# > DEA. the con- clusion is easily obtained. we get Z D> D> 3. Ex. AB B 80. Ex. and the triangle takes the position A'B'C. A We until it takes to _ have now compare CD and CD which suggests the drawing of D'D and the comparison of As &ADD* the angles CD'D and CDD 1 _ . If a point lateral 7. If a point within parallelogram > four vertices. each containing two unequal sides. ABCD be joined to the .

8. or in other words has to distinguish between " several cases/' modern geometry covers all such cases by one statement To illustrate by a concrete example. if EA > EC and ED = EB. . I6 7 In the same diagram. is utmost importance that polygons and angles should be The reason for such a usage . FE (Compare Ex. negative angles. In recent years certain writers on mathematical pedagogy have declared with great emphasis that it was of the lettered counter-clockwise. C. If in the then Z i > Z 2. While elementary Euclidean geometry frequently has to modify its statements for different figures. of Modern geometry coni. Ex.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS Ex.e. siders the algebraic values of geometric quantities. If point E within a square ABCD be joined to A. it makes use negative lines. and by this method greatly simplifies many statements. then Z BEC > ABC DO FA. and negative areas.due to modern geometry. and AE > C*. Ex. annexed diagram AB = BC. DEA. B. p. then CEB > 7. 4.) = ED. 240. and POLYGONS Positive and negative quantities in geometry. and 6.

A OBC in In modern geometry. y* which gives the area *t. &ABC=&OAB-&OBC-&OCA. . Ill In these diagrams we have respectively II. a clockwise sequence of the letters denoting a triangle represents a negative diagrams II and III is a negaand similarly A OCA in diagram III. and the let us discover the relation between A ABC triangles OAB. y\ xt.yz'> and the vertices 1. and 3 follow in counter-clockwise of a triangle . tive quantity. Hence we have for all possible figures area. Elementary geometry has to discriminate between seven different cases. however. yz y is positive if whose vertices are x\. : III.i68 let TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS and us join any point O to the vertices of a triangle ABC. OBC. by considering angles read counter-clockwise as positives those read clockwise as negative. we * The reason for selecting the counter-clockwise sequence as positive is due to the fact that the determinant. order. and OCA.* hence A ABC= A OAB + A OBC + A OCA. Similarly.2. three of which are illustrated by the following diagrams. &ABC=&OAB-&OBC + A OCA.

whether or not we should insist upon these matters in a secondary school. and the few who do utes. "that students will learn them without any extra effort whatsoever. we can with reference to three points A. B. are so exceedingly simple. no matter what the positions of A. B. even C does not lie on A B. will grasp these ideas in a few min- Hence the usefulness of these conventions does not form a sufficient reason for introducing them in our schools.. but this does not decide the question. AB + BC=AC\ AB + BC + CA = o.MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 169 diagrams state quite generally. lines. and Care : may in the following Z AOB + Z BOC = Z. burden put upon the pupil. "But these matters but in others it would mean an additional. and quite the case unnecessary." In some cases this is true. - These statements do not depend upon the positions of A. then AB + BC -f- CA o. * If if Take we admit imaginary quantities. and C. c o Using directed line: or. B." we are told. .* --_ -_ -assert quite generally C lying B j in a straight A ' C ' A C A B B ' C ' The great usefulness of such conventions to advanced geometry cannot be denied.AOC. Not one high school student in a thousand will ever study modern geometry.

tion of these modern conventions. The sum of the angles of Remarks on two theorems. stration. and force the student. and finding out whether they will add the triangles in this case. We . a polygon. or of the algebraic symbols 2(^ 2) will obviate this difficulty. that may leave the reader 2 or 2 (n doubt. is sometimes stated in an in ambiguous way. in very simple examples. but the importance of the entire matter has been greatly overrated by some of our pedagogues. This difficulty is utterly uncalled for. e. and it distracts the student's mind from the true issue. wheii expressed in right angles. To sum up Nothing can be said against the use of counter-clockwise notation in very simple examples. and it may even be recommended the whole situation : in such cases. In giving the usual demonstration of this proposition. it Hence it seems absurd to insist upon a rigid applica- True. as in lettering a triangle or a quadrilateral. The use of straight angles. a triangle with its altitudes and the lines joining the feet of the altitudes. may test the real understanding of the students by joining a point within the polygon to all the vertices. whether this sum is 2 n 2) right angles. who is reciting a difficult demonevery angle mentioned counter-clockwise. to read as has nothing whatever to do with the demonstration.g. no harm would be done by counter-clockwise notation. and there is no doubt that you add thereby a very decided difficulty. also. but solely for the sake of uniformity.I7O of a TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS somewhat complex diagram. some students are inclined to add triangles instead of angles of these triangles.

the sum of the exterior angles equal to 4 rt. rotating it by the amount of Z moving It is then to next vertex. or degrees find each angle of equiangular polygons. Oral exercises are well adapted for familiarizing students with the simpler Find the sum of applications of these propositions various polygons in right angles. in right angles. star-shaped polygons. straight angles. in the second. resulting in the first figure in 2 x 360. in 3 matter to obtain the sum then an easy of the interior angles of such It is x 360. .e. and degrees find the number of sides of polygons. i. adding a rotation equal forth. straight angles. and so obvious returning to its original position has rotated through an angle of 360. A. the sums : .MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 171 of the exterior The truth of the proposition of the sum angles can be shown in a concrete pencil in the position it way by placing a BX and i. of whose angles are given . Exercises referring to polygons. to Z 2. that the pencil when is This method can also be applied to exterior angles of star-shaped polygons. etc.

.172 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS For more difficult examples. is not advisable to give the algebraic solution based upon the equation * 4 ^. it may be well to point out that the exterior angle proposition frequently can be employed to greater advantage than the sum of the interior angles. the number is of sides of a polygon each of it whose interior angles 170.= -Z_ but to consider that each exterior angle is of such angles. To find. and that hence the number sides. for instance. is 36. and the number of n 180 10.

same relation between angles is proved in a similar way. axiom. the parallelism of lines. knowledge A of the most generally used "means" of proving certain therefore of the utmost importance. " " methods thorough acquaintance with these A indispensable for successful work in attacking problems and it should be one of the chief aims of geometric instruction to familiarize the students with them. 173 . the equality of lines." such as the methods for proving is . There it was shown that every analysis starts by examining the various means by which the proposition may be proved. or sometimes we bisect the The greater. and prove that double equals the greater.CHAPTER XI METHODS OF ATTACKING THEOREMS Typical methods of proving geometric facts. or definition may be used as such a means. see Schultze and Sevenoak's Geometry. The fun- damental idea of the analysis of geometric theorems was explained in Chapter III. but far more important are the general geometric facts is " typical methods. and prove that its half equals the smaller. methods relating to the other books of geometry. To prove that a we usually line is twice as large double the smaller. * These For eight methods refer to the first book of geometry. Every proposition. To the six methods previously given two * : more may be added METHOD as another its VII. etc.

the student As at this explained in the preceding paragraph. of two of lines a and b equals a third line b and prove that it equals construct the sum a and or construct the difference it between c and a and prove that equals b.e. If the parallelism of lines tion is in this ? And after the original questo the equality of manner reduced etc. Analysis. stage of the work should be thoroughly familiar with the practical use of simple analysis.174 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS VIII. Thus in teaching analyzed. we should ask for the method of demonstrating the equality of angles. the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal." we should ask. All that was previously mentioned about this method should be summarized. even though the teacher may not have found it necessary to refer explicitly to the term analysis or Before Book I is to discuss its peculiarities in detail. the figure is a parallelogram. this should be done. completed. question that should always open the attack of a problem should be What means have we of establish: The ing this conclusion? methods. however. and its application to more difficult theorems should be studied. What is the usual method of demonstrating should be so attacked. METHOD To prove that the sum c. we have to general look for propositions. two angles. " in the textbook and every original i. c. Every proposition the proposition. or even In the absence of axioms and definitions. In making a complete analysis far as possible every means that we should study as we have at our dis- .

But a study of such analytic methods will greatly enlarge the power of the weak as facts graphically in the diagram. either (a) double CD. its own length to E and = DB. any one of which may lead to a solution. Survey the diagram: which shows AEBC is a parallelogram * For further simple illustrations AD . well as of the strong student. the more difficult require a certain amount of ingenuity. etc. (a) Produce BE c F hypotenuse prove that CD by CE = AB. Z..METHODS OF ATTACKING THEOREMS posal. or (b) bisect BA. In general some of these proofs are simpler than others. what numerical values of angles are known. the the start. may be useful. According to one of the above methods. Schultze A see and Sevenoak's Geometry. .* The median CD to is the AB *u of a right triangle one half the hypotenuse. 175 reduce the original theorem to a number of others. and he should represent these Not every theorem can be analyzed in an absolutely stereotyped manner. Theorem. and the questions. C= 90. Analysis. The same method is to be applied to each of the new This will can easily be seen that in some cases a great number of proofs may result. At and out duced the original question is restudent should survey the diagram determine all known facts. Thus. A few illustrations i . and it skill of the student will appear in a wise selection of the means. and whenever what angles or lines are equal. he should find to another. CD = DE.

or from the proposition relating to the diagonals of a rectangle. will lead to a solution. Draw the sum of PB and PC. viz.. to E. and CBE. I. Here we cannot find equal triangles. more difficult than I. The upon a equality of lines depends usually The pair of equal triangles. ACB. ECP = Therefore CE = CP. we have (b) Since D to prove that CD DA. and is find equal parts. or (b) prolonging PB. APC. CPE. 2. * This analysis requires a knowledge of Book II. so that (a) Produce PC. is the midpoint of AB. Theorem* If scribed in a circle and ABC P is an equilateral triangle ina point in arc BC.i 76 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS since and AEBC is a rectangle. either II. (a) . APB. Analysis. We may draw the sum of PB and PC by either (a ) prolonging BP. PC = PE 60. construct a pair. . this conclusion. and their triangles are CAP equality easily established. The means for proving the equality of lines is usually a pair of equal triangles. and prove PA = PD. The equality of CE AB follows from equal triangles. ing angles are Survey the diagram. We have two means of showing I. then PA = PB + PC. or Draw the difference of PA and PC. to D. hence draw DF\\ BC. however. and if there are no triangles. E = /. is but a careful survey of the diagram which. (b) Produce is PB so that BD = CP. The followknown to be 60 A. and hence Z ABC. and prove the equality of BP PE and B BE : PA.

METHODS OF ATTACKING THEOREMS Survey the diagram and mark all angles of 60 by one arc. Instead of proving that a theorem is true. On AP off AH= CP HP prove HP = PB. then a is &. PCF = Z PFC = 60. we try to show is equilateral. &APD The equality of AD established. Thus. A . PC = PF. The difference between PA and PC may either be constructed by laying off (a) on (b) PC PA. hence CF = CP. denies if The indirect method. BPA = 60. ABC = Z BCA = Z. APC = /. Since we have no and equal triangles. If its A is is B. if we could prove APD = 6o. containing as homologous parts. we may show Such a method of that its contradictory is absurd. or on AP. lay off (a) On PA : PF= />Cand at- = PB tempt to prove the diagram: Survey Since /. B. II. As has to be equilateral if the theorem is true. contradictory would If be. we consider the proposition. whose equality (b) is easily established. A = Z. is A its proposition which another one called contradictory. AF The means are the triangles for proving AF = PB and AFC lay and BPC. AD and AP follows from the equality of the triangles ACP and ABD. = AP. a fact that follows triangles ABH and from the equal CBP. or that that PB PHB HB PB. the theorem would be Hence. then a is not b.

we may show this either directly.* Thus.178 demonstration TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS is called " reductio ad absurdum " or the this indirect method. as follows in general. applied for the proofs of converses. this may be applied to theorems that establish relations between angles. and we wish to prove that under the particular conditions of the hypothesis A must be B. . and can always be applied in case of the law of converses that was dis- cussed in Chapter X. More concretely we may explain : method If. Most theorems Attacking a theorem as a problem. by demonstrating that the conclusions A is These may be con- tradictions of the hypothesis. may be attacked as problems. A concrete illustration If may explain this method : CE bisects Z C. or of a previously proven theorem. and CD -L AB. In regard to the application of the indirect method no general rules can be given. or Cand A is D lead to contradictions. It may be tried by the It is frequently students whenever other methods fail. we may require to find the side of a triangle opposite an acute angle whose other two sides are respectively equal to b and c> if the proper projection is /. instead of proving the proposition of the square of a side opposite an acute angle. or D. In the study of Book I. or of an axiom. then * XV) may Consequently some of the methods for attacking problems (Chapter be used. A must be either B or C.

let 179 A = w. * = *. ZAC But = (180 - m-n). x+ C obtain = C. we the x= 90 A. Solving these equations. or x is complement of angle A. n. . then /. OBC is the complement of angle A. and then we have jr ^ 0C4 = 5r. B. example which leads to simultaneous equations follows from the theorem If O is the point of intersec: An tion of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of A ABC. 2*+2/-f2Z= +j^ * = 1 80.METHODS OF ATTACKING THEOREMS In a beginner's class. ^ = Hence. OBA=y.

by the second the area. and to reserve the term "circumference If. relating to circle. 1 80 may be found in . the line is generally denoted " by the term circle/' and even the usual elementary textbook soon drops the distinction. Since linguistic matters are decided by usage and not by logic. the elementary distinction is accepted. when giving the definitions " a sharp distinction between the terms " circumference and "circle. While no great harm if it is is done by it this differentiation carried out consistently. it would possibly be best to denote the line by circle. insist upon that passes through three points. " for the length of this line. in advanced mathematics. or of the intersection of two circles. is on the other hand distinctly against usage.CHAPTER XII THE CIRCLE* REGULAR PROPOSITIONS Circle or circumference. then it however. etc." denoting by the first the line. it is not adhered to outIn daily life as well as side of elementary geometry. While such a distinction is very desirable from the logical point of view. and speaks of a circle Most elementary textbooks. would be logical to define a circumference circle * Further discussion of topics relating to the Chapters XIII and XVI.

the diameter bisects the first The circumference.. cle. " circle can be drawn through any three points not in a straight line. remarks that were made there may be repeated here. that its count of the obviousness of sibility of confusing on acconclusion and the imposis : drawing a correct diagram is the following straight line cannot intersect a circumference in points.THE CIRCLE first. and to a corollary of the theorem. viz. line cannot meet a circle in Several of the fundamental propositions relating to the circle have to be based upon superposition. and reduce their number to the most essential ones. and give a complicated indirect proof. all propositions on the circircles are equal. not be drawn through three points in a straight line. and the necessity of using this remember that for each tion is the only method becomes clear. but it may suffice to : A "A first proposition. proving equality. offer. for instance.. whereas it is far more advantageous to defer it. those of the preliminary The propositions which were discussed in Chapter V. l8l and a circle as an area bounded by a circum- ference." more than two Many books make this the proposition. etc. First propositions. if we new type for of figure superposi- means shown in Chapter VIII. as was The student will have no . on account of their simplicity." From this proposition it follows easily that a circle can- make it A and hence that a straight more than two points. peculiar difficulties similar to mention two points Do not dwell too long upon these theorems.

may be given here. If the student has masAnalysis of some theorems. chords. Query. In equal circles the greater chord subtends the greater (minor) arc. howbe discovered without difficulty. What ? is the only means that we know to prove the in- equality of arcs Answer. questions. Unequal central angles. difficulty in finding prove that equal central angles intercept equal arcs. nearly all demonstrations relating to the circle will few examples. we have to superpose the central angles.* A In most cases the students ever. should be able to give not only the answers.. tered the fundamental ideas of analysis as applied in Book I. but also to propose the questions.l82 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS such proofs if he bears in mind that Thus to the parts given as equal must be superposed. Query. and the sequence of the i. Query. . What therefore must we prove ? Answer. ZO>^O'. What methods do we know ? for demonstrating the in- equality of angles * See next section. and if the teacher emphasizes the new typical methods of demonstrating the equality of arcs. etc. etc.

find few such AED. arc first. If arc AD = 40 /. then easily established. which relates to a tangent. Query. at first numerical questions. To prove that an inscribed angle it is is measured by one half the intercepted arc. 2. and why ? Query. Answer. not. and the proposition relating to two triangles. In the students find it sometimes peculiar that we prove that . Hence what must we show about triangles OAB and O'AW ? It is easily seen that the triangles satisfy the conditions. Answer.THE CIRCLE Answer. annexed diagram. students as a rule will the general propositions. The proof is 3. Query. and arc After CB = a 50. the proposition relating one triangle having two sides unequal. What relation between angles ? Cand A OB must we therefore prove Z C = \ Z A OB. but merely the case in which Usually students we may ask as follows: Which angle is measured by AB ? Answer. Which method alone can we use here. 4. better not to propose the general proposition at one side of the angle find this without help. propose e. because the angles lie in different triangles. The last method. Query.g. is if a diameter. discover examples. discover the propositions relating to the measurement of angles by certain it If students find difficult to arcs. to 183 The exterior angle proposition. Z A OB.

quite in general. will * The theorem. several miles. is see- ing easily not proving. Then AD nobody could decide by seeing whether or not is without. and over arc and EC all clockwise. . from the initial position tion AB to the terminal posithen the point of of line in- AD\ tersection circle moving would sweep over arc BD counter-clockwise. say. relating to the The theorems measurement of angles by arcs can be Let let it generalized as follows. The central angle is measured by the intercepted be analyzed in the chapter on limits (XIII). If we if consider arcs as positive the mov- ing point travels over them counter-clockwise. and very small. and generated by a counter-clockwise rotation of AB. while D the demonstration shows it beyond a doubt* Generalizations of certain theorems. but in this fail can be the shown example that circum- "seeing" question stances. "We why can see that should it D ? is without. be proved " it " Of " course. A be be such an angle.i84 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS lies D without the circle. one inch. and as arc. say. will to decide under certain Let the radius be very great.

THE CIRCLE negative wise. parallel. that is so widely used in modern geometry. The cates that if the angle is zero. but tive less logical. distinction and negative arcs. the algebraic sum of the arcs If we widen our defini- is tion by admitting imaginary if arcs. posi- . i. the proposition * For a somewhat simpler. see Schultze between and Sevenoak's Geometry. proposition indicated by the fifth diagram is generally not given in textbooks the last diagram indi. the proposition is true even one or both sides of the angle do not meet the circumference at all.e. if the lines are zero. Thus the notion of positive and negative geometric quantities. enables us to merge into one proposition a number of different theorems which are illustrated in the annexed diagrams. Thus if the vertex of an angle moves over the entire plane and its sides rotate in any manner.* if '8s the moving point travels over them clockall we may summarize theorems relating to angles as follows: An angle is measured by one half the algebraic sum of the intercepted arcs.

The inequality of arcs and chords is proved in an analogous way. (^) equal distances from the center. and This matter. : Some of the most important are 1. for instance. is too separately and illustrate sometimes by problems. 3. The principle implied here often referred to as the principle of continuity. this sort are easily constructed by certain figures. The equality of arcs is usually demonstrated by means of (a) equal central angles. The of equality of chords is usually demonstrated by means (a) equal arcs. an inscribed pentagon. as. The teacher should take up each of such methods it by many theorems. simple to require further detail. however. an inscribed considering Simple exercises of a quadrilateral.1 86 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS true. but continuous abruptly over the plane. 2. and assigning numerical values to certain . EXERCISES The until general methods of Book II should be practiced they become quite familiar to the students. circumscribed triangle. The theorems on the measurement of angles by arcs should be illustrated by many numerical exercises. It always remains at does not is change all is any particular point. (b) equal chords.

i.THE CIRCLE i8 7 angles and arcs. and requiring the numerical values of other angles or arcs. y Each theorem may be proved by the indirect method. If by the corresponding altitude. 2. 180. that a circumference can be drawn through them. the feet of the perpendiculars are in ference a circle a straight line. from any point in the circumof perpendiculars be dropped upon the sides of an inscribed triangle (produced if necessary).e. For certain difficult exercises of Book II it is some- times necessary to prove that four points are concyclic. then Z DCA = Z DBA. then Z BAC = Z AD joining the Each angle formed by feet of the three altitudes of a triangle is bisected 4. which are wise exceedingly following 1. are the If in quadrilatral ABCD if (see above diagram) Z ADB = Z ACB. The vertices of quadrilateral (a) (b) A BCD are concyclic if Z ADB = Z ACB or Z A is the supplement of Z C. Two theorems may be used for this purpose. Some easily cyclic originals that may be of conother- proved by means points. . : difficult. In the same diagram. ZB+ ZD= 3.

difficulties. 2.e.) involves the idea of incommensurable group number. There that is exists no rigorous treatment of these matters suitable for secondary schools. almost metaof physical. The first The other involves the measurenineteenth century. It is the and who until recently controlled the situation to such an extent that hardly anybody dared to express an opposite opinion. and which leads to other. cylinder. which was put on a scientific basis only in the of cone. a problem for which our usual method measuring (i. ment of a curved line. laying off the unit of length) utterly fails. of the circumference and the area of a (In solid geometry the surface and volume and sphere. The determination circle. the poor results limits. The theorems belong to 1. that are involved in this controversy : two groups Those containing the so-called incommensurable case.CHAPTER LIMITS XIII DOGMATIC TREATMENT OF LIMITS No part of elementary geometry has aroused such an extensive and heated controversy as the theory of favorite topic of those who lay all of geometric teaching to lack of rigor. 188 and the belief .

it case.. and the conviction is gaining ground more and more in the that it is it a mistake to treat this subject way in which has been treated. which conveyed no meaning to the students. In this rigorous fashion the subject was treated throughout the entire course. non-conclusive proof for the equality of the limits of equal variables. There can be no doubt prevail all that under the conditions that to to-day in our to would be better omit proofs relating . RATIONAL TREATMENT OF LIMITS The incommensurable schools. certain students could repeat the words. Often highly artificial definitions were given. of variables. etc. and finally a complex.LIMITS that the treatment given in 189 " " books of is really rigorous is rigorous a delusion. the quotient. The have absolute inefficiency of this is way of teaching this subject attested by nearly all college teachers limits who occasion to make use of in advanced courses. school textinfluence The the dogmatists. but not one in a hun- dred had a clear notion of what he was really doing. however. to be followed by eight or ten abstract theorems relating to the product. True enough. and their argument that only ignorance prevented teachers from using rigorous methods. Fortunately the pendulum is commencing to swing the other way. were powerful enough to make teachers and authors vie with each other in of limits making the treatment more and more complex.

angle of (\ ( intercepts an arc of (~ ]. to give to the student a the nature of the problem and fair its by treating the subject very concretely. and at once attack the corollary in the following manner: Since equal central angles intercept equal arcs.'. i. (^) intercepts an arc of (^). (f -J). if any central was measured by the inter- The . ( an angle all of \m) ) intercepts an arc of Y \mj Therefore common by fractions central angles that can be expressed as are measured proper or improper their intercepted arcs. an angle of (|^) intercepts an arc of generally. limits." corollary of the Usually this proposition given as a theorem establishing the proportionality of central angles and intercepted arcs.e.. Or more An . question whether this demonstration was quite general. we may omit it. angle of i an angle of intercepts an arc of i. which under the customary arrangement reillustrate quires limits. To by a definite example. let us consider the first proposition. understanding of difficulties however. : "A central angle is measured by the is intercepted arc. . viz. we make a circumference equal obtain : 360 and we An .TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS " attempt to give the customary rigorous* demonstrations. than to It is possible.'. But as the main theorem is never applied. each i central angle of intercepts ^ 9 of the circumference. to Hence.

the following approximations of considering approximations of one of these A/2 = is 1.01.414. .001. and the term "incommensurable number" could be If introduced. etc. for its if A/2 were equal to n (where is in n lowest terms).1.4. . however small. cannot differ respecOr the error cannot be as large as any number. V2. etc. e. true for all numerical measure of the arc tively by .LIMITS 191 cepted arc. . which we may assign. and the 1. can be proved for incommensurable numbers that this proof is but too difficult for school work or. as V7. the numerical measure of the angle. to the subject of incommensurable number. We may then either tell the students that the theorem also. were now repeated. cannot is be fractions. we may attempt to make the incommensurable case more plausible by numbers. .4142. ?/5. 3. 1.or TT.41. which n n factor. We have thus proved that there can be w finite difc . rem bers Obviously the theohence the two numapproximations. 141 59". the question whether our geometric theorem of the central angle was proved for all cases. impossible since It m and n have no common could be pointed out then that there are other numbers that cannot equal common fractions. for instance. would very likely be answered by the This would lead naturally student in the affirmative.0001. The student easily sees that certain numbers. we would quite likely receive a negative reply.g. 1. then 2 =^-1^.

and this is really all that the so-called rigorous proofs with their complete machinery accomplish. we could make by incommensurable numbers bers are equal rable cases. if fully as rigorous as any one of the usual books. illustrate the To let use of this arithmetical plan further us consider the theorem. sound reason against doing the same for these special and difficult casesjof ratio. etc. introducing the following definition of equality of it : Two incommensurable num- all their approximations are equal.IQ2 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ference between the numerical measurements of angle and arc. and that it dispenses with limit.* there can be no etc.e. A line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally. lines he has no geometric evidence that there are that have no common measure. This would practically do away with the incommensu- The essential character of the above method is the it approaches the idea of incommensurable from the purely arithmetic side. and consider the above method less exact than the customary way. . AD = \AB> i. commensurable and incommensurable lines. fact that This is not as truly geometric as the customary mode. Ratio. Suppose in the annexed diagram that * See Chapter XIV. It we have a craving for rigor. He has not found geometrically the common measure of two lines. is The purely geometric idea of incommensurable so difficult to the student because he never before treated these matters geometrically. but since we placed the entire theory of ratio and proportion upon an arithmetical basis.

then equals If through the points of division parts.LIMITS if 193 AB is two of these divided into five equal parts. and treat the incommensu- rable case as before. is then obviously AE f of AC. the commensurable case thus treated is more complex than in the customary way. variables. He may whose introduce commensurable and incom- mensurable lines as lines ratios are commensurable or incommen- surable numbers. S is B C if Therefore the theorem pressed in the form proved AD can be ex- m AB y when ~ m is a common fraction. AD the parallels to BC are drawn. however. derive therefrom the fact that for two commensurable lines there always exists a third line. then AC 4|-|.* While the theorems considered Length of a curve.'* For the incommensurable case. numbers And again we point out that only rational can appear in the form m . which is contained in each without remainder. etc. etc. o . in the Of course preceding section can very well be taught withconditions compel the teacher to use the customary * If external of proving the incommensurable case. limits. but it slightly does away with the bugbear " common measure. since it does away with commensurable and incommensurable lines. this method is undoubtedly preferable. he may first teach one or two " geopropositions in the arithmetical manner and then lead over to the mode metric-rigorous" way.

circumference is the limit of an inscribed polygon. The etc. The house reflection he will tell us.. it would be better that the proposition. and only considerable will show him In that he has to deal with the mystery of all sensation. gogic difficulty in a the solution of the pedasecondary school in the abandoning lies of the demonstration. such cases. however. the limit out any reference to length of curves cannot dispense with the notion of limit. etc. an old experience that many problems appear as problems only after considerable advance in their study has been made. or rather the series of proofs that The fact that a circle for this proposition. are To "heavy". for to the mind not used to mathe- matical subtleties this appears to be axiomatic. Indeed. requires a good deal of training to recognize that difficult we have to deal here with a a proof. Thus.. were not proved it at all. at when this definition is first studied. we must first teach the . this is a the unsophisticated savage objects fundamental fact not requiring explanation. required the limit it of a polygon. Here. proposition which needs Not one student in a hundred will acquire a clearer understanding of this theorem by studying the is is proof. and only after considerable progress has been made do we recognize that we have to deal here with the problem of gravitation that requires solution. appears to be so plain that forms one of the best the time It is illustrations of the notion of limit.194 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS " " and similar terms. particular house appears to be red. To the layman there is no difficulty in explaining why some is red.

also? It is. 2.LIMITS 195 this student that there is a problem. but College it is far more important than those for them to get students who who know exact definitions. If teachers are compelled to General suggestions. how- ever. the following suggestions 1. not use it for plane geometry. that certain defini- . and only after has been accomplished may we try to give a solution of the problem. The student is not familiar with the idea of a function and two interdependent variables. advisable in all such cases to explain to the stu- dents that this plan involves a distinct assumption. and only considerable study will is show to him that there a problem. teach limits and all general matters connected with this notion. making the variable equal to x. In solid geometry. Be satisfied with an approximate definition. the constant equal to some other letter. may be helpful : Give the definition of limit in an algebraic form. it that surfaces are limits is the usual practice to assume although here too some dog- Why matists have tried to display their learning by objecting. The young student him about this problem. It is a very common experience in mathematics. It is difficult enough Do not reject a for him to imagine one variable. and a difficult one. There is nothing difficult to of curved lines. think well. It is precisely the same thing with the length in imagining the length of a curve thinks of the length of a curved string that can be straightened. definition because it does not cover all the cases which the student will meet in his college work. teachers may be inconvenienced by this.

