Contents Motivation..........................................................................................................................2 The Motivation Process...........................................................................................

..........3 Motivation from Inside and Outside................................................................................4 Motivation in Organizations.............................................................................................6 Need-Based Approaches to Motivation...........................................................................7 Process-Based Approaches to Motivation.....................................................................10 Reinforcement-Based Approaches to motivation.........................................................12 Enhancing Motivation in Organizations.......................................................................13 Introduction......................................................................................................................15 What is motivation at RBS?............................................................................................17 Motivation at RBS - Total Reward................................................................................19 Current Issues in Motivation----Moneyless Motivating...............................................22 Conclusion........................................................................................................................25 Appendix I........................................................................................................................26 Appendix II.......................................................................................................................40

The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need • Effort: a measure of intensity or drive • Direction: toward organizational goals • Need: personalized reason to exert effort Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals A motivated employee is someone that works hard because they feel fulfilled when they do so. Motivation is an important area of business research and over the years there have been many 'motivational theories'. One of the best-known theories of motivation is based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued that individuals have a hierarchy of needs. True motivation is achieved by fulfilling higher order needs. Basic needs Are for reasonable standards of food, shelter and clothing and those other items which are required to be the norm to meet the needs of the body and for physical survival. The base level of need will be typically met in modern industrial society by the exchange of labour for a wage packet or salary. Security needs Are also concerned with physical survival. In the context of the workplace these needs could include physical safety, security of employment, adequate rest periods, pension and sick schemes, and protection from arbitrary actions. Group needs Are concerned with an individual's need for love and affection. The majority of people want to feel that they belong to a group. Self-esteem Needs are based on an individual's desire for self-respect and the respect of others. Employees have a need to be recognised as individuals of some importance, to receive praise for their work, and to have their efforts noticed. Self-fulfilment Maslow placed self-fulfilment at the top of his hierarchy of needs. Self-fulfilment is concerned with full personal development and individual creativity. In order to meet these needs it is important for individuals to be able to use their talents and abilities fully. The organisation that wants motivated employees must pay due care and attention both to lower and higher order needs.


The Motivation Process

Motivation across Cultures Motivation is closely related to the performance of human resources in modern organizations. When motivation is studied in the context of international management, it must be remembered that although the motivation process may be the same across cultures, what motivates people often is culturally based. What motivates employees in the United States may be only moderately effective in Japan, France, or Nigeria. Therefore, although motivation is the concept of choice for analyzing employee performance, an international context requires country-by-country, or at least regional, examination of differences in motivation. This chapter examines motivation as a psychological process and explores how motivation can be used to understand and improve employee performance. It also identifies and describes internationally researched work-motivation theories and discusses their relevance for international human resource management. The specific objectives of this chapter are: 1. DEFINE motivation, and explain it as a psychological process. 2. EXAMINE the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor, and achievement motivation theories, and assess their value to international human resource management. 3. DISCUSS how an understanding of employee satisfaction can be useful in human resource management throughout the world. 4. EXAMINE the value of process theories in motivating employees worldwide. 5. RELATE the importance of job design, work centrality, and rewards to understanding how to motivate employees in an international context.


Motivation from Inside and Outside
Internal and External Motivation At times there are tasks that you do because you want to do them. At other times there are tasks that you do because someone else wants you to do them or rewards you for doing them. Recognizing the differences between those two types of tasks will help you understand your motivations What Is External Motivation? "External motivation" means that your motivation to attain your goal comes from a source outside yourself. • Sample Goal: I will make a 3.5 GPA in college so that my parents will buy me a car. It's okay to be externally motivated by such things as getting higher grades, praise from your parents, or earning more money. However, it will be harder for you to stay highly motivated in the areas where you only have extrinsic reasons for being in those situations. Performing tasks to look good for others or to please your parents can be difficult to maintain. Constantly using external motivation when you are confronted with difficult tasks requires a great deal of effort Motivated staff and volunteers are essential to a successful organization and it is imperative for leaders to identify the difference between internal and external motivation. What Is Internal Motivation? "Internal motivation" means that your motivation to accomplish your goal comes from within you. Your motivation is from you. It is determined by your own values and goals. • Sample Goal: I will go to class every day this semester so that I can learn as much as possible. With internal motivation, it is much easier to stay academically motivated. Trying to find some internal value in everything you have to do academically can improve your overall motivation (e.g., learning astronomy so that you can explain to your little brother what stars really are). Suggestions for Improving Your Internal Motivation Here are some helpful methods and suggestions for you to generate and maintain internal motivation. This can improve your general motivation to succeed in college: • Think about what type of motivation you are creating for yourself through your goals. • Think about the relationship between external and internal motivation and your commitment to specific goals. 4

