CHAPTER 5 New Trends in Earthquake Engineering.

Passive and Active Control

Structural control for civil engineering appeared as a necessity imposed by special, longer, or taller constructions spread allover the world. The passive approach was adopted already in many cases. For active control there are experiments showing good results. Hybrid solutions are under investigations by many researchers. However, the field is very large and civil engineer designers do not have a clear image of this scope. This chapter is showing the aim of structural control. It follows a short image of passive control and it is then stressing on active control. Theoretical aspects, devices used, and practical applications of active control are presented. A critical comparison between the two types of structural control is intended to introduce the reader into the complexity of the problems involved by the control implementations. Computational means helping the study of the field are also reviewed.

1 INTRODUCTION The Civil Engineering field is now undergoing important changes in philosophy and practice due to dramatic evolution recorded in other branches of human activity like: electronics. it should be mentioned major differences between Civil Engineering and other engineering fields.2 SEISMIC RESPONSE CONTROL In order to determine the ways to control the structures acted by seismic forces. structural control. robotics. It is using specific means and procedures that lead to reduction in intensities for actions and change the way they act on civil engineering structures. NATURAL ACTIONS Typhoons PROTECTION Passive Control Active Control Tall Buildings STRUCTURES 600 400 KOBE NS 1995 acceleration (gal) 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 0 10 20 818 gal 30 40 50 60 time (s) Earthquakes Long Span Bridges Figure 5.1 Relation between actions. It changes also the structural response to the actions and lowers the induced energy. Life of many people and vital social activities depend on the well functioning of civil structures during and after important earth shakings. Ed is the energy dissipated by supplemental damping devices. This figure highlights the reduction in the input due to control means. structures. Es is the elastic strain energy. new materials and technologies. the existing relation between natural actions.5. A solution for avoiding the harming effects of strong earthquakes or strong winds is the structural control. At the same time. and built constructions is shown. computer science. as historical buildings. Ek is the kinetic energy. It is specific for constructions to use materials with high costs.1. etc. In Figure 5. 5. and control Protection of some structures as those reminded above is a very important problem for human communities. automatics. There are also civil engineering structures with inestimable material and spiritual values. . on large surfaces and volumes. the equation of energy balance may be written E Ek Es Eh Ed (5.1) where: E is the energy induced by seismic shaking. especially in the case of long span bridges and very tall buildings. and to need huge energy during construction. Eh is the energy dissipated by the structural system due to inelastic behavior or other causes.

which are actually modifying the structural characteristics. 3. steel. 5.1 Classification of structural protective systems Seismic Isolation Elastomeric bearings Lead rubber bearings Elastomeric bearings with energy dissipating devices Sliding friction pendulum Flat sliding bearings with restoring force devices Lubricated sliding bearings with energy dissipating devices Passive Energy Dissipation Metallic dampers Friction dampers Viscoelastic dampers Viscous dampers Tuned mass dampers Tuned liquid dampers Active Control Active bracing systems Active mass dampers Active variable stiffness or damping systems Pulse systems Electro-rheological active dampers Aerodynamic appendages Table 5. therefore it is recommended that at least two of the above methods to be combined. then the second and the fifth method are not needed. Apply control force such as mass damper/driver or tendon.From Equation (5. the natural period of vibration. and the amount of induced seismic energy. The passive control is based on the nature of the materials they include (rubber.1 shows a classification of protective systems. Some of passive devices rely on the use of friction forces. Each of the above can be either passive or active. Isolate the natural period of the structure from the predominant frequency domain of the ground motion. Table 5. even minimizing the seismic response. viscous materials) and especially on supplementary adding in damping and ductility. However. Depending on the location of the control devices other classification can be stated: a) protective devices located into the structure b) protective devices located at the base of the structure c) combination of a) and b).1) it can be deduced that the control means play the role of taking a part of the energy induced into the structure. According to Professor Kobori. Cut off the energy transmission of the earthquake ground motion to a structure. it should be observed that there is a dependency between the structural characteristics. However. Therefore. The controlled structure becomes active. It provides a part of the many control devices existing now. If the first method is achievable. 4. even in case of strong actions. the seismic behavior of civil engineering structures is very complex in its nature and its complexity is amplified through the presence of control means. these ways are: 1. . lead.g. the first method is difficult to achieve. e. The active control is using external energy for reducing. 2. There are many ways to accomplish a seismic response control. Achieve the non-stationary and non-resonant state by providing nonlinear characteristics. with different characteristics and different behavior compared to the initial non-controlled one. Utilize the energy absorption mechanism.

