Design and Development of Control Algorithm of a Prototype Fire-Fighting Robot to Extinguish a Candle Flame Final Year Project

Progress Report
Teoh Chieh Loon (081061128)
Mechatronic Programme School of Mechatronic Engineering Universiti Malaysia Perlis, E-mail:

Fire can be useful in human daily life but it can cause disaster when it became big fire. Fire fighter has been dangerous job as them have to put risk of their life to save other. So this come the role of the fire fighting robot to put out fire and reduce the risk of any human life lost including fire fighter. A candle used to replace the role of fire. When fire fighting robot detects the flame of candle in a mock house, it can navigate through a mock house and avoid any obstacle before it reach near the fire. By using the ultrasonic, sharp analogue distance and flame sensor which interface with a suitable control algorithm, it will use the programmed locomotion to navigate the obstacle and wall. Program code to control the fire fighting robot is written in PIC18F4580 C language. When the flame of candle appeared in the sensing range of the fire fighting robot, then it will put out the flame of candle as it supposed to do. Based on the experiment conducted, the autonomous navigation showed satisfactory result. The developed firefighting robot will provide a test bed for advanced path planning and navigation projects in the future.

research limited Firemote, DOK-ING JELKA firefighting robots. 1.3. Research Objectives The objective of this project is to design a fire fighting robot to extinguish a candle flame which is a located in a mock house 1.4. Scope of Research 1. An efficient method to ensure robot to approach and extinguish the candle flame. 2. A well-developed algorithm for the robot navigation, distance control and flame blow off control. 3. A robot which can navigate around the field of operation (mock house).

2. Literature review
2.1 Control Algorithm for Robot Path Algorithm is playing an important role in determine best way to make the fire fighting robot to be more efficient to navigate through the mock house. Then, it searches for the fire source. If it detect fire source from candle, it will use suited algorithm to find the candle position and move until right in front of the candle. 2.1.1 Obstacle-Avoidance Behaviour Algorithm The first implementation of the obstacle-avoidance behaviour was long and complex and consisted of both proportional and integral control. Each time the behaviour is called, it checks the front hemisphere of sonar sensors (labelled 0-8 in figure 2.1) to see if any of their ranges are less than the minimum tolerated sonar distance. If none of these ranges are less than the minimum, the behaviour returns the commands “full speed ahead” so the robot will continue to move. Otherwise, it checks to see which of the sum of left-front ranges (sensors 0-3) or right-front ranges (sensors 5-8) is smaller, and sends commands to turn the robot in the opposite direction. This is illustrated in Figure 2.1. Currently, the obstacleavoidance behaviour is keeping the robot traveling from right to left in the centre of the hallway or at least on a sinusoidal path down the centre of the hallway if it is wide. As the robot approaches the corner, the sonar ranges will

Locomotion, control algorithm, fire fighting robot, obstacle,

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of Research Fire is an unwanted element which often causes loss of properties or life. Fire fighting is a dangerous core even for the experienced fire fighters. Therefore, a fire fighting robot will serve as a substitution to help extinguishing big fires which are dangerous to human beings. Instead of taking the great leap to develop a real fire fighting robot, the proper step is to gather more knowledge and experiences from designing a smaller scale fire fighting robot. 1.2. Motivation of Research Robots assisting fire-fighters are not an often seen sight. However, there are robotic devices that can already be used for such purposes. These include bots that can be thrown into the fire site to inspect the situation, as well as large remote controlled fire extinguishers such as Anna Konnda, Hoya Firefighters' Assistance Robot, DRB Fatec ArchiBots, IZ HOLDING Firo-Series firefighting robots, Ryland