Joy of work. Reduced stress. workers are "controlled" by the external stimuli. High levels of job satisfaction. Internal motivation occurs when the person attributes an internal experience to the cause of their behavior. People who are internally motivated exhibit higher levels of motivation. Commitment is greater. pushed.• • Goals that foster external motivation are more difficult to maintain. and persistence in accomplishing the task. Creative approaches to problem solving. No need to be reminded. Persistence in the face of obstacles. In a sense. External motivation and internal motivation is an example of control (external) versus commitment (internal). creativity. Low rates of absenteeism. • • • • • • • • • Internal motivation includes: Pride in workmanship. or rewarded by superiors. In a sense. Externally motivated behavior persists as long as the reward or punishment is apparent. The reward is the feeling that comes with accomplishing the task. and that valued experience occurs while pursuing the task. people experience a "pull" by the nature of the task itself. Try to create goals that you find internally rewarding. effort. Differences between internal and external motivators in the workplace • • • Motivation provides a framework for understanding why people do things Internal motivation occurs when a task or duty is meaningful External motivation is initiated by another person and is usually based on a reinforcement or reward 5 . he added. Internally motivated behavior requires no threat or reward. they are often necessary in order to create some sufficient motivation to complete an academic task. Nevertheless. pressured.

processbased. but three integrative approaches conceptualize motivation more completely: need-based. 6 . and reinforcement-based approaches. Motivation is important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature. Nature of Motivation in Organizations Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to choose certain behaviors from among the many alternatives open to them.Motivation in Organizations Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill. The human resource approach guides most thinking about motivation today. motivation problems are not as easily addressed. The organization's responsibility is to create a work environment that makes full use of available human resources. Some deficiencies can be addressed by providing training or altering the environment. Historical views of Motivation Evolution can be traced from scientific management. and the work environment. Human resource approach: This view assumes that people want to contribute to organizational effectiveness and are able to make genuine contributions. ability. Motivation and Performance in Organizations An employee's performance typically is influenced by motivation. Scientific management: The assumptions of scientific management were that work is inherently unpleasant for most people and the money they earn is more important to employees than is the nature of the job they are performing. Human relations movement: This school of thought emphasized the role of social processes in organizations and assumed that the need for belongingness and the need to feel useful are more important than money in motivating employees. through the human relations movement. to the human resource approach.

• security. and • Self-actualization. • esteem. starting with physiological needs. Alderfer developed the ERG theory of motivation in response to criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy • ERG stands for existence. but it does not supply a complete picture.Need-Based Approaches to Motivation Need-based approaches to motivation focus on what motivates employees to choose certain behaviors as shown on the following diagram. relatedness. Two need-based approaches are need hierarchies and the dual-structure approach. • belongingness. According to the theory. they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: • physiological. when needs at one level are satisfied. Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs. Need Hierarchies Two of the most popular need hierarchies are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy and Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory of motivation. and growth needs ERG theory. The hierarchical arrangement suggests that the five levels of needs are arranged in order of increasing importance. 7 . Existence needs are satisfied by food and water pay fringe benefits and working conditions.

but it has two important differences: o ERG theory suggests that more than one level of needs can cause motivation at the same time. the individual will become frustrated. Growth needs cover the need to advance and develop. o ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level. As with Maslow's theory. The Dual-Structure Approach to Motivation The dual-structure approach was developed by Frederick Hertzberg and is often referred to as the two-factor theory. relating to the work environment. result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy. Hertzberg’s studies of accountants and engineers led him to suggest that entirely different sets of factors are associated with satisfaction and with dissatisfaction.• Relatedness needs are satisfied by relationships with co workers. superiors family and friends. regress to a lower level. result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. Hygiene factors. 8 . Motivation factors. relating to the job itself. and begin to pursue lower-level needs again.