. is Give i.e.ggg--. the more confused will students become. the definition which best for your own purpose. he should to All limits considered in elementary geometry have this peculiarity. not dwell too long upon these topics. 3. as . that have not decision. outside of school geometry. certain polygons may be used. Recurring decimals. as ( ]n=a<> "> good examples. should have no weight in the Illustrate the nature of a limit by a large number of concrete cases. for instance. point Certainly the fact that there are other limits. and let college teachers revise these later on. Also motion examples. 5. the fact that circumference and area of a circle are respectively limits of perimeter and area of 4. a " teacher should feel that the clause. infinite series. If. The longer you do. the teaching of elementary geometry. A variable can- not reach accept it. and variables. its limit/' is helpful to his work. as I etc. 6.196 tions TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS must be given at first in a preliminary form." not conclusive and is rarely understood by students. quotients of constants etc. offer + \ + | . Do not teach the geometric proof that " If is usually limits is given for the theorem. Do not attempt to teach in the beginning the general theorems relating to products of variables. it and it may be advantageous out in the beginning. this peculiarity. quotients of variables. algebraic functions. Do . two variables that have The proof are always equal. their limits are equal.

" it leads to multiplying lines. The modern The finding school of a ratio book and the determination of a quotient are identical problems. pedagogic advantages are so great can be no question as to whether or not it that there should be used in our secondary schools. is "The first of four magnitudes said to have the same ratio to the second. and we can understand that. defines a ratio as a fraction. and any equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth if the multiple of the first be less than that .CHAPTER XIV THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY THEOREMS RELATING TO PROPORTIONS Ratio and proportion. because it is non" constitutes a break in the logic of the geometry. however. at a only rational numbers were recognized and irrational numbers were considered as impossible. which the third has to the fourth. But even admitting that the arithmetical definition less its is scientific. when any equimultiples whatsoever of the first and third being taken. Even to-day it some authors geometric. the was considered inThus Euclid and the other ancient geomecomplete. This. reject it. 197 . definition of a ratio as a quotient ters did not use the arithmetical definition of a ratio. One has only to read Euclid's definition * to be convinced that it is utterly unfit for * young students. etc. in many examples involves the notion of irrational time when numbers.

The proposition relating to the segnients side of a triangle is made by a line parallel to one Its of fundamental importance.198 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS fact that the arithmetical The view of ratio leads to a product of two lines is no serious objection." . i. the multiple of the third is also less than that of the fourth or. place. it happens sometimes that they for- illustrations get what a proportion really is. but every proposition relating to proportion should be illustrated numerically. if the multiple of the first be equal to that of the second. necessarily leads to the incomthis mensurable case. Remarks on certain theorems. Frequent numerical will diminish this difficulty. since all difficulties may be removed by defining the product of two lines as the product of their numerical measures.g. of the second. It would lead us too far to discuss the teaching of ratio and find proportion in detail. Thus after we prove If AB = 3 that AB:BC = AD:DE. proof. The : here only one remark may students should understand that a ratio involves a statement a b = comparison of two quantities. if the multiple of the be greater than that of the second. : are inclined to use ratio and proportion in an utterly mechanical fashion. . of the third first * For discussion of this proof see Chapter XIII. is we should ask.* although may be avoided if pro- portional areas are studied before. like a new any proof that establishes proportionality of type of figure. (BC). the As students 7 I means a is 7 times b. the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth. what the relation between AD and DE ? This should of course not be restricted to a case as simple as the one presented here. e. the multiple : is also equal to that of the fourth or.

usually a line parallel to CE is drawn through to B. and tion of the necessary lines. strate the equality of 4. in the latter external. we m proportional to m. The proof. 3. . m n = b c.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY It is 199 worth noticing that this theorem is true whether In the parallel meets the sides or their prolongations. a problem by requiring the construction of the fourth it make b.e. The corresponding is proposition of the bisector of the exterior angle of no great importance unless har- monic division is studied. students can be led to the discovery of the proof by the absolute analogy of this proposition with the preceding one. the former case we have in- ternal. it appears difficult to make students discover the : construction of the line parallel to the bisector. and c. be- comes simpler if a parallel (see annexed diagram). This produces the construcit remains only to demon- x and which is not at all difficult. that With proper fits lettering one proof may be written both theorems. if however. however. If it is taught. The matter. In demonstrating of the converse the preceding proposition. : BD is drawn through C In analyzing the proposition of the bisector of an angle of a triangle. 2. however. becomes simple. i. n. division.

g. is in Hence. EXERCISES RELATING TO PROPORTIONAL LINES Similar triangles are of the same Simple exercises. : method is emphasized and practiced. for which secant and external segment become identical. Thus if a b : and then If this a b : =x =y x = y. : c. The proportionality of lines most cases proved by means of similar triangles. tional lines. Since the greater part of Book III refers to proporand since most numerical calculations of . or two bisecting secants. the Two triangles are similar their homolo- gous sides are proportional. The secants may be as chords that are divided externally. as equal triangles are in proving the equality of lines. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS For proving some theorems on similarity of tri angles. c..200 5. it may be well to point out that the second and third propositions are only special cases of the first. if theorems lose a great deal of their proposition. or a secant and a tangent. the two lines are made corresponding terms of two proportions whose other terms are respectively equal. and considered the tangent represents that limiting case of a secant. viz. we may say. a new method for establishing the equality of lines is frequently applied. In regard to the propositions relating to segments which we obtain if we draw two intersecting chords. fundamental importance in proving the proportionality of lines. 6. some difficulty. e.

PAB the is and PBC. for the proof. to A we PC prove PA PB = should use the annexed : PB : marks. of triangle pairs which can be formed from . the similarity of the triangles should cause the ing Such cases. . 4. and two such braces should be pointing drawn if a line occurs twice in the proportion. b) and (c.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY 201 the lengths of lines depend upon proportional lines. choosing as * The first term the maximum number b. Of these three pairs two can be used c}. d) . c. The details of the mode of procedure may be described as follows : 1. d) and and d is three. In a few cases. viz. and the third pair cannot be used.* are very rare. however. this can be accomplished in ways. the matter is of great importance. Select two triangles so that each contains two of the given lines. d) (a. student to select another pair. In accomplished by means of equal angles. Let the student mark the four lines forming the brace is a very practical symbol for out each line. Thus proportion. (a. The equal angles should be marked as indicated in the most cases this above diagram. 2. several and it may selects the happen that the student wrong pair of tri- In such a case the impossibility of demonstratangles. (6. the lines a. similarity Prove of the two triangles. In the above diagram. c) and (b. (a. Write the proportion. the triangles are obviously J.

A great many exercises is of this type should be solved until every student fully If textbooks do not give acquainted with this method. Such propositions are those of intersecting chords. If we have are homologous because they are opposite the angles marked by two marks. remedy in the this defect. and PC in the small one. To obtain the homologous we should pay attention to the marks of the angles. a sufficient number of these originals. but alternations will easily sides. above diagram PA is included by the two marked angles lies of the large triangle. PB in the large triangle. with that of Even then the sequence of terms in the resulting proposition cal may not be identi- the conclusion. . the homologous side. Construction of originals. First. of the right triangle. it is possibly best to use them as illustrations for oral work when the method is first explained. of intersecting secants. of the product of altitude and diameter of circumcircle. only we have to equate the 5. it is an easy matter to construct them. a great many regular book proportions that follow later are theorems of this type.2O2 first TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS term of the conclusion. and it is expedient to solve nearly all of them to illustrate our method. prove that the product of two lines equals the product of two other lines. which analogously in the small triangle. to product of the means and the product of the extremes of the resulting proportion. hence is PB. the mode of procedure is precisely as above. Thus. To avoid the student's referring to the text. of a tangent and a chord.

~ 2.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY 203 Secondly. and Taking all CFD. . if Z EBC = Z E we ' ABD 9 then three tri- angles are similar EDA. and there are consequently nine proportions. we have four simiviz. A E possible combinations. The altitude drawn fig- upon the hypotenuse of a right triangle produces a ure in which nine proportions may be proved. ABD. Similarly. EBD and ECB\ and consequently 9 proportions. the altitudes AD and CE meet in F. lar triangles in the diagram. if in the annexed diagram Z A CD = Z ECB.. CBE. 3~4) and since each pair of triangles produces 3 proportions. y obtain 3 similar triangles (A CD. B we obtain 6 pairs of similar triangles (i 2 3. etc. 2 4. and 1^3. if. in the annexed diagram. In the annexed diagram. we have 1 8 proportions in this diagram. and DBA\ (EBC. For instance. the study of a type figure and the determination of all possible proportions in such figure produces a great many exercises. I ~4. and of course 18 products of lines equal to 18 other products of lines. AFE.

AB i \\ and it has to be proved that ' AB ~^~EC r obviously Ur rCg . Numerical examples. since there exist lines. In the more difficult exercises relating to the proportionality of four lines. if A'B\ ing kind.u j method fails. a parallelogram and we have to prove EA = J? EG we have again the same difficulty. the solved into two of the precedThus. Each regular proposition relat- ing to proportionality of lines should be illustrated by numerical examples. these theorems are rewords. it is impossible to find two similar triangles so that each contains two of the given lines. In such cases we have to find a third ratio which may be proved to be equal to each oi In other given ratios. By such work we familiarize the student with the facts stated in each proposition. no triangles which contain two of these But it is easy to prove that each of the given ratios equal OB OB' /?/< Or rr if ABCD is A -. to be equal to each of the given two ratios. y But ED can easily be proved. we make sure that he understands the meaning of such . by means of the regular method.204 Difficult TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS exercises.

Each of the originals on proportional lines to may be useful- accompanied by a numerical question ness of proportions. Here the student Still has to discover the proportion. if is first. find AB. still the necessary triangles have to be constructed. the altitude upon ten equals eight. and require the difficult. more if difficult are the exercises. 20 5 and we obtain an abundance of simple and concrete exercise material. AC = 4. they become somewhat harder they have to be solved without such proportion. and let the fourth be twice the first. Exercises of this type are not tion upon which they are based the propor- given . that frequently can be used for applied problems (see Chapter XVIII). AB = 6.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY propositions. if 3. and AB is a diameter. one or both of DC EC= EA = 6. find the altitude upon twelve. E. DB. show the Thus.E>. after you prove that the diago- nals of a trapezoid divide each other proportionally. the circle. or assign values to the second and third terms. . find the diameter of 5. assign numerical values to three of the segments and require the fourth.g. two sides of a triangle are ten and twelve. Or more difficult: If AC is a tangent. EC L AE. if E.g.

b. and^-. establishing metrical relations between Before we studied proportions we could establish The introducthe equality or inequality of lines. only tion of proportions makes possible the calculation of the lines. the anglebisector theorem. a. 7.. seems to be the only theorem Its great importance has always been recognized. Theorems of this type are all those that establish equation involving the lengths of lines. and to consider the above statement as a simple algebraic equation involving five numbers. The best-known example of this type is the theorem which connects the lengths of the three sides of a right triangle (a 2 -f ^ = <^) that was proved by Pythagoras about 550 B. Thus /2 = ab pq meant to Euclid that a square is equal to the difference of two rectangles. the median proposition. in particular the Pythagorean theorem. while modern writers are not afraid to apply algebra to geometry. the subject is not without interest.2O6 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS METRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN LINES Propositions lines. it that is frequently applied. q. and it is not surprising that many people have attempted to discover new proofs of . numerical values of As this leads to a number and an of applied examples. This proposition is probably the most widely applied theorem of the entire geometry . in fact.C. etc. while to us they represent algebraic equabetween the numerical measures of lines. ositions To the ancients all such propof rectangles meant relations between the areas tions and squares. The Pythagorean theorem. etc. such as the finding of heights distances.

If is the following one then and A BCD obviously. For the beginner the algebraic treatment is possibly Prove that each arm is a mean proportional. Very interesting are the proofs which cut the squares on the arms into parts which properly united produce the square on the hypotenuse. the best. etc. starting with applifor instance. although it does not fit into the : arrangement of most textbooks. A proof which deserves mentioning on account of its brevity. which of course purely geometrical. =0= Hence or Ka* + Kb* = = c*. makes it a very simple matter to discover sequence theorems of this type and their proofs. is of the square of each Euclid's proof. the cations of the Pythagorean theorem and ending with the required theorem. triangles depends upon chiefly on account of in the equality of two its and still is historic interest given many textbooks.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY this proposition. The inductive Analysis of theorems of this type. so that at 207 present more than 100 are known. To discover. and derive therefrom the value arm. This may be done as follows : . theorem of the square of a side of a an acute angle. let us form a series of triangle opposite numerical and algebraic exercises.

if In the same diagram. proposition of the square of the side of a triangle furnishes another example. as far as possible. Give numerical or literal values to two and require the value of the third side. triangles. as I. whose is If in the annexed diagram h 10. portant than the" knowledge of a single demonstration. Find the side of an b equilateral triangle 6. isosceles triangle. q 10. 12. h 8. h. _L c. Work of this kind is greatly facilitated by the use of simple notation. For the notation of in a proof. Thus the student and has arrives at the required proposition.308 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS sides of a right triangle 1. b. In the same diagram.c\ the altitudes by h w /i bt h c the \ medians by if ma m m . q. c. In the same diagram. b = 37. 11. etc. if a and 20. 4. and a 17. find a. 7. altitude Assume Find the and one side of an an isosceles triangle and require the remaining side. . 14. denoting the three sides of a triangle by a. and c. 5. b 10. find p. express a in b. but Roman numbers. We should. In the same diagram. express a in terms of and/. and c b. Use The . find c. 3. = b 16. In the same diagram. h 8. 25. altitude of equilateral triangle whose side altitude is given. \$. ters. in addition acquired some facility in attacking a matter far more imsuch propositions in general. c . let- quite a number occur do not use two III. In the same diagram. 2. express if p in terms of #. II. b. p 9. given. of directed lines. terms of 9. find a. designate lines by a single letter. Give numerical or literal values to the base and an arm of an and require the altitude. c 8.

2 cp. angle opposite a of the formula vanishes obtuse. then the square of any side a of may be expressed by the formula : a2 If the = P + c2 . by one statement. may be applied. or obtuse. Thus. right.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY 2OQ showing how. is . we may. cover several cases which otherwise would appear as a number of different propositions. before we could decide which formula ever. but also for the purpose of finding any one of the quantities involved when the others are known. / 90. a triangle otherwise as negative. is acute. Thus the formula : . by the use of directed lines. If we side c as positive consider the projection/ of the side b upon the if it lies in the same direction as c. the finding of / when the three sides are given would without the general formula require a special investigation into the character of a certain angle. and the resulting value will of / Use inform us whether the angle opposite a formulae. not only to find the quantity which it expresses explicitly. and the third term of such a general formula is The advantage obvious in all especially examples in which the character of the angle is not known. howmay always be applied. The general formula. then positive. of familiarized with the fact that a formula Students should be thoroughly may be used. then the third term if the angle opposite a is becomes negative.

by there by means Hence such practice the student is led to believe that the application of a formula is restricted to the finding of the quantity which it expresses explicitly. we may observe quite frequently. and in particular for the finding of/ when and c are given. for instance. furthermore.. That such a belief is not uncommon among that students.210 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS a. to students in solid just derived the geometry who have r formula for the altitude of a regular of the edge a. not only for the finding of for but also finding b and #. should be used. the opposite problem is edge of a regular . It and solve all examples But such a course can is be recommended. The defect of such a method is particularly obvious when very difficult. b. Propose. to practically just as of simple (i) as find a numerical value of of (2). f// tetraedron H in terms =-V6\ the altitude. p by means is absolutely no reason why the student's memory should be burdened with an unnecessary formula. But. opposite problem. c. to find the edge in terms of the and a great many students will start an independent geometric investigation instead of using the formula just found. as the finding of the tetraedron whose volume equals V. a belief may form quite a hindrance in more advanced work. by means hardly formula. viz. Some teachers derive a corollary expressed by the formula then let students memorize of this (2).

etc. and that hence the two problems. for the median proposition and applications we need only one formula. find the numerical value of the projection/ and then of Here. h. the finding of the edge if such probsucceed in estaball the volume is is given. and solve all numerical examples by substituting the given values in this formula. = 2 -/s(s-a)(s-/t)(s-c). also. however. Moreover. all its Thus. The reasons advanced in the preceding paragraph apply with equal force to all succeeding propositions. viz. : 2 a* + 2 P = 4 m* + c\ and similarly for other theorems. we may. The that practice of deriving and memorizing corol- laries give explicit formulas bisector. but the numerical difficulties of such a procedure are so often often considerable. and the find- ing of the alike. volume if the edge given. etc. : is the altitude formula A. are geometrically Unnecessary corollaries. In all such cases the student should memorize only one formula which expresses the fundamental theorem. the altitude is . An exception to this rule.. viz.. if we lishing any algebraic relation between the two quantities involved.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY 211 The student should become aware that lems can be solved algebraically. anglecannot be recommended. in a concrete numerical example. such as the median theorem. the proposition of the bisector of an angle of a triangle. while the application of the formula is quite simple. for median.

AE and AD are given. DAE. and the values of AB. BC. If. and DE y is required. and hence we easily find tion or x. needed Projections. of Numerical examples based upon the above propositions derive a certain interest from the fact that they may be of these great many but it seems that the great usefulness of this concept is not generally recognized by teachers. In geometry we do not need to find the of the angle but the projection of a segment of one side upon the other side. then trigonom- etry would give us which equals give Z BAC. Similar right triangles give us the corresponding projecin A ADE.'* believed that certain problems require trigonometry for their solution. if only the proper use of projections in <*> is made.212 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS in more advanced work that the memorizing the formula seems to be justified. AC AG DE Whenever an angle is found by a trigonometrical solution as an intermediate result only. diagram we AF. in the and EC meet annexed diagram two lines DB A. It is sometimes A make use applied to practical examples. for instance. " of the projections. Thus in the above find the projection of upon AB. CA. and again trigonometry would us or x from DE A ADE. the same work can usually be accomplished with the aid of pure geometry by in- . to be used again for the calculation of lines. while they can be easily solved by pure geometry. angle itself.

m. determine first p in the projecThis method tion of b upon c. Angle by solving would be an A . In most cases the value of a line and its projection will not lead to the . and the distances BE and BD are given. and then from A ( b. and DE is required. D ^ __ . find by ing projection (the trigonometric function of) similar right triangles the correspondy GB and finally obtain DE from A DEB. may be used for some of the regular To find m c propositions.g. b. place of the angle (or rather its trigonometric function). and c. intermediate result only. If m divides not difficult to prove that k : /. we would proceed A ABC. then trigonometrically by first solving obtaining thus Z B. ^ G FB instead of angle B. the median proposition. but that divides it in any c in the ratio given ratio. in terms of a. To illustrate further: If the three sides of a triangle ABC. Obviously a line we m that does not bisect could find by this method the length of c. - ) determine m.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY 213 Such a projection takes the troducing projections. the value of the angle will not enable us to calculate the . and obtain DE B A DBE. numerical value of the included angle and vice versa. e. In plane geometry we introduce the projection ^. then it is * 0&+02 Relation between angle and projection.

214 projection. viz. 45. should For the secondary school sufficient to know how to find the projecis one line upon another if the included angle 30. especially rational. results the following formulae may be useful. If m and n are positive integers. the sides of a triangle. which are relatively prime.g. e. 9. and their respective supplements. angles which equal the central angles of regular polygons that can be constructed with rules and compasses. etc. or 60. the numerical value of other bisector. if / and a include an angle of 22 30'. as 6. if is integral make such calculations posare multiples of 3. e -gl $> 2 4 l8 > 22 3 etc -* Angles the number of sible.. however. this To construct exercises of type we may assign numerical values at random to certain lines. etc. and require as the median angle- The only difficulty that may arise is the complexity of the numerical work. Construction of exercises. if m > then rational . lines. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The few be known to the teacher. however. . we wish to obtain values that have no common factor. 12. they Among the easiest ones to derive is the projection / whose degrees of a line a. and for obtaining simpler. student. tion of it is exceptional cases. possible to calculate the projections for It all is. values of three sides of a right triangle by the formulae \ : may be obtained t If * See Chapter XVI. m and n should not both be odd. Right triangle.

n. 24. 21. etc. it two of whose sides conforms with if these numbers. c = 55. $ 5. we change b to m(2 n If m).aft . 13. y = (m + n}p + nq. c = (2 m . and then the following b. 3. and a lies opposite A. formulae produce triangles with a rational m c : x = mp + (2 m + n)q. 31. 35. 11. = 120. the values 25 . 8./). and c the sides of a triangle. triangle the ratio of If known and may be we have a right Thus. 12. 9.. used to construct a right angle. Thus. a = 44. Median. 33. A = 60 : = m* n*. 8. 29. easy to find the third. a = w2 mn + b 1 *> 9 2 . then without further calculation it is follows that = If in A ABC. 21. 15. are well The values 5. Thus. and q are positive integers. Similarly formulae be given for triangles that . If ^4 we find 5. 8. 7. but leave a and a unaltered. Triangle containing an angle of 60. 20. 4. 7. 24. 3. may and 3 be obtained. 13. 7. 8. 4. 17. /. y m. then the following formulae produce rational sides Z. 15. etc.THE THIRD BOOK OF GEOMETRY a 215 = m 2 *& = 2 W. z = np + may 2(m -f n)q. c = w 2 4.

or areas. have two or three rational medians. sult the Readers wishing information on this subject may conchapter on indeterminate equations in the text- books on higher algebra. or pyramids having rational volumes.2l6 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS altitudes. . rational etc. bisectors.

