# Properties of Measurement Scales Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more of the following properties of measurement.

Identity. Each value on the measurement scale has a unique meaning. Magnitude. Values on the measurement scale have an ordered relationship to one another. That is, some values are larger and some are smaller. Equal intervals. Scale units along the scale are equal to one another. This means, for example, that the difference between 1 and 2 would be equal to the difference between 19 and 20. Absolute zero. The scale has a true zero point, below which no values exist.

Nominal Scale of Measurement The nominal scale of measurement only satisfies the identity property of measurement. Values assigned to variables represent a descriptive category, but have no inherent numerical value with respect to magnitude. Gender is an example of a variable that is measured on a nominal scale. Individuals may be classified as "male" or "female", but neither value represents more or less "gender" than the other. Religion and political affiliation are other examples of variables that are normally measured on a nominal scale. Ordinal Scale of Measurement The ordinal scale has the property of both identity and magnitude. Each value on the ordinal scale has a unique meaning, and it has an ordered relationship to every other value on the scale. An example of an ordinal scale in action would be the results of a horse race, reported as "win", "place", and "show". We know the rank order in which horses finished the race. The horse that won finished ahead of the horse that placed, and the horse that placed finished ahead of the horse that showed. However, we cannot tell from this ordinal scale whether it was a close race or whether the winning horse won by a mile. Interval Scale of Measurement The interval scale of measurement has the properties of identity, magnitude, and equal intervals. A perfect example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit scale to measure temperature. The scale is made up of equal temperature units, so that the difference between 40 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit is equal to the difference between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. With an interval scale, you know not only whether different values are bigger or smaller, you also know how much bigger or smaller they are. For example, suppose it is 60 degrees Fahrenheit on Monday and 70 degrees on Tuesday. You know not only that it was hotter on Tuesday, you also know that it was 10 degrees hotter.

The mean for condition 2 (no sugar) is 2. equal intervals. Absolute zero is a property of the weight scale because objects at rest can be weightless. The weight of an object would be an example of a ratio scale. you will see the number 1 and the number 2 under the word IVSUGAR. and there is an absolute zero.Ratio Scale of Measurement The ratio scale of measurement satisfies all four of the properties of measurement: identity. magnitude.20.
Example
In the Group Statistics box. These are the numbers that we chose to represent our two IV conditions. You can also see the number of participants per condition.30 and for condition 2. weights can be rank ordered. Each value on the weight scale has a unique meaning. units along the weight scale are equal to one another. 0. and an absolute zero. You can find out some descriptive statistics about each condition by reading across each row in this box. The number of participants in each condition (N) is 5. In the first column.84.
Why look at Group Statistics
. The standard deviation for condition 1 is 1. sugar (1) and no sugar (2). the mean for condition 1 (sugar) is 4. but they cannot have negative weight.20.
Group Statistics Box
Take a look at the first box in your output file called Group Statistics.

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
. but N = 4 for condition 1 on this printout. this would be an indication that we had not entered all of the participant data in our data file. We can see that participants in the sugar condition are remembering nearly twice the amount of words when compared to the no sugar condition. At first glance. They show us the magnitude of the difference between conditions and we can see which group has a higher mean.Some students wonder why we look at this box. either the top row or the bottom row.
Independent Samples Test Box
This is the next box you will look at. But don’t worry. you can see a lot of information and that might feel intimidating. we can see that the mean for condition1 is almost twice that of condition 2. For example. We are doing a T-test and this box does not tell us the results for that test. you actually only have to look at half of the information in this box. If we know that we had 5 participants per condition in our experiment. We look at the box because it can give us some important and relevant information.
Example
We can see how many data points were entered for each condition. The condition means are also very important.

If the Sig. This is a good thing. look at the large column labeled Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances.05. That the scores in one condition do not vary too much more than the scores in your second condition.26 (when rounded).05 means that the variability in your two conditions is about the same. we read from the first row.
. the Sig. It will have one value. the value in the Sig. A value greater than .05…
Read from the top row. In this example. So. Put scientifically. In this example. You will see two smaller columns labeled F and Sig. Value is greater than . You will use this value to determine which row to read from. value is greater than .To find out which row to read from. This is a test that determines if the two conditions have about the same or different amounts of variability between scores. column. it means that the variability in the two conditions is not significantly different. Look in the Sig. column is 0.

That the scores in one condition vary much more than the scores in your second condition.If the Sig. Value is less than or equal to . it means that the variability in the two conditions is significantly different. A value less than . but SPSS takes this into account by giving you slightly
.05…
Read from the bottom row.05 means that the variability in your two conditions is not the same. This is a bad thing. Put scientifically.

02. In this example. it is time to look at the results for our T-test. Make sure to read from the appropriate row.
Sig (2-Tailed) value
This value will tell you if the two condition Means are statistically different. value in this example was greater less than . Recall that we have determined that it is best to read from the top row.different results in the second row.05.
. These results will tell us if the Means for the two groups were statistically different (significantly different) or if they were relatively the same. If the Sig. the Sig (2-Tailed) value is 0.
So we’ve got a row
Now that we have a row to read from. we would have read from the second row.

and tests to see if the average difference is significantly different from zero. Where to find it: Under the Analyze menu. we can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean number of words recalled for the sugar and no sugar conditions. You can check for normal distribution with a Q-Q plot. Click on both variables you wish to compare. then choose Paired Samples T Test. we can conclude that participants in the sugar condition were able to recall significantly more words than participants in the no sugar condition. This value is less than . (2-Tailed) value in our example is 0.
What it does: The Paired Samples T Test compares the means of two variables.
Our Example
The Sig. choose Compare Means. You can conclude that the differences between condition Means are not likely due to change and are probably due to the IV manipulation.05…
You can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between your two conditions.02. You can conclude that the differences between condition Means are likely due to chance and not likely due to the IV manipulation.
.If the Sig (2-Tailed) value is greater than 05…
You can conclude that there is no statistically significant difference between your two conditions.05. It computes the difference between the two variables for each case. Assumption: -Both variables should be normally distributed.
If the Sig (2-Tailed) value is less than or equal to . then move the pair of selected variables into the Paired Variables box. Because of this. Since our Group Statistics box revealed that the Mean for the sugar condition was greater than the Mean for the no sugar condition.

SPSS Output Following is sample output of a paired samples T test. Remember.
The post-test mean scores are higher. We want to see if our test preparation course improved people's score on the test. People who did well on the pre-test also did well on the post-test. Under "Paired Differences" we see the descriptive statistics for the difference between the two variables.Hypothesis: Null: There is no significant difference between the means of the two variables. we see the correlation between the two variables. this test is based on the difference between the two variables. First. Finally. We compared the mean test scores before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the subjects completed a test preparation course. we see the results of the Paired Samples T Test. we see the descriptive statistics for both variables. Next. Alternate: There is a significant difference between the means of the two variables.
There is a strong positive correlation.
.

The T value = -2. there is no significant difference.053 If the significance value is less than . degrees of freedom. Here.05. and significance. there is a significant difference. There is no difference between pre. 05. but it is not a significant difference.171 We have 11 degrees of freedom Our significance is . we see that the significance value is approaching significance. we see the T.and post-test scores. Our test preparation course did not help!
.To the right of the Paired Differences. If the significance value is greater than.