David McCleland first identified the need for achievement. which reflects an individual's desire to do something more effectively than in the past. affiliation. The need for power is the desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment 9 . and power.Acquired Needs Other need-based perspectives on motivation focus on acquired needs: the needs for achievement. This approach is concerned not about the ordering of needs but rather about the needs themselves.

An individual may experience a variety of outcomes in an organizational setting. Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory suggests that motivation is based on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. with 1 being a strong belief that effort will lead to high performance. Each outcome has an associated valance. Performance-to-outcome expectancy is the individual's perception that performance will lead to a specific outcome. and • The sum of the valances for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. This framework states basically that motivation plus effort leads to performance. A high performance-tooutcome expectancy would be 1 or close to it. They focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to fulfil their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. Effort-to-performance expectancy is the individual's perception of the probability that effort will lead to high performance. Porter and Lawler extended the basic expectancy model by suggesting that high performance may cause high satisfaction. The individual is satisfied if the rewards relative to the effort expended and the level of performance attained. Outcomes are consequences of behavior. An outcome that an individual wants has a positive valance. three conditions must be met for individuals to exhibit motivated behavior: • effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero. The formal framework of expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom. When the individual is indifferent to the outcome. According to this theory.Process-Based Approaches to Motivation These approaches to motivation are concerned with how motivation takes place. The individual is satisfied if the rewards are felt to be fair. When performance results in various extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. the individual evaluates the equity of these various rewards relative to the effort expended and the level of performance attained. the valance is zero. An outcome that the individual does not want has a negative valance. • performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. which then leads to outcomes. which is an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome. 10 . Two useful process-based approaches are expectancy theory and equity theory. This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1. This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1.

Implications for managers: Nadler and Lawler suggest how managers can apply the basic ideas of expectancy theory. suggests that once an individual has chosen an action that is expected to satisfy his or her needs. the rewards need to be large enough. Equity Theory Equity theory. The single most important thing to remember about equity theory is that if rewards are to motivate employees. Finally. Equity is an individual's beliefs that he or she is being treated fairly relative to the treatment of others. When individuals feel under rewarded or over rewarded. under rewarded. or over rewarded. the individual assesses the equity or fairness of the outcome. Then they should decide what kinds and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. Stacy Adams. they will do something to reduce the inequity. 11 . Managers should first determine the outcomes each employee is likely to want. they must be perceived as being equitable and fair. and the total system needs to be equitable. Managers then need to ensure that desired outcomes and desired performance are linked. Three attitudes are possible: an individual may feel equitably rewarded. developed by J. making sure that the desired levels of performance are attainable.

it serves to strengthen behavior. 12 .as one group. Research support for goal-setting theory is more consistently favorable than any other single approach to employee motivation. punishment. regardless of the time that has elapsed between behaviors. regardless of behavior. Avoidance occurs when the individual chooses a behavior to avoid unpleasant consequences. A fixed-ration schedule gives reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors. Punishment is unpleasant consequences used to weaken undesired behavior.Reinforcement-Based Approaches to motivation These approaches to motivation explain the role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same. it can strengthen desired behavior. A variable-ration schedule varies the number of behaviors needed for each reinforcement and is the most powerful schedule for maintaining desired behaviors. Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. Expectancy theory and reinforcement theory are similar in that both consider the processes by which an individual chooses behaviors in a particular situation. The Japanese Approach To Motivation The Japanese approach is not a theory or model but a philosophy of management. Other approaches to Motivation in organizations Goal Setting Theory This approach suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for the individual on a regular basis and that rewards should be tied to the accomplishment of goals. The basic tenet is that managers and workers should come together as partners . avoidance. There are four of these: positive reinforcement. and reinforcement theory focuses more on the consequences of those choices. Extinction is ending undesired behavior by ignoring and not reinforcing it Providing Reinforcement There are four approaches to providing reinforcement. A variable-interval schedule provides reinforcement at varying time intervals. expectancy theory focuses more on behavior choices. However. Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcement contingencies are the possible outcomes that an individual may experience as a result of his or her choice of behavior. • • • • Positive reinforcement is a reward or a positive outcome after a desired behavior is performed. and extinction. • • • • A fixed-interval schedule provides reinforcement at fixed intervals of time.