Definition. the circle whose diameter is AB. 217 .. Hence. not a pedantic. No point without the line must satisfy this condiis tion. and we consider : : would not obtain the other and more inter- esting part of the locus. unnecessary clause without a practical value. The two con- ditions that must be satisfied to make : a line the locus of a point are usually stated as follows 1. some cases be led to consider a part of a locus as a part The second complete locus. and the projections of m and n upon AB by p and q* then every point in If we denote X A and B the perpendicular bisector of satisfies the condition nt 1 in 2 p q.CHAPTER XV METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS LOCI Scientific aspect of loci. we would in part of the definition. The following two examples illustrate these points I. : the distances of a point from two fixed points by m and n respectively. while in others we would obtain a locus when there is none. if we did not examine points without we would : AB the perpendicular bisector the locus of the point X. Every point in the line must satisfy the given condition. 2. viz. but an absolutely essential If we omitted it. which satisfies the above condition (m 1 n'2 p ^).

while actually it no locus at all. and B are two fixed which satisfies the condition Z AXB = 45 lies in one of the two circles AXB and AX B. since there are points in the two circles which do not satisfy the condition. since the line may contain all points satisfying the condition. since every point within DE the triangle condition. be led to consider a line as locus.218 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 2.. A points. if we did not examine the points without consider is DE y we would as a locus. If we admit negaabove tive distances. of proving a locus would be to show satisfies Every point that the condition lies in the line. Again the second part must not be omitted. and Hence we may others that do not. Hence. 2. viz. only is* a part of which If. Hence unless we consider a line as consisting of an infinite number . Every point X in line which the midpoints of two sides of an equilateral satisfies the following condition: DE &ABC The sum X upon of the perpendiculars dropped from the three sides is equal to the altitude of the triangle. But it would for instance. every point X 1 be erroneous to say the locus consists of the two circles. The line contains no points which do not satisfy the condition. ABC satisfies the above condition. really a locus. all points in the minor arcs. then every point in the entire plane satisfies the Another way that: 1.

is Every point distant is unequally without the line. are true. or first proved if we demonstrate I and and IV. or II two are hardly ever used. the locus is I and III. THEOREM in the line II. easy to see that the above facts are quite genIf we discard the two last combinations. . CONVERSE is Every point is Every point that equi- equidistant. CONVERSE OF OPPOSITE Every point without unequally distant. To make a * Chapter DC . distant lies in the line. A locus is true if all four theorems are true. II. III. and these two theorems stand or in the relation of theorem and converse. and it is worth noticing that these two ways vary in difficulty for different exercises. the last i. if any two adjacent ones versa.e. It is eral. The two combinations were discussed above. OPPOSITE IV. concrete theorem and opposite. and vice But we saw in a preceding chapter * that these four theorems must be true.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS of points. is The that the perpendicular bisector of a line the locus of a point equidistant from the ends of the line implies four theorems : I. or III and IV. this A fact example will make clearer. 2ig and define a locus as the sum total of all points satisfying a condition every proof of a locus involves the proofs of two theorems. we may say that each locus can be demonstrated in two different ways.

that every point equidistant from the sides lies in the bisector. all The most widely used .220 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS wise choice between the two methods consider the identical. the proof of the converse. according to the preceding locus. and since only one plane can be passed through the three points. Some difficult loci. and not see the connection between it and the preceding Obviously each of the three points must lie on the perpendicular bisecting plane." and we wish to demonstrate the " Three points not in a straight line. bisecting plane. this plane is the perpendicular locus. Suppose we have proved the locus " A plane perpendicular to a line : the locus of a point equidistant from midpoint the ends of a line. we have to prove either. is the other hand. but first we do not need to we have is part of each combination.e. for proving that the locus of the vertex of a triangle whose base is a fixed line. each theorem at its is : equidistant from the end of a line. and this fact proved. i. is a segment of a circle. for instance. is sometimes useful for proving theorems. or the opposite To demonstrate. easier in this case. for they are to consider whether the converse easier to prove. the opposite leads to the result more easily than the converse. dicular bisecting plane of the line. is If a locus Proofs simplified by the use of loci. The first way. loci are given in nearly textbooks others can be easily con- . that the bisector of an angle is the locus of a point equidistant from the sides of the angle. four theorems are established." will start determine a perpenAs a rule students an independent investigation for this theorem. or that every point without the bisector is unequally distant from the sides. and whose vertical angle equals a On given angle.

the locus of X is a straight line passing through B.is a constant. 2. When to teach loci. deal has been said and written about the imporgreat tance of loci. and the insuffiency of the treatment of this The importance of loci in advanced writers.* A few difficult loci. at a point C so that CB* = x* AB y AC ~y If . the locus consists of the X m prolongations of the sides of the same rectangle. circles which touch a line at a given point. proportional division of lines that radiate from a certain point and terminate in other lines yields many loci. x1 x* is 2 is a constant. A topic in schools. * See page 247. the locus of is the perimeter of a n is a constant. AB a constant. which are valuable in solving diffi- cult exercises. touch a circle at a given Also point. A If and B be two fixed points. and n be the perpendiculars dropped from a point Let M X upon the sides of an angle 4. m+n is . If y2 is meeting 3. and x and y their respective distances from a third point X. Let may not be without interest. If is H a constant. If ABC. 5. especially those that relate to the centers of circles which satisfy certain conditions.g. rectangle if a constant. touch a circle and have a given radius. e.. the locus of_A' is a straight line J2 2. mathematics appears to have influenced some . the locus of X is a circle.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 221 structed. etc. Pedagogic aspect of loci. The ends of a diameter of this circle are obtained by dividing AB internally and externally in the ratio x to y. the locus of is a circle whose center the midpoint of (proof by the median proposition) +y X AB . 1.

convey as clear a notion an explanation based upon numerous Easy examples taken from mechanics show or lie. Scientifically. such as the con- struction of a triangle loci. whose sides are given. in which a certain point must An exact formal study it is probably better to postlie. Important the subject undoubtedly is. still one ought not to go to the extreme of neglecting other topics on this account. : Thus we may ask "Where must the center of a wheel lie. or in a certain surface. while the wheel moves on a straight track? . an exact presentation of the subject at the give beginning of the first book can hardly be recommended." i. The teaching of the term " locus" formal defini- A tion of locus will of course not to the student as illustrations. is It may then simply be stated that the locus is studied. that under certain conditions a point must move in a certain line. pone to the end of the second book. the " place. some of the simplest problems.222 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS to consider loci the who seem the geometry course.e. the line. student's mind To although the term "locus'* visional may be mentioned in a pro- form when the theorem of the perpendicular bisector of a line. of course. and wish most important subject in to have this subject taught in a rigorous fashion at the very beginning of the work. or of the bisector of an angle. depend but such problems may be treated in the beupon ginning quite satisfactorily without any reference to loci. and of introducing it at a time when the is not ready for it.

or is the place where one point must lie. may be A few additional illustrations suitable for empirical drawing work : are the following The locus of the ends of all tangents of a given length drawn to a given * circle. finds its expression in the phrase "locus of a point. in which a point must lie. what is the locus of the center of the wheel in the preceding question ? " What is the locus of one end of a stretched string. Let the draw perfectly empirically a large number of points exactly satisfying a certain condition. of a point of an elevator moves.* Another class of exercises that may be used to give is to the student a clear idea what a locus stu- really are drawing dent exercises." which is possibly more widely used than "locus of points. if the other end ? is if fixed. and both ends are on the sur- face of a table Similarly." . The idea that a locus is generated by a moving point. Thus he may draw empirically the locus of the midpoints of a set of parallel chords in all any closed curve. loci Practically relating to elementary treated this geometry way. or the line. of a point of a locomotive while it turned on a turntable. etc.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS " If the locus is 223 the place. only the moving end is on the table?" a corner of a we may find the locus of book when the book car while is it is opened. and by joining these points find the locus.

g. times three). The student has line the locus is. to most cases cient to locus. the pupil discover the character of the points. we use practically the same method as in the preceding drawing is to determine what kind of a to paragraph. Loci are used to find points which satisfy two conditions (in solid geometry someApplication of loci. having The To discover loci. perimeter of a given polygon. a parallelogram. Of course the mere then no longer sufficient. locus of a point lying within a square (2x2 inches). a considerable number of others should be given merely for the purpose of giving the student facility in such work. and has prove his result. and which the student is expected to remember. In addition to the six or seven which practically all textbooks contain.224 The point TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS locus of the feet of all perpendiculars drawn from one fixed upon lines drawn through another fixed point B. and method others. The of line locus of the midpoints parallel to a given in the all lines and terminating e. y A The given locus of the centers of all circles of given radius touching a circle. make him increase the number of these and if his drawing is exact. let But the drawing will lead him in If a few points are not suffithe result. etc. is that it the great advantage of the locus enables us to consider each condi- tion separately without paying any attention to the . and a distance of \ inch from the perimeter. he will hardly fail to see what kind of a line the required locus is.

. and we have at a given distance to X. and the second locus in a if different color. The two diminish the danger of confusion in de- termining the points of intersection of the two loci. or to one or to more solutions. />. PUTTING GIVEN PARTS TOGETHER WITHOUT ANALYSIS simplest constructions of figures are those that can be accomplished by a simple putting together of the given parts without any previ General remarks. conditions 1. and from the other lines of the dia- gram. X A Each condition leads to a locus. N. from distance of equals d. " In most cases a "discussion of the problem should be given. we should determine the condition that would lead to no solution. Or no will colored crayon is available. by some graphic distinction. equidistant from two given d from a fixed consider the following two Xis The 2. Thus we the lines may draw that first constitute the locus in one color. The Q . long-dotted and short-dotted colors lines may be employed. and it is advisable to distinguish these loci from each other. equidistant from J/and N.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 22j Thus lines M and : to find a point point A.

f They derive a parimportance from the fact that a large percentage problems finally depend upon the construction of triangles.j s. sides and the angle opposite one In constructing a triangle having given two of them.a. and thereby upon one of these six problems. Typical illus- method discussed in the preceding paraare the fundamental constructions of triangles graphs that may be referred to by the symbols s.a. viz. but it becomes very difficult if we start with one of the other sides. t Hy.* To construct a triangle having two sides and the included angle is such a simple mat- no special analysis is necessary we simply draw one given part. but not with the opposite side.. . construct a quadrilateral having given the four sides is a very simple matter if we commence with the angle or with one of the adjacent sides. ter that ..a. : culty of tJic cons trhc turn usually depends upon the cJioice of the part that is It is easier to drawn first. arm is of course only a special case of s. arm.s. s. Fundamental constructions trations of the of triangle...a. but that a knowledge of loci is not necessary for understanding them. by drawing at first the right angle or the arm.s.s. etc. strictly speaking. place the next one in its required There is no difficulty in constructions of position. than by starting with the hypotenuse. based upon loci.s. a.s. The diffithis type if attention is paid to one point.a. ticular and hy.226 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ously devised plan. s.a.s. we should begin with the angle or the adjacent side. To and an angle. draw a right triangle having given the hypotenuse and an arm. etc. of * It was pointed out in one of the preceding paragraphs that the simple constructions of this type are.

* namely. for these But a triangle is not parts are independent parts. a polygon t If Greek letters are objected to. is Similarly a quadrilateral * See page 208. 4. b.C t . exist Hence an infinite number of tri- angles other illustrations of dependent parts are the following b. by h a h b ke . r. or the three medians are given. which contain the given angles. /3. C by a. although this sometimes leads to ambiguities. b. B. for the three angles are dependent. or two sides and an included angle. tc by R radius of incircle area of the triangle half the perimeter by r by F by s It is worth noticing that a triangle is determined if Thus a triangle can three independent parts are given. that of designating the parts of a angle as follows : tri- The The The The The The The The The One sides opposite vertices corresponding angles corresponding medians corresponding altitudes radius of circumcircle by a. B. corresponding angle-bisectors by /a .R\ A. 7 f by m a m me . determined if the three angles are given.s-a. determined by 5. we may use the letters A.A. . c by A.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS It is 227 very convenient to use for all triangle construca notation to which reference has been made tions before. be constructed if the three sides. A few : A at C\ a. and really represent only two independent parts.

The author has attempted to give. that a problem is not called indeterminate because it has several solutions. although 1. Many different general presentations of the mode of analyzing a problem have been given. a diagram resembling the one required but not necessarily having the same dimensions. Make all lines. possible. in the following. by 2 n mind. borne in A problem finite. is indeterminate if if it has an infinite number solutions of is solutions. parts. All problems that cannot be solved by a direct putting together of given parts or by means of loci should be attacked by analysis. a description of an analysis as elementary and concrete as it loses thereby some of its generality. problem that has no solution All that is problem. determinate the number of its Thus a problem is that has four different solu- tions A a determinate problem. are an impossible indeterminate on Thus no if triangle can be drawn containing three given angles is not equal to 1 80. independent parts. Determine (a) . (b) all angles. problems account of the dependence of the given parts become impossible if the given parts do not conform to the relation of dependence. that are or that can be easily found from the given directly given. the sum of these angles GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE PROBLEMS General description.228 of n sides TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS It should be 3. 2. however. and mark all these parts. but most of them are too abstract to be of great service to the beginner.

ABC. 4. I. 7/ a . we examine the various triangles. (a) (6) we should know // tt = ). B 3. we find that contains one known side and two known angles. /3. To obtain a clearer underrules let standing of the meaning and scope of these viz. for AB. C.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 3. Discussion of the parts of an analysis. =m c }. Obviously. A concrete illustration. Make this triangle the basis of the construction. In case 5. If ADB 4. c . and then CE is given. Drawing of diagram resembling the required one. : To construct a and m To obtain a figure resembling the required one. triangle having given 1. all Examine and try to determine successively all other points of the figure. us consider a concrete example. triangle we draw any and 2. in attacking a com- . we can C. the average student. 229 the triangles of the diagram until you discover one that can be constructed. AD the altitude from A t CE the median from If triangle ABC and were the : required one. and hence can be constructed. draw additional lines which will enable you to obtain such a triangle. After this triangle determine E> the midpoint of the length of ADB is constructed. no triangle can be found that can be constructed directly.

or a circle. of course. look for a triangle as the basis of a construction is. as a rule. and of their relations to each other.* 3. include a few that are not necessary But. and let him determine those that are known. and would be foolish even to attempt to draw it so. determination of the parts that are not given directly. . In most cases. of the required parts. it is a triangle that can * See page 233. an arbitrary limitation. it is advisable for the beginner to be systematic in this work. or other figure that can be drawn first. and only after the problem is solved. problem. as it may be a point. Of course such a sketch will not necessarily it have the same dimensions as the required figure. The To Discovery of a triangle that can be constructed. however. but that can be found. since his chances for finding a solution are increased thereby. In doing so he may for the construction. Every architect or engineer. in solving a practi- cal problem. Let the student systematically examine all lines and all angles of the diagram.230 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS plex problem. will he make an exact diagram of the proper Similarly the student of geometry needs a sketch to make clear to him the real nature of the dimensions. Determination of known parts. has no clear conception of the given parts. or a square. until he sees a diagram representing at first a all these things. but as this subject is rather complex it will be discussed in a special section. will make rough sketch that will enable him to see clearly the relation of the various points to be considered. is a matter of great importance. 2.

'. much the confusion is thereby avoided. . in a position similar to the diagram of the analysis . for A. Make the triangle the basis of the construction. 231 A sys- tematic survey of all triangles of the diagram can hardly fail to make the student discover the proper triangle. no misunderstanding can arise from such a practice. gives a much other ways of completing the figure. for () Use hand same letters struction as for the analysis. gestions A few sug- may prove helpful in complex cases. He may ure then complete the fig- either by its producing EO join- by twice ing.* * There of are. by one half their lengths to A and B respectively. A OAB so that OA = f m a and OB = \ m and OE = \ m . first still way. After the initial triangle is constructed. If you expect your students to write out the analysis. length and / I \n or by producing AO and and joining E BO.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS be used as the formation of the construction. in constructing a triangle having given m ay m bt and m c has constructed . (c) In many examples the student has a choice of several ways for completing the construction. 4. for instance. then use A B\ O 1 . etc. C. is In such a case select the construction that easiest of proof.. (a) Place the diagram of the construction. to the teacher a written As designating the constudents only rarely account of an analysis. Suppose. bt c. B. the student. however. it is usually a simple matter to find the rest of the figure. The course. etc. as far as possible.

we can construct CEB. Hence.b is given. and c If ABC were the required A. no triangle can be But if we produce CD by constructed. for CD = m CF = -. b.232 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS hence it simpler proof than the second. prob duce a by the length b or b by the length a. and join its mid- length to since G CG = a . . selected. . lay off b on a. m its own length to and draw EB. for we know its three E A sides. CB~ a.* tively simple illustrations Here only a few comparafind place. and Or we may produce AC by its own Then A BCG can be constructed. In case find any draw additional triangle that can be constructed. should be Drawing additional lines lines. having given the difference of side and altitude. sum or difference in the analysis thus if a 4. we cannot we have to which produce such triangles. usually necessary to construct that . 5. The general principles that underlie this procedure are rather complicated.then we can construct A CDF. or a on b. CA (=). point F to Z>. to construct an equilateral triangle. Thus. we may on CA lay off CD and C= * See page 239. Or we may bisect CZ?. and draw GB. and will be treated in the section on difficult analysis. and DF = 2 2 c. If a is given. and CD(=mc ). BG = 2 m e. If sum it is or difference of two lines (or angles) is given. may To construct a triangle having given *z. we should know CB (=0).

Then constructed. and (6) for drawing additional which will lead to triangles that can be constructed. necessary for such schools. viz. : (a) Method Methods for determining lines and angles of the lines.* * Methods for determining the known parts of a dia- gram. it and hence they constitute all that is For the teacher. of attack is the work of Peter- originally written in Danish. Or we may on CD lay and draw AH. structed.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS draw 233 DE. The most important book on methods Methods and Theories. . diagram. is of great importance mastery of the subject. since Then A AED can be conwe know one side (EA) off and all angles. however. * sen. but translated into German (Kooenhagen) and French. the student has to be acquainted with regular propositions of geometry. CH ' CA &ADH can be For further illustrations of the preced- ing methods. Thus. They consist of further elaboration of parts more complete and hence additional methods to obtain a two and five of the analysis as given above. Kopenhagen. the reader is referred to Schultze and Sevenoak's Geometry. To that gram are discover in an analysis all parts of the dianot given directly. he has to know that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. will be given here. but that may be found indirectly. GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULT PROBLEMS The principles of the preceding section are sufficient to solve the large majority of the problems that occur in secondary schools. and exercises based upon them.

a. + ^ ABD In some analyses involving a + b it would be better produce BC by the length CA thus making a triangle a~ ^ that contains a + b. that the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to each other. 7. c/ I I A B = 90 Z ABD =. ft. only tw<^ give dependent parts. c. etc. 7. to 9 : . : If in CB.234 that the TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS sum of the angles of a triangle is 180. and Aa .nn + -*~ . in a triangle a -f yS is given. . addition to these well-known geometric facts. If. 7 can be determined. ACis in & ABD: *D produced to D so that CD = AB = c. etc. for instance. number of relations that exist in certain diagrams are of great importance for successful analyzing. If in an isosceles all triangle one interior or exterior angle is known. and .. Some of the most important ones are the following i. /8 any can be conthree independent * ones are known. P - . # b. other interior or exterior angles But a in may be determined. a. viz. k>. 90 + ^. 2 The altitude from B= //&. 2 2 * Of the twenty possible combinations. A structed and the remaining three parts can be determined. . c. if of the parts <:. then &ABC. that the opposite angles of an inscribed quadrilateral are supplementary. and Hence.

then in A ABE. . . A ABC. 3. so that CB. and Aa b. A& . &AEB If we produce CA to F. 7. Hence. 8. a three independent parts are known. 4. 10. and A6 . the any and the other three parts may be constructed. /8. + 69 ii. 9. + a + a + + a 6. Exercises relating to this diagram obtained by substituting minus signs for plus signs in the preceding set of exercises.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS EXERCISES Construct i . y. 7. a. a a . 5. if of the parts c. a. 4. then triangle ABF is determined by any combination of CF= three independent elements that can be formed from the elements : c. a b. c. having given : 2. 7. y. . + + + . b. y. a /9. bj* -ft * a 2. a. The altitude from A = h*. a. ^t a - j8. a + b. may be . a - ft . y. a . ft y. If in on we lay off C = C^4. a /8.

. R. AB O and AB and that CE produced also passes through F. In triangle or BD or and make h c be the altitude upon c. 15- ^c a . 4. tc 16. of ADorvbe the projection h upon *:. . ^f c a. - /3.a-$. then Triangle constructed given h c and 4. /e . EXERCISES Construct 12. DH= AD. If in &ABC. 21.236 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 3. angle-bisector CE or or of and the radius the circumcircle CO R be drawn. if there are given : 17. worth remembering that passes through perpendicular bisects arc bisector of in F. a . A ABC. or h c and a It is CDE if can be are there - /S. or the the /c . w c./3. a-. 20. . a-fty. altitude CD hc .b. w c 19. 22. . 14. or 4 and a the . /?. 18. be the projection of a upon c.

EXERCISES Construct 27. a. C Z HCB = a altitude from C= h ft. the if of the parts a. 25. b . b. A ABC. tains a b. A ABC. ft. having given : ha + ^. then in A C/^. and c. y. aa. If in triangle is ^57. produced and to /^ so FG is drawn perpendicular to CA. y Hence. any independent three A CAB can be constructed. 28. t/. <5. hc a. and Z C. b. . ^a + ^6 . 30. a.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 237 Then in triangle BCH. 29. EXERCISES Construct 23. a /S. u v t ^~ D u are known. u 5. and Z CGT^ Similarly. a right triangle can be obtained that con- hb ^ . ft w v. CF ^ Z C=% = 90. 26. ft. . CB that BF~ b. if there are given : a- /?.

the altitudes from E A and C /?. equal respectively and . = 2 ^ Z CA5 = CE c. and OELAB. median (TZ> of 8. OE = R. If a A ABC length produced by . then O'D = AD = s-a. C A 6. If O f is the incenter of tact. 80 7. its own y to then in BE = b> 1 A CEB C=a. OB A ABC> D and a point of con2 r. If O is the circumcenter of then =% is and A ABC. O'AD = - 7.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS A few additional cases may be mentioned briefly.

33. 32. III. already mentioned in the chapter on inequalities.e. s - a. II. Translation. required ABCD quadrilateral. we have to bring them together. . . is The application of these methods concrete examples. /?. having given its four angles y. Consequently. I. y?. a. There are three methods of moving figures that are most useful. m a 35. we translate AB into the Since position DE.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 239 EXERCISES Construct 31. Methods for drawing The fact that in certain problems no triangle can be found that can be constructed directly. is usually due to the cir- cumstance that the known parts do not lie together. As no triangle can be constructed. we know in A DEC two sides and the included * See page 164. and the AB and CD. 34. r. a. we were the should sides know its four angles. 8) and two opposite sides n).* are the following ones : I. m^a. \l (AB = m. Rotation about a point.CD = Analysis. ft. ADE = 1 80 a. b + c.a c y. and any method that will accomplish this may be employed. best explained by Translation. a. Rotation about a line. These methods. I. A ABC if there are given y : m .h^ additional lines. To construct a quadrilateral AfCDy (a. we make DE equal and parallel to AB. i.

equal and BGF is and CHF are equal. = ri) and all lines joining any two of ( the given points. a straight line and can be constructed. 3. If were the required quadrilateral.AEC the base (=90). CD. ABCD know AB. EA. To construct a Quadrilateral having given its four sides. If Analysis. A GFH GF-FH. Hence. ED = m. Here it can be constructed. Hence.240 angle. But we can- not place translate it A ECD in the correct position. translate MQ then &ACE can be constructed. except those formed by A. EC (=). we should Analysis. (180 a) = +8 2. and Z EDC = 8 A EDC can be constructed. M and that one side of the rectangle Analysis. . and EH equal and Since triangles to DC.. and D. and EF. since we know we could its A ECD^ Hence. B. 1 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 80. If B equals a given line n. viz. Hence. and the line joining the mid-points of two opposite sides. To n construct a rectangle so that each side passes through one of four given fixed points A. 4. three sides. GEH having given two sides and the median to the third side. B. ABDE were the required construct parallelogram. BF. But no triangles. and by making AE and BD parallel to FC we may translate it into the required position. DC = n. FC. and Z?. and AC into the position EC. into the position ABF. Z. draw parallel to parallel EG AB. are known. C. C. Since the parts do not form triangles. MNPQ were the re- quired rectangle we should know MQ N can be constructed. DE. Hence On AB of A ABC to con- struct a parallelogram ABDE so that CE and CD equal two given lines.