noncontact active sensor (such as infrared). For soft contact method. In the case of Hall Effect switches.1.1 show how the sonar sensor direction and how the behaviour will works. two sensors are used to judge when the robot is parallel to the wall. This because the simple ultrasonic wall follower can use single headed transmitter and receiver or two ultrasonic transmitter. such as linear Hall Effect switches. When robot move. Some of the sonar ranges on the right-front side of robot (sensors 5-8) will grow smaller as well. noncontact sensor (e. the wagon will smoothly converge . (See figure 2.4. and the sum of the left sonar ranges matched the sum of the right sonar ranges.grow smaller on the robot’s left-front side (sensors 0-3). If there was no doorway.3 Convergence behaviours path In the path planning algorithm.. the baseboard or wall can be outfitted with an electrical wire through which a low-voltage3 alternating current is fed.g. it realized that its position was actually some distance from where it should have been at Node A. but the code compares the sums of these two sets of sensors.3 Wall Following Algorithm Wall following can be accomplish by using four method which have be contact method. The first possible strategy is to ignore the path and move straight for the destination Node B. 2. Contact switch. the obvious problem with the strategy. b) A robot`s position estimate is never exactly where it wants to be. the ends of path segments as nodes. the robot uses the mechanical means to detect with the wall. When any sonar range is less than the minimum tolerated sonar distance. to judge distance from a specially prepared wall by referring to figure 2. this will create a deadlock situation in which the robot gets stuck in a corner turning back and forth. is that the robot will run into an obstacle that maybe stop it from moving to the Node A. 2. such as infrared or ultrasonic. The third strategy is called by “wagon tongue” method. [2] Figure 2. so the suitable method is the noncontact. the robot would turn left by default. Hall Effect sensor and magnetic. “soft contact” using pliable material such as foam rollers. Contact method is where the robot uses a mechanical switch. to sense contact with the wall. as it works like a child pulling a wagon by its tongue.1. the robot will turn right and proceed through the doorway. soft contact method. c. In a straight path to a destination. but the contact is softened by using pliable material.2 show four method of wall following algorithm: a. active sensor method. receiver pair. the robot supposed to be at Node A. the lightweight foam wheel is used as wall roller as shown in figure 2. noncontact with passive sensor method. So. No physical contact with the wall is needed for the uses of this method. but still it cause time consuming for taking this strategy. b. For the uses of fire fighting robot which faces the maze of the mock house.2. and was to travel to Node B. or ferrous metal wall/baseboard). there are two immutable laws that must accept: a) A robot is never exactly where its position estimate says it is. and d. electromagnetic. Open doorways that lead into other rooms or space can be sensed using a longer-range ultrasonic transducer. For example. passive sensor method is the robot uses passive sensors. [3] Figure 2. This is the simplest method. or a stiff wire connected to a switch. to determine its distance from the wall. When the robot is in the proximity of the switched the sensors will pick up the induced magnetic field provided by the alternating current.2 robot D. active sensor method is the robot uses active proximity sensors. This strategy may be safer. but the switch prone to mechanical damage over time. There a problem occurs when the robot reach Node A. In figure 2. noncontact with active sensor method.2 robot C. it had to execute the 90degree turn to the turn which facing Node B. Noncontact. In a typical noncontact system.1. the benefit of soft contact is replace the failure of the mechanical which may be reduced or eliminated because the contact with the wall is made through an elastic or pliable medium. The second strategy is to play it safe and first move straight to the correct starting position (node A) before heading for Node B. If the child stays on the path.2 robot B) Noncontact.

5. In this process. the vector distance is still positive. it can revert to convergence behaviours and the speed in the turn must be slower as the radius is made smaller. and the space shuttle lifts off to earth orbit. In software. it show the input or stimulus which is desired response will control Figure 2.4 Closing behaviours path There are two methods of deciding how much further to drive. The subtopics for this chapter include control algorithm of sensors. similar to the wagon tongue method. the robots should know ahead of time that it is not actually running to the node B but is actually arcing past Node B to get to Node C. Methodology 3. Figure 2. One solution is to limit the angle between the robot and the path ever more tightly as it approaches the end. If the robot expected to run on from one node to the next node without stopping. servo motor and conclusions.[5] Explanation of the how does the control system works can be more understand through the figure it is more important that the robot end the path at the correct heading than at the perfectly correct place. The first method is to continually recalculate the distance as the robot drive. called the flame sensor detect the appearance of the flame at the candle. The problem with this approach is that we may end up weaving about for any number of reasons. and the destination is to the side or rear. Finally. In this case. a microcontroller-controlled fire fighting robot can be useful to blow off fire which in dangerous and hot condition. the lead distance closer to the goal than the robot. But the figure 2. it steers at a constant rate until the heading is that of the B-C.5 shows running on past a node. When the heading matches. The robot should plans to radius the turn and this is the distance away from node B that it must begin to turn in this case. Numerous applications are all around us: the rocket fire.4 shows calculating the distance remaining 2.5 Running on path . the rabbit continues to stay the same distance ahead. the robot is given a rabbit to chase that is on the path.4 show that an extreme case of the second law which robot do not get to the stop at desired point because it maybe had some bad navigation data and forced to circumnavigate an obstacle before reaching Node B. Control systems are an integral part of modern society. as showed figure 2. requiring a long drive distance than calculated. For example. One answer is to use the parallel distance to the node to plan the stop. [4] Figure 2. A control system consists of subsystem and process (or plants) assembled for the purpose of controlling the output of the processes. Once into the turn. For example. These are just a few examples of the automatically controlled systems that we can create.1. it must switch out of the wagon tongue behaviour and attempt to close on the end point. the output from the three types of sensors are analysed and defined for the development of the programming codes so that the robot can make decisions based on the output from sensor. a self-guided vehicle delivering material to workstation in an aerospace assembly plant glided along he floor seeking its destination. not the vector distance. The problem with this comes with the fact that as robot approaches the end.1 below.3 show three strategies for getting to destination 2. at the end of the path the robot will be consistently oriented parallel to the path. it will be more complex. Thus. Control systems are useful in remote or dangerous location. The second method involves calculating the distance at beginning of the run. Robot designed by control system principles can compensate for human disabilities.onto the path as well. a fire fighting robot produces wind to blow off candle as a result of appearance of the flame at the candle. As robot chases the rabbit. subsystems. As the robot approaches the end of the path.1 Basic Principle for Control System This chapter explain the control algorithm that applied in the fire fighting robot design and navigation process. 3.1. and simply counting down the distance remaining as a parallel process in the odometry.