2 Elastomeric bearing A rubber bearing with top and bottom steel plates is presented in Figure 5. Dowel holes Lead plug Rubber Steel plates End steel plates Figure 5. These plates have the role to limit lateral displacements. but it can determine permanent displacements after strong earthquakes.2. One important type. Also at the end of the chapter there is the Table 4. Other type is that from Figure 5. Figure 5. named Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is based on moving masses. If the active part (the actuator which generates the force ua) is removed. at the end of this chapter presents a list of isolated structures and isolation devices used in different countries. Holes for bolts Top steel plate Rubber Steel plates Bottom steel plate Figure 5.3.5. The system includes a lead kernel. These devices are the objects of specifications in a design guide named “Menshin”. Such systems determine changes in structural dynamic characteristics. .8 shows an Active Mass Damper.3. Other developed countries try to setup similar specifications. which can assure an increased ductility.3 Lead-rubber bearing The passive means devices range is considerable large. DEVICES AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Passive controlled structures are widely spread all over the world. a TMD is obtained. However.4 showing some passive devices used in Japan for seismic isolation of bridges. Table 4. Especially the frequency response function is lowered if the dynamic properties of the TMD are close to that of the main structure and if the mass of the TMD is enough large (between 1% to 4% from the mass of the main system). It contains steel plates integrated in rubber. the lead core can be replaced when needed.3 PASSIVE CONTROL.

. The author describes a structural controlled structure as an error-activated structural system the behavior which varies automatically in accordance with unpredictable variations in the loading as well as environmental conditions and thereby produces desirable responses under all possible loading conditions. and the liquid viscosity are the main elements that make the system to be efficient. From the point of view of theoretical studies and application methodologies. Meanwhile. Prof. James T. the natural period of vibration. LQG (Linear Quadratic Gain) control. Tuned Liquid Damper. The mass value.4 Friction Pendulum System Bearing Figure 5. Yao.P.4 presents other passive control system based on a sliding bearing moving on a spherical surface. additional tools are added to the main methods: fuzzy sets analysis and neuronal networks. the most common way a civil engineering structure overcomes external loads is to resist to them. The living beings not only resist but also adapt to the environmental aggressiveness. there are two main approaches in structural control: i. One TLD is shown at the fourth level of the structure from Figure 5. Therefore one could compare existing constructions to living beings.4 ACTIVE CONTROL.P. These two ways are very developed in many sub-methods and versions. based on time domain ii. is defining the start for this new branch in structural synthesis. based on frequency domain. too. THEORETICAL ASPECTS Every construction suffers changes during its life. Adapting to external loads and to structural changes is a basic idea in active structural control. responding in a different manner to different actions or intensities.Yao viewed it. However. An important advantage of this device type is that it can assure a return to the initial position under the structure’s weight.5 shows a feedback system as J.9. At the same time. In 1972.In a similar manner is acting a TLD. Figure 5. 5. through his paper “Concept of Structural Control”. Bearing material Articulated slider Seal Cylinder Supporting column Spherical surface Figure 5. H and -Synthesis control. the environment where the structure is placed is changing.

5 Closed-Loop Control System From the first category of control.3) is described by Figure 5.2) in the form of state equation  x = Ax + Bf y = Cx + Df (5. and the control problem is reduced to finding a gain matrix.4) . and f is the vector of the external forces. a state feedback. very popular are: pole assignment. modal control.3) In the Equation (5. r + - Error or Actuating signal. f B + +  x x C A + + y D Figure 5. u.2).6. Majority of these methods is based on rewriting the structural dynamics classical and familiar system of equations  M s  + C s z + K s z = f z (5. and stiffness matrices of the structure.4) is given by Figure 5. If all the states. z is the vector of the generalized displacement vector. can be introduced.compensating network . critical modal control. are known (measured). LQG.6 System described by Equation (5.3) In the Equation (5.u) u = Kx and a graphical representation of the Equation (5. c Feedback Path Elements Figure 5.amplifier . and D is a matrix showing the influence of the input.7. Cs. e Forward Path Elements . C is the measurement matrix. damping.Command or Reference Input. instantaneous optimal control. so that:  x = Ax + B(f .error sensing device . x. f. and sliding modes control method. (5.servo-motor Control variable. Equation (5. A is the system matrix. Ms. optimal control. K. B is the load location matrix. y. to the output. and Ks are the mass.3).