To draw a line equal and parallel to a given line has one end in the curve C. 3. rimeter of triangles or other figures. and the angle formed by the diagonals. To construct a square ABCD. having given the angles A and B. To To construct a trapezoid. i . Rotation about a point.. B. II. a large number of concrete by this example. circumferences. having given the two diagonals and the two parallel sides. and . EXERCISES 1. To construct a quadrilateral. 4. the diagonals. having given two opposite sides. curves Since in place of the we may have the pestraight lines. 2. having given the distances of a C. having given its four sides. Then any line point in drawn from a C" parallel to J/TV^and terminating in C will be equal to MN. 5. Translate the curve C 241 MN which C' by the distance MN in to the position C". the diagonals AC and BD^ and the angle formed by the diagonals. cases are covered etc.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 5. To construct a quadrilateral ABCD. point P within from the vertices A. having its four sides and the formed by the prolongations of two opposite sides. XY drawn from the point of intersection of C" and C. To construct a quadrilateral. The is required line X. the other in the curve C'. construct a trapezoid. angle.

and since PA PC. If TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ABCD square. A BPP can be constructed. Rotate through an angle of 90. A BPC Then about B were the required and PC. and D. Rotate curve about A this rotation through an angle equal to a. . M M' _ . takes a position AD' which forms with AD an angle equal to Or any two lines drawn from A. Hence To construct an isosceles &ABC so the vertical angle equals a given has a fixed position. 7 intersection of M' and If ". 2. in fact all kinds of lines. 3.. are meant. AD'. M and M A IV. To construct a square so that two opposite sides pass through two given points and B. we should know PA. C. By to M. AN./ respectively are equal. etc. Since no triangle can Analysis. that that A A that B and C lie respectively on two given curves* Solution.242 Analysts. " " * For the sake of brevity the term curves is used here and on the following pages. rotate AB. B. X is the A AX and Ay so A AXy\s that Z XAY then draw '= a. PBP = 90 and BP' = BP. and BP about A through an angle of 90. PB. and the angles A. A and combination of translation rotation is used in the following problem. and angle a. and the MNPQ A other two opposite sides pass through the given points C and D. A P PA can also be drawn. including an and ending in and angle equal to . when curves. be constructed. broken lines. as any line from . straight lines. and the required triangle.

4. having given the distances of a point within from A. EXERCISES 1 To construct a regular hexagon ABCDEF. . To construct an equilateral triangle so that its vertices respectively in three given parallel lines. To A. * A second solution results if U is applied to C. ABCD (Rotate two &.) 3. III. 6. Reside of a line C M in MN" quired a point so that the two (inner) X tangents. and /?. so that the distance of the first pair equals the distance of the second pair. and if the distances from a the area of a square C are respectively two. 2. with MP that E coincides with F lies in BC. and four. lie To construct an equilateral triangle so that its vertices lie in three given concentric circumferences. . Hence we can draw A CED. and G lies in Rotation about a line (turn about an axis). />\ and C. form equal angles with MM. Construct a right isosceles triangle so that the vertex of the right angle takes a fixed position and the other vertices lie in two given circumferences. This is done by translating AB into the position CE. C.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS If ff f is the 243 new four parallel lines through A. Compute point within from A. three. our problem would be to draw /?'. 1 position of B. to C and drawn from X C 1 respectively. Given two circles and C' on the same N. 5. and isosceles = NP. Given quadrilateral construct a ABCD CD.* Our two pairs of parallels become then identical. B. i. A EFG ~ PMN so A MNP.

figure about Turn the MN as C E. Having thus obtained ABCD*. A D'BC can be found. lie the required Since no two known together. Given two points /'and Required a point the same X in MJVso that PX QX -f side of a straight line is a minimum . and C and D takes the position //.e. Ay one end of a line. and the sum of the other two sides. Draw a common interior tangent position to C X.244 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Solution. Construct quadrilateral ABCD Q on if the four sides are given and 2. an axis so that takes the E. 2. and B in the position (Similarly for angles. is put in the position formerly occupied by B. we find it a very simple matter to construct ABDC. Suppose sides ABCD A were quadrilateral.) formerly occupied by A. the opposite angle. EXERCISES I. and afterward exchange posi- Then A D'AB can be easily con- structed. having given two opposite sides AB and CD (or a and c) and the sum of the other two sides (AD + BC or s). we turn &DCA so that tions. having given the base D'B. In a given circle to inscribe a quadrilateral. and This tangent intersects in MN special case of this rotation about a line is A the turning of a figure so that the ends of a line i. are interchanged.

etc.* i. if we can circumscribe a semicircle about the square into .METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 245 vertices lie in two 3. Construct any . many cases containing two given a figure in which the two lines have an arbitrary length. we can inscribe in a given semicircle a square. be extended to first * The method lines. and then change the dimensions of the figure so as to contain the given line. f f several similar triangles. but the correct ratio. If a required figure contains only one given line. and then change the dimensions. if we can solve the opposite one. SPECIAL DEVICES Method of similarity. Construct then at . To construct a triangle. we can transform a square if we can transform an equi- lateral triangle into a square. 4. and the other two vertices lie in a given straight line. and construct a figure which is similar to the required one. and then build up the required &A'B'C by means of tudes. triangle containing given angles. Thus. an equilateral may triangle. equals twice In a given circle to inscribe a quadrilateral so that one side its opposite side and the two other opposite sides equal given lines. To construct a square so that two opposite given circumferences. and draw its ABC the alti1 Produce OA to A so that OA equals the given upper segment. we may at first discard this line. having given the angles and the upper segment of h a Construction. Frequently this method enables us to solve a problem.

. whose sides are equal respectively to If the altitude PA' f PB and P*C. PB. Let a be the side a of the pentagon.. b. similar to the required one. Since ah a bh* can easily find three lines that are proportional to ^ and c. three altitudes A = ch we c. Obviously P w = a* 2 : : x*. x is the fourth To construct a its proportional to triangle. Construction. c. from A 11 is parallel to produced to "C'. terior segments of these secants 1 . I.e. To transform a square into Construct any a regular pentagon. b the side of the the side of equivalent square. are proportional to a. . From any point P draw three secants PA. Hence. m. then A D so that A"D=hM and MJV is drawn A"MNi& the required one. . having given Solution . PA'. PB PC and 1 . m the given square. a triangle A"B"Cn is . and PC respectively equal to h a h^ and h c Then the exa. b. and a.246 Oi ^____ i TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 2. and x the side of the required pentagon. regular pentagon and transform it into a square. 3.

having given the angles and the distance of circumcenter from incenter. to a point A curve in and A 1 divides PA is a of given ratio. 7. having given 1.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 247 EXERCISES Construct a triangle. Definitions. If from a point in the P a straight line is drawn C. 2. 3. Transform a square into a triangle similar to a given In a given quadrilateral triangle. /?. 10. : a. 5. In a given triangle to inscribe a parallelogram similar to a given parallelogram. Inscribe a square into a semicircle. 6. ma .#-*. of similitude. then the locus A r is a curve C y which simi- lar to C. Multiplication of curves. If the point A* the prolongation of AP. and is P is the center PA the ratio fA lies in called the ratio of similitude. The curves C and C f are said to be radially situated with respect to P.. 9. the result is similar to the one above. . Transform a square into an equilateral triangle. ABCD to inscribe a rhombus whose sides are parallel to the diagonals of 8. a. #/ 6 -^ 6. /?. The ratio of simili- . In a given circle to inscribe a rectangle similar to a given rectangle. Construct a triangle. ABCD. 4.

and some of the results obtained are the following : 1. the result is another straight line Z'. in the annexed diagram if PA _ -5 in general. broken lines. is sometimes referred to as multiplying respect to ~ n . This multiplication may be also applied to straight lines. If a straight line L is multiplied by f H . is If any figure multiplied by .. negative. and the center of similitude by P. however. To 2.g. in the first diagram C is multiplied by f in the second the circle is multiplied by \ with respect to P. in fact to any figures whatsoever. with P. Thus. we obtain a simi- . P lies between the two curves. e.248 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS is tude. construct L 1 it is necessary to find one point of L'. the ratio of similitude is nega- tive. The construction of the curve is C when C the ratio of is similitude n . and L and L are parallel.

249 ratio Homologous angles are equal.. . passing through a P. p Applications. straight. L curved. and r and is O the and O are respectively radii. and the of any two homologous 3.. draw a line from a circumference C to a line XY point L. The multipli- cation of solves the general problem From a draw a line it fixed point P to so that the segments made on by two given lines * B and C shall bear a given ratio ~" n Multiply Cby -and n let the resulting line O intersect B in X. the centers. Thus. is Then the re- PX produced quired line. so that multiply XPiPY by f = * I. and then curves : its radius. the n 1 again a circumference. lines. 2:3. / respective then PO = n and r = n Hence the required circle can easily be constructed by first finding its center.e.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS lar figure. etc. broken. lines is equal to ~ n result If a circumference is multiplied If by ~.

B To draw ences a line XY through P and XP = PY. XP produced 1. so that Multiply C intersect B in X. by 2.25 with respect to TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS /*.* and KP and X'P produced let the resulting line intersect are the required lines. From be to its a point P without a circle C to draw a secant which shall P y and external segment as 4:3. 3. EXERCISES 2. P is within. . Multiply a line Cby Multiply a circle by Multiply a circle by f is f. multiply C by f with respect to intersect C in and X' . 2 if if P lies AP in the circumference. let the resulting circle and C X PX PX' are secants required. easily done by drawing II y producing it by f of its length and drawing A 'X L. * This to A'. C in X and JO. and let the resulting circle is the required line. i terminating in two circumfer- C and B. C by with respect to P.

Kso M= r>y- P X . having given b. X and Kso that PX PY'= 3 - an angle draw a meeting the side 2. a point without an angle draw a line meeting the sides of the angle in 7.- |. 6. To conquadrilateral A BCD and a point /* within. 10. 12. 11. having given a. If Q and which terminate multiply in C and C we now C 1 by n with respect .METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 4. b. If a curve C is rotated about a point through an angle equal to a given then any two lines PA and PA which include angle Q. a point /> without a hexagon to draw a line that meets so that and the perimeter in =2:3. A straight line L. : From P to draw 13. construct (by the above method) a triangle. if m and n : are two given line : lines. X and Fso that PX = 1:2. ment shall be as m to . A point P lies a chord in the minor arc made by a chord AB. 14. a. Through a point within a circle to draw a chord whose segwhen m and n are two given lines. Given a PQ intersecting AB in R so that PR RQ = 2:1. is struct a parallelogram whose center spectively in the sides of P and whose vertices lie re- ABCD. To draw a line terminated by two circumferences and bisected by a given point P. Multiplication and rotation. f P an angle equal to are equal. 5. point /* and a circumference C lie on opposite sides of a to draw a line that meets L in and Through that Cm 8. m w m . y. m 15. 1 Construct a triangle. From X Y PX PY : 9. To c. 251 Multiply a circle by n . Construct a triangle. From From a point P within of the angle in 6. Through a point of intersection of two circles to draw a line so that the chords formed are as 2:3. having given <z. b.

another in a line* C. another is in P v 9 and that similar to a given triangle QRS. i. or not . Or all PAA n that have A in C.. Rotate Solution. and a third similar to a given in a line D. one vertex in a having given point P. These considerations enable us to solve the problem : To construct a triangle A mnq. have the ratio m : n.252 to TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS denote the resulting line by C".e. A" of in C ff . * The term " straight. line that is straight. we f may consider third C the locus the vertex of a triangle that has one vertex in C. then any two P and lines PA" and PA. to <2. and APA" = Z Q are similar. Hence. " refers to any line. which include an angle equal C to Q and terminate the triangles Z. in C ff and C. C about O through an angle equal line a and multiply the resulting line by .

A The line C" can often be obtained without constructing Thus. and the other two 2. A line and a circle. Two concentric circles. ing Z XP Y= (7. perimeter of triangle and a line. in the above diagram. with D gives X. m. By makZ Q we obtain the third vertex V. 4. r. 8. 5. Two Two The parallel lines.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS 253 The intersection of the line C rr . having a fixed point P. we could obtain O" by making OPO" ~~ A MPN) and r" equal to the fourth proportional to . Two excentric circles. one vertex of the required triangle. 6. Q at MNQ. 3. intersecting lines. To construct a triangle whose sides are as 3:4:5 and whose 4 : vertices lie in three concentric circles. thus obtained. and EXERCISES To construct a triangle similar to a given triangle the vertex corresponding to vertices respectively in 1. To construct a triangle whose sides are as vertices lie in three parallel lines. NOTE. 7. 5 : 6 and whose .

but in this mode elementary work is not as interesting as the purely it geometric ones. whose solutions express algebraically the unknown line The construction of this in terms of known quantities. b. and since the constructions thus obtained frequently For the teacher. where to a.. with the expression leads to the solution. in a very short time.254 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ALGEBRAIC ANALYSIS Algebraic analysis. c. algebraic expressions. Most problems of geometry can of attack be solved by means of algebra. however. is usually depend upon the length of some particular made unknown The relations of this line or these lines known quantities are expressed by equations.g. To apply this method the student has of course to be familiar with the construction of certain fundamental e.. since requires very little originality. Many complex algebraic expressions can be reduced e.. are known lines. ab etc. . fundamental ones. who sometimes is problem In an algebraic analysis the solution to line or lines.g. lack elegance and clearness. obliged to get a solution of a difficult it is a useful tool.

and the reader who wishes is further details referred to Schultze and Sevenoak's Geometry. i . AC = lay off On CA Then CD . general character of the method will be illusby two examples only. Therefore. etc. AB = a. D ^*" To then construct this expression we draw CB J. AB and equal to -.METHODS OF ATTACKING PROBLEMS The trated 1 . Then x* + ax = a a 2. or x. . and the greater part of the divided line = x. To Let divide a line AB in extreme and mean ratio. : x= x a : x.CB (or \ 2 ) . on ^4^ lay offAF= AD.

In a given equilateral triangle to in* scribe another equilateral triangle whose area is equal to one half the given area. BE. On FC lay off FH = -6 Through H draw /A' J. = ^ + (a _ ^2_ ^^ _ r To construct this expression draw the altitude CF. we To a. then is equilateral. ABC If be the given equilateral lay off tri- &DFE FD =/. or let AB = AD = x. Let angle. and Then the relation of the areas gives y1 = ~ we have ). then AI = or. . (l) Since y in opposite an angle of 60. A ADFlies y> on the three sides the equal distances AD. discover the length of AD. Cff.256 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 2. and CF.

Trans- * See F. N.e. Whether or not an algebraic expression resulting from such analysis can be constructed appears from the folthat lowing proposition All rational expressions..CHAPTER XVI IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS REGULAR POLYGONS* IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS Not every problem that may be General principles.. 8 857 . Ginn and Co. While in some cases the answer to this question is theorems make exceedingly difficult. was discussed in the preceding paragraph.. and it is frequently of interest to determine whether or not a certain problem can be solved in this manner. But \Jabc cannot be constructed. : can be constructed. 1897. cannot decide the matter we have to employ the algebraic mode of attack . desirable to determine roots. always the root of an what kind of equa- have such roots that can be constructed. Thus a\/2 = va(a^/2) can be constructed. As tions the unknown it is quantity is equation. No others can be constructed. proposed can be solved by means of ruler and compasses. and all expressions which contain square roots only (or can be reduced to such fortri). however. geometric investigations. Klein's Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry. Y. lated by Beman and Smith. in others several general Pure it a comparatively simple matter. i.

Three famous problems. it would have at least one factor 2 = o and hence at least one rational root. 2. . 3. of an arbitrary angle. The application of these theorems will be shown in the next paragraph. the equation cannot have rational roots. The duplication of The trisection the cube (the so-called Delian problem). The quadrature of the construction of a square equivalent to a circle (or the finding of TT). roots cannot be constructed..258 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS roots of quadratic equations can The always be con- structed. the roots of irreducible equations of the third seventh degree cannot be constructed. ducible * and with one notable exception the roots of irre- equations of higher degree cannot be constructed.. equation were reducible. since the factors of i. This exception embraces certain equations of degree and which will be discussed or the Thus. The of antiquity that cannot be solved and compasses are : three famous problems by means of ruler 1. have integral roots. hence its is irreducible f and not of the degree i. since the coefficient of x? is unity it cannot 2 do not satisfy the equation. 2* which can be constructed in the following section. But a? . * An equation <t>(x) = o is called irreducible if <t>(x) cannot be resolved into rational factors. cannot have fractional roots.e. the Delian problem cannot be solved by ruler and compasses. The Delian problem leads to the equation : This equation 2 n .e.. t If this of the first degree. i. I.e. the circle.

AD tan we can or x can be constructed. This equation cannot _s . then Z a. irreducible. Obviously B a.g. But it cannot be factored for many values of a. 259 The of J. . trisection of : as follows is If \ B. ABD or a unity. e. is a = 2* and since it Hence of ruler 3. is not problem cannot be solved by and compasses. for could be factored in its general form. 13 a (l) if it Or Hence This equation is irreducible.IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS 2. Hence the left member cannot contain a rational factor of the first degree. and But tan a x. since no factor of 2 satisfies it.. AC B (or a) construct AB. the equation would be ' O. have fractional roots. The impossibility of squaring the circle cannot be it is iemonstrated by the same simple method. since the coefficient of & unity it cannot have integral roots. B is AB if an arbitrary angle may be treated the angle to be trisected. since mpossible * If to obtain any algebraic equation with 3 = 2. the equation the degree 2 n the . for the left member could be factored any numerical value of a.

* Hence no at and the reader tempt is will be made here to prove this case. Since TT is a tranagain referred to Klein's book. Vol. January. circle by means Abdant Abakanowicz. Approximate constructions of and compasses. by G. the use of other algebraic curves. All three problems. the resulting error is much smaller than average error due to unavoidable inaccuracy of drawing. t Still more exact is a construction given the American Math. can be found by means of ruler and compasses only.141533. satisfy any algebraic equations with number. Bulletin of . IT. and not simply an algebraic irrational number it cannot be constructed.| scendental. however. Peirce. even if we admit. Approximate of these. t This proof for the impossibility of constructing if was first given by Lindeman in 1882. ^OC=3O. was greatly simplified by rational coefficients is * A number which does not called a transcendental Hilbert (Mathematische Annalen. That is. 1907.260 rational TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS coefficients whose root is TT. 43). The demonstration. besides circle and straight line. Soc. however can be effected by means > of instruments other than straightedge The mechanical squaring of the of the so-called integraph has been accomplished rather recently by a Russian engineer. The best known which was given in 1685 by the Jesuit Kochanski. then EA equals approximately the semicircumference. results in a value of IT equal to 3.. val- ues of TT.^ tion is The and construc: as follows Draw diameter AB > at B the and CE = 3 (OB\ Make tangent CD.

the equation xr = i. but also because he showed the connection between a geometric problem and an n algebraic problem.IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS 26l REGULAR POLYGONS Division of a circumference. if n is prime^ was solved by the ancients for n = 2. progress was years of age made until in 1796 Gauss then nineteen discovered the solution for = 17. we may divide the left number by and obtain: n-l -2 -3 structed Gauss showed that the roots of equations of this type can be coni is a power of 2 and n is prime. or not known whether /=8. determine the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides. not only because he made an advance in a subject that had remained station- ary for two thousand years. . and demonstrated that the problem can be solved if n is of the form 2 k + i and prime. 2 k 4all Hence n is prime. or greater than 8. viz. is a root of this equation. 7. 3. e..g. then the roots of the equation s represented in the customary graphical manner. The problem of dividing a circumference into n equal parts. Hence as far * If z is a n i = o. if n In fact these equations roots. it is not n is prime. and that it can be solved in no other case. prime numbers that represent constructii ble polygons 6. Gauss' discovery aroused the greatest interest among the mathematicians of his time. Since unity 2 i. composite. k must be a power of 2. If / = 5. must be of the form if 22 ' + i = n. to represent the exceptional cases of higher equations with constructive which reference was made in the section on the possibility of solutions. and 5 and no . complex number..* To make 2*.

17.262 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS as known.. 2. but cannot be constructed for any power of these numbers. of sides of the polygons are: 257. 4. 5. Gauss showed that a polygon can be constructed if n is equal to the ten years of his product of two or more different numbers of the series 3. 5. this series The is only the first two have any practical construction of the polygon of seventeen already so complex that even with the most accurate methods of construction. The corresponding number 3. __ x ~~3 . To divide a circle into we simply have I to solve the indeter- minate equation __x ^y of this equation. 3. the unavoidable insides accuracies in drawing make the result valueless for The last two constructions have never practical ends. are represented by the cases / = o. and 65537. 9 85~I 17' y = 10 are roots ^ = I ~ if we many construct . Of value. the number ol whose sides is prime.e. 257. . eighty-five parts. all constructible polygons. i. In regard to composite values of #. 17. been completed. Since x= 3 and we have i. 65537. ^ of the circumference 3x5x17 y 85' by sub- tracting \$ from f we Similarly to get a polygon of solve the equation i or 255 sides. although one mathematician devoted life to the study of the last one.

4. Let XX' be the axis of real numbers. if while the regular polygon cannot 9. . To show more concretely the gons and the solution of binomial equations. YY' the axis of imaginary. See Advanced Algebra.IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS 263 The solution gives Since an arc can be bisected. hence divide by z*9 * A knowledge of the graphic representation of imaginary numbers topics is and kindred necessary tor these examples. y? 2 . the construction can also be effected ifr the values of n obtained above are as 2 m of Thus we obtain multiplied by any power 2.* i. R R^ R ?> . 12. 13. 376. be constructed n = 7. 3. 6. 8. u. Using the customary method for representing imaginary graphically.z* -f z -f is = o. sider connection between the construction of regular polylet us con- wo problems. To inscribe a regular pentagon in the unit circle. 6. (2) Equation (2) a standard reciprocal equation. we divide (i) by z z4 and obtain I + z* 4. O the unit circle. it can easily be seen that 2 are the roots of the equation numbers OR^ OR o. for n <. . and R v . 17. 5. 19. 20 constructible polygons 10. & the vertices of the required Y p pentagon. p. 15. 14. 18. Concrete examples. : z6 Since i = (i) OR\ = i i. 20. 1 if n = 2.

2 Therefore the two values of .represent the real parts (the abscissas) of the four required points.can be inter* preted geometrically. p. expressions such as the above should not be simplified further. If z = ORv - =-= s* = OR? shows . * Advanced Algebra. t For geometric constructions. .. 498.r 2 -f X- I. On OY lay off OG = J. Therefore =-ivi Y + a) 2-t But or z R2 + ' z l . meeting XX 9 " in and Z?. a determine the vertices of the required pentagon. -X But graphic addition that the real part of ODy is equal to OR3 or Similarly it follows that if z = O/?3 . then OE=~. But Hence we have the following construction : On OX' lay off OF=\. E and D circle. From -F with radius FG draw The perpendiculars erected at .264 and let TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Thus we obtain after a few simplifications.

have integral roots. an angle a = 24. (3) were reducible. 265 To In the same manner as construct a regular polygon of seven sides. 25. Thus 27. since neither is + i nor i satisfy it. It is sometimes useful to know that the smallest constructible angle that can be is 3. it would have at least one factor of But (3) canthe first degree. cannot be constructed. 39. Every central angle corresponding to one of the above polygons can be constructed. n = 15. Constructible angles. and 87 expressed in an integral number of degrees that hence an can be constructed.2 + *+I+I + l+J. since the coefficient of Xs is unity it cannot . easily obtained by repeated bisection 1 of 24. in the preceding example we obtain *7 -i=o. and not constructible if it is not a multiple of 3. 37. .= Substituting . It is therefore impossible to construct a regular heptagon with ruler and compasses. and its roots and therefore the roots of (i) cannot be constructed with ruler and compasses. (2) x z -f -. Thus n = 9 produces an angle a = 40. we arrive at the cubic 2 x* If this equation + x-2 - x- i = o. and hence at least one rational root. The discussions of the preced- ing sections also answer the question as to the angles which can be constructed by ruler and compasses only.IMPOSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIONS 2. The angle of 3 is 1. and of course their sums and differences. (i) *8+. etc. Hence (3) irreducible. 54. and which contains degrees only is angle constructible if it is a multiple of 3. not have fractional roots.

Under the condi- tions that prevail in our secondary schools. and it gives him an understanding 5or drawings that represent spatial objects. 266 . numerical examples of great simplicity can be given almost throughout the course.CHAPTER XVII SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY PURPOSE AND DIFFICULTIES OF THE STUDY Peculiarities of solid geometry. Exercises in solid geometry of demonstrative character are comparatively hard purely to construct and often more difficult to solve than as plane those in plane geometry the amount of book matter to be studied is relatively large. and with the time usually allowed for the subject. never discover themselves. It is easier to find practical applications of the theory. the study of solid geometry strengthens the student's space imagination and his power to image space configurations. it seems that solid discipline for training the geometry cannot be made a subject of discovery and a mind to quite the same extent geometry. geometry. is greater than in plane the other hand. and algebraic work that gives to the student practice in the On various uses of a formula can be frequently introduced. Moreover. and the danger of making students learn by heart many proofs which they would .