lump-sum bonuses. The reward system includes the formal and informal mechanisms by which employee performance is defined. and pay for knowledge. Fixed rewards can be tied directly to performance through merit pay systems. gain sharing. A modified workweek can be any work schedule that does not conform to a traditional eight-hours-a-day. evaluated. whereby people get different pay raises at the end of the year. • Performance-based systems: Organizational reward systems have traditionally either a fixed salary or hourly rate system or an incentive system. Organizational Reward Systems The organization's reward system is the basic structural mechanism that an organization uses to motivate workers. behaviors. job enlargement. Edward Lawler describes four major generalizations about employee attitudes toward rewards. flexible work schedule. Any of the alternatives to job specialization . working at home and job sharing. • 13 . Four popular incentive systems include profit sharing. and work redesign.job rotation. An organization's primary purpose in giving rewards is to influence employee behavior. five-days-a-week design. and rewarded. Changing the nature of people's jobs in being used as a motivational technique. Some alternatives include the compressed workweek. depending on their overall job performance. or they may adopt specific interventions derived from one or more theories. which attempt to reward employees in proportion to their accomplishments. job enrichment. and autonomous work groups-could be used as part of a motivational program. the modified workweek. the job characteristics approach. • • Behavior modification is a technique for applying the concepts of reinforcement theory in organizational settings. • • • Employee satisfaction is affected by comparison of the rewards they receive with those received by others. Employees often misperceive the rewards received by others. Interventions for enhancing motivation Three motivational interventions are behavior modification. The system recognizes that different people have different needs and choose different ways to satisfy those needs. Many organizations are experimenting with various kinds of incentive systems. and motivation.Enhancing Motivation in Organizations Managers may influence motivation through the organization's reward systems. Effects of organizational rewards: Organizational rewards can affect individual attitudes.

Make it happen 14 .

15 . with a market capitalization of £44. financial markets. the Americas. RBS recruitment is based on merit. customer service. from the widest pool of talent available. Japan and Australia as well as Europe. Hong Kong. At a time when there is fierce competition for talented people. it is vital that it attracts the most talented people. investment analysts. There are also business support roles such as IT.000 people. Roles at RBS Due to its scale and diverse range of businesses. not just in the UK. consumer finance. RBS has lots of different career opportunities to offer. Headquartered in Edinburgh it operates in over 50 countries across Europe. with world-class employment opportunities. but across the globe . Singapore. insurance and wealth management services.4bn at the end of 2007. The RBS group provides a range of retail and corporate banking. These include bankers. and business advisors. traders. Asia and the Middle East serving more than 40 million customers and employees over 170. These are the business leaders of the future. RBS positions itself as a world-class employer. Roles and performance management at RBS For RBS to offer world-class financial services.Introduction RBS is the holding company of one of the world’s largest banking and financial services groups. sales. Asia and the USA. With different labors market conditions in each China.

human resources. For example. At the end of the year they will have a performance review. Careers can start directly after leaving school on an apprenticeship programme or from university on a graduate development programme. Particularly challenging or difficult to achieve targets are known as 'stretch targets' and the reward for achieving these will be greater. Payments for results are an effective motivator for high performance. If the target is achieved or exceeded she/he will get a bonus This method of performance management allows managers to measure each individual's performance in a specific way and reward them accordingly. 16 . Some jobs are paid according to the achievement of targeted results. and legal. RBS employees will agree job objectives and targets with their line manager at the beginning of the year. Their performance is then measured and reported on during the year. Performance management At RBS almost every role can be described in terms of specific job targets. a corporate banker has responsibility for gaining a certain number of new business customers each year. finance. This means that a bonus is paid if the employee achieves agreed targets for the job.