J tf 0 x Qx u Ru dt (5. For this case.4) one could observe that the feedback system is transforming the original uncontrolled system by changing the system matrix A. Between them.f + u - B + +  x x A K Figure 5. Q and R are weighting matrices representing the importance given to reducing the structural response and the importance given to use less external energy for obtaining the control. into Equation (5. u.6) with the matrix P being unknown. Active Tuned Mass Dampers (ATMDs) are widely used and studied. This method leads to a Riccati matrical equation PA 1 PBR 1B P A P 2Q 2 0 (5. After solving. ua c2 k2 c1 k1 m2  x x 2 x 2  2 m1  x x1 x1 1  g x Figure 5. under the condition that a quadratic index.5).5) should be minimized. such that it will respond to the requirements of Equation (5. It can be seen from this figure that an ATMD is formed from an additional mobile mass attached to the system . defined by Equation (5.7) Replacing the control force vector. K.8.5).5) In the Equation (5.4) As an example of control method. the objective is to determine the gain matrix. DEVICES In structural active control various devices are used.7 System described by Equation (5. respectively.8 Active Tuned Mass Damper 5. A system with one degree of freedom equipped with an ATMD is shown in Figure 5.5 ACTIVE CONTROL. J. the optimal control method is presented next. the gain matrix is obtained from the next equation: K 1 1 R BP 2 (5.

9 is named Active Variable Stiffness (AVS) and was introduced by Professor Takuji Kobori and . TLD Active Braces System.9 one can observe an ATMD device and one floor lower. AVS Active Tendon System. link the main system and the secondary one. real applications involve only one type of control system. for hybrid applications. because employing many device types in the same building is not common.9 shows some of them located on a building. The active forces values are generated from the on-line measurements and employing control algorithms. generating the force ua. not a true solution. At the third floor. The figure is only a representation. and the elements of a passive Tuned Mass Damper (TMD). ATS Active/passive base isolation systems Figure 5.8 additional springs and dampers. The system from the second floor of the building from Figure 5.9 Use of some structural control systems In order to have a better look about passive and active control systems. Usually. tuned to dynamic characteristics of the structure.through an actuator. ABS Active Variable Stiffness. m Active Tuned Mass Damper. the base isolation is utilized together with some active devices. This control system is also called Hybrid Mass Damper (HMD) because it can be seen as a combination from a pure active system Active Mass Damper (AMD). At the top of the building from Figure 5. In Figure 5. Figure 5. ATMD Tuned Liquid Damper. a Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD). However. there is an Active Brace System (ABS) which is principally made from a piston and a servovalve acting on the diagonal of that floor.

Table 5. at floor 70.90 4. Year 1989 1990 1992 1992 1992 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 5. a spring and a damper are employed. Prof. . the Japanese buildings equipped with active devices. the problem of generating huge forces could be prohibitive. For the base actuators. Nihon Sekkei Obayashi MHI. Maximum displacement of the mass is of 1. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Most of the practical active control implementations exist in Japan. Two identical devices with that from Figure 5. KaTRI No. in Figure 5. Table 5. can be seen. Prof. an actuator and.6 ACTIVE CONTROL. As a practical example. IHI MHI.2 shows.2 Buildings with structural active control in Japan Active Control System's Name AMD (Active Mass Driver) AVS (Active Variable System) AMD AMD HMD (Tuned Active Damper) HMD (Hybrid Mass Damper) HMD (DUOX) HMD HMD HMD HMD (TRIGON) HMD AMD (AVICS-1) HMD HMD HMD (DUOX) HMD HMD Developer Kajima Kajima Takenaka Takenaka MHI. The device has the in-plane dimensions 4. At the base of the building from Figure 5. Fujita Building's Name Kyobashi Seiwa Bldg. Nikken Sekkei Shimizu Kajima.21 BLDG Sendagaya INTS Hankyu Chayamachi Bldg.9 is equipped with an Active Tendon System (ATS). KS Project Shinjuku Park Tower ACT Tower Riverside Sumida Osaka WTC Bldg.90 m and a height of 9 m. The first floor from the building in Figure 5. Hotel Ocean 45 Dowa Kasai Phoenix Tower Rinku Gate Tower Hirobe Miyake Bldg.000 tones). Kansai Airport Control Tower ORC200 Symbol Tower Ando Nishikicho Bldg Landmark Tower Long Term Credit Bank Bldg. the tallest Japanese building (296 m). in chronological order.9 passive isolators are installed. The moving mass of such device is 170 tones out from 250 tones of the ensemble (it should be noted that the whole building mass is evaluated at 223. It is expected an efficiency of 60-70% in acceleration’s decrease during strong typhoons. It is made from two very stiff inclined beams moved to the left or to the right by the upper active piston and therefore minimizing the relative floor displacement and changing the floor stiffness. eventually. Nikken Sekkei Fujita. KRC MHI. This system is based on active diagonals consisting in tendons having the role to provide the limitation of relative floor displacements.Kajima Corporation of Japan. In order to prevent too long displacements of the building’s base.70 m. the name of the company that developed them and the devices’ types. Fujita Takenaka Kajima.10 the ATMD used in Landmark Tower Yokohama. Yasui A&E Shimizu Kajima MHI Nikken.10 are installed on top of the building.