left or right side. 2. b) closed loop system [5] 3.3 A map of the fire fighting robot routes 3. disturbance 1. input transducer.2 show a) open loop system.3 Figure 3. 6.1 of sample control system block diagram There are two type of control system which are open loop system and closed loop system. 3. 3. it will continue repeat the step 2 and move to the candle direction. plant disturbance 2 and output. If there is no flame signal. the task can be completed. The certain steps that the program must take before it can complete it's task which is to put out a candle flame can understand by seeing flow chart below. disturbance 1. Figure 3. robot will be place at the starting point. 5. But when it detect the flame is near and the candle in front of the robot. If the flame not blown off. 7. By using sensors use by the robot. plant and output. The fire fighting robot have to going the map which will represent the mock house according to figure 3. the fire fighting robot will trigger on the fan to blow off the flame. controller. 4. If the flame is near but there is not candle in front of the robot. robot will turn to avoid the obstacles and repeat back to step 2. it will decide to adjust the direction and repeat step 2 to approach until in front of the candle. If the flame not near but the robot detects obstacles at front. Figure 3. At first.3.4 show how the flow charts of fire fighting robot work toward its objective. controller. If the flame is not near and no obstacles detected.1 Process flow chart how the fire fighting robot works 1. 3. The open loop system has only control system and give the output response which is actual response.3 Process Flow Chart Figure 3. disturbance 2 and output transducer which give feedback to the system. But the closed loop system have the input. input transducer. the robot will continue blow off the candle. plant. it will monitoring and stay at initial position. it will continue monitor for any flame signal If flame detected. the robot will move and approaching the direction of the candle.2 Control Algorithm The main control for this fire fighting robot is to control its navigating system and fire detection.3 Control System with Servo motor .

3 Side view of fire fighting robot . the project are well manage to carry out all the progress within the desired date and time. But starting with the project proposal preparation and submission. As for now. analogue distance sensor and flame sensor to servo motor control system. Testing and analysis of the fire fighting now commencing as robot are been tested for programming and control algorithm for how does it choose its locomotion to find the flame of the candle and extinguish it by blowing the fan toward the flame of the candle. Figure 4. Figure 4. 4. progression is assembly and fabrication of fire fighting robot stage. The basic of the control system with servo motor can be tabulated from the figure 3.5 show the feedback from ultrasonic. Project Progress Based on the Gantt Chart proposed. basic idea was generated on how the project will be done.1 Result and Discussion From the assembly and fabrication of the fire fighting robot.4.1 Grant Chart 4.2 Front view of the fire fighting robot Figure 4.This robot is programmed for known environment that is not expected to change. So this helps us to give a programming technique to navigate the robot to its possible destinations for searching for the objective of blow off the candle. The literature review based on the related field was studied and study of fire fighting robot also carried out including journal presentation with the supervisor. the result of design of the fire fighting robot can be seen in the picture below: Figure 3.

this project has meet up to its progress according planned in the Grant Chart which proposed in previous report. Department of Technology. the method of previous and past project of the fire fighting . 1 unit transistor 2N2222A. Wiley Publication Evaluated by: Figure 4.6 Donut board mounted with Circuit of fire fighting robot _________________________________ Supervisor Name: Dr. IR.robot have inspired and implemented to this project.(2001) Mobile robot self-localisation using occupancy histograms and a mixture of Gaussian location hypotheses a)Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems.1. the list of component in the circuit component consists: 1 unit voltage regulator LM7805. innovative ideas and theories about the application of fire fighting robot. 2 unit of capacitor 0. University of Orebo.1.1 µ doi=10. Thus.1. [4] John M.psu. [5]Norman this project planned to accomplish objective and scope of the fire fighting robot according to the Grant Chart. Myke Predko “Robot Builder`s Bonanza” McGraw-Hill. University of Manchester.1. S70182 Orebo.4 Top view of fire fighting robot References Bibliography [1]Tom Duckett and Ulrich Nehmzowb. 1 unit voltage regulator LM7806. Holland “Designing Autonomous Mobile Robots”Newnes 2004 Reference from chapter 9 page 127.psu.33 µF. Manchester M13 9PL.Nise “Control System Engineering” Fourth Edition. 2 unit of resistor 1kΩ 1 unit relay Figure 4. this robot going to better in term of its function and application compared with others. Marwan Affandi Date: 13 January 2012 Official stamp: 5. 2 unit of capacitor 0.9985 [3]Gordon McComb. Ray “Cooperative Robotics Using Wireless Communication” A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Data retrieved December 4 2011 from http://citeseerx. For future work. Conclusion By reading and review the journal. References obtained from Chapter 33 page 599. Figure 4.9985 [2]Adam A. Third Edition 2006.26. More effort on analysis will given in order to ease troubleshooting of the locomotion of the fire fighting robot. In the nut shell.26. 1 unit diode 1N4001. Sweden b) Department of Computer Science. UK Data retrieved December 4 2011 from 1 unit LED .5 Bottom view of fire fighting robot As for voltage regulator circuit for the fire fighting robot.

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