Hertzberg and 'two-factor' theory Another theorist. This led to a long established pay scheme called the 'piece rate'. carried out a large-scale survey into motivation in American industry. Hertzberg termed these 'motivators'. All managers had to do was pay for every item the workers produced and they would work harder to get more money. Hertzberg termed these 'hygiene factors'. The results of his survey led him to develop a 'twofactor' theory of motivation. Firstly. management theorists have tried to understand what makes some people work harder than others. Frederick Hertzberg (1959). Some of the motivation factors identified by theorists can be seen at work in RBS. Early theorists on staff motivation always looked at factors outside the individual. then this creates a source of dissatisfaction. 17 . He felt that every job was measurable and each element of a job could be timed. Taylor (1911) was the creator of 'scientific management'. Taylor and the 'piece rate' Frederick W.What is motivation at RBS? For many years. such as the provision of challenging work and recognition for doing well. RBS has put in place several of Hertzberg's 'motivators': • • • • Employees get recognition for good work They have a collective sense of achievement when the whole business does well They gain extra responsibility and advancement through regular performance reviews When RBS people do well in their work. the company rewards them. On the other hand. can create or increase work motivation. Schemes like this are usually associated with manufacturing industries and are not appropriate for a complex service-led organization like RBS. he established that if an employee's basic needs (such as a suitable working environment and a basic rate of pay) were not met. the presence of less tangible factors. where workers received a fixed amount for every unit of output.

Maslow referred to a 'Hierarchy of Needs' which is usually drawn as a pyramid. According to Maslow. promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group. Through this RBS employees can improve their self-esteem. The next level ‘esteem’ . that what we do matters. At the very top of Maslow's hierarchy is our human need for 'self actualization'. the most basic needs on this hierarchy had to be satisfied before workers could look to the next level. promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group. RBS provides these basic needs wherever it creates jobs.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The theory of Abraham H. warmth and bodily functions. Maslow's higher levels of need are less obvious and less easy to describe but of great importance. It provides opportunities for all employees through promotion or training and then recognizes their achievements. Next. It does this by rewarding the people who contribute to its success through their commitment and hard work. 18 . people had to feel safe in their environment. food. RBS provides 'self actualization' by offering recognition. RBS meets this by offering recognition. This means we work hard in order to be as good as we possibly can be.refers to our need to feel valued. RBS creates the opportunity for its community of employees worldwide to share in its common goals and vision for the group. Basic physical needs were things like shelter. The RBS mindset is that employees can 'make it happen' for themselves. Social needs refer to the fact that we want to feel part of something we share in. Maslow (1943) on staff motivation is also evident at RBS.

workers are not motivated by money alone. but also personal choice in working hours and security. Motivation can be about shaping a worthwhile career or it may involve having more flexibility with time. For example. such as mortgages. The terms and conditions of their employment specify the basic rate of pay and any further payments that they may be eligible to receive. health and medical benefits. Theorists have long understood that staffs need a combination of motivators. pay cannot motivate people to give more. This in turn helps RBS to grow as a company. This is why RBS offers so many non-financial rewards which can improve personal lifestyle. currency exchange. The RBS Total Reward package also offers flexible pension funding. All staff receives their salary credited monthly to their staff bank account. This means RBS encourages employees to grow and develop their skills and abilities. Providing competitive pay means comparing what you are offering against salaries for similar jobs in other financial services companies. Individuals are motivated by different things.Motivation at RBS . people are encouraged to 'make it happen' through personal development. Employees have a generous holiday allowance (between 25 and 30 days for full-time staff). Employees may also choose from a wide range of lifestyle benefits. Non Financial Rewards Whilst money may be an incentive to go to work. It offers benefits for each member of staff that includes not just money.Total Reward As Maslow describes. at the start of your career. at work. Results Based Payments At the core of the package is a competitive salary based on skills and experience regardless of where in the world RBS staffs are based. with the option of buying or even selling days. childcare facilities and RBS financial products. One of the most important motivators for RBS employees is the recognition of good performance by graded progression. personal loans and banking at special staff discounted rates. and a confidential advice service. help to pay off your student debt may be more important to you than retirement planning. Including discounted shopping vouchers. At RBS. paid holidays. 19 . Employees at RBS enjoy Total Reward a specific benefits package designed by RBS that goes far beyond salary.