. the theorem of the equivalence restrictions of triangular pyramids. against which we must guard and which we must overcome inability of solids. be perfectly in Such an arrangement seems to under present conditions.g. One difficulty. to omit the cult ones that are not absolutely needed. as.. it was proved that . and to cut many cases may be recommended down diffi- the number of theorems even further. however. however. e. directly or indirectly. into parts which are respectively con- Recently. With such will solid geometry It not offer student. and not to insist upon a knowledge of the proofs of the most difficult ones that cannot be dispensed with. this is impossible. ically. and schools a large part of their time.g. to mensuration and to theorems that. at the very start is the some students to understand diagrams of There are students who are able to reason log- but who cannot imagine clearly the spatial forms to demonstrate this * Various attempts have been made theorem by dividing the two pyramids gruent and thus to avoid limits. e. as. than in plane geometry. more require a little but it does not require study. the one about the common perpendicular of two lines. justified it lead to mensuration.SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY Altogether it 267 seems that the utilitarian advantages are advantages In accordpart of somewhat somewhat ance with greater. may study of great difficulty to the more time and a little the more intelligence than does plane geometry.* Difficulties. this view. textbooks devote a large their space. but the purely cultural smaller.

however. wire. as a rule.. viz. * Many Another reason why models should be used only sparingly is that. Otherwise the student will lose one of the main benefits of the study. strings. cut out of a potato. the models should be discarded or reserved for the most difficult cases only. they cannot be shown to a large class as readily a* a blackboard diagram. however. and divided into three equivalent pyramids is A just as instructive as the of the propositions relat- most expensive model. etc. etc. . Matters difficult to depict. should be explained by the use of models. thus sacrificing a great deal of time. As a rule the simple. not be used to supplant As soon as the student is able to underthe drawing. triangular prism. namely. The model stand the drawings. later on. the development of his space imagination diagrams of solids. should.. but must be explained to the students individually or to small groups of students. difficult drawings which otherwise he would not understand.268 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS which the diagrams represent. the use of models and rational methods of drawing. such as the regular polyedrons.. inex- pensive model its made of paper. There are two ways of overcoming this difficulty. serves purpose just as well as the most expensive one. MODELS The function of the model is to help the student in the beginning to an understanding of solid figures in general.* and of his faculty to understand Kind of models needed. the distinction between right and rectangular parallelepiped. and to make clear to him.

some substi- As far as the making of models by students is con- cerned. a book. may be found. Hence shaded diagrams. or dodecae- A dron out of cardboard has undoubtedly a much clearer notion of these solids than he had before. a piece of paper. But to the continuous use of such photo- graphs the same objections may be raised as to the continuous use of models. a football. it is diture of a great deal of doubtful whether the expenthe student's time for the time making of many or elaborate models is justified.g. which by their clearness almost equal models. which can be made very perspicuous and which the student . student who makes a regular icosaedron. The may be well invested as far as manual training is it concerned. but they are often like many educational exhibits deceptive and mis- leading. although even here tute. e.SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY ing to lines and planes 269 may be illustrated by a couple is of pencils. Especially the custom of exhibiting mathematical work and models made by students must be strongly condemned. Such exhibitions not only raise an utterly wrong standard for the measurement of the result of mathematical work. On the other hand. but not as far as relates to mathematical reasoning.. there can be no doubt that in many cases the student's understanding will be improved thereby. DRAWINGS Photos or drawings ? - Some textbooks are equipped with photos of models. The only expensive piece that is quite useful a spherical blackboard.

or as a photo depicts it. by joining E (the eye of the observer) A upon the plane PP as viewed from to A Then a. the inter. the drawing is a perspective. If the eye (E) is at a finite distance. Photographs.. it is called a projection. are perpendicular or oblique to PP. . as illustrated by the annexed perspective C of a cube. EB. are as a rule preferable. so that the rays EA. all other parallel edges converge towards a point. section of AE and PP. etc. Thus abed is an image of the pyramid of A BCD upon the plane PP. etc.270 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS can redraw. All vertical edges appear as vertical lines. we obtain either an is E orthographic or an oblique projection. EB. EC. if at an infinite (or very large) distance. will be very serviceable if used for a few exceedingly difficult cases only.* explanation of Perspective produces a picture as the eye sees the object. It is Perspective or projection? impossible to give full within the limits of this textbook a perspective and projection. however. According as the rays EA. An orthographic projection of an object of the point is a picture * We obtain an image point E.. is the required image. are all parallel.

and the length of parallel lines tions. principally on account of the following reasons: 1. The diagrams are solid simply drawn according to the artistic intuition of the student and according to his ability to redraw pictures that he has seen. or the object were comparatively small (C ). . 3. 2. a problem that is very difficult for perspective. If students really constructed their diagrams in geometry. and hence students as a rule draw exceedingly inferior pictures if they use perspective. The alleged superiority of perspective views is imaginary. is a great help for drawing. Parallel edges have parallel projections. This Lines that are parallel have parallel projections.SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY as the eye would see it if it 271 if were very r far off. this would not happen. Perspective views are far more difficult to draw than projections. While a superficial view of this matter may lead to preference of perspective for the drawings of solid geometry. but there is no time to study such constructions. is Hence proportional to their projecprojection allows a measure- ment of the three dimensions of a solid. the consensus of opinion of all who have given serious thought to the subject is in favor of projections. being views as the eye sees the object as the true views of small models seen by a student from a distance of about 10 feet differ so little from projections that the eye would not notice the difference. and also avoids con- fusion in proofs. Usually they exaggerate the convergence of parallel lines.

tion of a cube whose edge equals one inch. perpendicular to a certain assumed fraction equal to face ( = or |) of one inch. For very complex drawings. certain u and inclined a assumed angle a (about 30) c to the horizontal line AB* Oblique projections are easier to draw than orthographic projections. gineer as a rule. whose all and draw edge is one edges which are A BCD. 274 and 276) are approximately views as the eye sees them. draw the P square inch. 5. ABCD. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The length of parallel lines is proportional to their projections. is for simple drawings. oblique projection to be preferred . a sphere. The orthographic projection of a sphere is a circle. . such as a plane. To construct an oblique projecOblique projection. while the oblique is The shadow projection and the perspective are ellipses.272 4. but give badly distorted views. the drawing method of the engraphic projection as far as possible. however. Use of cross-section paper. Projections are used almost exclusively for tech- nical and engineering purposes. as AE. is The drawing projections * greatly facilitated of oblique the use of ordinary by paper f of a wire frame of a cube resting with one face upon the an oblique projection. orthographic projections. while the orthographic projections (see diagrams on pp. and textbooks should give. f orthographic projection is One should attempt to carry on orthosurely better. a cube.

that is parallel to little one of the three princi- construction the projection pal of any line. a certain extent the use of the paper. New York. e= ^ simplify the exact construction of orthographic a cross-section paper. Consequently an orthographic projection of any solid is easily obtained.* axes. The first of the three diagrams on the next page represents a cube whose edge equals | of an inch This cube also explains to (J is the unit of the paper). . projection. in particular the lengths and directions of the three principal axes. as illustrated by the annexed diagrams of a cube and an octaedron. and with All diagrams of solids which are contained in this chapter are constructed by means of this trimetric paper. (Here we assume a= tan" 1 |. the author has devised at once called trimetric paper. straight or curved. * For ric details the reader is referred to the author's article on trimet- paper in the Engineering News. 1911. April 6. that enables the student to draw the orthographic projection of any line of To known length.SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY 273 rectangular cross-section paper.

equal to four units and bisecting each other.) . A A BB\ CO '.274 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The second drawing whose axes equal one represents a regular octaedron (Draw the three axes (|) inch.

formation in Holzmiiller. 1900. of regard to many of the most interesting questions : Solid Geometry. . * corresponding axes. . AA\ B&\ and CC equal two The edges aa bb and ^' are parallel to the inches. as 2. and equal to |. outlines. The * that | is is intersect the plane projections of lines which line line. More exact are f only for students ing projection the excellent German book on Solid This outline of the construction of the regular icosaedron is intended who are familiar with the general principles of constructFor details of such constructions see of regular solids. I is seen II Lines in a plane are represented by projections which terminate within the boundaries of the plane. an approximation of the ratio which the greater part of a divided in extreme and mean ratio bears to the entire These approximations are convergents of the continued fraction: For most purposes and At \ (error about 2 %) is sufficient. third 9 } ] The r '. as I and II.SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY 275 diagram is the projection of a regular icosaedron whose axes. draw a material plane that has thickness. AB. In representing a plane Minor rules for drawing. II from below.of these axes. While the two projections have equal from above. f i. Band I. StereoGeometry This book is a regular treasury of inLeipzig. metric.

2 76 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS extend beyond the boundaries of the plane. 5.) Intersecting planes sometimes appear clearer if they lie so that their line of intersection. 4. as EF. Lines near to the eye draw heavier than the remoter ones. 4. 3. as CD. Lines perpendicular to plane I are perpendicular to the lower edge of the paper. AS. . does not extend to the margin of one of the planes. i (See No. and No. Lines that cannot be seen omit or draw dotted.

f . 7. OABCDE..SOME REMARKS ON SOLID GEOMETRY 277 6. Point out the difference in the position of different light is usually planes by shading (the from the left side). 9 CC'9 . f equal and OO and make AA BB' parallel to OO . assumed to come To draw complex figures first angles draw containing several diedral the corresponding plane figure and then make two each side a plane. to Thus adB' draw jacent supplementary diedral angles and their bisectors first t _^_-_ O ____* Then draw an f draw the cor- responding plane figure arbitrary (short) line etc.

278 8. In the annexed diagram table line. and upon clearer the shadow cast upon the table. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Some drawings become of the surface of a table by the introduction which the solid rests. TT 1 is supposed to be the .

and the inability of pupils to apply what is known. and it would never be taught in a school if it were a mere collection of symbols that are logically coherent. are said to be due. more important points. the absolute forgetting of all that has been studied. Mathematics its very existence to its applications. It is claimed that real problems relating to daily life or to technical and scientific matters will redeem mathe- matical study in secondary schools from its inefficiency. 279 There are. The applied mathematics into our secondary school courses. but with no re- owes lation whatsoever to the real world. solely or principally. While it is somewhat unfortunate that nearly all reto the neglect of other formers concentrate their efforts upon this one point.CHAPTER Practical XVIII APPLIED PROBLEMS and scientific application of elementary mathe- greater part of all that is written and uttered today on the subject of the reform of mathematical teaching is connected with the introduction of matics. it cannot this it be denied that vided is confined to tendency in itself is a good one. to the fact that the pupil does not see any practical value in either algebra or geometry. The failure of the mathematical instruction to arouse and to hold the interest of the students. proits proper limits. how- .

that topic deserves preference that can be applied or that vti\\^ultimately lead to applications. and hence we should not give up any of the essentials of the subject because they have no immediate applications. The study of these applications will undoubtedly increase the interest in the subject frequently it will also lead to a better understanding of the subject and occa. and the extreme ends of this scale of views are so far apart that the practical results will be utterly ever. each of not ab- guided by their applicability whole theory. or the analysis of geometric problems. different different according as we accept the moderate or the extreme view of this movement. We must not. Moderate views. and study . deprive the subject of its peculiar character But other things being of being a subject of reasoning. but still it has some. solutely essential for the But when we have which is to choose between several topics.280 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS degrees to which these ideas may be carried. Other things being equal. On the other hand. the practical problem deserves precedence over the purely academic problem. we should be and should not merely well dispense with follow tradition. . in order to obtain practi- cal value. Thus we may very some of the complex "cases" of factoring. we must not forget that the principal value of mathematical study lies in the mental training it affords. equal. Thus we shall not give up the theory of exponents. simply because they have no immediate practical value. Elementary mathematics has not very many genuine applications. sionally it may be of practical value to some student.

The only criterion by which any particular problem or theory is judged is its applicability. formed Instead of at substituting let numbers etc. Only topics the practical value of which is apparent are said to interest young people. and considers its disciplinary value as quite small. which have a greater practi* cal value than any other chapter of elementary mathematics. in expressions random. We may give up the finding of the H.APPLIED PROBLEMS 281 Instead graphical methods. and the altitude from the vertex of the " given angle. The extreme view sees the chief value of mathematical instruction in its utility. it would be better to devote our time to the trigonometric methods for find- ing heights and distances. triangle. which cannot be understood fully by young students.. etc. by the Euclidean method. because of its having eter. object of instruction. The present inefficiency of mathematical instruction is said to be due to the very nature of pure mathematics. at best remote connection with any uses of geometry . having given the perimone angle. and hence it is proposed to make the applied problem the principal. if not the only. Instead of going very deeply into goniometry. which is necessary in physics and geometry. Purely academic problems and theorems are to be admitted only as far as they are absolutely necessary for the solution of practical problems." is considered poor. C. F. and introduce instead proportion. and which cannot possibly interest them. us study numerical substitution in formulae of practical value. Thus the prob" To construct a lem.

School Science and Mathematics. To replace in a cations time-honored algebraic problem the number of Henry's marbles by the height of Chimborazo. the following may be mentioned can be carried too far.. If all secondary school mathematics had genuine applications. but should not reject one of the best and most interesting subjects. or A's age by the number of babies born annually in Chicago. its applicability. Reasons against making mathematics a utilitarian subject. properly prepared. not only understand mathematics easily. but take great That the conditions in many schools are such that good teaching is almost impossible. But the field of application of these sub- jects is limited. 2. and a great many of the so-called appliare not genuine applications. and never take any interest in purely academic problems and theorems. does not lead to a genuine application of algebra. is erroneous. taught favorable conditions. : 1. make us attempt to change these conditions. by proper methods under interest in the subject. zgii. Students of average ability. Obviously the matter of applying problems and among the many reasons that may be given against the extreme views stated in the preceding paragraph. since nobody * Provisional Report of the National Committee of Fifteen on Geometry Syllabus.282 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS No within reach of the ordinary high school pupil. May. the proposed changes would not so much interfere witfi the teaching of the essentials of geometry and algebra. there is only one." * other reason for using the above problem is therefore admitted . viz. The assumption that students cannot successfully study pure mathematics. .

APPLIED PROBLEMS 283 would find the height of Chimborazo or the number of babies born in Chicago by such a method. an accumulation of a large num3. while the applied problem does increase the interest. it is too limited in scope to be made the fundamental principle of the teaching of mathematics. * In addition. in the end. difficulties . but amples relating A pages of them void of 4. but they relate only to a very small fraction of the geometry. arithmetical appear that are utterly foreign to our purpose. or the carpenter who has to deal with these forms will as a rule solve all problems involved empirically. to parquet floors are attractive. and they are rarely genuine. interest. the glazier. its To is put the utility of mathematics above culture value decidedly based upon a misconception of the educational value of the subject. ber of applied theorems of a similar kind proves tiresome To get a few statistical facts is interest- ing. on account of the large numbers involved. Still more restricted is the field of true application in geometry. but unfortunately the average pupil's knowledge of physics is so small that an extensive use of such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. to hear of endless numbers of such facts is like few exreading the World's statistical almanac. While a certain proportion of applied work will stimulate the interest. Examples relating to Gothic windows and parquet floors are sometimes interesting. Thus. since the draftsman.* Genuine applications of algebra may often be taken from physics.

and without destroying the for it is not a panacea that will cure to the cause. ." even if it a practical subject with little regard to its disciplinary value. In many textbooks and a large magazine articles there may be found number * These terms are found in some recent textbooks. will improve the teaching of mathematics. But we must not expect too much from this movement. If we wish to we may very well problem of constructing a triangle having given the perimeter.284 5. should relate to " baby ribbons. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS To make the applicability of a problem or other topic the only criterion by which to judge it means utterly to ignore other reasons that exist for introduc- ing such matters. to which reference was made in the preceding section. Practical problems. illustrate the analysis of problems." "6-inch bias ruffles. and its early disappearance from the curricula of our schools will not be unlikely. introduced ration- essentials of geometry ally and algebra. If we make mathematics against the numerous attacks of its enemies. and that problem which best illustrates these A methods is the best. There is even a danger that a fanatical pushing of this idea may do serious harm Sources of applied problems. Conclusion. a new method. problem is given to illustrate a new idea. one angle. but it will be very difficult to defend the teaching of the subject 6. all ills."* and other " practical matters. It use the is certainly better than a problem that does not teach analysis. and one altitude. it will not only lose a great deal of its beauty and dignity.

VIII. physics. No. etc. commercial life.* the second diagram contains several similar problems. November. linoleums. . 458-460 (Report of Fifteen). pp. 1908. No. relating to engineering. and the construction of a circle touching these arches . Vol. Gothic win- Thus the first of the annexed diagrams requires the drawing of three equilateral gothic arches. 191 1.APPLIED PROBLEMS 285 of practical problems. pp. $. VIII and Vol. XI. etc. May. Vol. etc. Bibliographies relating to such sources are found in School Science and Mathematics. to relate architectural Most applied problems forms and ornamental designs floors. of the most useful and : to the following types Geometric constructions. XL* Some most numerous examples belong i. such as found in parquet dows. 8. and the white parts regular octagons. 641-644. Similarly it construct the may be required to annexed linoleum pattern so that the black parts may be squares. * Vol.

Then we may consider angle. the finding of the edge of the octagon in the linoleum pattern. and C. the calculation of the radius and in circumference of the circle in the gothic window. fields. large number of exercises can be based upon the calculation of areas A and volumes of forms met in engineering and architecture.. etc. precisely as in trigonometry. B. at a certain point on the plane . We may introduce angles of elevation and depression. equal to right triangles. such as also to this class of applied problems. 120. Problems relating to heights and distances similar to those given in trigonometry can be solved if the given angles are 30. etc. 60. 135. and their (Theoretically if they are multiples of 3 halves. Problems of subdividing areas. 45. e. 30. the preceding class give rise to many numerical problems. tanks. or 45. nautical notions. as pipes.286 TEACHING OP MATHEMATICS Maps may also be used to applied constructions. arches. We may require the construction of the site of a schoolequidistant from three towns A. angular distances. belong The forms considered Geometric computations. quarters. although the more complex examples of this kind will prove too difficult for the average student. and 150.) Thus the simplest mode of finding a distance would be by means of an equilateral triangle obtained by measuring two angles equal to 60. or the location of a railway station to be equidistant house that is from two towns A and B.g. 2. Thus we may ask for the height of a tower standing if on a horizontal plane. 90. boilers. containing one etc.

the old-fashioned and found marble problems clothed with a new garb by data furnish another.* XIX. 2J is 30. 335. XX. Physical and commercial problems form one source. fertile in statistical Graphic methods are particularly producing applied problems. 299. and Algebraic problems are in general better known. . * See also Chap. 3. p. and Chap. in most textbooks of algebra.APPLIED PROBLEMS the angle of elevation of the top of the tower at a point 80 feet nearer the angle is 45. p.

precisely the same as in geometry. It may those of geometry. and its introductory chapters may be made even simpler than geometry. the certainty of the results. courses in of The selection of algebra as compared witfc the subject matter for elementary algebra upon the educational advantages must largely depend of the subject. and this reasoning is not always of the same high order as geometry. 23. and topics in algebra require a certain amount of mechanical drill. or possibly greater. thinking do not play quite the same and the knowledge of facts * somewhat more important than II. Compare Chap. Algebra requires the same accuracy of thinking. 288 . p. Hence ingenuity and is originality of r61e. accuracy of detail than be graded as perfectly. On the other hand. The definiteness of the task given to the student. and the applicability of many of its topics to scientific or other problems are. which are not absolutely identical with those of geometry.* The amount of information some cannot be reduced quite as much as in geometry. algebra does not require as much reasoning.CHAPTER XIX THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA INTRODUCTORY REMARKS The educational value geometry. and the same.

algebra lends itself rather Students readily to a purely mechanical treatment. 2. it tions is should be emphasized that it does not mean the teaching of 3 hours of algebra and 2 hours of geometry during two years of high school. In regard to the second plan. .! The feasibility of the first plan under certain condiproved by the experience of a number of schools in various countries. algebra has certain drawbacks. geometry during the tenth. Any new method. manipulations without having a clear notion of the meaning of these operations. f Usually algebra during the ninth. but a complete merging of the two subjects. school The three most widely advocated reforms of mathematical study are: 1. The Teaching of Applied Problems. Simultaneous Teaching of Algebra and Geometry. transpose terms. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and the symbols involved. whether it the first * year. 3. While some reformers wish to place geometry before algebra. most of them advocate a simultaneous teaching of the two subjects. while possessing most of the advantages of other mathematical branches. The Use of Laboratory Methods. When in the should algebra be studied? In most schools United States algebra is studied before geomebut lately this plan has been frequently assailed try. and perform other geometry. and the courses of study should be so arranged as to eliminate or to minimize these disadvantages. Thus.* sometimes it has even been considered one of the chief .THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA in 289 Moreover. may add exponents.

The textbooks to carry out this idea. should. But there is a wide difference between such a pro- . has undoubtedly a number of adIt may arouse more interest than the cusvantages. usually do the merging for one or topics. according to this plan. etc.* two * Of course. no difference of opinion about the wisdom geometry. that pretend and. it algebra during the On the other hand. be studied whenever the necessity for it arises. it may train the student better to apply his knowledge. First of all. are in the experimental stage. may at some stages of the work show the student the necessity of studying certain topics. cedure and complete merging. which possible. there exist gebraic and geometric topics. otherwise they simply alternate between alMoreover. square roots should be taught in connection with the Pythagorean theorem. similar triAll algebraic facts should angles with proportion. and not before. as a rule. and vice versa. lack detail. such a complete merging of the two subjects may not be at all THe courses of study of this new type. and vice versa. but also in other countries. and may prevent the rapid forgetting of time when geometry alone is studied. This scheme. Thus. still have been proposed. it tomary mode. there are weighty reasons against the introduction of simultaneous teaching of algebra and geometry in every school. which has been advocated not only in the United States. there can be of introducing algebraic illustrations into whenever feasible. as far as possible be illustrated geometrically.2QO relates to TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS geometry or algebra. especially in Italy and Germany.

and. there is noticeable an almost universal tendency to eliminate traditional subjects and to put in their place those having pedagogical or * In some of these cases it was claimed that future applications depended upon them. ing was defended because the solution of certain equations depended upon them. modes of study. ever. of all those which are . Still the plan is worth trying. but these applications were as superfluous as the Thus the teaching of certain complex cases in factororiginal methods. such students find the transition Trained principally in mechanical from arithmetic to geometry too difficult. WHAT ALGEBRA SHOULD General BE STUDIED be remarks. . how- number of other topics that may be dispensed with. absolutely needed for further work. however.* Lately. while they attack alwhich resembles arithmetic gebra quite successfully. Hence it seems doubtful whether the simultaneous teaching of algebra and geometry would produce such a radical improvement as the advocates of this plan claim. There can no discussion about the adoption of a large number of topics in courses in elementary algebra namely. but a closer inquiry showed that the applications were as superfluous as the factoring method.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA 2QI a large number of high schools in which the first year students are not capable of attacking geometry as successfully as algebra. in regard to these. a There are. and schools that are in a position to make experiments should give this matter a thorough and impartial trial. until a few years ago there was no accepted criterion for introduction other than tradition.

successfully the student has to be familiar with the four fundacertain amount mental operations. Reduction of the amount of purely formal work. 2. abstract. these matters can be. place.. in factoring. The authors of textbooks vied with each other in their attempts to it this the work. Emphasis on all algebraic topics require original thinking. put everything into their books be taught. 3. on the equations. the more advanced chapters of algebra. e. Algebra cannot be mastered without the study of a number of formal operations and without acquiring a In order to attack of manipulative skill. The general tendency of these proposed changes may be briefly characterized as follows 1. Until recently was a tendency of to overemphasize and to increase manipulative phase from year to year. and merely that technical matter. Emphasis on in all topics that are frequently ap- plied geometry. and have been. etc.* that possibly could The cause In the first for this tendency was a twofold one. etc. carried too far. algebra was taught largely for the * Some authors stated with great self-satisfaction in their prefaces that they had increased the number of cases.g. added a fourteenth case of factoring to the thirteen commonly taught. in solving he has to possess a certain skill But.2Q2 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS practical value. physics. commercial problems. . Reduction of all information to a minimum: : elimination of all superfluous. engineering. there other hand.

and are utterly unable to reconstruct the same. and hence that that the the acquirement of manipulative skill should be the aim. as far as possible. and was attempted to make. who is familiar with our schools knows that these formal matters are studied in a way that makes their disciplinary value small. it was claimed study of such formal methods. however. if they should forget it. mial. there is so much purely formal work in algebra know reduction by one third or one half will not sensibly diminish the educational benefits that may be derived that its from it. of algebraic study. Second. They simply the process by heart. Moreover. every example a special case of a memorized method.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA sake of it 293 preparing students for examinations. same . even if the teacher should at first emphasize the reasoning that underlies the extraction of a cube root of a polynomial. possessed great disciplinary value. essays. very soon the students will perform this manipulation in a purely mechanical manner. in the eliminate several of the time-honored Later reports. Thus. and textbooks show a marked tendency direction.* in * The requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board which are based upon a committee report of the American Mathematical Society of the year 1902 methods. In the United States. Fortunately the mathematical public commences to recognize the uselessness of overemphasizing the study of mere manipulative work. as. for the extraction of the cube root of a polynoinstance. hence thus reducing the study almost to a mechanical application of memorized rules. Any one. or at least one of the principal aims.

studied). The analogous method for L. C. . in Germany. C. 9. The Euclidean method for finding the H. in England. but fractions whose de- nominators are cubic functions have no value in ele- mentary algebra. encies to reduce the purely technical side of algebraic study. The method ous linear equations. In elementary algebra this method is needed only for But no the reduction of a fraction to lowest terms. * Topics marked by an asterisk (*1 will be discussed in detail in Chap* terXX. practical example leads to fractions whose terms are of the third or fourth degree.) division of is first powers with literal exponents (when this topic 3. 6. M. there are marked tend. of comparison for solving simultane- Complicated complex fractions. Complex cases of multiplication and division of polynomials by polynomials.2Q4 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS France. but among the topics that may be omitted and in many cases should be omitted may It is be mentioned 1. The greater part of factoring. F. parenthesis within another Multiplication and sufficient. The * addition of fractions with quadratic or cubic denominators. impossible to make rules in this respect that fit every kind of school. 7. is needed only for the addition of fractions. : * Complex cases of the removal of parentheses. 4. 5. 8. is (One 2.

roots of numbers. retained. Mathematics is a simple study for one until who never attacks a new topic he is thoroughly familiar with the preceding stages ef the work. Rather the The fundamental algebraic operations should be studied thoroughly and should be made familiar to the student by frequent repetition.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA fo. symmetric equations). all Nearly so-called short cuts and special devices. Recurring series. 12. The reduction of the formal work in algebra must not. Cube Cube roots of polynomials. 13. be interpreted as involving a less thor19. Every practical teacher knows how few students understand and appreciate the more as difficult parts of the theory. makes further All parts of the theory which Reduction of theory. (e. In the more advanced chapters we may omit: 1 6. Difficult simultaneous quadratics.g. Multiple roots. laws relating to proofs Even matters negative or fractional exponents. however. are beyond the comprehension of the student or which are logically unsound should be omitted. 295 Cubes and higher powers of polynomials. ough study of the topics that are contrary. 15. while lack of this familiarity progress very difficult. 8. 11. The greater part of the theory of algebra.. the of the fundamental . if not impossible. 1 The greater part of inequalities. etc. especially those solved by devices which the student cannot discover himself 14. Sturm's Theorem. 17.