with 1990 m central span) and Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge (the longest world’s one plane cable stayed bridge. Japan.12. Following a step by step analysis. . This device. A comparison in frequency domain for acceleration for the same two cases may be seen in Figure 5.10 Hybrid Mass Damper For protection against winds of the towers during construction some Japanese bridges had been equipped with active/passive systems: Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge (the longest world’s suspension bridge. shown in Figure 5.Figure 5. the displacements at the top of a structure equipped with a TMD compared to them for the case of an ATMD are plotted in Figure 5. Figure 5. with 510 m central span).13. 5.11 is to be placed between the infrastructure and the superstructure of highway bridges for limiting the displacements that could harm the functionality of those bridges during strong earthquakes.11 Active Variable Damper An active system for bridges is under intensive studies at the Public Work Research Institute Tsukuba.7 COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE TWO CONTROL CATEGORIES There is no doubt that the active control systems can provide better results when compared to the passive control.

10. response time lag leads to difficulties in strategy control analysis. etc. If the isolators are too soft they might lead to very large displacements. malfunctions in equipment. on the other hand. as is the case with active devices. makes their maintenance extremely expensive.0. For example. in order to perform an efficient active control.15 -0.05 -0. they will have reduced effects and will transmit more energy.). is to be applied.15 0. An example is the stiffness to be chosen for the case of isolators used as passive devices.2 0 5 10 15 Time (s) Passive Control Active Control 20 25 30 Figure 5. or due to extremely high external actions. active means have poor reliability: they still present malfunctions and.000 viscoelastic dampers had been installed. monitoring of the structural response might lead to highly costing equipment (sensors. However in some cases the number of needed devices can become extremely high. when structural control.1 Top Displacement.1 -0. active control systems. USA. it is hard to obtain for them high power supply capable to properly work during strong earthquakes. If they are too stiff. even in stand-by state.12 Time-history displacement response Next follows the main reasons for and against choosing passive or active control for civil engineering structures: passive control means are cheaper and easier to maintain. . in each building of The World Trade Center in New York. passive devices’ condition is or might be damaged by time. a very precise knowledge of the structure is needed. computers. Therefore intensive and expensive studies have to be done to identify it. passive devices’ characteristics cannot be easily adjusted.2 0. either passive or active.05 0 -0. To the above aspects it should be added another one: the effectiveness of passive control is still difficult to prove. especially. environment and load intensity. there is a danger of spillover phenomena (amplification of the response) in structural active control as a result of poor structural identification. long time lag. El-Centro NS Displacement (m) 0. energy consumption for active systems. for the time being. for both passive and.

The non-stationary characteristics of the earthquakes make.8 SPECIFIC COMPUTER PROGRAMS Structural computational and seismic analysis methods for structures employing control means cannot be the same as for common civil engineering constructions. Also it provides a push-over analysis. large displacements. Including . If some deformations are permanent. They just reveal different aspects of the control system and complete the image of the structural response. Therefore. controlled structures must be analyzed using other approaches as linear or non-linear stochastic analysis. as is specified by majority of Earthquake Engineering national codes. However. ALGOR. and also for many active controlled structures. showing the mechanisms that affects the structural behavior. is that if the passive devices can come back to the initial position. ADINA. offers a step-by-step analysis that manipulates the degrading of structural elements. linked with the first one. or frequency domain analysis.13 Acceleration frequency response Other problem. It is not possible to state that an analysis method is superior to other analysis method. 5. the most worrying aspect is that of the contradictory responses shown by isolators and passive controlled structures: to some earthquakes they perform very well but in some other cases their effects are null or even amplifications of the responses might occur. Even if the step-by-step analysis remains a main analysis procedure. the isolators behavior to be unexpected. then the system could become unmanageable. and asynchronous excitations at construction base.10 8 Response (m/s2) FRF of acceleration Passive Control Active Control 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 Frequency (Hz) 8 10 Figure 5. For passive controlled structures especially. majority of finite element computer programs (ANSYS. This can be explained by the narrow frequency limits of the effectiveness for the passive control. only the frequency response of the isolators is shown to be very good. In order to perform analysis for passive controlled structures. different foundation condition. Other category of programs is specialized in dealing with non-linearities for civil engineering structures. P. etc. it is necessary to adopt models that accept non-linearities for materials and structures.) can be used. IDARC2D. is not satisfactory. I-DEAS. in many cases. ABAQUS. It is almost obvious that a simple spectral analysis. after an earthquake. NASTRAN. soil-structure interaction. For example.effect.