making every pound raised count three times. These are adapted to suit the local needs of each RBS centre. RBS enables its employees to develop a work-life balance between work and non-work commitments. Flexible working RBS gives all employees the 'right to work flexibly'. It also offers counseling on a range of life issues. RBS provides a free advice service called 'Help Direct'. variable working hours. Development can involve more training. RBS also believes in giving its people the chance to help put something back into their own communities. Employees can call for advice on making the most of their time at and away from work. 20 . These are documented in a personal development plan. Wherever RBS operates. Work-Life Balance To attract and retain the highest qualified and motivated employees. The policies and procedures for applying are easily available on the RBS website. home working. For every pound raised for charity by a member of staff. compressed hours and term-time working. part-time working.Employees identify development needs with their line manager at their annual performance review. This can improve the prospects of promotion and allow employees to move up the organization and increase their Total Reward. attending courses or gaining new understanding and skills. RBS will double-match the donation. This can be through a range of flexible working practices covering job sharing. the Group supports community involvement in projects that matter to its people.

Some people have special family commitments or commitments in their local community. who are satisfied with their working environment. In return. Theoretical work on motivation by Elton Mayo in the 1920s showed that contented people. people may need time off from work for reasons other than sickness. RBS gains staff loyalty and commitment. were likely to be more productive. For example.RBS and 'Your time' RBS recognizes that in some circumstances. 21 . The distractions of home or community pressures can be handled far more comfortably with the support of an employer such as RBS. which in turn drives higher performance. this flexibility enables employees to choose working patterns that fit with their childcare arrangements or their personal lives. Following these flexible practices allows RBS to attract more talented people. They also help to create greater equality of opportunity for everyone. The benefits of flexible working practices The policies of RBS in relation to work-life balance help to create a working atmosphere that relieves stress.

). Try to gently ask “Do you need help?”. or sent around via email. and encourage information sharing. 4) Staff benefit when they feel that they receive fair treatment. evaluation. and great ideas come from unexpected places. At Hot Docs. etc. annual reports by all staff are required. and managers know what they should be receiving/seeing. Transparency and equality are benchmarks to strive for. industry. Staff are encouraged to explain tasks 22 . but chaired by a senior manager.Current Issues in Motivation----Moneyless Motivating 1) Provide staff with clear goals and timelines for responsibilities. 5) Contextualize small tasks and details by associating them with a ‘big picture’ concept. media.Formal or informal ‘doors open’ policies generate results. and keep staff thinking about the next great idea and the big picture. etc. We also have once-a-week ‘All Staff’ meetings that are informal. More direction. but also to provide ideas for improvements. No one wants to be a cog in a machine. Superior employees are informed and educated employees. to guide staff. Hot Docs tries to ensure consistency across employees of equal standing/seniority. We try to give active feedback. salary. timelines or the environment unworkable. We develop an atmosphere where ideas are brought up for consideration at regular meetings. It can be helpful to give direction about a preferred approach to a task. 3) Ensure staff knows that feedback mechanisms exist for them to suggest ideas and contribute to the organizations’ plans. support and that workload or workplace issues can be talked about. especially with benefits. mostly an annual event. and prevent bad surprises. help and active management can help ensure problems are avoided and the best results come from work. and current issues (a regular agenda cuts back on the number of issue specific meetings required between the same management team members). goals. reviewed before a season begins. staff must know their ‘voice’ has commensurate weight. and specific things they should avoid doing. when it is in everyone’s best interests (and if staff might feel uncomfortable doing the asking). Hot Docs has twice a week ‘Status Meetings’ for management to discuss major initiatives. At Hot Docs. With so many stakeholders (public. Encourage staff to speak with management if they feel issues/obstacles have made goals. At Hot Docs. 2) Recognize that the quality of supervision is reflected in the performance of the employee. Everyone benefits when tasks and processes are clear: employees have a framework for expectations. sponsors. we don’t benefit much from addressing problems on ‘scheduled review’ basis. It is easier to intelligently plan your own areas (and forecast potential conflicts) if you understand what is happening in other departments and on the desk beside you. staff work on ‘critical path’ with their supervisor for all levels of tasks and deadlines. not just to review what employees did and how they did it.