If however. x the equation is 2 x 2 easily reduced to xz ber. can effect a very we represent each fraction as a mixed number. jr 2 1 1 2 ii x+ x -f 30 30. Moreover.. . . solutions. oa and Y o ~=^ a be J are usually not fully theorem for negative or fractional exponents.296 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS as simple as the f? in the textbooks " " for the law of are logically unsound. some of the proofs offered (jp\ multiplication + and division of frao ) x b a = -^. Elimination of short cuts and special devices. as the proof signs in multiplication. and the proofs of the binomial comprehended by the pupils.r+6 Or Therefore x* - =r 5 x + 6 x = 4.r 2 iii] x 3 x 5 x 6 simplify each Instead of clearing the equations of fractions. simple solution. able student tions of is One of the most interesting problems for the exceptionally the discovery of simple and short soluproblems which. treated by the general methods. It would be very the regular method the equation by T A >** lead to lengthy or difficult to solve >* * awkward * o ^ __ $ 2 * * 4 f ji * * t !) ~ X 6 ~ ~ X y X ^ ~ X O fi A series of special devices. Thus we obtain we mem* -5.

and their use is Of such a kind are the subjustified only by the result. is The preceding method stitutions used sometimes in the solution of simultaneous . applied to the finding of The regular method V22 is as follows : __ \/22+4__ _. etc. equations as the substitution vy. y = u is z>. but many of those used in elementary algebra are far more complex. or : x= A good x=u + v.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA 297 an example of a very simple and obvious device. V/22 i -t- 2 . ^ . example of a short cut the following transformation of a radical into an infinite continued fraction.

but for the pupil they are practically valueless. when many examples type have to be solved for a practical purpose. however. A 2 = 6. . *The symmetries in the above table make it possible to reduce the work to the calculation of one half of the table. Any value of C equals the The first value of B equals 22 whole number contained in A 4- \/22 B : The values of A and B contained in every line except the first are ?n-A n obtained by means of the formulae The period closes as soon as B= I. The student's memory is unduly taxed.*.. 4. gives the integral number of A) and the successive denominators (C) as follows: (first valtw The first value of A is the largest integer contained in V22. *. of one They havef a certain value. It is also convenient for the teacher to be acquainted with such methods.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The short cut. and he is in many cases led to a more mechanical treatment of the The exceptional student who is able to discover such short cuts for himself will derive pleasure subject.* Such devices and short cuts exist in large numbers.

but not from the knowledge of the same. to make its of the applicability of a topic the chief criterion importance. in schools. Among phasis may be mentioned . without consideration of the pedagogic harm Such methods are introduced order to make done by such an introduction. usually in the student pass more readily some examination. most reformers America and Europe propose in all doubtful cases. is pointed out in the beginning of this chapter. the topics which thus deserve special em: far as to sacrifice the serious study of algebra to applications of doubtful value. " " will also give the student an opportunity some cases to discover by means of his own of problems that are usually solved ingenuity the solutions by a method. and those topics that require original thinking.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA 299 and mental benefit from the discovery of the method. but almost any other topic gives some opporto treat every topic so as to to The omission of tunity to make the students think. Emphasize topics that cultivate the reasoning power. Hence we should attempt As encourage reasoning. While large portions of the old-fashioned curriculum in algebra were deterEmphasize applicable topics. If this principle is not carried so it certainly deserves approval. emphasize The most important of these is undoubtedly the reading problem. there a certain danger that the study of elementary algebra may become too mechanical. This may be done in factoring. and in the solution of simul- taneous quadratics. in mined without any guiding principle.

General maxims for teaching algebra. though then be necessary to point out to the students that an assumption has been made. sized attention by European writers. Eliminate as far as possible all merely technical 3. all topics that can be applied. The principles following from the preceding sections. has not received the same in the United States. While the preceding discussion relates principally to the curriculum as it finds expression in the textbooks. all short cuts and special devices. If al- sion of the pupils. or which is necessary. 2. Equations and problems. 2. it has of course a bearing also upon the work of the teacher in the classroom. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Numerical substitution. 3. Graphs. Omit 4. and a few others. all Omit theory which is beyond the comprehenlogically unsound. it will . All subjects that lead to the idea of functionality. The idea of functionality. Proportion.30O 1. 4. matter that is not necessary for more advanced work. Emphasize Emphasize all parts of the work requiring original thinking. which is so much empha6. partly because here graphic methods have only quite recently been adopted. 5. infer such matters from particular cases. Logarithms. or that lead indirectly to applications. may be summarized as follows: 1. but do not sacrifice the true study of algebra to sham applications.

a^n ~ l + tf n = o. 6. Examples that are not of fundamental importance should as far as possible be solved by reasoning and not by memorized methods. 6 8 find 2 2 before discovering the relations of the roots . find the same relation for 7. far as possible every general Emphasize the inductive method. drill. numerical. of a xn 4. 9 Thus before considering a m x a*.e. i.THE CURRICULUM IN ALGEBRA 5. . Introduce as method by concrete. examples. By repetition and a certain amount of practical make familiar to the student methods which are of fundamental importance or which are frequently applied.

" smaller than " is usually defined by the statement b is negative. 302 .g. a topic that on account of its novelty and simplicity interests students fairly simple examples.CHAPTER XX TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA INTRODUCTORY SUBJECTS The method formerly The first lessons in algebra. so prevalent. is fortunately disappearing. greatly. as.'* an obvious circle. Simple problems undoubtedly form a good starting topic. y applied problems or negative numbers. although we should bear in mind that this subject is taught here solely for the purpose of justifying the use of letters in place of numbers. of beginning algebra with a long list of definitions which had To-day to be memorized. and hence we should restrict the work to Equally as good a start may be made with negative numbers. defined as is Negative numbers. Negative numbers are usually numbers smaller than zero. and this definition quite satisfactory from the pedagogical viewpoint. if a Hence the : term "negative" in turn rests is upon " based upon "smaller than. it is offer to the students in the first lessons quite generally attempted to a topic that rouses their interest and that makes them think. For the term although logically it is objectionable." which negative. e. a is smaller than b.

possible.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 303 Students have no difficulty in grasping the concept of negative number if the subject is presented concretely on the basis of practical examples. etc.C. is and the quantities considered allow measurement opposite directions. temperature. as "4. i t i i i i I i i i i i \ \ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -H +2 t3 +* + 5 +6 Practice with a will not number of examples of these types understanding number. in subtraction is always loss. in order to discriminate between the sign of The quality and the sign of operation.. a group of 5 objects by 7.. The most important illustration for further work is the number scale. represented in the annexed diagram. of negative only give to the student a clear introduction of a special symbol for negative number. latitude. a temperature decrease 7. etc. the subtraction of a positive number from any number. and years gain and B.D. but will also enable him to perform addition of any two numbers. While it is impossible to diminish of 5 it may . can hardly be recommended. opposing forces. Quantities of this kind are: longitude. without having studied the laws upon which these examples are based. and in some instances quite difficult to with. decide which kind of symbol we have to deal Students find this distinction rather difficult and . upward and down- ward motion. If we deal with cardinal numbers. years A. is The distinction between the two signs it is somewhat artificial. impossible to subtract a greater number from a smaller but when a number is used for measurement.

It is the natural link between arithmetic and algebra and insures understanding of algebraic symbols in more advanced work. A student unable to evaluate an algebraic expression for given values of the letters involved tions of algebra. Numerical substitution is one of the most important topics of beginners' algebra. let him find + . who would never say -+ 3 5 (Lodge. whenever possible. there are high school students who do say . however. and make mistakes which they would not make if they realized that these letters represent numbers.304 tedious. and he then should answer f.* Hence J if a student says if -+i = 2 a a a of a . cannot possibly possess an understanding of the operaOn the other hand a student who has aside from the learned numerical substitution only has acquired an understanding of the purely algebraic gain and of the use of formulae. a knowledge which meaning has a distinct practical value.) Unfortunately. request the stu- sum * " of \ of a dollar and dollar. Numerical substitutions. Many -" 8 Pupils say - a +\b a+b *-r . Students rather easily lose sight of the true meaning of symbols. Numerical substitution should not only be practiced in the beginning. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS and hardly any of the teachers or textbooks that emphasize this matter in the beginning retain it in more advanced work. but be applied throughout the course.

~Va 2 + ^2 = + <z would not say is VQ 4- as 3 -f i. ' <* . but makes mistakes when nua student Thus merical examples of the same type are proposed. the teacher can readily construct examples. a few instances are the following : cfi . I who say etc. by using a formula which at this stage of the work is unknown to the pupil. the student answers the algebraic question correctly. X I would not say IOO+ 100 . may say 2 8 x 2* =4 7 . who knows that a* x a* = a"'. If the text- book should not contain enough material. cally in other words.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA dents others 305 * who say J ^t! = i-^-i. however. Sometimes.32 *#> + 16 * =(*. and the teacher can check the It is results instantly since the answer equals (a )*. Thus each pupil may substitute different numbers in the expression # 8 3 a*b + 3 alP IP. = 2. Such errors show that the pupil has no true insight into the meaning of the algebraic symbols which he uses. Numerical substitution examples are so important that their practice can hardly be overdone. he is manipulating mechani- symbols which he does not understand. Numerical substitution thus the best means of illustrating emphatically to the students the absurdities of some of their mistakes. a very simple matter to construct formulae of this type .8 a*b + 24 aW . whose answers are obvious to him.2 4 ) .

Checks. the a rule. identity p(x) constitute an absolute test. no absolute test. Thus to check the multiplication (2 a* . Numerical substitution forms the most widely used and the most convenient means for verifyResults of ing the answers to algebraic examples.306 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS student should also practice here the substituSuch formulae The tion of numerical values in formulae. a formula for the total area of the walls of a room whose dimensions are given. but avoid substilatter is tutions that lead to forms like letters involved test. results for all numerical values of the letters involved and on the other hand. -or o 4. i Hence the * multiplication is probably correct.g. e. n + i numerical substitutions . Some very simple formulae may also be may be constructed by the pupil.* we select small numbers. A single numerical substitution is To make it such several substitutions are necessary. As probably correct. we often obtain a very but since all powers of unity are equal. and their number depends upon the nature of the example. taken from physics. or commercial branches. Thus if only one letter is involved and the = $ (x) is of the n th degree. if numerical substitution results in equal values of question and answer.12 a*b+ $aP+6b\ a = & = i. this simple method does not check the exponents. If o we make all equal to unity. geometry.3 ab - 2 P}(2 a x 3 B) we let and obtain 3 =4 a3 .. = + 3. algebraic manipulations cannot be correct unless questions and answers give equal .

TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 307 indicate Numerical a substitution does not merely whether or not a result wrong answer. Hence the is step from the line before the last to the last erroneous. 17*= 17 i/j. powers. subtraction checked by the inverse one. but it may. i7O-/) = \^(x-y\ ' O=O. verified may be by addition. tive. Let x=y. I7=i3. The problem of adding positive or negative and negative. fact that the products. 34=3426 \ly. A may few other methods of verifying algebraic results be briefly mentioned. Any operation may be Thus. and the corresponding fact for symmetric expressions. 17=13. quotients. and neganumbers involves a . 13^=137. Then and /. etc.177 = 13* 137. multiplication by division. = 2. factoring by multiplication. ijx. Equations are checked by substituting the roots in both members of the given equation or equations. 8 = 8. frequently may be used for checks. as illustrated by the following fallacy : Check : Let x =/ = 2 2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION Addition. Or. in case of be used to locate the error. roots The of homogeneous expressions are again homogeneous. also is correct. x i3:r= \T y = 26. = 0.

g.5)-(-3)= is 2. For secondary school purposes it is perfectly legitimate to derive this law from a number of concrete examples. result is obviously 2. or Scientifically subtraction is the inverse we may define a b by the equation: (a-t)+t = a. represent 5 I. negative units. although this is of course no scientific method. .308 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS widening of the definition of addition.e. e. The r(. - and request the pupil to take away (with the eraser) 3. i. northerly and southerly motion. Similarly the total value of the following * numbers Compare the Law of No Exception. Hence the law of addition is really a definition. subtracting means away of certain things from a group of it and hence is advisable to start from this notion and later on lead over to the scientific definition. p. by writing I.: Division: (fyb a. the geoTo illusmetric illustration of the number-scale. however. Evolution: ($te)* - a. 2.. f All inverse operations can be denned by equations. etc. - - - I. of addition. trate the subtraction of negative ( numbers. The taking away of positive numbers from others. 5) ( 3).\ To the the taking things. for instance 5 I. I. and not a theorem. that are either positive or negative.* Subtraction. young student. is readily explained by gain and loss. 312. three negative units.

or trigonometry. or It should be pointed cut to Signs of aggregation. The study of short cuts for the simultaneous removal of several parentheses has no value whatsoever. MULTIPLICATION Rule of a of signs for multiplication. Whether we subtract 3 # 5 ^ from 6 a + 2 b by placing the former under the latter. the result is 4. The multiplication negative number by a positive integer follows directly from the definition which considers such a mul- . but leads more readily to mistakes. a waste of time to solve very complex examples of this type. or by writing (6a + 2 b) (3 a 5 b\ is simply a matter of arrangement. the pupil that the first examples relating to the removal of parentheses are merely additions and subtractions in a new form. Whether we should commence the removal of parentheses from within or from without The a question of no great importance.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 309 Taking away 2. geometry. One parenthesis within another is all the It is student of elementary algebra will have to use in physics. latter does not necessitate as many changes of sign is as the former.

This definition. were necessarily futile.310 tiplication TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS a repeated addition. 3x(-4) = (-4)x3 = (~ 4)x 3 -12. without defining the multiplication by a negative multiproof of this kind is plier. we may consider 3 as negative. and 12 as positive.. to add a number 7 times is just as meaningless as to read a book made in Hence. the terms "positive" and "negative" are purely relative. as negative.ifwa X 3X~ 4= A) consider N. the attempts frequently the older textbooks to prove that a x b = ab. * The stands here for "multiplied by. for. A the following: Since and = 12. f Hence.e. that has occasionally been given is Another " " proof : the following = 20. This "proof" assumes that 4 x( 3) it assumes the law of commutation for an operation which has not even been defined. to multiply by a negative number.* ab = ba." If read "times" symbol the sequence of factors should be altered. i2.. and change the sign of the result. or (_ 3) x (-4) = 12. however. = ( 3)x 4. 7 times. as positive. i. multiply by its But absolute value. = 4) t This becomes obvious if we consider the equation 3 N. we have 12 S.e.1) ( = *? . becomes meaningless for a negative multiplier. i. the equation means ( . X ( If we consider N.

. changes ballast.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 31 1 assumed that products containing negative multipliers are subject to the same law (distribution) as Again it is those containing positive multipliers." this definition is too difficult for beginners. alms receivers. and then to introduce a definition that agrees with the results of the concrete examples. the former paying. and crossing the equator to-day . It appears from such examples that to define multiplication it is convenient by a negative multiplier as a . ship will be at 10 N. or 2 x 5 = 10. Thus we may consider a ship sailing north at the rate of 2 per 5 days hence the day. 5 days ago the ship was at 10 S. 10. Or we may consider the (opposing) forces produced and taking away of a number of equal weights by adding We may consider the at the two sides of a balance. The more rigorous books introduce the following definition of multiplication Multiplication is the opera: tion of finding a to number that has the same relation one factor (multiplicand) as the other factor (multiBut. in the lifting power of a balloon produced by increasing or We decreasing the quantity of gas or the may consider the changes in the income arrival of a town by the and departure of taxpayers and latter receiving. aside from the vagueness plier) has to unity. of the term "relation. or 2 under the same ship sailing south conditions leads to ( 2) x 5 = 10 and x( 5) = A (-2)x(-5)=io. the $100 annually.. Pedagogically it seems best to attack at first practical problems.

. modifications of definitions occur a number of times in for school purposes it is legitimate to matters from applications. or ( 4) x ( 3) = ( 4) (-4). definition of nation. Having adopted this definition. b> c. etc." (Schubert. even where the original . algebra is what it is. bers.312 repeated TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS subtraction. not in was shown that a multiplication by a negative algebra. While virtue of its applications.) Thus the definition of multiplication must be widened in such a way that we may operate with negative numbers in precisely the same way as with positive numcalculation involving a.(-4). In the preceding paragraph Law of No Exception. but in virtue of certain funda- mental laws. and that has been called the Law of No scientific principle that The Exception. and the operation excludes such a combithe meaning imparted is to be such still that the old laws of reckoning' shall hold good. guides us in such generalizations. we should bear derive such in mind that scientifically. Hence applications cannot demonstrate anything in algebra. or the Principle of the Permanence of Equiv- Forms may be stated as follows " In the construction of arithmetic. every combination of two previously defined numbers by a sign for alent : a previously defined operation (-f x. or in other words : A . the pedagogy of the it subject of multiplication offers no more difficulty.) shall be invested with a meaning. multiplier Such requires a widening of the original definition.

. viz. that ok = tya. We Hence.. This may be further illustrated by consider- ing the definition of power. we could never perform a calculation involving exponents unless we knew whether n were integral or fractional. the associative. a.. and there nothing in the original definition that compels It would not be illogical us to take a definite course. is a positive is becomes absolutely meaningless when negative or fractional. . it is impossible to prove have to widen the definition. Hence. for would lead to entirely different laws for fractional than for integral exponents. be just the same whether sent positive or negative numbers. b. the commutative. and the distributive Similarly the widening of any definition of any operation must conform to the fundamental laws of this operation.) Thus we are a* led to the definitions: <z= - ~Va m and TO/ - . To avoid this we have to determine which definition of fractional exponents leads to fundamental laws that are identical with those of positive integral exponents. etc. shall 313 c.. original definition of a n when # . (These laws ~ a m a* == a m+n am + a n = a m n (am )n = a mn (ab)m are SB a m bm : . law. is to define this a by . . repre- This is accom- plished by determining the definition so that it conforms to the fundamental laws of multiplication. but it n would be very inconvenient.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA etc. The integer.

But obviously these topics cannot be taught with a (b + c). students to most readily discover a method of factoring the corresponding multiplication is at the time when studied. it purpose. methods of factoring should afterwards not be collected. seems to the writer that the plan of connecting factoring and multiplication should not be carried out to the exclusion of a formal and systematic presentation of the subject later on. Thus the multiplication a (b -f c) = ab -f ac is connected with the factoring ~*~ example ab + ac = a (b -f c). and presented connectedly. Thus (x after studying multiplication ~\- examples of the type attach to + a)(x b\ pupils will easily discover the factors of It is a?+ 30 most 10. it will lead to a comparison of the various methods. based upon a method of multiplication. however. to proper notions about the selection of a method for a certain Hence. and it will make reviews easier. since the number of such connections is too large. but also with the division ac = b + c. A second and connected presentation of all cases in factoring will impress these important facts firmly upon the student's mind. does not imply that the questions.314 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS FACTORING When toring will is Since each mode of facstudy factoring. .* * The idea that every algebraic topic should be taught in connection with the subjects with which it is logically connected cannot be carried out in practice.5 a . therefore advisable to sets of multiplication examples some factoring This. and this again leads to addition of fractions all : a + = J2.

policy of most textbook to and of most schools. P. Through extended mechanical drill and memorizing students were enabled to work quite difficult examples But a short at the time when the subject was studied. av2 -\-bx-\-c. and the special cases 3. all was forgotten. and become indifferent and Hence we algebra in general. to reconstruct any method. every case that possibly could be dragged in was taught. Until quite recently the writers. their knowledge was very small in spite of the long-continued The cases which are absolutely necessary are of the following types : 1. a2 - . Instead of present- ing a few cases and practicing them thoroughly. and 2. should try to represent factoring as simply as possible.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 315 Which ters cases of factoring should be studied ? For most students factoring forms one of the most difficult chapThe study of factoring of elementary algebra. has been work in exactly the opposite directions. and since the students time afterward were unable of factoring drill. however. and to exclude all cases that are not necessary for future inefficient students of wodc. ax + ay + az. sometimes discourages pupils so much that they lose all interest in the subject.

an + bn n is not divisible by a divisible . 4. i.b t if if n is even. Superfluous cases. a is prime. first of we never use the factors a +b or b directly in examples of the type an b*9 unless n We do not factor * + : = (* + )("- X But we let ^6 _ 6 ^ (03)2 _ we (3)2 = (03 _ 8)(08 + 8). we consider only powers whose exponents are prime. 5. But the only even prime number is 2. 2. 5. In other words try to represent the two given powers first as two squares^ then as two cubes.31 6 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS a later stage of the 4. hence all we . as follows 1. a n n bn b* is is divisible divisible by a by a by # by # b. 4. 3. an an is is n n odd. a +b y if even. + n divisible all..e. At work these may be studied : a*b\ Grouping terms. etc. Now. then as two fifth powers. 6. + ^. if n n is is if is is even. odd.. The Remainder Theorems. The superfluity of other methods may be which illustrated relate to a n : by a discussion of the five cases b n and which are sometimes stated .

But as hardly anybody adb 1 or higher powers. and considered. a ll Of before a n is usually studied independently. If n is even. But they are To select a b as a factor of a 12 b12 is the worst thing first : Hence the the student could do. e. for the noble purpose of factoring a b b . as. But how many pupils of seventeen sides we have to factor x 11 In beginners' classes will ever study the construction of the regular polygon of seventeen sides I . in the study of binomial equations.e.* b * Of course higher powers are sometimes used in advanced mathematics. i. the vocates the factoring of a" Zfl these aB b* is 1 student has to study five complex their similarity. Similar considerations for odd powers show us that these formulas should not be used except for prime values of n> i. worse than that they are misleading. very confusing and.: a* b\ b l\ etc. and the connected To construct a regular polygon topics of constructing regular polygons. on account of rules. (2) three rules are absolutely superfluous. an b n should always be considered the difference of two squares.g..TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 317 need to know about even powers two well-known facts : is contained in the (i) c? -f V* is prime. Thus and not (a-b)(a 11 + ).

4is about whose presentation a wide diversity of opinion exists. which should be done concretely and not by having memorized the above five rules. Another method makes a special case of every quadratic as illustrated trinomial fol- sP+px+q. by the lowing example : 3 This method. where r^ and ra are the roots of the equation ax* + bx -f c = o. Factoring ax*+bx+ c.318 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS instructor The who wishes to teach all examples relat n b n has to teach no other formula ing to the binomial a 5 than a fi. For be- ginners this method example as follows : may be represented by a concrete )(* -4). At quadratic trinomial ax? a more advanced stage of the work it 4- shown that ax* bx -f c = a(x r^ )(.r r2 ). Since . But even in this form most examples are too difficult for the beginner. One rather indispensable case. requires fractions which are not known to the students at this stage of the work. is the factoring of the bx + c. however.

According to these tests the method was by far the most effective.g. The numbers become sometimes exceedingly large. it is not surprising that it does not work well in most classes. This method. and the student is unable to understand the reasons for the natural way. has been frequently attacked by writers who called it a method of guessing. September.5(r- 15) There are two objections to this method.* considers the operations the reverse of the corresponding multiplication.15).TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA it 319 also leads to very large numbers.. The most way that produces the best results in most classes. but who seem to forget that the other methods are also based upon guessing. two numbers whose sum is 95 and whose product 450. Another method which has been praised a great deal by some pedagogues splits the coefficient of x into two numbers. and also the procedure. that their product equals factor find is ac. E. . The cross-product method becomes comparatively simple if we free the given expression from monomial * Since the above was written. Fiske Allen has reported on some experiments which tested the three different methods in different classes cross-product (Mathematics Teacher. to 6^r2 95 x + 5 75. These numbers are 75 and 90. usually called cross-product method. thus. Mr. 1911). .