hysteretic damping devices. a computer performing similar tasks that are performed today by a workstation was maybe thousands times more expensive. one could remember what was happening only 30 years ago compared with nowadays. Improvement of the structural response is observed in all analysis types: time domain. one can see that there is an obvious superiority of the active control compared to passive control. commercial software is not yet available. SAP2000. It is somehow obvious that automatic systems for other fields of activity. ETABS. The need of longer/taller and safer bridges/buildings will surely accelerate the theoretical and practical works of structural active control. In this case there are unsolved aspects linked to time delays and instability due to control devices. and friction devices is possible. viscoelastic elements. based on it. matrix computation. signal processing. Contribution from nonstructural elements can be taken into consideration. Though large construction companies surely possess such kind of computer programs. will become more and more reliable at higher performance/cost ratio. 5.g. frequency domain. . This does not mean that the future will reject this idea. At that time.9 CONCLUSIONS Studying the structural active/passive control responses of civil engineering structures. stochastic or spectral. very expensive and unreliable. control systems. One of them. It is especially a technological matter that slows the advances in this field. For the moment. e. etc. structural active control. to obtain very efficient computation for active structural control. ANSR. is negatively influenced. graphical simulations. neuronal network. Structural system identification is still a complicated task and therefore the structural control. Their maintenance cost is almost zero and their reliability is outstanding. nonlinear programming. Today’s workstations have prices close to the first personal computers and sooner will be affordable even for home use. However. Commercial programs are available for solving active control problems. However. MATLAB needs a relatively hard training to be learned and it is limited to small structural control applications. Similar capabilities are offered by other available computer programs: DRAIN. is built around a kernel that offers an integrated environment for various applications in mathematics. As a small example. practical application of active control looks more likely to generate more problems than the problems it solves. MATLAB. SARCF. active control is. one should think to use specialized computer programs that would intensively employ all computer resources and to adapt to civil engineering problems. The cost for maintenance (mainly because of the need for special rooms highly conditioned and because of their poor reliability) was huge. statistics. for the time being.

67 Rubber Bearings & Energy Dissipaters Lead-rubber Bearings High Damping Rubber Bearings Sliding Bearings over 100 partially Sliding Bearings isolated Lead-rubber Bearings High Damping Rubber Bearings Radar Tower Sliding Bearings 6 Lead-rubber Bearings Pile-in-sleeve systems Lead-rubber & Sliding Bearings 37 Lead-rubber Bearings Various Energy Dissipating Devices Industrial Chimney Rocking Foundation 24 Lead-rubber Bearings High Damping Rubber Bearings Friction Pendulum System Springs & Viscodampers 54 (total length = 11 Lead-rubber Bearings km) Sliding Bearings 2 Tanks Friction Pendulum System Heavy Equipment Lead-rubber Bearings High Damping Bearings Low Damping Bearings Former Soviet Union France Bridges Other structures Buildings Bridges Other structures Buildings Bridges Italy Other structures Buildings Japan Bridges Other structures Buildings New Zealand Bridges Other structures Buildings United States Bridges Other structures Table 5.Table 5. n.a.. n. n.a. 2 Nuclear Power Neoprene Bearings Plants 9 + several apartment High Damping Rubber houses of the Italian Bearings Navy Neoprene Bearings 156 (total length = Sliding Bearings 150 km) Rubber Bearings Lead-rubber Bearings Various Hysteretic Damping Devices . n. ....a.a. 6 Rubber Bearings n.3 Base isolated structures allover the world Country Type of Structure Buildings Number of Structures Type of Isolation Systems over 200 Sliding Bearings Rocking Columns Pile-in-sleeve systems n.a.a.4 "Menshin" passive control devices .

Type Menshin Device High Damping Rubber Bearing Slide Friction Rubber Bearing Steel Damper Roller Menshin Bearing Viscous .

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