10) Provide valuable (and valued) professional development opportunities. Different employees with varying levels of experience and differing skill sets will. we try to consider “the best we can do” as something better than a compromised result. Hot Docs tries to incorporate ‘extra’ staff members into 23 .g.: programme book. At Hot Docs. At Hot Docs. website. and often creates a sense of personal pride in their daily work. but. For groups with less at their disposal. Our team should have enough at their disposal to do what’s required. Allowing staff members to ‘run with things’.). courses and tools.: “This is great because…”) way. as a non-profit arts organization. and helps to develop a ‘core’.g. micromanaging can be a terrible working relationship for the employee. Reasonable goals and timelines must also be attached to the proper equipment. A good manager should be able to judge what levels of supervision works best. smaller and cost-effective ways can help staff expand professional horizons. require varying levels of supervision and direction. Direct and to-the-point motivational feedback. we guarantee that all levels of staff are provided with passes and tickets to the festival they can distribute as they see fit. 8) Provide staff with adequate tools and resources for their task. and empowering them officially to make judgment calls (without fear of ramification) can keep them motivated. recognize these. 6) Provide staff with ownership of their responsibilities. information and manpower to reach the desired outcome. organization email distribution. People will naturally seek to excel when they feel their work is something that can be enjoyed and respected by their friends and families. “team” focused. can be an important way to keep a team encouraged through the most stressful and busy periods. Many large organizations invest in professional development programs.and events occurring that week. We keep the tone fun and lively. but when they don’t. At Hot Docs. dedicated audience. Even the most innovative employee cannot compensate for considerations that are beyond their control. This has the added benefit of being great word-of-mouth outreach and promotion for the festival. we try to actively recognize that we’re working with limited resources to achieve (sometimes and virtually) limitless goals. and avoid pre-planned agendas. and showcase exceptional performance. even for de rigueur tasks. and also by name recognition in our published materials (e. and where Limitations exist. 9) Actively provide encouragement and recognition for all employees. This allows them to meet goals in a way that makes sense to them. of course. 7) Help get staff invested in the event by helping to provide access to their friends and families. so all learn about colleagues’ responsibilities and current focus. As well. etc. supervisors try to give positive feedback in an honest and context-driven (e. At Hot Docs. some of the most successful employees have been those who have been free to reinterpret ‘standard’ ways of addressing tasks and goals. we try to ensure that all staff are provided with recognition for their efforts through All Staff meetings.

we learn from seeing how other festivals operate: we try to provide full-time staff with opportunities to travel to other cities to see first-hand what’s happening. Also. This can mean bringing a junior employee to meeting with an important external stakeholder (so they can both make a connection. 24 . and learn how these meetings operate).meetings outside their immediate domain.

RBS is able to compete for the best people and attract them to its business. RBS employees at all levels can enjoy a work environment where effort is seen to be valued. where achievement is recognized. 25 . motivation theory comes to life. In a world where local labor market conditions can fluctuate from region to region. personal and tailored to the individual. By doing this. Where individuals are made to feel a part of the bigger picture and where the rewards available are varied. At RBS. where individual progress is rewarded and where a long term career is available for those who are able to grow with the business. there are motivators for all.Conclusion RBS operates an exciting and forward thinking Human Resources (HR) strategy. at every level. wherever they work. RBS must be sensitive to local conditions and individual needs. practical. It adopts an attitude that motivates its staff in both financial and personal ways. It provides a world-class employment package for every employee.

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