Thus to factor 72 . Therefore 72**- l45. while the second produces 145 x. since otherwise we would obtain a monomial factor in one of the binomials.r a .F-8)(8. is 5^*7 + 3 T2 - A function symmetric with .145*+ many 72.320 factors. term can be factored 72 and 8 Hence we have only two possibilities : J2x The i 9^+8 xj2 first 8xg middle combination obviously gives too large a term. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS and bear in mind that each of the resulting binomial factors cannot then contain a monomial factor. We may factor 72 x in different ways. the last 9. the teacher should be acquainted with all the more important difficult cases.r + 72=(9. is A few methods in order to be equal to any emergency. method that A function is symmetric with respect to x a. - Hence we have all to try only 72 x x and gx 8x.ndy if an exchange of these letters does not *-** 3 ** change the function. is based upon symmetry and cyclo-symmetry. Excluding numbers that pro- duce monomial only I factors. A is very interesting and that solves many which otherwise would be exceedingly diffiexamples cult.r-9> While it unpedagogic to crowd the pupil with too many methods. but obvi- ously these two factors must not have a common factor.

the factors (x y\ {y #).y). the function is divisible by x y. (2) a(x* -f-y (3) ^ I . Since the substitution x = y reduces the function to But the zero. + *2)+ t(xy +yz + zx\ +y + ^)+ b(x*y + xy* + y*s +ys* + + xs?)+ cxyz. but there may be an unknown numerical numerical factor. we have factor. of A The Ex. # + f + ^ a *b + ab* + Ifa + be* + c*a + A function y ca*. y by z and z by x. we is y obtain an identical equal function. is cyclo-symmetric. hence it is also divisible by x. and (z x) are all its literal factors. e. factoring is symmetric expressions illustrated and cyclo-symmetric the following examples : by x\y -z)+ y\z . Every symmetric function not vice versa. by replacing x by y. If k be this . and z if cyclo-symmetric with respect to x. e. first but The symmetric are (1) functions of the three degrees a(x+y + z)... y.g. if it is symmetric with respect to any two of these letters.x) -f z\x . and z. Since the given function is homo- geneous and of the third degree.g. Factor function is y z and z cyclo-symmetric. y.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 321 respect to x.

z and ^ function vanishes.*)3 Making x = 2..322 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS for x. Factor *( y the ^r) 3 + X. In like manner as in the preceding examples we obtain the factor (x~ y^y z\z x).g. The remaining * The value of k may also similar terms in both be formed by comparing the coefficients = members. k of .yj+ (y - ^-f-C* -xf.~ *J + *(* . hence is exactly divisible by xy. ^ = o. 6). Thus &y = z. = i. y. 4 2 + = 2). are also factors of the function. 3. i. X s (x -yj z y= I. 2. = o. factors are of the form k(x +y + z). If 2. y x cyclo-symmetric.8 + o=( Hence or = i. Hence . Factor (x. ^r=2. 7=1. is Since the function is Since the given function homogeneous and Such of the first fourth degree.X) it 8 - x = 7.* Hence Ex. e.e. ( Substituting numerical values and or z. there must be another factor of the degree which is cyclic and homogeneous. ktfy. Ex.

we obtain : 5 Making x = = o. Solving (i) and (2) =5. Making x = 2. z= we i. . 323 must be of the second degree and cyclo-symmeti. following list contains a few examples of this type with their answers others may be found in any of the larger treatises on algebra. + 2/=i5.e.*y -y . 3.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA factor ric. it must be of the form k(# +y* + z*)+ where k and / are l(xy +yz + *x\ Hence unknown numbers. z o. Hence = s (* -y\y .^X*2 +72 + ^2 . (I) obtain : 2*.7-iS. 4. 5. i.**) . The 2.*X* . _y (2).. y \. /= 5.

is is true for all values of a the latter. . sometimes also called an identical equation. The . hence it is a problem.. if method is an identity or an equation we proceed as follows : x Transposing. An It is not always possible to decide by inspection is whether an equality an identity or an equation of if condition. called an true only for a certain value of a. equation^ An identity. former. and a + 7 = 2 a. There is obviously a great difference between the statements a +a= 2 a. it is a theorem. called an identity. 3=^+3 6+3 x+2x*= 0=0. for solving equations. it is an idenThus. to decide whether the following statement tity. states a demonstrable mathematical fact .r 3 Clearing of fractions.. 7. equation (or equation of condition) requires the finding of the root or roots. . viz. or 6x 6 JT 6x .324 e. *but this fact appears we apply the usual If all terms cancel. i. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS = 7( (x = 8. EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Identities and equations of condition. the equality reduces to the form o == o.e. Equations must be solved identities must be proved.

g..g. .. the resulting equality (called the In such a case each of eliminant) may be an identity. and any value whatsoever be assigned to one of the unknown quantities. the root infinity indicates that the problem has no solution. e. Since oo +3= oo + 4. happen. Hence equations (i) and (2) are dependent. that an equation is not satisfied finite by any value of the unknown quantity. if Thus. that the given statement is an iden- and the above deduction a proof of the identity. we eliminate/ by comparison from : the follow- ing system y= K \y(x i _^_--2x-s) = x+2.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 325 is The result indicates tity. If in an equation all terms containing the unknown quantity cancel. we may say the root .r = oo. x and/. of the two quantities. The may equations are dependent. Similar remarks may be made about two equations If we eliminate one involving two letters. If not It may every term cancels. the root is infinity. while the remaining terms do not cancel. however. e. however. the given equations is a consequence of the other. In case of an applied problem. (2) we obtain : The solution of (3) leads to the result = 0. the equality is an equation.

we should multiply both members by 2(x obtain the following solution: Equivalent equations. 3^.. since occasionally questions of this type will arise in the classroom.^=2. C. and i)C* + i). o x= satisfy Such equations are called is inconsistent. satisfies (i).3. A system obviously inconsistent the following : The preceding topics have in a secondary school. D. (5) But only one of these roots.*= i.= 2. ^= 1. and dependent equations. no finite values of the unknown quantities the equations. following should not recognize the L. but little value for the pupil the teacher should be ac- quainted with them. .. independent. (2) (3) (4) Therefore.326 If - TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS the eliminant leads to an equality of the form a. ^. viz. Graphic methods explain most lucidly the nature consistent. Quite often equations are treated as equation (i) was true and * we the given had to prove that each if of inconsistent.r-6 = o. and the question arises what error produced the answer . Suppose in the equation we or * Hence 8^-1-8=3^+5^ + 2.

r= which satisfies equation (i).e. 327 4. The step from (2) to (i) is justified by the axiom: If equals be divided by equals. etc. however. Hence this step is not justified if equation (2).TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA successive equation (2. equations lead however. must show that (i) is true. roots.) was true. it is necessary to prove that every equation is equivaIn elementary algebra.. 5) has two . but to find a root that satisfies (i). As each from the preceding one by a certain axiom. if (5) is true. Equations which have the same roots are called In the solution of an equation equivalent equations. only very rarely to equations that are not equivalent to the given Two cases of this kind are the following : . x = 7. However.r 3)(^r = 4 has = 4(* 5) 3 one root. etc.r= 7 and #=5. the quotients are equal. or i. This axiom. lent to the preceding one. 3. we we have to examine the steps from (5) to (4). from (4) to (3). is not true for zero divisors. Hence the value . the solutions of one. does not need to (and this example does not) satisfy i. no error could thus be found in the above example. Multiplying both members of an equation by an ex- duces a pression involving the unknown quantity usually intronew root (called an extraneous root). Thus (x . we do not have to prove a of these statements follows theorem.

while equa- x = 6. Consequently the solutions of radical equations often lead to extraneous roots.. If *-4=2.g. (I) (2) then Equation (i) has only one root. however. if is better to study the we restrict the values of the radicals . for The most important method is solving quadratics the one based upon the formula. if the student should forget. viz. x = 2 and x = 6. the square is necessary for obtaining this formula and for reconstructing it.328 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Multiplying the members of a fractional equation by a multiple of the denominators.* and all roots of radical equations require checking. ^2-8^+16 = 4. . it involves in any example a good deal of unnecessary Hence while this method deserves some practice. which is not the lowest. and certainly not to the study of several methods for completing the square. This happens. Quadratic equations. only to their prefixed signs. Squaring both members of equations usually introduces extraneous roots e. Completing The method based on completing not well adapted to the solution of more complex numerical or of literal equations. should not be extended too far. and the square. is it labor. however.. introduces extraneous roots. tion (2) has two roots. Since the formula for the roots of the equation &+px+q=*o * leads to complex fractions in case the it coefficient of jp is not unity.

as the first method to be studied. on account of its simplicity. students who first study the completing of the square usually take great interest and pleasure in the study of the factoring method. In solving x6 9 jr 8 8 + 8=o x*= by the i. ples But students in order to solve all exam- must study the formula. Many writers recommend method.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA formula for the roots of the equation ax* viz. Moreover. and hence practically never lead to equations that can be factored. we must not forget that in practical examples the coefficients depend upon measurement. The this third method which deserves serious attention is the solution by factoring. and the formula could thus be entirely excluded. It is a revelation to them that examples which formerly required so much work can be done so simply and so quickly. the is student obtains x*= and Hence he likely . such work is On usually considered very tiresome and unnecessary. and it produces all roots of an equation more readily than the other methods. This formula should be thoroughly memorized and applied to many numerical and literal examples. viz.: 329 + bx + c = o. this would undoubtedly be the best plan. the method based on factoring has two advantages. If factoring could be used for the solution of every equation. Besides simplicity. the other hand.. and if this is done after equations have been solved by factoring. formula. it can be applied to equations of higher degree.

To ing (" px -f q = o (in arrow o below the number p (i.r=2. x= i. 4). we should note that one making x a obtained by = o.e.e. x members of the equation jp a. which slides in another rule bearing scales the natural scale of positive and negative numbers.33O to conclude: TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS .. 3 units from o. reading problems. etc. as Applied problems. But the factoring method readily leads to six roots because The factoring method members removes one or more also of an equation shows us that dividing both by an expression involving x Thus. there slide rule which the author has constructed. and the numbers on A are the squares of those A and C. while the other follows from x + a=z Applied problems. a 4. Thus on A solve 3? -h 2 units from o. they are often called. the numbers on the scale C are the doubles of the corresponding ones on B. maxima or minima of the function. etc. Opposite these num- bers (36) in scale B are found the roots : x = 4. Among mentioned a the mechanical devices for solving quadratics. imaginary coots. The scale B is on B. we find 9. . From this number subtract the absolute term 3 2 )> and locate the difference (36) in scale A. may be It consists of a rule bearing the scale B.b x* or. and x = 8. the diagram z2 4* 32) put the 4) in C. we find 4 . and read off the correspond- number in A (i.. form possibly the most important topic of elementary algebra. * Unfortunately. This slide rule can be used to find large and small roots. when dividing both a 1 = (x x) by a)(a + b root is roots.

problems and their relations should be considered The next step is writing equations without at- * If such questions should be too difficult. Hence we should cally try to introduce students systemati- and slowly into the methods of attacking such work. propose the corresponding arithmetic questions . By how much does 12 exceed 10? etc. student should write in algebraic symbols expressions like the following : The sum of the squares of a and b. ..e. as : By how much does a exceed 10? is Write three consecutive numbers whose smallest x. Many students who can reason logically fail because they have not grasped the technique of the subject.. How old will he be in x years hence Find* As far in % of 700. the ability to think. A is ? 20 years old.* as possible. and a systematic study of such translations should form the At first the starting point for the study of problems. The cube of the difference of m and n. Then should follow translations that have a bearing upon problems. viz. Every problem presupposes the ability to translate an English sentence into algebraic shorthand. all quantities that later on occur here. and a knowledge of the technique of such work. The product of the cubes of a and b.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 331 students find problem work exceedingly difficult and consequently loathe this subject. i. The ability to many solve problems requires two things.

2 x a is 5 as 10.gn The double of a equals 10. In a similar way we should in all following chapters on problems attempt a complete classification of the known culties. be attacked.* made a special case of a certain type. ? Which number % of 450 * After a fairly = ifo x 450. of practice. by no means every problem can be But by studying simple problems arranged according to a certain system. be It is true that fully explained only in a textbook. while the other sentence produces the equation. however. e. word after word. the student acquires a familiarity with the technique of the subject which in many cases will help in the solution of problems that require real original thinking. GRAPHS Reasons for teaching graphs. then those which involve two is where one sentence unknown quanused to express one un- quantity in terms of the other. at first only such as refer be translated directly tities. school courses The reasons that have led to the introduction of graphs into our secondary may be summarized as follows : * See the author's Algebra. . good amount reading to problems may one unknown number and as can . The first equations should be so simple that they can be translated.33 2 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS tempting to solve them. examples and avoid the accumulation of several diffiThe details of such a method can.

. the solution of higher equations. and the material work so abundant.g. The student acquires a clear notion of one of the most important notions of advanced mathematics. of independent equations. magazines. chemistry. that a certain familiarity with these devices culture. 333 The study of graphs is very concrete and hence counteracts somewhat the tendency of school algebra to become a mechanical application of known rules. By graphs many mathematical the facts become visi- ble to e. 6. which otherwise would remain obscure.. 4. work as follows : Graphic representation of a given numerical .. graphs enables the student to solve which he could otherwise not solve at many examples 5. 3. that only a few points need be mentioned here : i. number of roots of various equations. Classify the a. the eye. etc. functionality. and books. etc. Graphs interest students and are easily under- stood. viz. etc. the solution of transcendental equations.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 1. economics. Introductory examples. meteorology. Graphic representations are at present so widely is used in daily papers. is used a great deal in other To study successfully physics. the nature of inconsistent equations. 7. The is teaching of the funda- mental for such ideas of graphs so simple. as. mechanics. the student has to be acquainted with graphs. a part of general This mode of representing variables sciences. The study of all. 2.

use can necessary to An ordinary ruled sheet cross-section paper. Do not spend too of functions.334 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS table. the time corresponding to a given temperature. It is also be interpreted. For blackboard it To obtain fairly good results is work a system of squares may be scratched into the board by a triangular file (make side equal to about 2 inches). e. student should find the temperature at a given time. World Almanac. and thereby solve . to 6 of Ib. not sufficient to construct graphs they should Thus in a temperature graph. C=ty-R. the . or the tables t. etc. population. graphs of temperature. d. Graphs as. Ib. and should derive therefrom a quick method for constructing such graphs. S. 5.> the cost of iron from o c. also be used to advantage. 2. line Students should learn that the graph is a straight through the origin if the two quantities involved are proportional. the time of most rapid increase of temperature. maxima and minima. Statistical Abstract. much time It is in constructing statis- tical graphs. etc. as. Algebraic graphs.) Graphs of numerical has to calculate . (See U. which the student c. not sufficient that students Graphs construct the graphs of functions.g. 4. Graphic solution of problems. physical and geometric formulae. 3.

one point. y = distance covered by body moving uniformly = volume. y = quantity of water flowweight . fact mentioned above. is often useful. while those of higher degree have several sets. y = work done by a person of a body x = time. To represent graphically the motion of a person traveling 3 miles per hour. however. solved in algebra by expressing the conditions of the problems in the form of equations.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 335 equations. why inconsistent linear equations have no finite and why dependent equations have an infinite of roots. ing through a pipe at a uniform rate.r2 + i\ x 6 = has three roots. y = x = time.r 6 . and to connect this point to it is . number Problems are usually Graphic solution of problems. By using the graphic method. they should use these diagrams to solve many other problems relating to functions and equaThus students should find maxima and minima . In the discussion of simultaneous equations. e. graphs may be used to show why simultaneous linear equations r8 6^-f- nx 6 = 40 has have only one set of roots. they should recognize that the same drawing may be used to solve f(x) = o. Graphs make clear to the student root. that the graph of two proa straight line.g. etc. The Thus. tions.tr lines : x= . time. many problems can be solved directly. are the coordinates of a point. etc. without obtaining equations. . while why . the folis portional variables if x and y lowing variables are represented by straight . only one root. % (i. only necessary to locate 3) or A. and f(x) = 5 they should see 8 .

i. Ex. and B meet in hours. and rests 3 In how ? many hours do they meet Construct the graphs OA'A"A'" and BB'B"B"'.e. and finally returned to the starting point at the IK represents graphically the rate of 2 miles per hour. is the required time. A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but rests i hour on the way. the of motion of a fourth person who started 3 hours after first and traveled in the opposite direction at the rate i mile per hour. Hence The abscissa A 4+ . of C. trav- sents graphically that a third person had a start of eled 2 hours at the rate of 4 miles per rested 2 hour. CD represents the motion of another person who i^ started 2 hours later and traveled hour. i. B travels at the rate of 4 miles per hour hours. then hours. the rate of travel. 3 miles per hour. and walk toward each other. the point of intersection.. miles per EFGH repre4 miles.336 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The increase of the ordinate per hour the origin. equals Similarly. A and B start walk- ing from two towns 15 miles apart.

i). the point of represents the required amount of gold O and B The (if ounces). Find the amount of $5 for 4 years at interest. how many ounces of gold are in the six ounces ? Let OA represent the weight of the body. The ordinate of the point of interjoining (4.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA Ex. when weighed Six ounces of gold quartz lose \\ ounces in water.. 337 A stone is dropped into a well. 3. Since the motion of the sound is an upward motion. its graph CB is obtained by ODA D Hence depth of well = 1 10 meters. ascending joining O intersection of OC and BD. Ex.* is 20% compound diagram. of its 2. and gold ^ of its weight when placed in water. If the velocity of sound is assumed as 360 meters per second. is the required number. ascending at the rate of AB ^ (*'. Through abscissa of P. making the disConstruct the graph tances negative. how deep well? is (A body fl falls in / seconds meters. or at the rate of \. * The high rate of interest taken in order to produce a small . Ex. T^)). o). and the loss of weight in water.*.) . and (19. 4. draw (5. If quartz loses \ of its weight. Through O draw <7C. and the ^= 10 meters. and the sound impact upon the water is heard at the top of the well 5 seconds later. to indicate the downward motion.360) and (5. section of the falling body. DB.

then C represents the amount after two years. y will pass etc. Place the ruler so that the prolongation of through A'. rate = I = 20 J r Draw AA and produce it to B. represents the required amount. A A BB f BA ABODE integral values of n. and let OA represent $5. i. On OX' lay on* QA I 122. The customary method is of constructing the graphs of a function not purely .. etc. of course not necessary to draw the lines '. then the ordinate of B represents the amount after one year.30. The broken line represents the amount better than the formula a(i + r) n. since the latter is true only for It is NOTE. Draw B'B and 6 B YEARS B' O I 2 J *^ S produce to C. etc. The ordinate of E. Purely graphic methods.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Represent the year by the unit of abscissas and the dollar by the unit of the ordinates. $10.00.e.

it 339 requires considerable arithmetical work. toOY.d for a given value of x. since viz. Draw Draw Draw HI\\ . Draw GH=a.. OX.ex 4. thus the work may made purely be found by constructions. and II let GI meet OJT. MN II and fcr let 3 NE meet ^4C in P. the calculation of the values of the ordinates. The construction of values of a rational integral function may be illus- trated ax? + by constructing the value of the cubic function bx2 -f. EF^c. however. and let <9^. and graphic. may be indicated as Then /4P = ^+ The follows proof of this construction : . * On tfFlayoff OE=d. FG = and make OA = x. OB = i. ZFmeet AC in M.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA graphic. These values. AC and BI parallel i>.

OX. as follows Make OB and BD equal to unity (different scales may be used for abscissas ordinates). etc. B t DrawC^ OX. Hence Since or = b -f TM= ax* -f bx. For certain fundamental functions the preceding conbecomes very simple. Thus if y = x* we may % struction construct y (or AF) if x or : (OA) is given. then the prolongation of OE meets A 1C in the re- . and and let the prolongation of OD || meet AKinC.340 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Draw GQ and FS parallel to spectively in R and T. AC re- or RK^ax. meeting Since ?/= a.

\ and (3) is . otherwise the multiplicity of lines will confuse the student. depends upon the use of certain standard curves.-*! (3) The (3) is quired root of (i). to solve the equation 11^+30* We let Then straight line. But [2) for x produces the reour standard curve. which is simpler when many values of the ordinate are required. while a straight line. and y . hence it may be printed or mimeographed. rabola y~x* The trated principle underlying these methods may be illus- by two examples solve : To Let ax* + &r + c = o.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA quired point F. Another method. 165 = o. : Thus. portion : 341 the pro- (This : OB BE = OA AF or may be proved also by I x = x :y. y -.) : The preceding methods if for finding /(. (i) (2) Then ay solution of (2) + bx + c = z>. or any cubic. etc. Thus every quadratic equation may be solved by means of the paand a straight line. 7 = **. 165 (i) (2) (3) * Theoretically a quadratic be solved by any conic section and a practical solutions are obtained from the curves : y **. a^. each of which may be used to solve any quadratic.r) are practical only a few values of the function have to be found. 11^/4-30* may = 0.* The curve y = x* is the same. no matter what quadratic we wish to solve.

5. (i) Let Then 5 y 14* of j = ^. c = line 3. Measuring the abscissas Q and f (? we obtain *=5-3 or. 15) and (s|. then . (2) . Similarly. if jtT = o. and the 8. . 65 = o.342 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS i 20 ! 10 -it In The is then j/= 15 if / = o. straight line joining the points (o. x= S^ 2 2.) ay+bx + c.r= -2. b= .5. (In the diagram. which intersects the graph of (2) in and P' 9 By measuring the abscissas of r .r = s|. P and P we have the graph of (3). or *= : 5. to solve the equation 14^ 65 =o.7. Draw the standard curve y~x?(DOB) 3. o) (3). The similar construction of the graph of ax? + &r + c by a method is shown a= in the next diagram. P .

TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA 6 343 14 to // X & .A- 7- \ \F V 5 s 18 ' H> .

The introduction of negative numbers makes is it necessary to adopt the ordinal view of numbers. biquadratics.. Using such i. i. fractions had to be numbers only. negative numbers had to be introduced. or by to y=*x* and circles. then D'E'H'N 1 is the required graph. to find the imaginary roots of quadratics. and their graphs be constructed by means of the cubic parabola y = x? and straight lines. etc. . 1908. incomplete and complete cubics may be solved. the reader is referred to the author's Graphic Algebra.. and multiplication are operaare always possible. cubics. 9 etc. .tr-axis XQ XQ and make the values at the new ^/-axis a times (3 times) as large as originally. ever used in arithmetic were undoubtedly the so-called and they were then conI. etc. such as the length of a line. . New York. In order to make division tions that an operation that is always possible. and to accomplish the same for subtraction. 2. IRRATIONAL AND COMPLEX NUMBERS What are irrational numbers? The first numbers natural numbers. 9 sidered as cardinal numbers. 3. For further detail. and to construct their graphs. the area of a rectangle. The use of fractions enables us to use number to indicate the t results of measurement. Make CD' = CD. addition invented. M*N*=MN.e. the view that numbers are merely marks of order. . . E'F' = EF '#'= GH.e. f If we wish to make evolution an operation that The Macmillan Co. It is possible by these methods solve biquadratics. In a similar manner. symbols that represent the number of things in a certain group.344 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ' Draw a new ..

tion has thus far been invested with a meaning only if the factors are two irrational real. irrational If we defined an number. there was a time when irrational numbers were considered impossible numbers. but which cannot be fully explained due to the . The fact that irrational numbers are just as real as rational numbers is made clear by geometric considerations. a result that n* evidently impossible. by the equation A/2 V2 X we would make = 2. and its meaning when connecting numbers cannot be defined until irrational numbers are defined. V2 is an impos- number.*-j -2 '-I unity. The definition which is now most widely here. is accepted. Hence.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA always possible. ' of a right triangle B ' o ! 2 3 ^ x resents an irrational number. then 2 = % . irrational numbers are real numbers. Definition of irrational numbers. Every rational number can be represented by a point in the geometric illustration of the number scale. irrational numbers have to be duced. Hence. For if V2 = where m and n have no is common factor. only. but not every point in that line represents a rational number. sible 345 intro- Using rational numbers n . as A/2. Thus if OB equals the hypotenuse whose other sides equal x B' then point B rep. the mistake of using the symbol x withFor the symbol of multiplicaout defining its meaning.

the introduction rational *We may numbers of divide all numbers into classes so that all one class (A) are greater or equal to 2. . and even the method which shows It is that the V2 I is the mark viz. however.4 1. however.* obviously impossible to teach these matters in a secondary school. . but it is impossible number B which all is greatest.. each number of one class being distinguished from each number of the other class by a characteristic property. 1. or a greatest number in B.414 1. point out assumptions that have been made We him some of the : in writing V2 XV3=V5Imaginary numbers.42 . class B contains all rational numbers whose square is less than 2. impossible to assign a smallest number in A. and and 2 1. to may.41 1. viz. similar discussions have no value.346 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS It mathematicians of the Berlin school. Every number in A Then is 2 is greater mark which divides than every number in B. while all numbers of the other class (B) are less than 2.415 .5 1. operation that is In order to make two the evolution an of always possible. . of division between two sets of concrete numbers.. It is. irrational considers aa number as a symbol of the division of al\ rational numbers into two classes. . numbers whose square is greater than 2. 2. since the student is does not understand the reasons that make us search for a definition of irrational which based upon rational numbers only. numbers into two classes A and B. In class A there to assign a is one number which in is smallest. Similarly \/2 divides class rational The A contains all rational . the two classes.

. by Archimedes To one third of its volume by a plane. To V i or 4 with a meaning. Thus point i. Imaginary numbers were considered impossible numbers long after negative invest V bers and if it irrational numbers had been accepted. 377. This was mainly due to the fact that a problem has no solution leads to a quadratic with imaginary roots. In solving cubics by Cardan's method. If all algebra were limited to quadratic equations. imaginary numbers appears from many mathematics. Hence to obtain the real answer we must be able to operate with roots imaginaries. however. and the view formerly so prevalent that imaginary numbers are impossible is erroneous. p. the It best elementary illustration geometric representation of the The based number can easily be shown * that imaginary and complex numbers are represented by points without the line OX. sents 3 B (or line OB} repreOC represents 4 + 3 i. already " : mentioned. The reality of topics of higher is upon scale. the answers appear in an imaginary form if all roots are real (irreducible case). but not sufficient." leads cut off from a sphere to a cubic whose appear in imaginary form. there would be no practical reason for introducing imaginaries. o" * See Advanced Algebra. Imaginary numbers are just as real as other numbers.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA irratiohal 347 numbers is necessary. imaginary nummust be introduced. Thus the problem.

num- Thus (Vs) =5. above law would produce the wrong answers i. and comto Hence no other kind of number has plex numbers. A similar difficulty occurs V 2 x V _= 3 is : in multiplying imaginaries. their product would equal V 6. I. while the Similarly (Vi) evidently wrong. and only 2 2 5. since roots are defined i by the is inerroneous answer + equation (~\/a) troduced by a careless application of the law (-\/a)m = Vtf m which. The true only in regard to the absolute values of the bers. unless we change the fundamental laws upon which the whole science rests.. Beginners sometimes expect that that : (V 2 ) 2 i) should equal i. V 3 were taken meaning. iV2 x rv/3 == flV6 = V6. = a.. but the above law 5 would give (Vs) = V25= 5. irrational. V and similarly V The 2 as V 2. The signs. The teaching of imaginaries. viz. : Here the student inclined to proceed as follows V^3 x V ^=V(-2)(~3) = V6. is .348 It TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS can be proved that all operations of algebra are always possible. even in the domain of real number. the answer 8 being I. be introduced into algebra. and I = 2 =+ *. for they claim ( V^l = V(~^7/ = Vi = equals n i But obviously (V 2 i) only. difficulty is caused by the arbitrary restriction of in its true If 3. arbitrary restriction of the . if we use rational.

etc. i. he knows practically all that is needed for operations with complex numbers. = problem or theorem that may be proposed should be For instance. it seems to be advisable not to carry study of the theory too far. subtracted. LOGARITHMS Since logarithms are The teaching of the theory.tr-l-j. 7=log6 Con x +y = loga mn.TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA original signs involves the restriction of the 349 answer to can V6. If thus restricted to the most fundamental propositions. multiplied. propositions are the direct consequences of the definix if b n. Hyp.. viz. The form a + bi V is a in the form V i called the typical form of complex numbers. b v **n. we have to translate the equation x Iog6 1 into log I. = the form b x = I. Thus any which states that x Iog6 = .e. because tion. in the exponential form and the proof Iog6 m. the all theory of logarithms becomes very simple.. *.*. if x=logb m and = Iog6 we have to write hypothesis and conclusion y .e. . and it is worth emphasizing that this result be obtained only by writing or z V#. 9 To prove that log b (^)=.. x= i. If the student is aware that all imaginary numbers must be reduced to their typical form before they can be added.. b*m. introduced into our school curriculum mainly on ac- count of their practical value. tp find written in the exponential form.. is evident. /*. and the answer is obvious.

or more places should not be used in school. io j 47712 . however. carry numerical accuracy to an extreme. =3.e. consider the above theorems concretely..350 Similarly. use of calculating machines has somewhat diminished the practical importance of logarithms. io- 30103 = 2. log 3 = -47712. We must not.778i5 = 6> =. but mainly to using a table as if all . log 2 i. we may = . although there are occasions when But tables containing six five-place tables are needed..30103. it is necessary to make the student so familiar with the practical use of logarithms that he can do the work ac- curately and quickly. the subject is Hence still the most useful one in elementary algebra. in the form 3* = 5. In using any table we ought to take care not to carry the accuracy of the numerical results farther than the table justifies.778 1 5. i.e. or log 6 Although the increasing Logarithmic calculations. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS to express Iog 8 5 we write the equation x = Iog3 5 ^ * by common logarithm. This does not refer so much to such ob- vious absurdities as the finding of six places by means of a five-place table. This exponential equation solved by the usual method produces the value x= log 3 If still greater simplicity should be required. Four-place tables are sufficient for many practical purposes. Thus. since they are needed only in very exceptional cases. .

351 But limiting a logarithm to five places means neglecting the following places.59120. log 27 | unit of log . let all. i. 1 02 ^ unit of last place.r= 39. Multiplying a logarithm by six means multiplying the error by six.r= 1.01^ or 39.13... may contain an error of Hence == .0118. the use of the table involves errors.g. is subject to an error of J. Thus to find the logarithm of 6 1414 x 27 x^ we have . last place. and even the preceding place (i) is only an approximation.25. the true c -^ = .0/2 -Vlj the following possible errors. A five-place table gives the answer . POSSIBLE ERROR log 1414 5 J unit of last place. 3 1 unit of last place. But the numerator (2) is the denominator. while the difference of two logaf. log. I value of the fraction ^ may be 2 c or Consequently the last place of x (8) has no value.e. if logjr But even we do not add and subtract at e. etc. Adding or subtracting logarithms produces a possible error equal to the sum of all errors.*. unit of last place.072 \ log . it involves an error that may equal ^ a unit of the last place. .TYPICAL PARTS OF ALGEBRA places given were absolutely exact. which rithms.

etc. able to secure some slide rules should neglect to explain to his students the principle and the use of this is wonderful little machine. powers. The slide rule Slide Rule. is a very simple instru- ment which calculates mechanically products. which are most lucidly illusNo teacher who trated by means of this instrument. quotients. however.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS If. roots. Its principle is based upon the properties of logarithms. the value of log* may contain an error of several units of the last place. . it is useless to attempt to obtain more than 4 significant figures for the value of x. as in the first example.

) of trigonometry offers a good field for the training of the students in accuracy and in exactIn particular it may be used to familiarize the ness. (Simon. to the mechanical and electrical engineer. " Not only is it indispensable to the surveyor. In practical utility of the subject is very great. in spite of its practical importance. trigonometry has by far the largest number of genuine and interesting applications.CHAPTER XXI THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY GENERAL REMARKS Peculiarities of the subject. The advantages and disadvantages of the study of trigonometry. may be briefly summarized as follows : Advantages. 1. Trigonometry is so widely used in all exact sciences. aA 353 . ophthalmologist." 2. the methods of numerical calculation. is This applicability not restricted to school work only. that it has been called the backbone of applied mathematics. of all the branches of secondary school mathefact.. it is the best school of preparation for the future analyst. viz. but on account of the flexibility of its forms. to the. is usually neglected. as compared with that of other branches of school mathematics. The study student with a topic which. to the navigator. The matics.

parts of trigonometry which are to practical problems or which lead indirectly applicable 1.354 3. of the calculation of heights and disFrom the second maxim follows that the tances. or which cannot be applied by the second2. and contains that is of interest to young students. of versed sine and coversed sine should never be mentioned. Trigonometry or algebra. TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The much 1. etc. 2. Reduce. and the secant and cosecant should be used only rarely. as far as possible. From the first principle follows the importance of the solution of the right triangle. if unfortunately it were not true that so many American textbooks on advanced mathematics make ex- . disciplinary value of trigonometry Disadvantages. Emphasize all to such applications. The is comparathan tively small. of the solution of the general triangle. all topics which require memorizing. number duced of formulae to be memorized should be rethat large portions of certain to a minimum. subject is comparatively easy. The latter two functions should be omitted entirely. which were mentioned evident that the peculin the preceding paragraph must form the guiding principles for the selection of the subject matter for courses in geometry. and For example. the functions topics should be omitted. ~~ In particular we should : . requires more It is memorizing geometry iarities Courses in trigonometry. ary school student.

. A. to express sec A 2 in terms of cos etc. and the cotangent are studied.THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY tensive use of them.* 355 On the continent of Europe the secant and cosecant are almost entirely excluded from school use. Among other topics that may be greatly reduced cos A. tables hardly ever contain them. explicit No the treatment of angles greater than 90. and cotangent should be studied. find first tan (^+-5). express first cos A 2 in terms of formula relating to secant. and textbooks on advanced mathematics use them only sparSome German writers even condemn the use of ingly. in order to avoid Thus instead a esc c. cosecant. it is only necessary to know that these functions Thus are reciprocals of the other three functions. Also the proofs of trigonometric identities and the * Textbooks often use the secant and cosecant fractions. of writing sin this it A =ffi-^. but not only introduces a function which is also destroys the analogy with plane trig- onometry (sin A =*-J. the cotangent. seems to be absurd to make the student six memorize or more formulae for the reduction of functions greater than 90 to those of angles less than 90. the cosecant. Angles greater than 360 have practically no value to the secondary school student and even those bein is volume tween 1 80 Hence it and 360 are only very rarely applied. to find cot (A +-#). some books state sin c sin A = sin But not found in the tables. If the secant.

If there is more time at the disposal of the teacher than is work. than in proving identities : like sin (x cos + 2y) . of in angles in all quadrants. The method of representing the functions by single . tan ^ TYPICAL PARTS OF TRIGONOMETRY Definitions of the trigonometric functions..e. it refers 2. and hence no functions of the first The harm is done in restricting the opening chapters to acute angles.. and hence this method can hardly be recommended as a starting method. quotients of positive and negative coordinates. : As By As quotients of the sides of a right triangle. means of line values. brings into the subject a number of difficulties which may at first be avoided. to frequently given the openiflg chapters of textbooks. tions are usually defined The func- by one of the following three methods 1. i. it theorem and needed for the more practical phase of the would be better invested in studying Moivre's its connection with the geometric representation of complex numbers. and hence it is coordinates. But. the notion of positive and negative lines. quadrant are by far the most important for the high school student.2 sin (x +y) + sin x = 2 cos (x +y) cos x (x + 2 y) -f- .356 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS is solution of trigonomtric equations frequently carried farther than the values of these subjects justify. on the other hand. The first method is quite general. 3. etc.

the writing and solv- ing of the equation which connects the two given parts and the required part.* It is advisable to take It is. * and let Z C= 90. and as this it method is ex- be best suited for the begfnceedingly simple. is probably the most important chapter in the entire elementary trigonometry. general definitions may be introduced. absurd to subdivide the solution of the right triangle into five cases. the student has applied this knowledge tc After ner. to seems many problems. but the same objection as was made in the first case makes these definitions unfit for a start. 357 to and admirably adapted an ex- amination of the changes of the functions when the angle changes. we in this time a fair would find b in terms of A student who can devote only 8 or if it is nometry may acquire parts of the subject. 10 lessons to the study of trigoknowledge of the most practical largely devoted to the study of the right tri- angle and its applications. which may be considered the backbone of practical trigonometry. up this subject early in the course. of course. Thus. viz. For the solution of the right triangle. .THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY lines is also general. since all cases are solved by the same method.. the definitions of the functions as quotients of the sides of a right triangle are fully sufficient. and a thorough knowledge of the same will enable the student to solve the greater part of all practical problems that occur in secondary school courses. and has acquired a thorough familiarity with these ratios. This Solution of the right triangle. if we employ the usual notation. The practice of studying is two sets of definitions si- multaneously decidedly unpedagogic.

the oblique triangle. distances. and the altithe first right triangle must necessarily contain the side c and one adjacent angle. it follows that BC = ' sin sin (180 . when the use of calculating machines is so general. It should also be applied to the solution of figures. e. if in AB tude or cy Z A. Quite complex figures in may thus be attacked. which can be decomposed into right triangles. the solution of triangles without logarithms is more important than formerly. For instance. Hence drop BEJLAC and solve A ABE. viz.B) .g. and Z B is CD required. oblique triangle ABC. this method should be applied to practical problems. overcome only one difficulty and to avoid the misconception that trigonometric work is absolutely connected with logarithms. After the solution of right triangles is thoroughly mastered. are given. At present. etc. b = c cos A. etc. as the isosceles triangle. .A . cos A=c . the regular polygon. Thus we find BE = c sin A 9 which enables us to solve the adjacent A ECB* Since C= C 180 . A and by writing the equation which connects b% : c* and A. Such triangles should at first be solved without the use of logarithms. as the finding of heights. in order to at a time.(A + B). Z A.. .358 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS r. if we bear mind that in these cases a series of right triangles has to be formed such that the solution of each makes possible the solution of the next.

THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY Finally 359 we can solve A CDB. sin (A -f B) solve by means of right triangles the problem Similarly of finding the height of an object C above two points and /?. A and AB are triangle P The first right must necessarily contain AB and Z. Since ECA are now able to solve AAEC9 and we find AE .B)' Finally &ACD produces (sin A- . and if numerical values are required to substitute numbers in the general answer. AE and ^fCis unneces- Another illustration of the method of solving complex figures by means of a chain of right triangles is the analysis of the addition theorem : sin (x +y) = sin x cos y -f cos x sin jr. Hence draw and find ABsiuB. but calculations. and C lie in a verti- we may CD A cal plane and angles B and distance known.A. . bers at the very beginning The is substitution of num- the writing of 20 4' it 16" is not only awkward. B. in the preceding problem the find- ing of the numerical values of sary. since more complex than the writing of B. if A. B) In problems of the preceding kind it is advisable to determine the final answer at first in algebraic form. AE= =A-B we 9 ACsin (A .B) ~ sin {A . resulting in the required value. frequently involves unnecessary Thus.

/.* * A very short proof of the addition theorem majTbe based upon the fact that the sides of A ABC may be represented in the form BC d sin A. then CD OC the only given line. y. which is draw sin EH CD and JL " find the values the only adjacent angle. drop CE JL OB. represent this quantity by a line. we drop Obviously the required line CD equals CH + EG. OA. represents the In regard to the in angles we must bear mind that we are dealing not with given angles themselves. + = <* sin 4 cos JB sin (A -f 5) - sin A cos B + cos A sin B. but with angles whose functions are given. viz. The right The OC triangle { D G OCE produces the CE= sin/.Z CFB = x. .OFD = 90 xy and pare Chapter XI). we must associate this line with Z FCE. *>. CA = d sin B. and determine the values of OG and "(7. ... In a similar manner the next dia- gram produces sin (A B).e+ we may make OC unknown line. FCE = 90 . To construct a right triangle which contains CE. and OE cos/. which leads to Similarly the line x cos/. Hence. to survey the diagram and determine all angles whose functions are known (comSuch angles are CFB . Hence.TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS To find sin (x+y) we may i. or d sin (A B) -h d cos ^4 sin B. and AB rfsinC = rfsin (A B). OE the required equation. while and draw is CD _L OA. Drawing CD JL AB. first triangle must contain and the only adjacent angle whose functions are known.cos x sin and y CH EH must be associated with Z*". we have = + : AB = BD + DA. we have values Before proceeding. Z. i.

equals I. ail tion of the diagram angle. Express cot all functions in terms of cot and BC = i. required cos A. If in right triangle ABC. obtained relate directly only to angles less than 90.Vm* A= B n\ Make Ex. Given ten A = 2. Here we make BC A and AC - i. Given sec ~. Then AB A. functions can be determined by inspec. but the proper modification of the sign makes the results applicable to Ex. and . # find the other functions of Here AB = m. 2. i. 3. AC = A + I. all quadrants. AB BC = I. Let all 5. 4.THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY While Expressing one function in terms of another. Then AB = Vcota A other functions may be determined by inspection. AC=n. and hence BC . = v/5. and all functions can be read from the Ex. a more practical way is based upon the right triangle. Given given sin A= }. BC . 4. we make the Therefore.3. Hence AC = Vm* and cos m COT A C A. diagram. done by means of the fundamental frequently this is formulae which connect the functions. and AB Obviously AC = \ j' then A /f B Ex. Ex. required all other functions of A. 2. required all other func- tions of A. as illustrated in It is true that the results thus the following examples. Given esc A = m.

hence the given identity is proved. which latter identities are proved by the usual algebraic method.362 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS Methods for proving identities. This is true if + a 2 b _ 2 c b c* a This . Thus identity in the preceding example we would make c = I. 77? c a C -f * . The preceding method may be simplified by making one of the sides of the right triangle equal to unity.. s true cb. but quite easy for the beginner. COS . Which easily reduces to + * = . This method is often lengthy. Then the would mean a i i + a _2 a + a* a I. may be proved by this method. a c . The simplest method for demonstrating trigonometric identities involving only one angle reduces them to identities involving the three of a right triangle. usually that one which occurs frequently in the denominator. as sin 2 etc. ~ c c = 2* . -r4 = tan A. u This is a But the last + a2 + + 2 cb + b* = 2 r 2 = A + 2 true if equation is true. A -f cos 2 A= sm I. sides Thus to prove that I + cos A b sin A we express the functions involved as quotients of lines. All fundamental formulae which connect trigono- metric functions.

. the functions of angles greater than 90 To in express terms of . Functions of angles greater than 90.and 2 we must cot either express csc^r in terms of -. we must Similarly to prove that tan 2 + cot "^ = 2csc. but which requires a little more skill. cosine). all functions have at first to be reduced to functions of one angle. expresses all functions involved in terms of two functions (usually sine does not lead to a demonstration. this method produces sin I A A i . thereby reducing the problem to one of the preceding kind. If this : In the above example..r. x must be expressed in terms of functions of x> substitute 2 sin x cos x for sin2.(i + cos 2 (i i.r.r COS X sin 2 i. functions are expressed in terms of one function.e. but some are functions 3 of . Thus to prove 2 sin x + sin 2 x I 2 sm8. or A y etc. -f cos A_ = A= 2 sin + cos sin A A)* 2 A 9 or or sin 2 A 4. or tan 2 ^ 2 in terms of x. 2 . 4- cos A) 9 sin 2 A -f cos If the functions involved are not all functions of the A same angle A. 2 or 2 A.THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY 363 A method which usually and all leads to much shorter proofs.

r-axis. the cosine. and in quadrant IV. 1 i. . by of the The sign here does not indicate that both signs has to be selected. usually a large ber of formulae are memorized. All other functions are negative. posed to be generated by and that hence OB is the terminal radius. If num- is usually supa counter-clockwise rotation. the sine. : A function of acute angle formed the same function any angle = terminal radius and jr-axis.3 64 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS functions of angles less than 90. the tangent. in quadrant III.. but that either + selection POSITIVE FUNCTIONS of the sign is made according to the annexed diagram. Since the for positive functions of each quad- each rant are reciprocals of each other. and if we we remember that an angle AOB X' - denote XX we may the produced initial radius. it is only necessary to remember positive: in that the following functions are quadrant II. which gives the positive functions quadrant. The or are true. as .* * Even these three parts need not be memorized if the student has a dear conception of the representation of functions by single lines.e. reduce all functions by the following theorem .

g./ /*). tan A = n. Thus let to find tan (2 tan"" 1 . since it may mean m)~ l . (i) (2) then Therefore tan = A. cos"" ! A/3. . advisable to introduce is a symbol for the angle whose function represented. tan"" 1 n* " etc. and that hence the cosine is negative." Thus read sin"1 1 as "the angle whose sine = .THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY 365 Thus to reduce cos 245. the find1 1 ing of the following expressions: sin"" ^. sin (tan"" 1 i).1 1 *The symbol (sin sin~ l* is rather unfortunate. we consider that an angle of 245 lies in quadrant III. Inverse trigonometric functions. is increased by reading them always as angles. Since the acute angle formed by terminal radius and .. e. it is For more complex cases." tan" 1 ^ as "the angle whose tangent = x" of the sim- This will enable the student to solve many pler problems without any special method. = tan 2 A (2 tan" n) 2 tan A tan. the meaning and the use of symbols like sin" 1 m. Inverse trigonometric functions are of comparatively small importance to the The understanding of students of secondary schools.. it follows that cos 245 = cos 65. sec (tan" 1 n\ etc.r-axis is 65.

= 3 Vs then tan ^ = i. 3 (^4 +^ff) in.366 Line (2) is TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS typical for the substitutions that have to us find be made in such examples. Vs and tan" 1 .x 2 .** x^J \ above. simplify one or both members. 2?. 3/ \ sin"" 1 V$ then sin Let - = A.1 -~= 4. y* + y Vi x* simplify sin of 1 (sin"" ^ +sin~^/) as If both members an identity are inverse trigono- . tan A~\ I y hence tan (A+B) = 2* t .tan Vs -^J=tan 3/ tan ^4 -f- tan B tain A tan 2 But since sin A = -~r. A= -. theorem has to be proved. Thus to prove that sin (sin" 1 4.sin"^^ If a . To illustrate examples involving two angles. tan sin"" 1-^- let ( + tan" 1 -).

1 2 + tan' 1 2 4 54 + \4 = TL tan" 1 -?19 take the tangent of both members.+ tair -.THE TEACHING OF TRIGONOMETRY 367 metric functions. the identity is true. 1 19) Both members simplified produce the result \\.1 \ + 4 tair 1 V = tan . take the tangent (or other function) of both members. Thus to prove tan. Hence . or prove that tan tan.

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286. Inventive faculty. 346-348. 324-331. 37-41. 41-43. Graphic methods. Construction of exercises. 25735^ in trigonometry. Angles. 37-41. 44. Algebra. Identities. solid. 346. 198-199. 356. 135. 186. Disciplinary value. 288-301. 307. Certainty of mathematics. common. 75. 30-36. 180. 156. 115. 188. Dogmatic method. Inefficiency of teaching. theorems. Exercise. 169. Addition. 261265. 85. law of. Inductive method. 127. Constructions. 24. 143147. 51. Converses. 85. 30-36. Complex numbers. Continuity. constructive. 98^112. Inverse functions. graph of. 272. Drawing exercises. 266-268. 20. original. 254-256. Checks.section paper. 362. Circumference. 132. in algebra. 265. 50. 506$* Functions. 3. Cross. 266. Interest. 7. 105. Differentia. 314-324. 93. Extemporizing problems. 344. 26. Colors. 269. 67. 209. Aims of mathematical teaching. 20. Circle. 146. 152. 180-187. 202. 324-331. 332-343Heuristic method. algebraic. principle of. Isosceles triangle. Analysis. rules for. 208. 288-352. 88-278. 67.INDEX Accuracy.54-355- Independent parts. 369 . Impossible constructions. 104. Deductive method. 80-ga. Drawings. ux. simple. Empirical doctrine. 15-19. introductory. 82. i&~ag. 228-244. 10. 52. 156. law of no. Directed lines. 217-256. Euclid's postulate. geometric. Courses of study. Constructible angles. 138. no. 227. 153. 56. Imaginary numbers. 275. Irrational numbers. 103. 66-87. Angle. 1 Foundations of mathematics. 39. use of. sequence. 324. 77-80. 211. Graphs. Computations. denial of. Equations. 101. 312. 214. 59-62. Discipline. Attacking problems. Formulae. 306. Curriculum. 70. 27. 114. Genus. 51. 334. 365. 140. Analytic method. 338. Concentration. use of. 207. Definitions. Factoring. Drawing. 265. I73-I79. 115. 104. Axioms. Corollaries. Hypothetical constructions. Hypothesis. 326. Equivalent equations. Error. Exception. 143. Fundamental laws. division of. Geometry. Examinations. 355.

I angles. 19. Polygons. of curves. Vertical angles. of converses. and rotation. 213. 330. Principle. 352- Negative numbers. 241. 344. 304. 270. 209. Trigonometry. Redundancy. Similarity. 71. Multiplication. 18. Trimetric paper. 349-352. 274. 217-256. 272. of. 295. Metageometry. 43. 165. Preliminary proposition. 247. 308. 76. Problems. Unequal lines. 197. 212. 217-225. right. Rational doctrine. Methods of teaching. Ratio. 10. Plane. 76.370 Laboratory method. Solid geometry. Parallel lines. attacking. Printed in the United States of America. equality of. Limits. Translation. 226. fundamental. 261-265. 197. 245. Slide rule. Proportion. Originality. 10. Short cuts. Sources of applied problems. Simplicity of mathematics. Theory. 247. 30-49. 284-287 Subtraction. 296. method of. Euclid's. 71. 206. INDEX Psychological method. Symbols. Numerical substitution. 243. 86. 89. 159-166. 309. of no exception. 129. Memorizing. 164. 54. 67. reduction Photos. 266-278. Superposition. 45. 41-43. 188-196. 29. Similitude. Perspective. 302. 206-214. 353-367. Numbers. 51. 156-166. 146. 52-59. 29. Riemann. Models. 130. Line. 69. Non-Euclidean geometry. 52. 19. 21. 3x2. Lecture method. 57. line. Loci. 43. 88-97. regular. 105. Signs of aggregation. 226. Rotation about point. 113-139. Logarithm. 140-151. 164. Projection. 251. Pythagorean theorem. construction of. 167. 239. 47-49. Metrical relations. 113. 44. 309. Socratic method. Reasoning. Triangles. Postulate. 268. 273. 269. Surface. Law. . Rigor. 97.

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